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Trends in Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916130/stress-and-seizures-space-time-and-hippocampal-circuits
#1
REVIEW
B G Gunn, T Z Baram
Stress is a major trigger of seizures in people with epilepsy. Exposure to stress results in the release of several stress mediators throughout the brain, including the hippocampus, a region sensitive to stress and prone to seizures. Stress mediators interact with their respective receptors to produce distinct effects on the excitability of hippocampal neurons and networks. Crucially, these stress mediators and their actions exhibit unique spatiotemporal profiles, generating a complex combinatorial output with time- and space-dependent effects on hippocampal network excitability and seizure generation...
September 12, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893422/the-brain-is-needed-to-cure-spinal-cord-injury
#2
REVIEW
Tadashi Isa
Damage to corticospinal fibers in the cervical spinal cord is known to impair dexterous hand movements. However, accumulating evidence has shown that precision grip can recover considerably through rehabilitative training. Recent multidisciplinary studies have revealed that, at the spinal level, this recovery is possible due to an indirect neural pathway through propriospinal neurons (PNs), which relay cortical commands to hand motoneurons. Although this indirect spinal pathway is heavily involved in recovery, its role is dwarfed by a simultaneous large-scale network reorganization spanning motor-related cortices and mesolimbic structures...
September 8, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890212/a-self-killing-rabies-virus-that-leaves-a-trace-on-the-dna
#3
William Menegas, Naoshige Uchida, Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida
Although modified rabies viruses have emerged as a powerful tool for tracing the inputs to genetically defined populations of neurons, the toxicity of the virus has limited its utility. A recent study employed a self-inactivating rabies (SiR) virus that enables recording or manipulation of targeted neurons for months.
September 7, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867348/cellular-computations-underlying-detection-of-gaps-in-sounds-and-lateralizing-sound-sources
#4
REVIEW
Donata Oertel, Xiao-Jie Cao, James R Ison, Paul D Allen
In mammals, acoustic information arises in the cochlea and is transmitted to the ventral cochlear nuclei (VCN). Three groups of VCN neurons extract different features from the firing of auditory nerve fibers and convey that information along separate pathways through the brainstem. Two of these pathways process temporal information: octopus cells detect coincident firing among auditory nerve fibers and transmit signals along monaural pathways, and bushy cells sharpen the encoding of fine structure and feed binaural pathways...
August 31, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843655/phantom-limbs-neuroprosthetics-and-the-developmental-origins-of-embodiment
#5
REVIEW
Mark S Blumberg, James C Dooley
Amputees who wish to rid themselves of a phantom limb must weaken the neural representation of the absent limb. Conversely, amputees who wish to replace a lost limb must assimilate a neuroprosthetic with the existing neural representation. Whether we wish to remove a phantom limb or assimilate a synthetic one, we will benefit from knowing more about the developmental process that enables embodiment. A potentially critical contributor to that process is the spontaneous activity - in the form of limb twitches - that occurs exclusively and abundantly during active (REM) sleep, a particularly prominent state in early development...
August 23, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818303/nkcc1-chloride-importer-antagonists-attenuate-many-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Yehezkel Ben-Ari
In physiological conditions, adult neurons have low intracellular Cl(-) [(Cl(-))I] levels underlying the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibitory drive. In contrast, neurons have high (Cl(-))I levels and excitatory GABA actions in a wide range of pathological conditions including spinal cord lesions, chronic pain, brain trauma, cerebrovascular infarcts, autism, Rett and Down syndrome, various types of epilepsies, and other genetic or environmental insults. The diuretic highly specific NKCC1 chloride importer antagonist bumetanide (PubChem CID: 2461) efficiently restores low (Cl(-))I levels and attenuates many disorders in experimental conditions and in some clinical trials...
August 14, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803659/seizing-control-of-kcc2-a-new-therapeutic-target-for-epilepsy
#7
REVIEW
Yvonne E Moore, Matt R Kelley, Nicholas J Brandon, Tarek Z Deeb, Stephen J Moss
Deficits in GABAergic inhibition result in the abnormal neuronal activation and synchronization that underlies seizures. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for transforming a normal brain into an epileptic one remain largely unknown. Hyperpolarizing inhibition mediated by type A GABA (GABAA) receptors is dependent on chloride extrusion by the neuron-specific type 2K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (KCC2). Loss-of-function mutations in KCC2 are a known cause of infantile epilepsy in humans and KCC2 dysfunction is present in patients with both idiopathic and acquired epilepsy...
August 10, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844283/all-wrapped-up-environmental-effects-on-myelination
#8
REVIEW
Thomas A Forbes, Vittorio Gallo
To date, studies have demonstrated the dynamic influence of exogenous environmental stimuli on multiple regions of the brain. This environmental influence positively and negatively impacts programs governing myelination, and acts on myelinating oligodendrocyte (OL) cells across the human lifespan. Developmentally, environmental manipulation of OL progenitor cells (OPCs) has profound effects on the establishment of functional cognitive, sensory, and motor programs. Furthermore, central nervous system (CNS) myelin remains an adaptive entity in adulthood, sensitive to environmentally induced structural changes...
August 1, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778394/acute-or-chronic-a-stressful-question
#9
REVIEW
Laura Musazzi, Paolo Tornese, Nathalie Sala, Maurizio Popoli
Stress is a primary risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders; at times, even a single trauma can trigger psychopathology. Many rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders use chronic stress, measuring readouts at the end of long protocols. In a way, traditional chronic models overlook a crucial question: how does the physiological response to stressor(s) turn into a maladaptive pathway that may verge towards psychopathology? Recent evidence suggests that studying the long-term consequences of acute stress would provide critical information on the role of stress in psychopathology...
August 1, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756007/astroglial-versus-neuronal-d-serine-check-your-controls
#10
LETTER
Herman Wolosker, Darrick T Balu, Joseph T Coyle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693847/cholinergic-control-of-information-coding
#11
Jochem van Kempen, Stefano Panzeri, Alexander Thiele
Specific forms of firing rate correlations can limit efficient information coding in neuronal populations. How this is mitigated is an important topic of current research. A novel study shows that increasing cortical acetylcholine (ACh) levels alter specific aspects of the population correlation structure, which in turn improves population-coding abilities.
July 7, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688871/the-lateral-habenula-and-adaptive-behaviors
#12
REVIEW
Sheri J Y Mizumori, Phillip M Baker
The evolutionarily conserved lateral habenula (LHb) enables dynamic responses to continually changing contexts and environmental conditions. A model is proposed to account for greater mnemonic and contextual control over LHb-mediated response flexibility as vertebrate brains became more complex. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) provides instructions for context-specific responses to LHb, which assesses the extent to which this response information matches the motivation or internal state of the individual...
July 5, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684172/efficient-prevention-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-by-depletion-of-starvation-response-factor-ataxin-2
#13
REVIEW
Georg Auburger, Nesli-Ece Sen, David Meierhofer, Ayşe-Nazlı Başak, Aaron D Gitler
Ataxin-2 (ATXN2) homologs exist in all eukaryotic organisms and may have contributed to their origin. Apart from a role in endocytosis, they are known for global effects on mRNA repair and ribosomal translation. Cell size, protein synthesis, and fat and glycogen storage are repressed by ATXN2 via mTORC1 signaling. However, specific liver mitochondrial matrix enzymes and the mitochondrial repair factor PINK1 require ATXN2 abundance. During periods of starvation, ATXN2 is transcriptionally induced and localized to cytosolic stress granules, where nuclear factors dock to compensate RNA pathology...
July 3, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712469/subcortical-contributions-to-motor-speech-phylogenetic-developmental-clinical
#14
REVIEW
W Ziegler, H Ackermann
Vocal learning is an exclusively human trait among primates. However, songbirds demonstrate behavioral features resembling human speech learning. Two circuits have a preeminent role in this human behavior; namely, the corticostriatal and the cerebrocerebellar motor loops. While the striatal contribution can be traced back to the avian anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), the sensorimotor adaptation functions of the cerebellum appear to be human specific in acoustic communication. This review contributes to an ongoing discussion on how birdsong translates into human speech...
August 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693846/renewed-attention-on-the-pupil-light-reflex
#15
Paola Binda, Paul D Gamlin
In a recent study, Ebitz and Moore described how subthreshold electrical microstimulation of the macaque frontal eye fields (FEF) modulates the pupillary light reflex. This elegant study suggests that the influence of the FEF and prefrontal cortex on attentional modulation of cortical visual processing extends to the subcortical circuit that mediates a very basic reflex, the pupillary light reflex.
August 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684174/developmental-connectomics-from-infancy-through-early-childhood
#16
REVIEW
Miao Cao, Hao Huang, Yong He
The human brain undergoes rapid growth in both structure and function from infancy through early childhood, and this significantly influences cognitive and behavioral development in later life. A newly emerging research framework, developmental connectomics, provides unprecedented opportunities for exploring the developing brain through non-invasive mapping of structural and functional connectivity patterns. Within this framework, we review recent neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies investigating connectome development from 20 postmenstrual weeks to 5 years of age...
August 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684173/revolution-of-resting-state-functional-neuroimaging-genetics-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Patrizia A Chiesa, Enrica Cavedo, Simone Lista, Paul M Thompson, Harald Hampel
The quest to comprehend genetic, biological, and symptomatic heterogeneity underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires a deep understanding of mechanisms affecting complex brain systems. Neuroimaging genetics is an emerging field that provides a powerful way to analyze and characterize intermediate biological phenotypes of AD. Here, we describe recent studies showing the differential effect of genetic risk factors for AD on brain functional connectivity in cognitively normal, preclinical, prodromal, and AD dementia individuals...
August 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610948/adaptive-capacity-an-evolutionary-neuroscience-model-linking-exercise-cognition-and-brain-health
#18
REVIEW
David A Raichlen, Gene E Alexander
The field of cognitive neuroscience was transformed by the discovery that exercise induces neurogenesis in the adult brain, with the potential to improve brain health and stave off the effects of neurodegenerative disease. However, the basic mechanisms underlying exercise-brain connections are not well understood. We use an evolutionary neuroscience approach to develop the adaptive capacity model (ACM), detailing how and why physical activity improves brain function based on an energy-minimizing strategy. Building on studies showing a combined benefit of exercise and cognitive challenge to enhance neuroplasticity, our ACM addresses two fundamental questions: (i) what are the proximate and ultimate mechanisms underlying age-related brain atrophy, and (ii) how do lifestyle changes influence the trajectory of healthy and pathological aging?...
July 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578790/the-role-of-interneurons-in-autism-and-tourette-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Maximiliano Rapanelli, Luciana Romina Frick, Christopher Pittenger
The brain includes multiple types of interconnected excitatory and inhibitory neurons that together allow us to move, think, feel, and interact with the environment. Inhibitory interneurons (INs) comprise a small, heterogeneous fraction, but they exert a powerful and tight control over neuronal activity and consequently modulate the magnitude of neuronal output and, ultimately, information processing. IN abnormalities are linked to two pediatric psychiatric disorders with high comorbidity: autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Tourette syndrome (TS)...
July 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578789/unravelling-and-exploiting-astrocyte-dysfunction-in-huntington-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Baljit S Khakh, Vahri Beaumont, Roger Cachope, Ignacio Munoz-Sanjuan, Steven A Goldman, Rosemarie Grantyn
Astrocytes are abundant within mature neural circuits and are involved in brain disorders. Here, we summarize our current understanding of astrocytes and Huntington's disease (HD), with a focus on correlative and causative dysfunctions of ion homeostasis, calcium signaling, and neurotransmitter clearance, as well as on the use of transplanted astrocytes to produce therapeutic benefit in mouse models of HD. Overall, the data suggest that astrocyte dysfunction is an important contributor to the onset and progression of some HD symptoms in mice...
July 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
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