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Current Microbiology

Arti Sharma, Sarkaraisamy Ponmariappan, Rani Sarita, Syed Imtiaz Alam, Dev Vrat Kamboj, Sangeeta Shukla
Diseases triggered by microorganisms can be controlled by vaccines, which need neutralizing antigens. Hence, it is very crucial to identify extremely efficient immunogens for immune prevention. Botulism, a fatal neuroparalytic disease, is caused by botulinum neurotoxins produced by the anaerobic, Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria, Clostridium botulinum. Food-borne botulism and iatrogenic botulism are caused by botulinum toxin. Wound botulism, infant botulism, and adult intestinal botulism are caused by primarily C...
January 13, 2018: Current Microbiology
Brettni Quinn, German M Traglia, Meaghan Nguyen, Jasmine Martinez, Christine Liu, Jennifer S Fernandez, Maria Soledad Ramirez
Our previous data show that serum albumin can trigger natural transformation in Acinetobacter baumannii. However, extracellular matrix/basal membrane components, norepinephrine, and mucin did not have a significant effect on this process. Therefore, the effect of human products appears to be albumin specific, as both BSA and HSA have been shown to increase of natural transformation.
January 13, 2018: Current Microbiology
Shaoxing Chen, Siqi Sun, Yao Xu, Jinting Lv, Linan Chen, Liu Liu
A non-motile, pleomorphic rod-shaped or oval, red-pigmented (nearly scarlet), extremely halophilic archaeon, strain Y78T, was isolated from a salt deposit of Yunnan salt mine, China. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that it was phylogenetically related to species of the genus Halorubrum, with a close relationship to Halorubrum rutilum YJ-18-S1T (98.6%), Halorubrum yunnanense Q85T (98.3%), and Halorubrum lipolyticum 9-3T (98.1%). The temperature, NaCl, and pH ranges for growth were 25-50 °C, 12-30% (w/v), and 6...
January 10, 2018: Current Microbiology
Anixa Muiños-Bühl, Oscar González-Recio, María Muñoz, Cristina Óvilo, Juan García-Casco, Ana I Fernández
There is a growing interest in understanding the role of the gut microbiome on productive and meat quality-related traits in livestock species in order to develop new useful tools for improving pig production systems and industry. Faecal samples are analysed as a proxy of gut microbiota and here the selection of suitable protocols for faecal sampling and DNA isolation is a critical first step in order to obtain reliable results, even more to compare results obtained from different studies. The aim of the current study was to establish in a cost-effective way, using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis technique, a protocol for porcine faecal sampling and storage at farm and slaughterhouse and to determine the most efficient microbiota DNA isolation kit among those most widely used...
January 9, 2018: Current Microbiology
Yibao Chen, Erchao Sun, Jiaoyang Song, Lan Yang, Bin Wu
A novel virulent bacteriophage, vB_PmuP_PHB02 (phage PHB02), infecting Pasteurella multocida capsular type A strains, was isolated from wastewater from a swine farm in China. Phage PHB02 has a linear double-stranded DNA genome consisting of 38,670 base pairs (bp), with a G+C content of 40.8% and a 127-bp terminal redundancy. Forty-eight putative open reading frames were identified, and no transfer RNA-encoding genes were detected. The morphology and genomic structure of phage PHB02 resemble those of T7-like phages belonging to the family Podoviridae, of the order Caudovirales...
January 6, 2018: Current Microbiology
Amanda da Silva Ribeiro, Julio Cesar Polonio, Alessandra Tenório Costa, Caroline Menicoze Dos Santos, Sandro Augusto Rhoden, João Lúcio Azevedo, João Alencar Pamphile
Endophytes are fungi and bacteria that inhabit plant tissues without causing disease. Endophytes have characteristics that are important for the health of the plant and have been isolated from several plants of economic and medicinal interest but rarely from ornamental plants. The current study isolates and identifies endophytic fungi from the leaves of Pachystachys lutea and evaluates the antagonistic activity of these endophytes as well as cellulase production by the endophytes. Fungi were isolated by fragmentation from surface-disinfected leaves and were identified by the sequencing of the ITS gene and the genes coding for EF 1-α and β-tubulin followed by multilocus sequence analysis...
January 3, 2018: Current Microbiology
A Pietryczuk, A Cudowski, T Hauschild, M Świsłocka, A Więcko, M Karpowicz
The main objective of this work was to determine the abundance and species diversity of fungi in the waters of selected rivers of Central Europe, NE Poland (Augustów Lakeland), differing in size, physical and chemical properties, and streamflow rate. The minimum abundance of fungi in the analysed rivers was recorded for a river with low concentration of organic matter (8200 CFU/mL, Czarna Hańcza River), and maximum for a strongly anthropogenically polluted river (24,800 CFU/mL, Kamienny Bród River). A total of 49 fungal species were identified based on PCR ITS-RFLP and DNA sequencing methods...
December 30, 2017: Current Microbiology
Muhammad Zubair Siddiqi, Soon Youl Lee, Kang Duk Choi, Wan-Taek Im
A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, and aerobic bacterium (Gsoil 137T) was isolated from soil of a ginseng field of Pocheon province in South Korea and subjected to a polyphasic approach in order to determine its taxonomic position. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain Gsoil 137T was shown to belong to the family Nocardioidaceae and was closely related to Aeromicrobium ginsengisoli Gsoil 098T (96.7%), Aeromicrobium panaciterrae (96.7%), and Aeromicrobium halocynthiae JCM 15749T (96...
December 30, 2017: Current Microbiology
Tuan Son Le, Paul C Southgate, Wayne O'Connor, Sue Poole, D Ipek Kurtbӧke
Bacterial contamination on seafood resulting from unhygienic food-handling practices causes foodborne diseases and significant revenue losses. Moreover, control measures are complicated by a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Alternative measures such as the phage therapy, therefore, is considered as an environmental and consumer-friendly biological control strategy for controlling such bacterial contamination. In this study, we determined the effectiveness of a bacteriophage cocktail in controlling E...
December 27, 2017: Current Microbiology
T A V Hoang, T N H Nguyen, S Ueda, Q P Le, T T N Tran, T N D Nguyen, T V K Dao, M T Tran, T T T Le, T L Le, T Nakayama, I Hirai, T H Do, Q M Vien, Y Yamamoto
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The legends of Tables 2 and 3, Fig. 1 are incorrect. The corrected legends are given below.
December 26, 2017: Current Microbiology
Yujia Jiang, Jie Liu, Weiliang Dong, Wenming Zhang, Yan Fang, Jiangfeng Ma, Min Jiang, Fengxue Xin
A novel thermophilic and butanogenic Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum M5 was successfully isolated and characterized, which could produce butanol from hemicellulose via a unique ethanol-butanol (EB) pathway through consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). This represents the first wild-type bacterium which could produce butanol from hemicellulose via CBP under thermophilic conditions. The assembled draft genome of strain M5 is 2.64 Mp, which contains 2638 genes and 2465 protein-coding sequences with 33...
December 26, 2017: Current Microbiology
Nasrin Akhtar, Kalsoom Akhtar, Muhammad A Ghauri
Microorganisms can metabolize or transform a range of known chemical compounds present in fossil fuels by naturally having highly specific metabolic activities. In this context, the microbial desulfurization of fuels is an attractive and alternative process to the conventional hydrodesulfurization (HDS) process, since the thiophenic sulfur containing compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and benzothiophene (BT) cannot be removed by HDS. A DBT desulfurizing mesophilic bacterium, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence as Gordonia sp...
December 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
Xibing Xu, Ke Liang, Yulong Niu, Yan Shen, Xuedong Wan, Haiyan Li, Yi Yang
In Escherichia coli, the DnaK/DnaJ chaperone can control the stability and activity of σ32, which is the key factor in heat shock response. Heterologous expression of eukaryotic molecular chaperones protects E. coli from heat stress. Here, we show that BAH1, an E3 ligase from plant that has a similar zinc finger domain to DnaJ, can perform block the effect of DnaK on σ32 in Escherichia coli. By constructing a chimeric DnaJ protein, with the J-domain of DnaJ fused to BAH1, we found BAH1 could partially compensate for the DnaJ' zinc finger domain in vivo, and that it was dependent on the zinc finger domain of BAH1...
December 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
Magal Saphier, Eldad Silberstein, Yoram Shotland, Stanislav Popov, Oshra Saphier
This study opens the investigation series focused on antimicrobial effects of copper (Cu) compared to silver (Ag), which is currently used to treat wound infection in burn victims as well as in chronic wounds. Noticeably, in its ionized state, Cu is more commonly present as Cu2+ rather than as Cu+, while electronic configuration similarity of Cu+ and Ag+ indicates that actually it may be the active state. To test this hypothesis, effect of Cu+ and Cu2+, using Ag+ ions and metallic copper as controls on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, was examined under anaerobic conditions...
December 19, 2017: Current Microbiology
Michal Híreš, Nora Rapavá, Martin Šimkovič, Ľudovít Varečka, Dušan Berkeš, Svetlana Kryštofová
Pancreatic lipase inhibitors, such as tetrahydrolipstatin (orlistat), are used in anti-obesity treatments. Orlistat is the only anti-obesity drug approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). The drug is synthesized by saturation of lipstatin, a β-lactone compound, isolated from Streptomyces toxytricini and S. virginiae. To identify producers of novel pancreatic lipase inhibitors or microbial strains with improved lipstatin production and higher chemical purity remains still a priority. In this study, a high-throughput screening method to identify Streptomyces strains producing potent pancreatic lipase inhibitors was established...
December 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
Natanong Yodsing, Ratsami Lekphrom, Watchara Sangsopha, Tadanori Aimi, Sophon Boonlue
The bioactive compounds of the fungus Aspergillus aculeatus strain KKU-CT2, have been studied. The crude extracts from this fungus showed good antimicrobial activity against human pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeast-like fungi. Its chemical components were isolated and purified by chromatographic methods. The structures of the secondary metabolites were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, 1H, and 13C NMR). They were identified as ergosterol peroxide (1), secalonic acid D (2), secalonic acid F (3), variecolin (4), variecolactone (5), and ergosterol (6)...
December 16, 2017: Current Microbiology
Silvia Di Lodovico, Angela Del Vecchio, Valentina Cataldi, Emanuela Di Campli, Soraya Di Bartolomeo, Luigina Cellini, Mara Di Giulio
In this study, the microbial contamination of smartphones from Italian University students was analyzed. A total of 100 smartphones classified as low, medium, and high emission were examined. Bacteria were isolated on elective and selective media and identified by biochemical tests. The mean values of cfu/cm2 were 0.79 ± 0.01; in particular, a mean of 1.21 ± 0.12, 0.77 ± 0.1 and 0.40 ± 0.10 cfu/cm2 was present on smartphones at low, medium, and high emission, respectively. The vast majority of identified microorganisms came from human skin, mainly Staphylococci, together with Gram-negative and positive bacilli and yeasts...
December 15, 2017: Current Microbiology
Sutapa Roy, Etta Nuckles, Douglas D Archbold
Colletotrichum acutatum is responsible for anthracnose fruit rot, one of the most devastating diseases in strawberry. Phenolic compounds have been described as contributors to anthracnose resistance in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, Duch.). Six isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum and four isolates of three other Colletotrichum species, C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. graminicola, associated with disease symptoms were investigated in this study. The potential inhibitory effect of phenolic acids (gallic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, salicylic acid), flavonoids (catechin, quercetin, naringenin), and ellagic acid, which are naturally found in strawberry, were screened against two different spore suspension concentrations of the Colletotrichum isolates at 5, 10, 50 mM in vitro...
December 15, 2017: Current Microbiology
Xin-Guo Zhang, Jin-Wen Liu, Peng Tang, Zi-Yu Liu, Guang-Jun Guo, Qiao-Yun Sun, Jian-Jun Yin
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme widely distributed from bacteria to humans. ADA is known as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders and cancer. Endophytes are endosymbionts, often bacteria or fungi, which live within plant tissues and internal organs or intercellular space. Endophytes have a broad variety of bioactive metabolites that are used for the identification of novel natural compounds. Here, 54 morphologically distinct endophyte strains were isolated from six plants such as Peganum harmala Linn...
December 14, 2017: Current Microbiology
Rui Han, Yongze Yuan, Qianwen Cao, Quanhui Li, Laisheng Chen, Derui Zhu, Deli Liu
To investigate contribution of environmental factor(s) to microbial community structure(s) involved in rural household biogas fermentation at Qinghai Plateau, we collected slurry samples from 15 digesters, with low-temperature working conditions (11.1-15.7 °C) and evenly distributed at three counties (Datong, Huangyuan, and Ledu) with cold plateau climate, to perform polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and further sequencing. The bacterial communities in the total 15 digesters were classified into 38 genera with Mangroviflexus (12...
December 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
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