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Trends in Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190529/mitophagy-and-alzheimer-s-disease-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Jesse S Kerr, Bryan A Adriaanse, Nigel H Greig, Mark P Mattson, M Zameel Cader, Vilhelm A Bohr, Evandro F Fang
Neurons affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience mitochondrial dysfunction and a bioenergetic deficit that occurs early and promotes the disease-defining amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) and Tau pathologies. Emerging findings suggest that the autophagy/lysosome pathway that removes damaged mitochondria (mitophagy) is also compromised in AD, resulting in the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria. Results in animal and cellular models of AD and in patients with sporadic late-onset AD suggest that impaired mitophagy contributes to synaptic dysfunction and cognitive deficits by triggering Aβ and Tau accumulation through increases in oxidative damage and cellular energy deficits; these, in turn, impair mitophagy...
February 9, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187950/advancing-nmda-receptor-physiology-by-integrating-multiple-approaches
#2
REVIEW
Huan-Xiang Zhou, Lonnie P Wollmuth
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are ion channels activated by the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and are essential to all aspects of brain function, including learning and memory formation. Missense mutations distributed throughout NMDAR subunits have been associated with an array of neurological disorders. Recent structural, functional, and computational studies have generated many insights into the activation process connecting glutamate binding to ion-channel opening, which is central to NMDAR physiology and pathophysiology...
February 7, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162799/cannabidiol-swinging-the-marijuana-pendulum-from-weed-to-medication-to-treat-the-opioid-epidemic
#3
Yasmin L Hurd
Epidemics require a paradigm shift in thinking about all possible solutions. The rapidly changing sociopolitical marijuana landscape provides a foundation for the therapeutic development of medicinal cannabidiol to address the current opioid abuse crisis.
February 2, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126248/shaping-science-for-increasing-interdependence-and-specialization
#4
Christian Utzerath, Guillén Fernández
Like art, science affords an individualistic career. However, increasingly, complexity necessitates increased interdependency and specialization. Despite this change, many institutions, funding agencies, and publishers insist on an exclusively individualistic model of science. This hinders scientific progress by imposing a range of inefficiencies in the planning and execution of research plans.
January 23, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110935/a-glud-coming-of-age-story
#5
REVIEW
Michisuke Yuzaki, A Radu Aricescu
The GluD1 and GluD2 receptors form the GluD ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) subfamily. Without known endogenous ligands, they have long been referred to as 'orphan' and remained enigmatic functionally. Recent progress has, however, radically changed this view. Both GluD receptors are expressed in wider brain regions than originally thought. Human genetic studies and analyses of knockout mice have revealed their involvement in multiple neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. The discovery of endogenous ligands, together with structural investigations, has opened the way towards a mechanistic understanding of GluD signaling at central nervous system synapses...
January 19, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108113/current-understanding-of-the-hypothalamic-ghrelin-pathways-inducing-appetite-and-adiposity
#6
REVIEW
Omar Al Massadi, Miguel López, Matthias Tschöp, Carlos Diéguez, Ruben Nogueiras
Ghrelin is a multifaceted regulator of metabolism. Ghrelin regulates energy balance in the short term via induction of appetite and in the long term via increased body weight and adiposity. Recently, several central pathways modulating the metabolic actions of ghrelin were unmasked, and it was shown to act through different hypothalamic nuclei to induce feeding. Ghrelin also modulates glucose homeostasis, but the central mechanisms responsible for this action have not been studied in detail. Although ghrelin also acts through extrahypothalamic areas to promote feeding, this review specifically dissects hypothalamic control of ghrelin's orexigenic and adipogenic actions and presents current understanding of the intracellular ghrelin orexigenic pathways, including their dependence on other relevant systems implicated in energy balance...
January 17, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081942/pten-local-and-global-modulation-of-neuronal-function-in-health-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Shira Knafo, José A Esteban
Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) was recently revealed to be a synaptic player during plasticity events in addition to its well-established role as a general controlling factor in cell proliferation and neuronal growth during development. Alterations of these direct actions of PTEN at synapses may lead to synaptic dysfunction with behavioral and cognitive consequences. A recent paradigmatic example of this situation, Alzheimer's disease (AD), is associated with excessive recruitment of PTEN into synapses leading to pathological synaptic depression...
January 9, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063612/conserved-sequence-processing-in-primate-frontal-cortex
#8
REVIEW
Benjamin Wilson, William D Marslen-Wilson, Christopher I Petkov
An important aspect of animal perception and cognition is learning to recognize relationships between environmental events that predict others in time, a form of relational knowledge that can be assessed using sequence-learning paradigms. Humans are exquisitely sensitive to sequencing relationships, and their combinatorial capacities, most saliently in the domain of language, are unparalleled. Recent comparative research in human and nonhuman primates has obtained behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for evolutionarily conserved substrates involved in sequence processing...
January 4, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129895/the-neurobiology-of-postpartum-anxiety-and-depression
#9
REVIEW
Jodi L Pawluski, Joseph S Lonstein, Alison S Fleming
Ten to twenty percent of postpartum women experience anxiety or depressive disorders, which can have detrimental effects on the mother, child, and family. Little is known about the neural correlates of these affective disorders when they occur in mothers, but they do have unique neural profiles during the postpartum period compared with when they occur at other times in a woman's life. Given that the neural systems affected by postpartum anxiety and depression overlap and interact with the systems involved in maternal caregiving behaviors, mother-infant interactions are highly susceptible to disruption...
December 28, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017499/neuronal-adaptation-tired-neurons-or-wired-networks
#10
J Patrick Mayo, Matthew A Smith
Neuronal adaptation - time-dependent modulation of sensory responses following sequential stimuli - is thought to be a consequence of synaptic plasticity. But recent, empirically-grounded, modeling by Quiroga and colleagues demonstrates that the adaptation of visual cortical responses can be described by recurrent network connections with fixed synaptic weights.
December 22, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012708/secondary-motor-cortex-where-sensory-meets-motor-in-the-rodent-frontal-cortex
#11
REVIEW
Florent Barthas, Alex C Kwan
In rodents, the medial aspect of the secondary motor cortex (M2) is known by other names, including medial agranular cortex (AGm), medial precentral cortex (PrCm), and frontal orienting field (FOF). As a subdivision of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), M2 can be defined by a distinct set of afferent and efferent connections, microstimulation responses, and lesion outcomes. However, the behavioral role of M2 remains mysterious. Here, we focus on evidence from rodent studies, highlighting recent findings of early and context-dependent choice-related activity in M2 during voluntary behavior...
December 21, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104285/resisting-the-urge-to-act-dreadds-modifying-habits
#12
Mark A G Eldridge, Barry J Richmond
Recently, Meyer and Bucci used chemogenetic technology - artificial excitatory and inhibitory receptors - to modulate neuronal activity in two connected brain regions in opposite directions simultaneously. This innovative manipulation revealed that the two regions studied, orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, are not sequentially dependent during contextual decision-making.
February 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041634/weighing-the-evidence-in-peters-rule-does-neuronal-morphology-predict-connectivity
#13
REVIEW
Christopher L Rees, Keivan Moradi, Giorgio A Ascoli
Although the importance of network connectivity is increasingly recognized, identifying synapses remains challenging relative to the routine characterization of neuronal morphology. Thus, researchers frequently employ axon-dendrite colocations as proxies of potential connections. This putative equivalence, commonly referred to as Peters' rule, has been recently studied at multiple levels and scales, fueling passionate debates regarding its validity. Our critical literature review identifies three conceptually distinct but often confused applications: inferring neuron type circuitry, predicting synaptic contacts among individual cells, and estimating synapse numbers within neuron pairs...
February 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041633/back-to-the-basics-cnidarians-start-to-fire
#14
REVIEW
Thomas C G Bosch, Alexander Klimovich, Tomislav Domazet-Lošo, Stefan Gründer, Thomas W Holstein, Gáspár Jékely, David J Miller, Andrea P Murillo-Rincon, Fabian Rentzsch, Gemma S Richards, Katja Schröder, Ulrich Technau, Rafael Yuste
The nervous systems of cnidarians, pre-bilaterian animals that diverged close to the base of the metazoan radiation, are structurally simple and thus have great potential to reveal fundamental principles of neural circuits. Unfortunately, cnidarians have thus far been relatively intractable to electrophysiological and genetic techniques and consequently have been largely passed over by neurobiologists. However, recent advances in molecular and imaging methods are fueling a renaissance of interest in and research into cnidarians nervous systems...
February 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038829/tooth-matrix-biomarkers-to-reconstruct-critical-periods-of-brain-plasticity
#15
Hirofumi Morishita, Manish Arora
Developmental brain plasticity involves complex, time-dependent dynamic molecular interactions that cannot be observed directly in humans. We propose that the shared evolutionary homology of teeth and the neurosensory system, and the archival nature of dentine microstructure, allows the development of 'biologic hard drives' that can characterize perinatal temporal dynamics in neuroplasticity.
January 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986294/monitoring-demands-for-executive-control-shared-functions-between-human-and-nonhuman-primates
#16
REVIEW
Farshad A Mansouri, Tobias Egner, Mark J Buckley
Fifteen years ago, an influential model proposed that the human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) detects conflict and induces adaptive control of behavior. Over the years support for this model has been mixed, in particular due to divergent findings in human versus nonhuman primates. We here review recent findings that suggest greater commonalities across species. These include equivalent behavioral consequences of conflict and similar neuronal signals in the dACC, but also a common failure of dACC lesions to reliably abolish conflict-driven behavior...
January 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986293/neurolsd1-splicing-generated-epigenetic-enhancer-of-neuroplasticity
#17
REVIEW
Francesco Rusconi, Barbara Grillo, Emanuela Toffolo, Andrea Mattevi, Elena Battaglioli
The acquisition and maintenance of the specific neuronal functions underlying learning, memory, and emotion require transduction of environmental stimuli into remodeling of neuronal circuitry. This process occurs via induction of plasticity-related transcriptional programs. The epigenetic enzyme lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1), also known as lysine demethylase 1A (KDM1A), and its neurospecific splicing variant neuroLSD1 have been implicated in this process through an antagonistic mechanism. Specifically, LSD1/neuroLSD1 are involved in the negative and positive regulation of activity-evoked transcription of immediate early genes (IEGs) impacting memory formation and emotional behavior...
January 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939821/multimodal-imaging-of-neurometabolic-pathology-due-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
REVIEW
John Darrell Van Horn, Avnish Bhattrai, Andrei Irimia
The impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) involves a combination of complex biochemical processes beginning with the initial insult and lasting for days, months and even years post-trauma. These changes range from neuronal integrity losses to neurotransmitter imbalance and metabolite dysregulation, leading to the release of pro- or anti-apoptotic factors which mediate cell survival or death. Such dynamic processes affecting the brain's neurochemistry can be monitored using a variety of neuroimaging techniques, whose combined use can be particularly useful for understanding patient-specific clinical trajectories...
January 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894611/the-threshold-theory-for-parkinson-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Simone Engelender, Ole Isacson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is recognized by the accumulation of α-synuclein within neurons. In contrast to the current ascending theory where α-synuclein would propagate from neuron to neuron, we now propose the threshold theory for PD based on evidence of parallel degeneration of both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) in PD. The functional threshold is lower for the emergence of early symptoms before the classical motor symptoms of PD. This is due to the larger functional reserve of the midbrain dopamine and integrated basal ganglia motor systems to control movement...
January 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884462/dual-neural-network-model-for-the-evolution-of-speech-and-language
#20
REVIEW
Steffen R Hage, Andreas Nieder
Explaining the evolution of speech and language poses one of the biggest challenges in biology. We propose a dual network model that posits a volitional articulatory motor network (VAMN) originating in the prefrontal cortex (PFC; including Broca's area) that cognitively controls vocal output of a phylogenetically conserved primary vocal motor network (PVMN) situated in subcortical structures. By comparing the connections between these two systems in human and nonhuman primate brains, we identify crucial biological preadaptations in monkeys for the emergence of a language system in humans...
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
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