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Trends in Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619259/astroglial-versus-neuronal-d-serine-fact-checking
#1
LETTER
Thomas Papouin, Christian Henneberger, Dmitri A Rusakov, Stéphane H R Oliet
The activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is conditioned by the binding of a co-agonist to a dedicated receptor binding site. It is now largely accepted that D-serine plays this role at many central synapses in the hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and in prefrontal, visual, and somatosensory cortices. D-Serine has been found to be synthesized, stored, and released by astrocytes (Figure 1). However, several immunolabeling studies and experiments in genetically modified animals have recently led to a suggestion that neurons are primarily responsible for the synthesis and release of D-serine [1]...
June 12, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610948/adaptive-capacity-an-evolutionary-neuroscience-model-linking-exercise-cognition-and-brain-health
#2
REVIEW
David A Raichlen, Gene E Alexander
The field of cognitive neuroscience was transformed by the discovery that exercise induces neurogenesis in the adult brain, with the potential to improve brain health and stave off the effects of neurodegenerative disease. However, the basic mechanisms underlying exercise-brain connections are not well understood. We use an evolutionary neuroscience approach to develop the adaptive capacity model (ACM), detailing how and why physical activity improves brain function based on an energy-minimizing strategy. Building on studies showing a combined benefit of exercise and cognitive challenge to enhance neuroplasticity, our ACM addresses two fundamental questions: (i) what are the proximate and ultimate mechanisms underlying age-related brain atrophy, and (ii) how do lifestyle changes influence the trajectory of healthy and pathological aging?...
June 10, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578790/the-role-of-interneurons-in-autism-and-tourette-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Maximiliano Rapanelli, Luciana Romina Frick, Christopher Pittenger
The brain includes multiple types of interconnected excitatory and inhibitory neurons that together allow us to move, think, feel, and interact with the environment. Inhibitory interneurons (INs) comprise a small, heterogeneous fraction, but they exert a powerful and tight control over neuronal activity and consequently modulate the magnitude of neuronal output and, ultimately, information processing. IN abnormalities are linked to two pediatric psychiatric disorders with high comorbidity: autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Tourette syndrome (TS)...
May 31, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578789/unravelling-and-exploiting-astrocyte-dysfunction-in-huntington-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Baljit S Khakh, Vahri Beaumont, Roger Cachope, Ignacio Munoz-Sanjuan, Steven A Goldman, Rosemarie Grantyn
Astrocytes are abundant within mature neural circuits and are involved in brain disorders. Here, we summarize our current understanding of astrocytes and Huntington's disease (HD), with a focus on correlative and causative dysfunctions of ion homeostasis, calcium signaling, and neurotransmitter clearance, as well as on the use of transplanted astrocytes to produce therapeutic benefit in mouse models of HD. Overall, the data suggest that astrocyte dysfunction is an important contributor to the onset and progression of some HD symptoms in mice...
May 31, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571615/reinforcement-learning-computing-the-temporal-difference-of-values-via-distinct-corticostriatal-pathways-trends-in-neurosciences-35-457-467-2012
#5
Kenji Morita, Mieko Morishima, Katsuyuki Sakai, Yasuo Kawaguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571614/canis-familiaris-as-a-model-for-non-invasive-comparative-neuroscience
#6
REVIEW
Nóra Bunford, Attila Andics, Anna Kis, Ádám Miklósi, Márta Gácsi
There is an ongoing need to improve animal models for investigating human behavior and its biological underpinnings. The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is a promising model in cognitive neuroscience. However, before it can contribute to advances in this field in a comparative, reliable, and valid manner, several methodological issues warrant attention. We review recent non-invasive canine neuroscience studies, primarily focusing on (i) variability among dogs and between dogs and humans in cranial characteristics, and (ii) generalizability across dog and dog-human studies...
May 29, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554687/endocannabinoid-signaling-in-the-control-of-social-behavior
#7
REVIEW
Don Wei, Stephen Allsop, Kay Tye, Daniele Piomelli
Many mammalian species, including humans, exhibit social behavior and form complex social groups. Mechanistic studies in animal models have revealed important roles for the endocannabinoid signaling system, comprising G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous lipid-derived agonists, in the control of neural processes that underpin social anxiety and social reward, two key aspects of social behavior. An emergent insight from these studies is that endocannabinoid signaling in specific circuits of the brain is context dependent and selectively recruited...
May 26, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515011/sustained-activity-encoding-working-memories-not-fully-distributed
#8
REVIEW
Matthew L Leavitt, Diego Mendoza-Halliday, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
Working memory (WM) is the ability to remember and manipulate information for short time intervals. Recent studies have proposed that sustained firing encoding the contents of WM is ubiquitous across cortical neurons. We review here the collective evidence supporting this claim. A variety of studies report that neurons in prefrontal, parietal, and inferotemporal association cortices show robust sustained activity encoding the location and features of memoranda during WM tasks. However, reports of WM-related sustained activity in early sensory areas are rare, and typically lack stimulus specificity...
May 14, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511793/two-sources-of-dopamine-for-the-hippocampus
#9
Colin G McNamara, David Dupret
Dopaminergic signalling is established as playing an important role in novelty related modulation of hippocampal memory. Two recent studies have identified the noradrenergic fibres originating in the locus coeruleus as an additional source of neurotransmitter acting on dopaminergic receptors in the hippocampus.
May 13, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501393/seq-ing-the-circuit-logic-of-the-basal-ganglia
#10
Ricardo Hernandez-Martinez, Nicole Calakos
Recently, Wallace et al. (2017) provide an unprecedented view of the layers of molecular, cellular and circuit complexity involving a basal ganglia output structure, the entopeduncular nucleus. Their findings lend order to chaos by revealing how molecularly and functionally defined cellular subsets are organized into distinct circuitry.
May 10, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494972/synaptic-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-dysregulated-symphony
#11
REVIEW
Stefania Forner, David Baglietto-Vargas, Alessandra C Martini, Laura Trujillo-Estrada, Frank M LaFerla
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory loss, cognitive decline, and devastating neurodegeneration, not only as a result of the extracellular accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and intracellular accumulation of tau, but also as a consequence of the dysfunction and loss of synapses. Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the relationship of the pathological role of Aβ and tau in synapse dysfunction, several questions remain as to how Aβ and tau interdependently cause impairments in synaptic function in AD...
May 8, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413092/resisting-the-urge-to-act-dreadds-modifying-habits-trends-in-neurosciences-40-61-62-2017
#12
M A G Eldridge, B J Richmond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365032/the-role-of-mental-maps-in-decision-making
#13
Raphael Kaplan, Nicolas W Schuck, Christian F Doeller
A growing body of work is investigating the use of mental maps during decision-making. Here we discuss how decision-making organizes experiences according to an internal model of the current task, thereby structuring memory. Likewise, we consider how the structure of mental maps contributes to decision-making.
March 29, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359630/neural-cell-adhesion-molecules-of-the-immunoglobulin-superfamily-regulate-synapse-formation-maintenance-and-function
#14
REVIEW
Vladimir Sytnyk, Iryna Leshchyns'ka, Melitta Schachner
Immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecules are among the most abundant proteins in vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. Prominent family members are the neural cell adhesion molecules NCAM and L1, which were the first to be shown to be essential not only in development but also in synaptic function and as key regulators of synapse formation, synaptic activity, plasticity, and synaptic vesicle recycling at distinct developmental and activity stages. In addition to interacting with each other, adhesion molecules interact with ion channels and cytokine and neurotransmitter receptors...
March 27, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527591/the-role-of-astrocyte-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-pathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Heather D E Booth, Warren D Hirst, Richard Wade-Martins
Astrocytes are the most populous glial subtype and are critical for brain function. Despite this, historically there have been few studies into the role that they may have in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, however, several studies have determined that genes known to have a causative role in the development of PD are expressed in astrocytes and have important roles in astrocyte function. Here, we review these recent developments and discuss their impact on our understanding of the pathophysiology of PD, and the implications that this might have for its treatment...
June 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515010/aberrant-network-activity-in-schizophrenia
#16
REVIEW
Mark J Hunt, Nancy J Kopell, Roger D Traub, Miles A Whittington
Brain dynamic changes associated with schizophrenia are largely equivocal, with interpretation complicated by many factors, such as the presence of therapeutic agents and the complex nature of the syndrome itself. Evidence for a brain-wide change in individual network oscillations, shared by all patients, is largely equivocal, but stronger for lower (delta) than for higher (gamma) bands. However, region-specific changes in rhythms across multiple, interdependent, nested frequencies may correlate better with pathology...
June 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431742/the-sleeping-cerebellum
#17
REVIEW
Cathrin B Canto, Yoshiyuki Onuki, Bastiaan Bruinsma, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Chris I De Zeeuw
We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology, cerebro-cerebellar interactions during sleep, or the contributions of sleep to cerebellum-dependent memory consolidation. Likewise, we do not understand why cerebellar malfunction can lead to changes in the sleep-wake cycle and sleep disorders...
May 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431741/chloride-dysregulation-seizures-and-cerebral-edema-a-relationship-with-therapeutic-potential
#18
REVIEW
Joseph Glykys, Volodymyr Dzhala, Kiyoshi Egawa, Kristopher T Kahle, Eric Delpire, Kevin Staley
Pharmacoresistant seizures and cytotoxic cerebral edema are serious complications of ischemic and traumatic brain injury. Intraneuronal Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)]i) regulation impacts on both cell volume homeostasis and Cl(-)-permeable GABAA receptor-dependent membrane excitability. Understanding the pleiotropic molecular determinants of neuronal [Cl(-)]i - cytoplasmic impermeant anions, polyanionic extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins, and plasmalemmal Cl(-) transporters - could help the identification of novel anticonvulsive and neuroprotective targets...
May 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390699/deciphering-neural-codes-of-memory-during-sleep
#19
REVIEW
Zhe Chen, Matthew A Wilson
Memories of experiences are stored in the cerebral cortex. Sleep is critical for the consolidation of hippocampal memory of wake experiences into the neocortex. Understanding representations of neural codes of hippocampal-neocortical networks during sleep would reveal important circuit mechanisms in memory consolidation and provide novel insights into memory and dreams. Although sleep-associated ensemble spike activity has been investigated, identifying the content of memory in sleep remains challenging. Here we revisit important experimental findings on sleep-associated memory (i...
May 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363477/the-significance-of-memory-in-sensory-cortex
#20
Lars Muckli, Lucy S Petro
Early sensory cortex is typically investigated in response to sensory stimulation, masking the contribution of internal signals. Recently, van Kerkoerle and colleagues reported that attention and memory signals segregate from sensory signals within specific layers of primary visual cortex, providing insight into the role of internal signals in sensory processing.
May 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
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