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Trends in Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104285/resisting-the-urge-to-act-dreadds-modifying-habits
#1
Mark A G Eldridge, Barry J Richmond
Recently, Meyer and Bucci used chemogenetic technology - artificial excitatory and inhibitory receptors - to modulate neuronal activity in two connected brain regions in opposite directions simultaneously. This innovative manipulation revealed that the two regions studied, orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, are not sequentially dependent during contextual decision-making.
January 16, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081942/pten-local-and-global-modulation-of-neuronal-function-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Shira Knafo, José A Esteban
Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) was recently revealed to be a synaptic player during plasticity events in addition to its well-established role as a general controlling factor in cell proliferation and neuronal growth during development. Alterations of these direct actions of PTEN at synapses may lead to synaptic dysfunction with behavioral and cognitive consequences. A recent paradigmatic example of this situation, Alzheimer's disease (AD), is associated with excessive recruitment of PTEN into synapses leading to pathological synaptic depression...
January 9, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063612/conserved-sequence-processing-in-primate-frontal-cortex
#3
REVIEW
Benjamin Wilson, William D Marslen-Wilson, Christopher I Petkov
An important aspect of animal perception and cognition is learning to recognize relationships between environmental events that predict others in time, a form of relational knowledge that can be assessed using sequence-learning paradigms. Humans are exquisitely sensitive to sequencing relationships, and their combinatorial capacities, most saliently in the domain of language, are unparalleled. Recent comparative research in human and nonhuman primates has obtained behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for evolutionarily conserved substrates involved in sequence processing...
January 4, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041634/weighing-the-evidence-in-peters-rule-does-neuronal-morphology-predict-connectivity
#4
REVIEW
Christopher L Rees, Keivan Moradi, Giorgio A Ascoli
Although the importance of network connectivity is increasingly recognized, identifying synapses remains challenging relative to the routine characterization of neuronal morphology. Thus, researchers frequently employ axon-dendrite colocations as proxies of potential connections. This putative equivalence, commonly referred to as Peters' rule, has been recently studied at multiple levels and scales, fueling passionate debates regarding its validity. Our critical literature review identifies three conceptually distinct but often confused applications: inferring neuron type circuitry, predicting synaptic contacts among individual cells, and estimating synapse numbers within neuron pairs...
December 29, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041633/back-to-the-basics-cnidarians-start-to-fire
#5
REVIEW
Thomas C G Bosch, Alexander Klimovich, Tomislav Domazet-Lošo, Stefan Gründer, Thomas W Holstein, Gáspár Jékely, David J Miller, Andrea P Murillo-Rincon, Fabian Rentzsch, Gemma S Richards, Katja Schröder, Ulrich Technau, Rafael Yuste
The nervous systems of cnidarians, pre-bilaterian animals that diverged close to the base of the metazoan radiation, are structurally simple and thus have great potential to reveal fundamental principles of neural circuits. Unfortunately, cnidarians have thus far been relatively intractable to electrophysiological and genetic techniques and consequently have been largely passed over by neurobiologists. However, recent advances in molecular and imaging methods are fueling a renaissance of interest in and research into cnidarians nervous systems...
December 29, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017499/neuronal-adaptation-tired-neurons-or-wired-networks
#6
J Patrick Mayo, Matthew A Smith
Neuronal adaptation - time-dependent modulation of sensory responses following sequential stimuli - is thought to be a consequence of synaptic plasticity. But recent, empirically-grounded, modeling by Quiroga and colleagues demonstrates that the adaptation of visual cortical responses can be described by recurrent network connections with fixed synaptic weights.
December 22, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012708/secondary-motor-cortex-where-sensory-meets-motor-in-the-rodent-frontal-cortex
#7
REVIEW
Florent Barthas, Alex C Kwan
In rodents, the medial aspect of the secondary motor cortex (M2) is known by other names, including medial agranular cortex (AGm), medial precentral cortex (PrCm), and frontal orienting field (FOF). As a subdivision of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), M2 can be defined by a distinct set of afferent and efferent connections, microstimulation responses, and lesion outcomes. However, the behavioral role of M2 remains mysterious. Here, we focus on evidence from rodent studies, highlighting recent findings of early and context-dependent choice-related activity in M2 during voluntary behavior...
December 21, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038829/tooth-matrix-biomarkers-to-reconstruct-critical-periods-of-brain-plasticity
#8
Hirofumi Morishita, Manish Arora
Developmental brain plasticity involves complex, time-dependent dynamic molecular interactions that cannot be observed directly in humans. We propose that the shared evolutionary homology of teeth and the neurosensory system, and the archival nature of dentine microstructure, allows the development of 'biologic hard drives' that can characterize perinatal temporal dynamics in neuroplasticity.
January 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986294/monitoring-demands-for-executive-control-shared-functions-between-human-and-nonhuman-primates
#9
REVIEW
Farshad A Mansouri, Tobias Egner, Mark J Buckley
Fifteen years ago, an influential model proposed that the human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) detects conflict and induces adaptive control of behavior. Over the years support for this model has been mixed, in particular due to divergent findings in human versus nonhuman primates. We here review recent findings that suggest greater commonalities across species. These include equivalent behavioral consequences of conflict and similar neuronal signals in the dACC, but also a common failure of dACC lesions to reliably abolish conflict-driven behavior...
January 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986293/neurolsd1-splicing-generated-epigenetic-enhancer-of-neuroplasticity
#10
REVIEW
Francesco Rusconi, Barbara Grillo, Emanuela Toffolo, Andrea Mattevi, Elena Battaglioli
The acquisition and maintenance of the specific neuronal functions underlying learning, memory, and emotion require transduction of environmental stimuli into remodeling of neuronal circuitry. This process occurs via induction of plasticity-related transcriptional programs. The epigenetic enzyme lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1), also known as lysine demethylase 1A (KDM1A), and its neurospecific splicing variant neuroLSD1 have been implicated in this process through an antagonistic mechanism. Specifically, LSD1/neuroLSD1 are involved in the negative and positive regulation of activity-evoked transcription of immediate early genes (IEGs) impacting memory formation and emotional behavior...
January 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939821/multimodal-imaging-of-neurometabolic-pathology-due-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
REVIEW
John Darrell Van Horn, Avnish Bhattrai, Andrei Irimia
The impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) involves a combination of complex biochemical processes beginning with the initial insult and lasting for days, months and even years post-trauma. These changes range from neuronal integrity losses to neurotransmitter imbalance and metabolite dysregulation, leading to the release of pro- or anti-apoptotic factors which mediate cell survival or death. Such dynamic processes affecting the brain's neurochemistry can be monitored using a variety of neuroimaging techniques, whose combined use can be particularly useful for understanding patient-specific clinical trajectories...
January 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894611/the-threshold-theory-for-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Simone Engelender, Ole Isacson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is recognized by the accumulation of α-synuclein within neurons. In contrast to the current ascending theory where α-synuclein would propagate from neuron to neuron, we now propose the threshold theory for PD based on evidence of parallel degeneration of both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) in PD. The functional threshold is lower for the emergence of early symptoms before the classical motor symptoms of PD. This is due to the larger functional reserve of the midbrain dopamine and integrated basal ganglia motor systems to control movement...
January 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884462/dual-neural-network-model-for-the-evolution-of-speech-and-language
#13
REVIEW
Steffen R Hage, Andreas Nieder
Explaining the evolution of speech and language poses one of the biggest challenges in biology. We propose a dual network model that posits a volitional articulatory motor network (VAMN) originating in the prefrontal cortex (PFC; including Broca's area) that cognitively controls vocal output of a phylogenetically conserved primary vocal motor network (PVMN) situated in subcortical structures. By comparing the connections between these two systems in human and nonhuman primate brains, we identify crucial biological preadaptations in monkeys for the emergence of a language system in humans...
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871729/an-integrative-tinnitus-model-based-on-sensory-precision
#14
REVIEW
William Sedley, Karl J Friston, Phillip E Gander, Sukhbinder Kumar, Timothy D Griffiths
Tinnitus is a common disorder that often complicates hearing loss. Its mechanisms are incompletely understood. Current theories proposing pathophysiology from the ear to the cortex cannot individually - or collectively - explain the range of experimental evidence available. We propose a new framework, based on predictive coding, in which spontaneous activity in the subcortical auditory pathway constitutes a 'tinnitus precursor' which is normally ignored as imprecise evidence against the prevailing percept of 'silence'...
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871728/the-chrna5-a3-b4-gene-cluster-and-smoking-from-discovery-to-therapeutics
#15
REVIEW
Glenda Lassi, Amy E Taylor, Nicholas J Timpson, Paul J Kenny, Robert J Mather, Tim Eisen, Marcus R Munafò
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified associations between the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster and smoking heaviness and nicotine dependence. Studies in rodents have described the anatomical localisation and function of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) formed by the subunits encoded by this gene cluster. Further investigations that complemented these studies highlighted the variability of individuals' smoking behaviours and their ability to adjust nicotine intake. GWASs of smoking-related health outcomes have also identified this signal in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster...
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865563/sonic-hedgehog-signaling-and-hippocampal-neuroplasticity
#16
REVIEW
Pamela J Yao, Ronald S Petralia, Mark P Mattson
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted protein that controls the patterning of neural progenitor cells, and their neuronal and glial progeny, during development. Emerging findings suggest that Shh also has important roles in the formation and plasticity of neuronal circuits in the hippocampus, a brain region of fundamental importance in learning and memory. Shh mediates activity-dependent and injury-induced hippocampal neurogenesis. Activation of Shh receptors in the dendrites of hippocampal neurons engages a trans-neuronal signaling pathway that accelerates axon outgrowth and enhances glutamate release from presynaptic terminals...
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842920/nitroxidative-signaling-mechanisms-in-pathological-pain
#17
REVIEW
Peter M Grace, Andrew D Gaudet, Vasiliki Staikopoulos, Steven F Maier, Mark R Hutchinson, Daniela Salvemini, Linda R Watkins
Tissue injury can initiate bidirectional signaling between neurons, glia, and immune cells that creates and amplifies pain. While the ability for neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and cytokines to initiate and maintain pain has been extensively studied, recent work has identified a key role for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS; nitroxidative species), including superoxide, peroxynitrite, and hydrogen peroxide. In this review we describe how nitroxidative species are generated after tissue injury and the mechanisms by which they enhance neuroexcitability in pain pathways...
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832915/can-stopping-nerves-stop-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Jami L Saloman, Kathryn M Albers, Andrew D Rhim, Brian M Davis
The nervous system is viewed as a tissue affected by cancer and as a conduit for the transmission of cancer pain and perineural invasion. Here, we review recent studies that indicate a more direct role. Several studies have shown that reducing stress or suppressing sympathetic drive correlates with improved outcomes and prolonged survival. Recent studies using animal models of visceral and somatic cancer further support a role for the nervous system in cancer progression. Specifically, nerve ablation had a profound impact on disease progression, including delayed development of precancerous lesions, and decreased tumor growth and metastasis...
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832914/l-proline-gaba-synthesis-and-gamma-oscillations-in-schizophrenia
#19
David W Volk, Guillermo Gonzalez-Burgos, David A Lewis
Altered inhibition from parvalbumin-containing GABA neurons is thought to contribute to impaired gamma frequency oscillations and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Crabtree and colleagues report that proline dehydrogenase deficits produce excessive cytosolic levels of the GABA-mimetic l-proline which impairs GABA synthesis and gamma oscillations in a manner that mimics schizophrenia.
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793433/kinetic-profile-of-neuropeptide-receptor-interactions
#20
REVIEW
Indira Nederpelt, Julia Bunnik, Adriaan P IJzerman, Laura H Heitman
Currently, drug discovery focusses only on quantifying pharmacological parameters, sometimes including binding kinetics, of drug candidates. For a complete understanding of a drug's desired binding kinetics, the kinetics of both the target and its endogenous ligands should be considered. This is because the release and binding kinetics of endogenous ligands in addition to receptor internalization rates are significant contributors to drug-target interactions. Here, we discuss the kinetic profile of three neuropeptides and their receptors; gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), neuropeptide Y receptors, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1R)...
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
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