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Trends in Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894611/the-threshold-theory-for-parkinson-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Simone Engelender, Ole Isacson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is recognized by the accumulation of α-synuclein within neurons. In contrast to the current ascending theory where α-synuclein would propagate from neuron to neuron, we now propose the threshold theory for PD based on evidence of parallel degeneration of both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) in PD. The functional threshold is lower for the emergence of early symptoms before the classical motor symptoms of PD. This is due to the larger functional reserve of the midbrain dopamine and integrated basal ganglia motor systems to control movement...
November 25, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771145/the-cerebellar-mossy-fiber-synapse-as-a-model-for-high-frequency-transmission-in-the-mammalian-cns
#2
Igor Delvendahl, Stefan Hallermann
The speed of neuronal information processing depends on neuronal firing frequency. Here, we describe the evolutionary advantages and ubiquitous occurrence of high-frequency firing within the mammalian nervous system in general. The highest firing frequencies so far have been observed at the cerebellar mossy fiber to granule cell synapse. The mechanisms enabling high-frequency transmission at this synapse are reviewed and compared with other synapses. Finally, information coding of high-frequency signals at the mossy fiber synapse is discussed...
October 19, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751531/the-anatomy-of-non-conscious-recognition-memory
#3
Clive R Rosenthal, David Soto
Cortical regions as early as primary visual cortex have been implicated in recognition memory. Here, we outline the challenges that this presents for neurobiological accounts of recognition memory. We conclude that understanding the role of early visual cortex (EVC) in this process will require the use of protocols that mask stimuli from visual awareness.
October 14, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720226/circadian-time-sickness-time-of-day-cue-conflicts-directly-affect-health
#4
Raymond van Ee, Sander Van de Cruys, Luc J M Schlangen, Björn N S Vlaskamp
A daily rhythm that is not in synchrony with the environmental light-dark cycle (as in jetlag and shift work) is known to affect mood and health through an as yet unresolved neural mechanism. Here, we combine Bayesian probabilistic 'cue-conflict' theory with known physiology of the biological clock of the brain, entailing the insight that, for a functional pacemaker, it is sufficient to have two interacting units (reflecting environmental and internal time-of-day cues), without the need for an extra homuncular directing unit...
October 5, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697295/information-based-approaches-of-noninvasive-transcranial-brain-stimulation
#5
Vincenzo Romei, Gregor Thut, Juha Silvanto
Progress in cognitive neuroscience relies on methodological developments to increase the specificity of knowledge obtained regarding brain function. For example, in functional neuroimaging the current trend is to study the type of information carried by brain regions rather than simply compare activation levels induced by task manipulations. In this context noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) in the study of cognitive functions may appear coarse and old fashioned in its conventional uses. However, in their multitude of parameters, and by coupling them with behavioral manipulations, NTBS protocols can reach the specificity of imaging techniques...
September 30, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884462/dual-neural-network-model-for-the-evolution-of-speech-and-language
#6
REVIEW
Steffen R Hage, Andreas Nieder
Explaining the evolution of speech and language poses one of the biggest challenges in biology. We propose a dual network model that posits a volitional articulatory motor network (VAMN) originating in the prefrontal cortex (PFC; including Broca's area) that cognitively controls vocal output of a phylogenetically conserved primary vocal motor network (PVMN) situated in subcortical structures. By comparing the connections between these two systems in human and nonhuman primate brains, we identify crucial biological preadaptations in monkeys for the emergence of a language system in humans...
November 21, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871729/an-integrative-tinnitus-model-based-on-sensory-precision
#7
REVIEW
William Sedley, Karl J Friston, Phillip E Gander, Sukhbinder Kumar, Timothy D Griffiths
Tinnitus is a common disorder that often complicates hearing loss. Its mechanisms are incompletely understood. Current theories proposing pathophysiology from the ear to the cortex cannot individually - or collectively - explain the range of experimental evidence available. We propose a new framework, based on predictive coding, in which spontaneous activity in the subcortical auditory pathway constitutes a 'tinnitus precursor' which is normally ignored as imprecise evidence against the prevailing percept of 'silence'...
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871728/the-chrna5-a3-b4-gene-cluster-and-smoking-from-discovery-to-therapeutics
#8
REVIEW
Glenda Lassi, Amy E Taylor, Nicholas J Timpson, Paul J Kenny, Robert J Mather, Tim Eisen, Marcus R Munafò
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified associations between the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster and smoking heaviness and nicotine dependence. Studies in rodents have described the anatomical localisation and function of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) formed by the subunits encoded by this gene cluster. Further investigations that complemented these studies highlighted the variability of individuals' smoking behaviours and their ability to adjust nicotine intake. GWASs of smoking-related health outcomes have also identified this signal in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster...
November 18, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865563/sonic-hedgehog-signaling-and-hippocampal-neuroplasticity
#9
REVIEW
Pamela J Yao, Ronald S Petralia, Mark P Mattson
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted protein that controls the patterning of neural progenitor cells, and their neuronal and glial progeny, during development. Emerging findings suggest that Shh also has important roles in the formation and plasticity of neuronal circuits in the hippocampus, a brain region of fundamental importance in learning and memory. Shh mediates activity-dependent and injury-induced hippocampal neurogenesis. Activation of Shh receptors in the dendrites of hippocampal neurons engages a trans-neuronal signaling pathway that accelerates axon outgrowth and enhances glutamate release from presynaptic terminals...
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842920/nitroxidative-signaling-mechanisms-in-pathological-pain
#10
REVIEW
Peter M Grace, Andrew D Gaudet, Vasiliki Staikopoulos, Steven F Maier, Mark R Hutchinson, Daniela Salvemini, Linda R Watkins
Tissue injury can initiate bidirectional signaling between neurons, glia, and immune cells that creates and amplifies pain. While the ability for neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and cytokines to initiate and maintain pain has been extensively studied, recent work has identified a key role for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS; nitroxidative species), including superoxide, peroxynitrite, and hydrogen peroxide. In this review we describe how nitroxidative species are generated after tissue injury and the mechanisms by which they enhance neuroexcitability in pain pathways...
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832915/can-stopping-nerves-stop-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Jami L Saloman, Kathryn M Albers, Andrew D Rhim, Brian M Davis
The nervous system is viewed as a tissue affected by cancer and as a conduit for the transmission of cancer pain and perineural invasion. Here, we review recent studies that indicate a more direct role. Several studies have shown that reducing stress or suppressing sympathetic drive correlates with improved outcomes and prolonged survival. Recent studies using animal models of visceral and somatic cancer further support a role for the nervous system in cancer progression. Specifically, nerve ablation had a profound impact on disease progression, including delayed development of precancerous lesions, and decreased tumor growth and metastasis...
November 7, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832914/l-proline-gaba-synthesis-and-gamma-oscillations-in-schizophrenia
#12
David W Volk, Guillermo Gonzalez-Burgos, David A Lewis
Altered inhibition from parvalbumin-containing GABA neurons is thought to contribute to impaired gamma frequency oscillations and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Crabtree and colleagues report that proline dehydrogenase deficits produce excessive cytosolic levels of the GABA-mimetic l-proline which impairs GABA synthesis and gamma oscillations in a manner that mimics schizophrenia.
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793433/kinetic-profile-of-neuropeptide-receptor-interactions
#13
REVIEW
Indira Nederpelt, Julia Bunnik, Adriaan P IJzerman, Laura H Heitman
Currently, drug discovery focusses only on quantifying pharmacological parameters, sometimes including binding kinetics, of drug candidates. For a complete understanding of a drug's desired binding kinetics, the kinetics of both the target and its endogenous ligands should be considered. This is because the release and binding kinetics of endogenous ligands in addition to receptor internalization rates are significant contributors to drug-target interactions. Here, we discuss the kinetic profile of three neuropeptides and their receptors; gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), neuropeptide Y receptors, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1R)...
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793434/psychobiotics-and-the-manipulation-of-bacteria-gut-brain-signals
#14
REVIEW
Amar Sarkar, Soili M Lehto, Siobhán Harty, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Philip W J Burnet
Psychobiotics were previously defined as live bacteria (probiotics) which, when ingested, confer mental health benefits through interactions with commensal gut bacteria. We expand this definition to encompass prebiotics, which enhance the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. We review probiotic and prebiotic effects on emotional, cognitive, systemic, and neural variables relevant to health and disease. We discuss gut-brain signalling mechanisms enabling psychobiotic effects, such as metabolite production. Overall, knowledge of how the microbiome responds to exogenous influence remains limited...
November 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776749/%C3%AE-synuclein-based-animal-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-challenges-and-opportunities-in-a-new-era
#15
REVIEW
Naomi P Visanji, Jonathan M Brotchie, Lorraine V Kalia, James B Koprich, Anurag Tandon, Joel C Watts, Anthony E Lang
In recent years, a new generation of animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) based on ectopic expression, overexpression, or intracerebral injection of the protein α-synuclein have emerged. Critically, these models develop inclusions of aggregated α-synuclein and/or α-synuclein-mediated neuronal loss replicating the defining pathological hallmarks of PD and driving significant advances in the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underpinning PD. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of this new generation of animal models of PD, ranging from invertebrate to rodent to nonhuman primate...
November 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742076/the-rise-and-fall-of-the-d-serine-mediated-gliotransmission-hypothesis
#16
REVIEW
Herman Wolosker, Darrick T Balu, Joseph T Coyle
d-Serine modulates N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and regulates synaptic plasticity, neurodevelopment, and learning and memory. However, the primary site of d-serine synthesis and release remains controversial, with some arguing that it is a gliotransmitter and others defining it as a neuronal cotransmitter. Results from several laboratories using different strategies now show that the biosynthetic enzyme of d-serine, serine racemase (SR), is expressed almost entirely by neurons, with few astrocytes appearing to contain d-serine...
November 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647325/-emotional-intelligence-lessons-from-lesions
#17
J Hogeveen, C Salvi, J Grafman
'Emotional intelligence' (EI) is one of the most highly used psychological terms in popular nomenclature, yet its construct, divergent, and predictive validities are contentiously debated. Despite this debate, the EI construct is composed of a set of emotional abilities - recognizing emotional states in the self and others, using emotions to guide thought and behavior, understanding how emotions shape behavior, and emotion regulation - that undoubtedly influence important social and personal outcomes. In this review, evidence from human lesion studies is reviewed in order to provide insight into the necessary brain regions for each of these core emotional abilities...
October 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637566/issues-in-pain-prediction-beyond-pain-and-gain
#18
Li Hu, Gian Domenico Iannetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637565/homeostatic-plasticity-of-subcellular-neuronal-structures-from-inputs-to-outputs
#19
Winnie Wefelmeyer, Christopher J Puhl, Juan Burrone
Neurons in the brain are highly plastic, allowing an organism to learn and adapt to its environment. However, this ongoing plasticity is also inherently unstable, potentially leading to aberrant levels of circuit activity. Homeostatic forms of plasticity are thought to provide a means of controlling neuronal activity by avoiding extremes and allowing network stability. Recent work has shown that many of these homeostatic modifications change the structure of subcellular neuronal compartments, ranging from changes to synaptic inputs at both excitatory and inhibitory compartments to modulation of neuronal output through changes at the axon initial segment (AIS) and presynaptic terminals...
October 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624551/prrt2-from-paroxysmal-disorders-to-regulation-of-synaptic-function
#20
Flavia Valtorta, Fabio Benfenati, Federico Zara, Jacopo Meldolesi
In the past few years, proline-rich transmembrane protein (PRRT)2 has been identified as the causative gene for several paroxysmal neurological disorders. Recently, an important role of PRRT2 in synapse development and function has emerged. Knock down of the protein strongly impairs the formation of synaptic contacts and neurotransmitter release. At the nerve terminal, PRRT2 endows synaptic vesicle exocytosis with Ca(2+) sensitivity by interacting with proteins of the fusion complex and with the Ca(2+) sensors synaptotagmins (Syts)...
October 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
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