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Trends in Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150096/flexible-roles-for-proteoglycan-sulfation-and-receptor-signaling
#1
REVIEW
Panpan Yu, Craig S Pearson, Herbert M Geller
Proteoglycans (PGs) in the extracellular matrix (ECM) play vital roles in axon growth and navigation, plasticity, and regeneration of injured neurons. Different classes of PGs may support or inhibit cell growth, and their functions are determined in part by highly specific structural features. Among these, the pattern of sulfation on the PG sugar chains is a paramount determinant of a diverse and flexible set of outcomes. Recent studies of PG sulfation illustrate the challenges of attributing biological actions to specific sulfation patterns, and suggest ways in which highly similar molecules may exert opposing effects on neurons...
November 14, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128108/rebalancing-the-addicted-brain-oxytocin-interference-with-the-neural-substrates-of-addiction
#2
REVIEW
Michael T Bowen, Inga D Neumann
Drugs that act on the brain oxytocin (OXT) system may provide a much-needed treatment breakthrough for substance-use disorders. Targeting the brain OXT system has the potential to treat addiction to all major classes of addictive substance and to intervene across all stages of the addiction cycle. Emerging evidence suggests that OXT is able to interfere with such a wide range of addictive behaviours for such a wide range of addictive substances by rebalancing core neural systems that become dysregulated over the course of addiction...
November 8, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128107/a-systematic-look-at-environmental-modulation-and-its-impact-in-brain-development
#3
REVIEW
Alessandro Sale
Several experimental procedures are currently used to investigate the impact of the environment on brain plasticity under physiological and pathological conditions. The available methodologies are aimed at obtaining global or specific reductions or intensifications of the stimuli, with initial standardization in animal models being paralleled by translational applications to humans. More procedures can be combined together or applied in series to obtain powerful experimental paradigms, and the choice of a given setting should take into account the specific genetic background, age, and phenotypic vulnerabilities of the target subjects...
November 8, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097017/emerging-roles-of-creb-regulated-transcription-coactivators-in-brain-physiology-and-pathology
#4
REVIEW
Carlos A Saura, Jean-René Cardinaux
The brain has the ability to sense, coordinate, and respond to environmental changes through biological processes involving activity-dependent gene expression. cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivators (CRTCs) have recently emerged as novel transcriptional regulators of essential biological functions, while their deregulation is linked to age-related human diseases. In the brain, CRTCs are unique signaling factors that act as sensors and integrators of hormonal, metabolic, and neural signals contributing to brain plasticity and brain-body communication...
October 30, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074032/predicting-age-using-neuroimaging-innovative-brain-ageing-biomarkers
#5
REVIEW
James H Cole, Katja Franke
The brain changes as we age and these changes are associated with functional deterioration and neurodegenerative disease. It is vital that we better understand individual differences in the brain ageing process; hence, techniques for making individualised predictions of brain ageing have been developed. We present evidence supporting the use of neuroimaging-based 'brain age' as a biomarker of an individual's brain health. Increasingly, research is showing how brain disease or poor physical health negatively impacts brain age...
October 23, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032842/making-dopamine-connections-in-adolescence
#6
REVIEW
Daniel Hoops, Cecilia Flores
A dramatic maturational process ongoing in adolescence is prefrontal cortex development, including its dopamine innervation. Dopamine axons grow from the striatum to the prefrontal cortex, the only known case of long-distance axon growth during adolescence. This is coordinated by the Netrin-1 guidance cue receptor DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer), which in turn controls the intrinsic development of the prefrontal cortex itself. Stimulant drugs in adolescence alter DCC in dopamine neurons and, in turn prefrontal cortex maturation, impacting cognitive abilities...
October 9, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988827/self-as-object-emerging-trends-in-self-research
#7
REVIEW
Jie Sui, Xiaosi Gu
Self representation is fundamental to mental functions. While the self has mostly been studied in traditional psychophilosophical terms ('self as subject'), recent laboratory work suggests that the self can be measured quantitatively by assessing biases towards self-associated stimuli ('self as object'). Here, we summarize new quantitative paradigms for assessing the self, drawn from psychology, neuroeconomics, embodied cognition, and social neuroscience. We then propose a neural model of the self as an emerging property of interactions between a core 'self network' (e...
October 5, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890212/a-self-killing-rabies-virus-that-leaves-a-trace-on-the-dna
#8
William Menegas, Naoshige Uchida, Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida
Although modified rabies viruses have emerged as a powerful tool for tracing the inputs to genetically defined populations of neurons, the toxicity of the virus has limited its utility. A recent study employed a self-inactivating rabies (SiR) virus that enables recording or manipulation of targeted neurons for months.
September 7, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988060/chandelier-cells-illuminate-inhibitory-control-of-prefrontal-amygdala-outputs
#9
Thomas F Giustino, Stephen Maren
Inhibitory interneurons comprise a diverse subpopulation of cells that are critical to circuit function. How distinct inhibitory microcircuits control long-range projections remains poorly understood. A recent study by Lu and colleagues uncovered a unidirectional microcircuit of prefrontal chandelier cells that preferentially innervate and suppress long-range amygdala-projecting pyramidal cells.
November 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969926/estradiol-membrane-initiated-signaling-in-the-brain-mediates-reproduction
#10
REVIEW
Paul E Micevych, Paul G Mermelstein, Kevin Sinchak
Over the past few years our understanding of estrogen signaling in the brain has expanded rapidly. Estrogens are synthesized in the periphery and in the brain, acting on multiple receptors to regulate gene transcription, neural function, and behavior. Various estrogen-sensitive signaling pathways often operate in concert within the same cell, increasing the complexity of the system. In females, estrogen concentrations fluctuate over the estrous/menstrual cycle, dynamically modulating estrogen receptor (ER) expression, activity, and trafficking...
November 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916130/stress-and-seizures-space-time-and-hippocampal-circuits
#11
REVIEW
B G Gunn, T Z Baram
Stress is a major trigger of seizures in people with epilepsy. Exposure to stress results in the release of several stress mediators throughout the brain, including the hippocampus, a region sensitive to stress and prone to seizures. Stress mediators interact with their respective receptors to produce distinct effects on the excitability of hippocampal neurons and networks. Crucially, these stress mediators and their actions exhibit unique spatiotemporal profiles, generating a complex combinatorial output with time- and space-dependent effects on hippocampal network excitability and seizure generation...
November 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962801/endosomal-traffic-jams-represent-a-pathogenic-hub-and-therapeutic-target-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Scott A Small, Sabrina Simoes-Spassov, Richard Mayeux, Gregory A Petsko
While clues have existed that endosomal trafficking is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), whether it plays a central role in the disease and if so how has remained unknown. Here we rely on recent genetic and cellular findings to construct a model proposing that traffic jams in the early endosome can act as an upstream pathogenic hub in AD. We also rely on an independent series of findings to suggest how the traffic jams can act as a unified mediator of downstream pathophysiology. The model predicts, therefore, that interventions designed to unjam the endosome carry high therapeutic promise...
October 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893422/the-brain-is-needed-to-cure-spinal-cord-injury
#13
REVIEW
Tadashi Isa
Damage to corticospinal fibers in the cervical spinal cord is known to impair dexterous hand movements. However, accumulating evidence has shown that precision grip can recover considerably through rehabilitative training. Recent multidisciplinary studies have revealed that, at the spinal level, this recovery is possible due to an indirect neural pathway through propriospinal neurons (PNs), which relay cortical commands to hand motoneurons. Although this indirect spinal pathway is heavily involved in recovery, its role is dwarfed by a simultaneous large-scale network reorganization spanning motor-related cortices and mesolimbic structures...
October 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867348/cellular-computations-underlying-detection-of-gaps-in-sounds-and-lateralizing-sound-sources
#14
REVIEW
Donata Oertel, Xiao-Jie Cao, James R Ison, Paul D Allen
In mammals, acoustic information arises in the cochlea and is transmitted to the ventral cochlear nuclei (VCN). Three groups of VCN neurons extract different features from the firing of auditory nerve fibers and convey that information along separate pathways through the brainstem. Two of these pathways process temporal information: octopus cells detect coincident firing among auditory nerve fibers and transmit signals along monaural pathways, and bushy cells sharpen the encoding of fine structure and feed binaural pathways...
October 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843655/phantom-limbs-neuroprosthetics-and-the-developmental-origins-of-embodiment
#15
REVIEW
Mark S Blumberg, James C Dooley
Amputees who wish to rid themselves of a phantom limb must weaken the neural representation of the absent limb. Conversely, amputees who wish to replace a lost limb must assimilate a neuroprosthetic with the existing neural representation. Whether we wish to remove a phantom limb or assimilate a synthetic one, we will benefit from knowing more about the developmental process that enables embodiment. A potentially critical contributor to that process is the spontaneous activity - in the form of limb twitches - that occurs exclusively and abundantly during active (REM) sleep, a particularly prominent state in early development...
October 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844283/all-wrapped-up-environmental-effects-on-myelination
#16
REVIEW
Thomas A Forbes, Vittorio Gallo
To date, studies have demonstrated the dynamic influence of exogenous environmental stimuli on multiple regions of the brain. This environmental influence positively and negatively impacts programs governing myelination, and acts on myelinating oligodendrocyte (OL) cells across the human lifespan. Developmentally, environmental manipulation of OL progenitor cells (OPCs) has profound effects on the establishment of functional cognitive, sensory, and motor programs. Furthermore, central nervous system (CNS) myelin remains an adaptive entity in adulthood, sensitive to environmentally induced structural changes...
September 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818303/nkcc1-chloride-importer-antagonists-attenuate-many-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Yehezkel Ben-Ari
In physiological conditions, adult neurons have low intracellular Cl(-) [(Cl(-))I] levels underlying the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibitory drive. In contrast, neurons have high (Cl(-))I levels and excitatory GABA actions in a wide range of pathological conditions including spinal cord lesions, chronic pain, brain trauma, cerebrovascular infarcts, autism, Rett and Down syndrome, various types of epilepsies, and other genetic or environmental insults. The diuretic highly specific NKCC1 chloride importer antagonist bumetanide (PubChem CID: 2461) efficiently restores low (Cl(-))I levels and attenuates many disorders in experimental conditions and in some clinical trials...
September 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803659/seizing-control-of-kcc2-a-new-therapeutic-target-for-epilepsy
#18
REVIEW
Yvonne E Moore, Matt R Kelley, Nicholas J Brandon, Tarek Z Deeb, Stephen J Moss
Deficits in GABAergic inhibition result in the abnormal neuronal activation and synchronization that underlies seizures. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for transforming a normal brain into an epileptic one remain largely unknown. Hyperpolarizing inhibition mediated by type A GABA (GABAA) receptors is dependent on chloride extrusion by the neuron-specific type 2K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (KCC2). Loss-of-function mutations in KCC2 are a known cause of infantile epilepsy in humans and KCC2 dysfunction is present in patients with both idiopathic and acquired epilepsy...
August 10, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778394/acute-or-chronic-a-stressful-question
#19
REVIEW
Laura Musazzi, Paolo Tornese, Nathalie Sala, Maurizio Popoli
Stress is a primary risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders; at times, even a single trauma can trigger psychopathology. Many rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders use chronic stress, measuring readouts at the end of long protocols. In a way, traditional chronic models overlook a crucial question: how does the physiological response to stressor(s) turn into a maladaptive pathway that may verge towards psychopathology? Recent evidence suggests that studying the long-term consequences of acute stress would provide critical information on the role of stress in psychopathology...
August 1, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712469/subcortical-contributions-to-motor-speech-phylogenetic-developmental-clinical
#20
REVIEW
W Ziegler, H Ackermann
Vocal learning is an exclusively human trait among primates. However, songbirds demonstrate behavioral features resembling human speech learning. Two circuits have a preeminent role in this human behavior; namely, the corticostriatal and the cerebrocerebellar motor loops. While the striatal contribution can be traced back to the avian anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), the sensorimotor adaptation functions of the cerebellum appear to be human specific in acoustic communication. This review contributes to an ongoing discussion on how birdsong translates into human speech...
August 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
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