journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Trends in Neurosciences

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515011/sustained-activity-encoding-working-memories-not-fully-distributed
#1
REVIEW
Matthew L Leavitt, Diego Mendoza-Halliday, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
Working memory (WM) is the ability to remember and manipulate information for short time intervals. Recent studies have proposed that sustained firing encoding the contents of WM is ubiquitous across cortical neurons. We review here the collective evidence supporting this claim. A variety of studies report that neurons in prefrontal, parietal, and inferotemporal association cortices show robust sustained activity encoding the location and features of memoranda during WM tasks. However, reports of WM-related sustained activity in early sensory areas are rare, and typically lack stimulus specificity...
May 14, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515010/aberrant-network-activity-in-schizophrenia
#2
REVIEW
Mark J Hunt, Nancy J Kopell, Roger D Traub, Miles A Whittington
Brain dynamic changes associated with schizophrenia are largely equivocal, with interpretation complicated by many factors, such as the presence of therapeutic agents and the complex nature of the syndrome itself. Evidence for a brain-wide change in individual network oscillations, shared by all patients, is largely equivocal, but stronger for lower (delta) than for higher (gamma) bands. However, region-specific changes in rhythms across multiple, interdependent, nested frequencies may correlate better with pathology...
May 14, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511793/two-sources-of-dopamine-for-the-hippocampus
#3
Colin G McNamara, David Dupret
Dopaminergic signalling is established as playing an important role in novelty related modulation of hippocampal memory. Two recent studies have identified the noradrenergic fibres originating in the locus coeruleus as an additional source of neurotransmitter acting on dopaminergic receptors in the hippocampus.
May 13, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501393/seq-ing-the-circuit-logic-of-the-basal-ganglia
#4
Ricardo Hernandez-Martinez, Nicole Calakos
Recently, Wallace et al. (2017) provide an unprecedented view of the layers of molecular, cellular and circuit complexity involving a basal ganglia output structure, the entopeduncular nucleus. Their findings lend order to chaos by revealing how molecularly and functionally defined cellular subsets are organized into distinct circuitry.
May 10, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494972/synaptic-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-dysregulated-symphony
#5
REVIEW
Stefania Forner, David Baglietto-Vargas, Alessandra C Martini, Laura Trujillo-Estrada, Frank M LaFerla
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory loss, cognitive decline, and devastating neurodegeneration, not only as a result of the extracellular accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and intracellular accumulation of tau, but also as a consequence of the dysfunction and loss of synapses. Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the relationship of the pathological role of Aβ and tau in synapse dysfunction, several questions remain as to how Aβ and tau interdependently cause impairments in synaptic function in AD...
May 8, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431741/chloride-dysregulation-seizures-and-cerebral-edema-a-relationship-with-therapeutic-potential
#6
REVIEW
Joseph Glykys, Volodymyr Dzhala, Kiyoshi Egawa, Kristopher T Kahle, Eric Delpire, Kevin Staley
Pharmacoresistant seizures and cytotoxic cerebral edema are serious complications of ischemic and traumatic brain injury. Intraneuronal Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)]i) regulation impacts on both cell volume homeostasis and Cl(-)-permeable GABAA receptor-dependent membrane excitability. Understanding the pleiotropic molecular determinants of neuronal [Cl(-)]i - cytoplasmic impermeant anions, polyanionic extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins, and plasmalemmal Cl(-) transporters - could help the identification of novel anticonvulsive and neuroprotective targets...
April 18, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413092/resisting-the-urge-to-act-dreadds-modifying-habits-trends-in-neurosciences-40-61-62-2017
#7
M A G Eldridge, B J Richmond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365032/the-role-of-mental-maps-in-decision-making
#8
Raphael Kaplan, Nicolas W Schuck, Christian F Doeller
A growing body of work is investigating the use of mental maps during decision-making. Here we discuss how decision-making organizes experiences according to an internal model of the current task, thereby structuring memory. Likewise, we consider how the structure of mental maps contributes to decision-making.
March 29, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359630/neural-cell-adhesion-molecules-of-the-immunoglobulin-superfamily-regulate-synapse-formation-maintenance-and-function
#9
REVIEW
Vladimir Sytnyk, Iryna Leshchyns'ka, Melitta Schachner
Immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecules are among the most abundant proteins in vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. Prominent family members are the neural cell adhesion molecules NCAM and L1, which were the first to be shown to be essential not only in development but also in synaptic function and as key regulators of synapse formation, synaptic activity, plasticity, and synaptic vesicle recycling at distinct developmental and activity stages. In addition to interacting with each other, adhesion molecules interact with ion channels and cytokine and neurotransmitter receptors...
March 27, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318543/obesity-induced-neuroinflammation-beyond-the-hypothalamus
#10
REVIEW
Owein Guillemot-Legris, Giulio G Muccioli
Obesity is now a worldwide health issue. Far from being limited to weight gain, obesity is generally associated with low-grade inflammation and with a cluster of disorders collectively known as the 'metabolic syndrome'. When considering obesity and the subsequent neuroinflammation, the focus was long set on the hypothalamus. More recently, obesity-derived neuroinflammation has been shown to affect other brain structures such as the hippocampus, cortex, brainstem, or amygdala. Furthermore, obesity has been associated with increased occurrence of central disorders such as depression and impaired cognitive function...
March 16, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318542/monoamine-transporters-as-ionotropic-receptors
#11
Louis J De Felice
It is well established that glutamate and GABA signal through both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Conversely, it is thought that, with one exception, monoamines (dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) signal via metabotropic receptors. Given their capacity to generate fast-acting currents, I suggest that the monoamine transporters should be considered as ionotropic receptors.
March 16, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274488/the-neuroethological-paradox-of-animal-consciousness
#12
Yoram Gutfreund
The more advanced our understanding of the brain of an animal is, the less likely that this animal is a conscious being. This provocative logical paradox is explained and analyzed, leading to the conclusion that to advance understanding of animal consciousness it is necessary to resolve first how our consciousness is produced by our brain.
March 5, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431742/the-sleeping-cerebellum
#13
REVIEW
Cathrin B Canto, Yoshiyuki Onuki, Bastiaan Bruinsma, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Chris I De Zeeuw
We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology, cerebro-cerebellar interactions during sleep, or the contributions of sleep to cerebellum-dependent memory consolidation. Likewise, we do not understand why cerebellar malfunction can lead to changes in the sleep-wake cycle and sleep disorders...
May 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390699/deciphering-neural-codes-of-memory-during-sleep
#14
REVIEW
Zhe Chen, Matthew A Wilson
Memories of experiences are stored in the cerebral cortex. Sleep is critical for the consolidation of hippocampal memory of wake experiences into the neocortex. Understanding representations of neural codes of hippocampal-neocortical networks during sleep would reveal important circuit mechanisms in memory consolidation and provide novel insights into memory and dreams. Although sleep-associated ensemble spike activity has been investigated, identifying the content of memory in sleep remains challenging. Here we revisit important experimental findings on sleep-associated memory (i...
May 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363477/the-significance-of-memory-in-sensory-cortex
#15
Lars Muckli, Lucy S Petro
Early sensory cortex is typically investigated in response to sensory stimulation, masking the contribution of internal signals. Recently, van Kerkoerle and colleagues reported that attention and memory signals segregate from sensory signals within specific layers of primary visual cortex, providing insight into the role of internal signals in sensory processing.
May 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341235/physiological-markers-of-motor-inhibition-during-human-behavior
#16
REVIEW
Julie Duque, Ian Greenhouse, Ludovica Labruna, Richard B Ivry
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies in humans have shown that many behaviors engage processes that suppress excitability within the corticospinal tract. Inhibition of the motor output pathway has been extensively studied in the context of action stopping, where a planned movement needs to be abruptly aborted. Recent TMS work has also revealed markers of motor inhibition during the preparation of movement. Here, we review the evidence for motor inhibition during action stopping and action preparation, focusing on studies that have used TMS to monitor changes in the excitability of the corticospinal pathway...
April 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314446/the-insula-an-underestimated-brain-area-in-clinical-neuroscience-psychiatry-and-neurology
#17
REVIEW
Ho Namkung, Sun-Hong Kim, Akira Sawa
Supported by recent human neuroimaging studies, the insula is re-emerging as an important brain area not only in the physiological understanding of the brain, but also in pathological contexts in clinical research. In this opinion article, we briefly introduce the anatomical and histological features of the human insula. We then summarize the physiological functions of the insula and underscore its pathological roles in psychiatric and neurological disorders that have long been underestimated. We finally propose possible strategies through which the role of the insula may be further understood for both basic and clinical neuroscience...
April 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314445/where-does-eeg-come-from-and-what-does-it-mean
#18
REVIEW
Michael X Cohen
Electroencephalography (EEG) has been instrumental in making discoveries about cognition, brain function, and dysfunction. However, where do EEG signals come from and what do they mean? The purpose of this paper is to argue that we know shockingly little about the answer to this question, to highlight what we do know, how important the answers are, and how modern neuroscience technologies that allow us to measure and manipulate neural circuits with high spatiotemporal accuracy might finally bring us some answers...
April 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190529/mitophagy-and-alzheimer-s-disease-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms
#19
REVIEW
Jesse S Kerr, Bryan A Adriaanse, Nigel H Greig, Mark P Mattson, M Zameel Cader, Vilhelm A Bohr, Evandro F Fang
Neurons affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience mitochondrial dysfunction and a bioenergetic deficit that occurs early and promotes the disease-defining amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) and Tau pathologies. Emerging findings suggest that the autophagy/lysosome pathway that removes damaged mitochondria (mitophagy) is also compromised in AD, resulting in the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria. Results in animal and cellular models of AD and in patients with sporadic late-onset AD suggest that impaired mitophagy contributes to synaptic dysfunction and cognitive deficits by triggering Aβ and Tau accumulation through increases in oxidative damage and cellular energy deficits; these, in turn, impair mitophagy...
March 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187950/advancing-nmda-receptor-physiology-by-integrating-multiple-approaches
#20
REVIEW
Huan-Xiang Zhou, Lonnie P Wollmuth
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are ion channels activated by the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and are essential to all aspects of brain function, including learning and memory formation. Missense mutations distributed throughout NMDAR subunits have been associated with an array of neurological disorders. Recent structural, functional, and computational studies have generated many insights into the activation process connecting glutamate binding to ion-channel opening, which is central to NMDAR physiology and pathophysiology...
March 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
journal
journal
27474
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"