journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Behavioral and Brain Sciences

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679458/the-difference-between-ice-cream-and-nazis-moral-externalization-and-the-evolution-of-human-cooperation
#1
P Kyle Stanford
A range of empirical findings are first used to more precisely characterize our distinctive tendency to objectify or externalize moral demands, and it is then argued that this salient feature of our moral cognition represents a profound puzzle for evolutionary approaches to human moral psychology that existing proposals do not help to resolve. It is then proposed that such externalization facilitated a broader shift to a vastly more cooperative form of social life by establishing and maintaining a connection between the extent to which an agent is herself motivated by a given moral norm and the extent to which she uses conformity to that same norm as a criterion in evaluating candidate partners in social interaction generally...
July 6, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679454/the-cultural-evolution-of-shamanism
#2
Manvir Singh
Shamans, including medicine-men, mediums, and the prophets of religious movements, recur across human societies. Shamanism also existed among nearly all documented hunter-gatherers, likely characterized the religious lives of many ancestral humans, and is often proposed by anthropologists to be the "first profession", representing the first institutionalized division of labor beyond age and sex. This paper proposes a cultural evolutionary theory to explain why shamanism consistently develops, and in particular, (1) why shamanic traditions exhibit recurrent features around the world, (2) why shamanism professionalizes early, often in the absence of other specialization, and (3) how shifting social conditions affect the form or existence of shamanism...
July 6, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215214/the-distancing-embracing-model-of-the-enjoyment-of-negative-emotions-in-art-reception
#3
Winfried Menninghaus, Valentin Wagner, Julian Hanich, Eugen Wassiliwizky, Thomas Jacobsen, Stefan Koelsch
Why are negative emotions so central in art reception far beyond tragedy? Revisiting classical aesthetics in light of recent psychological research, we present a novel model to explain this much-discussed (apparent) paradox. We argue that negative emotions are an important resource for the arts in general rather than a special license for exceptional art forms only. The underlying rationale is that negative emotions have been shown to be particularly powerful in securing attention, intense emotional involvement, and high memorability-and hence precisely in what artworks strive for...
February 20, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100294/why-do-we-remember-the-communicative-function-of-episodic-memory
#4
Johannes Mahr, Gergely Csibra
Episodic memory has been analyzed in a number of different ways in both philosophy and psychology, and most controversy has centered on its self-referential, 'autonoetic' character. Here, we offer a comprehensive characterization of episodic memory in representational terms, and propose a novel functional account on this basis. We argue that episodic memory should be understood as a distinctive epistemic attitude taken towards an event simulation. On this view, episodic memory has a metarepresentational format and should not be equated with beliefs about the past...
January 19, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073390/the-behavioural-constellation-of-deprivation-causes-and-consequences
#5
Gillian V Pepper, Daniel Nettle
Socioeconomic differences in behaviour are pervasive and well documented, but their causes are not yet well understood. Here, we make the case that there is a cluster of behaviours associated with lower socioeconomic status, which we call the behavioural constellation of deprivation. We propose that the relatively limited control associated with lower socioeconomic status curtails the extent to which people can expect to realise deferred rewards, leading to more present-oriented behaviour in a range of domains...
January 11, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327254/moving-forward-with-interdisciplinary-research-on-attractiveness-related-biases
#6
Dario Maestripieri, Andrea Henry, Nora Nickels
In our response, we review and address the comments on our target article made in the 25 commentaries. First, we review and discuss the commentaries that recognized the value of our approach, accepted the main premises and conclusions of our target article, and suggested further avenues for research on attractiveness-related biases. We then respond to commentators who either misinterpreted some parts of our target article or made statements with which we disagree. These commentaries provided us with an opportunity to clarify some aspects of our target article, for example, the fact that we address both the functional significance of attractiveness-related biases and their underlying mechanisms...
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327253/the-wolf-will-live-with-the-lamb
#7
Richard Ronay, Joshua M Tybur
Maestripieri et al. pit evolutionary psychology against social psychological and economic perspectives in a winner-take-all empirical battle. In doing so, they risk positioning evolutionary psychology as an antagonistic subdisciplinary enterprise. We worry that such a framing may exacerbate tensions between "competing" scientific perspectives and limit evolutionary psychology's potential to serve as a unifying core theory.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327252/prosocial-behavior-as-sexual-signaling
#8
Gilbert Roberts
Maestripieri et al. provide an important service in highlighting prosocial biases toward attractive people from a cross-disciplinary perspective. Here I comment on the conceptual and critical side of their review of evolutionary psychology studies. I propose that further work should be focused on understanding the role of signaling in prosocial behavior.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327251/attentional-and-affective-biases-for-attractive-females-emerge-early-in-development
#9
Jennifer Lynn Rennels, Stephanie Ann Verba
Predominant experience with females early in development results in infants developing an attractive, female-like facial representation that guides children's attention toward and affective preferences for attractive females. When combined with increased interest in the other sex at puberty, these early emerging biases might help explain the robust prosocial and financial biases men exhibit toward attractive women during adulthood.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327250/an-assessment-of-the-mating-motive-explanation-of-the-beauty-premium-in-market-based-settings
#10
Enrichetta Ravina
Labor market and real-life studies were not designed to discriminate between evolutionary and taste-based and stereotype explanations for the beauty premium, have too many confounding effects, and lack crucial information. Smaller-stake and experimental studies provide more compelling evidence in favor of mating motives and suggest the direction of future research for the economists' field studies.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327249/tinbergen-s-four-questions-provides-a-formal-framework-for-a-more-complete-understanding-of-prosocial-biases-in-favour-of-attractive-people
#11
Ian D Stephen, Darren Burke, Danielle Sulikowski
We adopt Tinbergen's (1963) "four questions" approach to strengthen the criticism by Maestripieri et al. of the non-evolutionary accounts of favouritism toward attractive individuals, by showing which levels of explanation are lacking in these accounts. We also use this approach to propose ways in which the evolutionary account may be extended and strengthened.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327248/attractiveness-bias-a-cognitive-explanation
#12
Stevie S Schein, Logan T Trujillo, Judith H Langlois
According to cognitive averaging theory, preferences for attractive faces result from their similarity to facial prototypes, the categorical central tendencies of a population of faces. Prototypical faces are processed more fluently, resulting in increased positive affect in the viewer.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327247/the-biasing-effects-of-appearances-go-beyond-physical-attractiveness-and-mating-motives
#13
Christopher Y Olivola, Alexander Todorov
The influence of appearances goes well beyond physical attractiveness and includes the surprisingly powerful impact of "face-ism" - the tendency to stereotype individuals based on their facial features. A growing body of research has revealed that these face-based social attributions bias the outcomes of labor markets and experimental economic games in ways that are hard to explain via evolutionary mating motives.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327246/evolutionary-explanations-for-financial-and-prosocial-biases-beyond-mating-motivation
#14
Anthony C Little
Mating motivation likely plays a role in bias to attractive individuals, but there are other complementary theories drawn from the evolutionary literature related to competition, friendship, and leadership selection that also make relevant predictions concerning biases towards attractive individuals. The relative balance of these factors will be context dependent and so help explain why the pattern of bias is sometimes variable.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327245/just-my-imagination-beauty-premium-and-the-evolved-mental-model
#15
Ryo Oda
Imagination, an important feature of the human mind, may be at the root of the beauty premium. The evolved human capacity for simulating the real world, developed as an adaptation to a complex social environment, may offer the key to understanding this and many other aspects of human behavior.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327244/how-should-we-tackle-financial-and-prosocial-biases-against-unattractive-people
#16
Francesca Minerva
The fact that attractive people benefit from their good looks is not bad per se. Rather, what is worrisome is the fact that unattractive people are discriminated against, and that such discrimination negatively affects many aspects of their lives. I focus on the moral implications of this discrimination and on the possible measures that could be taken to alleviate it.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327243/what-does-evolutionary-theory-add-to-stereotype-theory-in-the-explanation-of-attractiveness-bias
#17
Kirby Q Maguire, Timothy P Racine
Maestripieri et al. seem to put forth an argument in which they become vulnerable to some of the same criticisms that they level against stereotype theory As a result, the explanatory utility of their account of attractiveness bias comes into question, and it is unclear whether it offers anything superior to stereotype theory in conceptual soundness.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327242/the-out-of-my-league-effect
#18
Fabrice Le Lec, Theodore Alexopoulos, Béatrice Boulu-Reshef, Marie-Pierre Fayant, Franck Zenasni, Todd Lubart, Nicolas Jacquemet
When taking into account the chances of success, strategic mating motivations do imply a bias not toward the most attractive individuals, but toward average or mildly attractive individuals, undermining the explanation of Maestripieri et al. at a fundamental level. This leaves open the possibility of alternative explanations and calls for a full-fledged explicit model of courtship behavior.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327241/context-matters-for-attractiveness-bias
#19
Juwon Lee, Glenn Adams, Yexin Jessica Li, Omri Gillath
To fully understand the attractiveness bias, we propose that contextual factors or affordances should be integrated into the mating-based evolutionary account of Maestripieri et al. We review examples highlighting the role of contextual factors in the perception of attractiveness and in attractiveness bias. These suggest contextual factors differentially afford the development of preference for attractive others into observed habits of mind.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327240/oxytocin-drives-prosocial-biases-in-favor-of-attractive-people
#20
René Hurlemann, Dirk Scheele, Wolfgang Maier, Johannes Schultz
Current perspectives on attractiveness-related prosocial biases emphasize the contribution of evolutionarily shaped mating drives. Here, we extend these concepts by highlighting the pivotal role of the hypothalamic peptide oxytocin in augmenting the salience and rewarding value of social stimuli, including the partner's face, thereby fostering social bonding in general and the stability of monogamous pair bonds and offspring care in particular.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
journal
journal
27475
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"