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Trends in Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712469/subcortical-contributions-to-motor-speech-phylogenetic-developmental-clinical
#1
REVIEW
W Ziegler, H Ackermann
Vocal learning is an exclusively human trait among primates. However, songbirds demonstrate behavioral features resembling human speech learning. Two circuits have a preeminent role in this human behavior; namely, the corticostriatal and the cerebrocerebellar motor loops. While the striatal contribution can be traced back to the avian anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), the sensorimotor adaptation functions of the cerebellum appear to be human specific in acoustic communication. This review contributes to an ongoing discussion on how birdsong translates into human speech...
July 13, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693847/cholinergic-control-of-information-coding
#2
Jochem van Kempen, Stefano Panzeri, Alexander Thiele
Specific forms of firing rate correlations can limit efficient information coding in neuronal populations. How this is mitigated is an important topic of current research. A novel study shows that increasing cortical acetylcholine (ACh) levels alter specific aspects of the population correlation structure, which in turn improves population-coding abilities.
July 7, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693846/renewed-attention-on-the-pupil-light-reflex
#3
Paola Binda, Paul D Gamlin
In a recent study, Ebitz and Moore described how subthreshold electrical microstimulation of the macaque frontal eye fields (FEF) modulates the pupillary light reflex. This elegant study suggests that the influence of the FEF and prefrontal cortex on attentional modulation of cortical visual processing extends to the subcortical circuit that mediates a very basic reflex, the pupillary light reflex.
July 7, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688871/the-lateral-habenula-and-adaptive-behaviors
#4
REVIEW
Sheri J Y Mizumori, Phillip M Baker
The evolutionarily conserved lateral habenula (LHb) enables dynamic responses to continually changing contexts and environmental conditions. A model is proposed to account for greater mnemonic and contextual control over LHb-mediated response flexibility as vertebrate brains became more complex. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) provides instructions for context-specific responses to LHb, which assesses the extent to which this response information matches the motivation or internal state of the individual...
July 5, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684174/developmental-connectomics-from-infancy-through-early-childhood
#5
REVIEW
Miao Cao, Hao Huang, Yong He
The human brain undergoes rapid growth in both structure and function from infancy through early childhood, and this significantly influences cognitive and behavioral development in later life. A newly emerging research framework, developmental connectomics, provides unprecedented opportunities for exploring the developing brain through non-invasive mapping of structural and functional connectivity patterns. Within this framework, we review recent neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies investigating connectome development from 20 postmenstrual weeks to 5 years of age...
July 3, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684173/revolution-of-resting-state-functional-neuroimaging-genetics-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Patrizia A Chiesa, Enrica Cavedo, Simone Lista, Paul M Thompson, Harald Hampel
The quest to comprehend genetic, biological, and symptomatic heterogeneity underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires a deep understanding of mechanisms affecting complex brain systems. Neuroimaging genetics is an emerging field that provides a powerful way to analyze and characterize intermediate biological phenotypes of AD. Here, we describe recent studies showing the differential effect of genetic risk factors for AD on brain functional connectivity in cognitively normal, preclinical, prodromal, and AD dementia individuals...
July 3, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684172/efficient-prevention-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-by-depletion-of-starvation-response-factor-ataxin-2
#7
REVIEW
Georg Auburger, Nesli-Ece Sen, David Meierhofer, Ayşe-Nazlı Başak, Aaron D Gitler
Ataxin-2 (ATXN2) homologs exist in all eukaryotic organisms and may have contributed to their origin. Apart from a role in endocytosis, they are known for global effects on mRNA repair and ribosomal translation. Cell size, protein synthesis, and fat and glycogen storage are repressed by ATXN2 via mTORC1 signaling. However, specific liver mitochondrial matrix enzymes and the mitochondrial repair factor PINK1 require ATXN2 abundance. During periods of starvation, ATXN2 is transcriptionally induced and localized to cytosolic stress granules, where nuclear factors dock to compensate RNA pathology...
July 3, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619259/astroglial-versus-neuronal-d-serine-fact-checking
#8
LETTER
Thomas Papouin, Christian Henneberger, Dmitri A Rusakov, Stéphane H R Oliet
The activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is conditioned by the binding of a co-agonist to a dedicated receptor binding site. It is now largely accepted that D-serine plays this role at many central synapses in the hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and in prefrontal, visual, and somatosensory cortices. D-Serine has been found to be synthesized, stored, and released by astrocytes (Figure 1). However, several immunolabeling studies and experiments in genetically modified animals have recently led to a suggestion that neurons are primarily responsible for the synthesis and release of D-serine [1]...
June 12, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571615/reinforcement-learning-computing-the-temporal-difference-of-values-via-distinct-corticostriatal-pathways-trends-in-neurosciences-35-457-467-2012
#9
Kenji Morita, Mieko Morishima, Katsuyuki Sakai, Yasuo Kawaguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571614/canis-familiaris-as-a-model-for-non-invasive-comparative-neuroscience
#10
REVIEW
Nóra Bunford, Attila Andics, Anna Kis, Ádám Miklósi, Márta Gácsi
There is an ongoing need to improve animal models for investigating human behavior and its biological underpinnings. The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is a promising model in cognitive neuroscience. However, before it can contribute to advances in this field in a comparative, reliable, and valid manner, several methodological issues warrant attention. We review recent non-invasive canine neuroscience studies, primarily focusing on (i) variability among dogs and between dogs and humans in cranial characteristics, and (ii) generalizability across dog and dog-human studies...
May 29, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554687/endocannabinoid-signaling-in-the-control-of-social-behavior
#11
REVIEW
Don Wei, Stephen Allsop, Kay Tye, Daniele Piomelli
Many mammalian species, including humans, exhibit social behavior and form complex social groups. Mechanistic studies in animal models have revealed important roles for the endocannabinoid signaling system, comprising G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous lipid-derived agonists, in the control of neural processes that underpin social anxiety and social reward, two key aspects of social behavior. An emergent insight from these studies is that endocannabinoid signaling in specific circuits of the brain is context dependent and selectively recruited...
May 26, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515011/sustained-activity-encoding-working-memories-not-fully-distributed
#12
REVIEW
Matthew L Leavitt, Diego Mendoza-Halliday, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
Working memory (WM) is the ability to remember and manipulate information for short time intervals. Recent studies have proposed that sustained firing encoding the contents of WM is ubiquitous across cortical neurons. We review here the collective evidence supporting this claim. A variety of studies report that neurons in prefrontal, parietal, and inferotemporal association cortices show robust sustained activity encoding the location and features of memoranda during WM tasks. However, reports of WM-related sustained activity in early sensory areas are rare, and typically lack stimulus specificity...
May 14, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494972/synaptic-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-dysregulated-symphony
#13
REVIEW
Stefania Forner, David Baglietto-Vargas, Alessandra C Martini, Laura Trujillo-Estrada, Frank M LaFerla
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory loss, cognitive decline, and devastating neurodegeneration, not only as a result of the extracellular accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and intracellular accumulation of tau, but also as a consequence of the dysfunction and loss of synapses. Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the relationship of the pathological role of Aβ and tau in synapse dysfunction, several questions remain as to how Aβ and tau interdependently cause impairments in synaptic function in AD...
May 8, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610948/adaptive-capacity-an-evolutionary-neuroscience-model-linking-exercise-cognition-and-brain-health
#14
REVIEW
David A Raichlen, Gene E Alexander
The field of cognitive neuroscience was transformed by the discovery that exercise induces neurogenesis in the adult brain, with the potential to improve brain health and stave off the effects of neurodegenerative disease. However, the basic mechanisms underlying exercise-brain connections are not well understood. We use an evolutionary neuroscience approach to develop the adaptive capacity model (ACM), detailing how and why physical activity improves brain function based on an energy-minimizing strategy. Building on studies showing a combined benefit of exercise and cognitive challenge to enhance neuroplasticity, our ACM addresses two fundamental questions: (i) what are the proximate and ultimate mechanisms underlying age-related brain atrophy, and (ii) how do lifestyle changes influence the trajectory of healthy and pathological aging?...
July 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578790/the-role-of-interneurons-in-autism-and-tourette-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Maximiliano Rapanelli, Luciana Romina Frick, Christopher Pittenger
The brain includes multiple types of interconnected excitatory and inhibitory neurons that together allow us to move, think, feel, and interact with the environment. Inhibitory interneurons (INs) comprise a small, heterogeneous fraction, but they exert a powerful and tight control over neuronal activity and consequently modulate the magnitude of neuronal output and, ultimately, information processing. IN abnormalities are linked to two pediatric psychiatric disorders with high comorbidity: autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Tourette syndrome (TS)...
July 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578789/unravelling-and-exploiting-astrocyte-dysfunction-in-huntington-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Baljit S Khakh, Vahri Beaumont, Roger Cachope, Ignacio Munoz-Sanjuan, Steven A Goldman, Rosemarie Grantyn
Astrocytes are abundant within mature neural circuits and are involved in brain disorders. Here, we summarize our current understanding of astrocytes and Huntington's disease (HD), with a focus on correlative and causative dysfunctions of ion homeostasis, calcium signaling, and neurotransmitter clearance, as well as on the use of transplanted astrocytes to produce therapeutic benefit in mouse models of HD. Overall, the data suggest that astrocyte dysfunction is an important contributor to the onset and progression of some HD symptoms in mice...
July 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511793/two-sources-of-dopamine-for-the-hippocampus
#17
Colin G McNamara, David Dupret
Dopaminergic signalling is established as playing an important role in novelty related modulation of hippocampal memory. Two recent studies have identified the noradrenergic fibres originating in the locus coeruleus as an additional source of neurotransmitter acting on dopaminergic receptors in the hippocampus.
July 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527591/the-role-of-astrocyte-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-pathogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Heather D E Booth, Warren D Hirst, Richard Wade-Martins
Astrocytes are the most populous glial subtype and are critical for brain function. Despite this, historically there have been few studies into the role that they may have in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, however, several studies have determined that genes known to have a causative role in the development of PD are expressed in astrocytes and have important roles in astrocyte function. Here, we review these recent developments and discuss their impact on our understanding of the pathophysiology of PD, and the implications that this might have for its treatment...
June 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515010/aberrant-network-activity-in-schizophrenia
#19
REVIEW
Mark J Hunt, Nancy J Kopell, Roger D Traub, Miles A Whittington
Brain dynamic changes associated with schizophrenia are largely equivocal, with interpretation complicated by many factors, such as the presence of therapeutic agents and the complex nature of the syndrome itself. Evidence for a brain-wide change in individual network oscillations, shared by all patients, is largely equivocal, but stronger for lower (delta) than for higher (gamma) bands. However, region-specific changes in rhythms across multiple, interdependent, nested frequencies may correlate better with pathology...
June 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501393/seq-ing-the-circuit-logic-of-the-basal-ganglia
#20
Ricardo Hernandez-Martinez, Nicole Calakos
Recently, Wallace et al. (2017) provide an unprecedented view of the layers of molecular, cellular and circuit complexity involving a basal ganglia output structure, the entopeduncular nucleus. Their findings lend order to chaos by revealing how molecularly and functionally defined cellular subsets are organized into distinct circuitry.
June 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
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