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Current Microbiology

Nina R Ashfield-Crook, Zachary Woodward, Martin Soust, D İpek Kurtböke
Streptophages are currently being investigated to control potato common scab, however, since a majority of streptophages are reported to be polyvalent, their potential to infect beneficial soil streptomycetes during the application process may have unintended consequences. To test this hypothesis, two phytopathogenic fungi, namely Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani, were tested for their detrimental effect on the test crop wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Gutha). F. solani caused a significant root weight reduction (34%) in the wheat plant and therefore was tested further in the pot trials with actinomycetes present...
September 21, 2018: Current Microbiology
Jing You, Shan Hong, Jiliang Yu, Lisha Duan, Bo Liu, Bozhong Mu, Cheng Zhou, Yanfen Xue
A Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, aerobic bacterium, designated strain B51-30T , was isolated from oil-well production liquid in Baolige oilfield, China. The strain was able to grow at pH 6-10 (optimum at pH 7.5), in 0-6% (w/v) NaCl (optimum at 1%, w/v) at 15-55 °C (optimum at 45 °C). Cells of the isolate were non-motile and non-spore-forming rods. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0 , iso-C11:0 , iso-C11:0 3OH, iso-C17:1 ω9c, and iso-C17:0 . Ubiquinone 8 was the predominant respiratory quinone...
September 20, 2018: Current Microbiology
Min Zhu, Min Wang, Yong Jiang, Siyuan You, Guihua Zhao, Yundan Liu, Qingwei Yang, Qian Liu, Zhaoyang Liu, Zheng Gong, Hongbing Shao
We used the double-agar layer method to isolate a novel Marinobacter marina bacteriophage, B23, from the surface water sample of the Bohai sea of China. There is some work to better understand the phage. The result of transmission electron microscopy revealed that B23 belongs to the family Siphoviridae with a head of 80 nm in diameter and a tail of 230 nm. Microbiological characterization evidenced that phage B23 is stable at the temperatures from - 25 to 60 °C, and showed vigorous vitality at pH between 4...
September 14, 2018: Current Microbiology
Edimar A Moreira, Thabata M Alvarez, Gabriela F Persinoti, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo Paixão, Letícia R Menezes, João P Franco Cairo, Fabio Marcio Squina, Ana M Costa-Leonardo, Tiago Carrijo, Alberto Arab
The evolution of the symbiotic association with microbes allowed termites to decompose ingested lignocellulose from plant-derived substrates, including herbivore dung and soil humus. Representatives of the Syntermitinae (Termitidae) range in their feeding habits from wood and litter-feeding to humus-feeding species. However, only limited information is available about their feeding ecology and associated microbial communities. Here we conducted a study of the microbial communities associated to the termite Procornitermes araujoi using Illumina sequencing of the 16S and ITS rRNA genes...
September 12, 2018: Current Microbiology
Zhiying Li, Xin Liu, Ruirui Liu, Lulu Li, Lin Wang, Weiwei Wang
The microbial diversity and the monthly fluctuations in Medicago sativa field soil in response to hydrogen gas were investigated. Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the bacteria in raw and hydrogen-treated rhizosphere soil. Among the 18 soil samples, the abundance change of the predominant phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria showed opposite trends. The diversity index analysis of the nine leguminous soil samples showed the highest diversity of the microbial community in July. In the other nine soil samples treated with hydrogen, the microbial diversity decreased and the diversity of soil microorganisms in September was higher than that in July, but not significantly so...
September 11, 2018: Current Microbiology
Rodolfo Bizarria, Isabela C Moia, Quimi V Montoya, Danilo A Polezel, Andre Rodrigues
Chemical compounds are key to understand symbiotic interactions. In the leafcutter ant-microbe symbiosis a plethora of filamentous fungi continuously gain access the ant colonies through plant substrate collected by workers. Many filamentous fungi are considered transient in attine ant colonies, however, their real ecological role in this environment still remains unclear. A possible role of these microorganisms is the antagonism towards Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the mutualistic fungus that serve as food for several leafcutter ant species...
September 10, 2018: Current Microbiology
Yang Zhang, Xu Gao, Shuai Wang, Chengzhi Zhu, Rong Li, Qirong Shen
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been reported to influence plant growth, yield, and nutrient uptake by an array of mechanisms. Uncovering the behavioral dynamics of PGPR is one of the most important issues necessary for understanding their functional performances. In this study, strain NJAU-Z9 which was found to possess complex functions and efficient rhizospheric colonization ability was selected from plenty of bacterial strains isolated randomly from the pepper rhizosphere soil and identified as Bacillus velezensis...
September 7, 2018: Current Microbiology
Roqayya Mumtaz, Samina Bashir, Muhammad Numan, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Muhammad Ali
Advancement in research on dyes obtained from natural sources e.g., plants, animals, insects and micro-organisms is widening the application of natural dyes in various fields. The natural dyes substituted their synthetic analogs at the beginning of twentieth century due to their improved quality, value, ease of production, ease of dyeing and some other factors. This era of dominance ended soon when toxic effects of synthetic dyes were reported. In the last few decades, pigments from micro-organisms especially soil derived bacteria is replacing dyes from other natural sources because of the increasing demand for safe, non-toxic, and biodegradable natural product...
September 3, 2018: Current Microbiology
Shahina Akter, Md Amdadul Huq
A Gram-stain positive, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, and ginsenoside Rd producing novel bacterial strain, designated as MAH-16T , was isolated from soil sample of a vegetable garden and was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. The colonies were beige color, smooth, circular, and 0.3-0.7 mm in diameter when grown on tryptone soya agar for 3 days. Strain MAH-16T can grow at 20-40 °C temperature, at pH 5.0-7.0 and at 0-1% NaCl. Cell growth occurs on nutrient agar, R2A agar, tryptone soya agar, and Luria-Bertani agar but not on MacConkey agar...
August 30, 2018: Current Microbiology
Ignacio Drehe, Ester Simonetti, Jimena A Ruiz
Pseudomonas protegens synthesizes two major iron-chelating metabolites (siderophores): pyoverdine (Pvd) and enantio-pyochelin (E-Pch). Although iron sequestration and uptake seem to be the main biological role of these siderophores, other functions including metal homeostasis and antibiotic activity have been proposed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of Pvd and E-Pch to the survival of P. protegens in soil using wild type and isogenic mutant strains unable to produce Pvd, E-Pch or both siderophores...
August 28, 2018: Current Microbiology
Newton T Okuno, Isabela R Freire, Renata T R S Segundo, Cristiane R Silva, Victor A Marin
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging opportunistic pathogen linked not only to bacteremia, sepsis, and pneumonia but also to severe chronic enteritis. Persons with the impaired immune system are prone to be infected by S. maltophilia since its pathogenicity seems to be more associated with the host immune system than with the acquisition of specific virulence genes. In the dairy chain, S. maltophilia is linked to clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis in dairy cows, and it has been identified in cheese, and raw and pasteurized milk...
August 28, 2018: Current Microbiology
Azar Shahpiri, Asghar Mohammadzadeh
Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular weight cysteine (Cys)-rich proteins with high metal-binding capacity. Based on the Cys arrangement in their amino acid sequences, plant MTs are categorized into four classes. This study evaluated the ability of genetically engineered Escherichia coli cells, which express four rice MT isoforms as fusion proteins with glutathione-S-transferase (GST), to remove arsenic. As compared with control strain, the expression of GST-OsMT1, GST-OsMT2, GST-OsMT3, and GST-OsMT4 resulted in 8-, 5...
August 27, 2018: Current Microbiology
Junshi Shen, Zhongtang Yu, Weiyun Zhu
This study evaluated the effects of nitrogen source composition and monensin on the populations of proteolytic and amino acid-fermenting bacteria using in vitro enrichment culture. The experiment was designed with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: two nitrogen sources, casein (Cas) and tryptone (Try), and two levels of monensin, 0 (C) and 5 µmol/L (M), resulting in four treatments: Cas-C, Cas-M, Try-C, and Try-M. Ruminal fluid collected from three cannulated Holstein dairy cows was used as the inoculum...
August 27, 2018: Current Microbiology
Yu Li, Xin-Jun Hou, Xia Shen, Shuai-Bo Han, Zhao Ju, Zhe Zhao, Xiao-Yun Yu, Min Wu, Cong Sun
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, bacterial isolate designated 3BT , was isolated from a saline lake, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence clearly showed an allocation to the genus Confluentibacter with similarity ranging from 95.1 to 98%. OrthoANI values between strain 3BT and related strains of Confluentibacter (< 90%) were lower than the threshold value of 95% ANI relatedness recommended for species demarcation...
August 20, 2018: Current Microbiology
Yuka Mouri, Yasuhiro Takada
Monomeric isocitrate dehydrogenases of a psychrophilic bacterium, Colwellia maris, and a psychrotolerant bacterium, Pseudomonas psychrophila, (CmIDH and PpIDH) are cold-adapted and mesophilic, respectively. On the other hand, previous studies revealed that the monomeric IDH of Azotobacter vinelandii (AvIDH) is also mesophilic and the regions 2 and 3 among three regions of this enzyme are involved in the thermal properties. Therefore, to examine whether the region(s) responsible for the mesophilic properties are common between PpIDH and AvIDH, the genes of chimeric IDHs exchanging three regions of PpIDH and CmIDH in various combinations were constructed and overexpressed as His-tagged recombinant proteins in the Escherichia coli cells, and the chimeric and wild-type PpIDH and CmIDH were purified with Ni-chelating affinity column chromatography...
August 20, 2018: Current Microbiology
Sooyeon Park, Jeehyun Choi, Ji-Min Park, Jung-Hoon Yoon
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and coccoid, ovoid or rod-shaped bacterial strain, OITF-57T , which was isolated from a tidal flat sediment in South Korea, was characterized taxonomically. Strain OITF-57T grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2.0% (w/v) NaCl. Strain OITF-57T exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity value (94.2%) to the type strain of Pontivivens insulae forming a cluster in the neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree. In the maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the phylogenetic tress based on gyrB sequences, strain OITF-57T formed evolutionary lineages independent of those of other taxa...
August 20, 2018: Current Microbiology
Reiner Schaumann, Kevin Dallacker-Losensky, Christiane Rosenkranz, Gelimer H Genzel, Catalina S Stîngu, Wolfgang Schellenberger, Sebastian Schulz-Stübner, Arne C Rodloff, Klaus Eschrich
Clostridium species cause several local and systemic diseases. Conventional identification of these microorganisms is in part laborious, not always reliable, time consuming or does not always distinguish different species, i.e., C. botulinum and C. sporogenes. All in, there is a high interest to find out a reliable, powerful and rapid method to identify Clostridium spp. not only on genus but also on species level. The aim of the present study was to identify Clostridium spp. strains and also to find differences and metabolic groups of C...
August 17, 2018: Current Microbiology
Dhiraj Kumar Chaudhary, Jaisoo Kim
Two yellow-coloured, Gram-stain-negative, motile, and rod-shaped bacteria, designated strains R-10-10T and R-10-15 were isolated from oil-contaminated soil. Both strains were able to grow at 4-40 °C, pH 5.5-10.5, and 0-4% (w/v) NaCl concentration. These strains were taxonomically characterized by a polyphasic approach. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, both strains, R-10-10T and R-10-15, could be affiliated to the genus Brevundimonas and shared highest sequence similarity with Brevundimonas staleyi FWC43T (98...
August 17, 2018: Current Microbiology
Atsushi Tsuji, Miyuki Kozawa, Koji Tokuda, Toshiki Enomoto, Takashi Koyanagi
The successful production of sake (Japanese rice wine) is brought about by drastic changes in microbial flora and chemical components during fermentation. In the traditional manufacturing process of sake starter (yamahai-moto), spontaneous growth of lactic acid bacteria suppresses inappropriate microorganisms and prepares the optimum environment for the alcohol fermentative yeast. In this study, we analyzed the changes in bacterial flora and chemical components of yamahai-moto. High-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene V4 region revealed that various kinds of bacteria, including nitrate-reducing bacteria, existed in the early fermentation stage; however, Lactobacillus sakei then increased drastically to become dominant in the middle stage...
August 16, 2018: Current Microbiology
Fozia Aslam, Azra Yasmin, Torsten Thomas
Stenotrophomonas MB339, a bacterium, which could potentially utilize aromatic compounds and tolerate different heavy metals was isolated from industrial wastewater. Subsequent experiments revealed strains ability to resist antibiotics ofloxacin, streptomycin, rifampicillin, erythromycin, ampicillin, clindamycin, and toxicants including As2+ , Hg2+ , Cu2+ , Ni2+ , Pb2+ . The shotgun sequencing strategy, genome assembly and annotation uncovered specific features, which make this strain MB339 effectively promising to cope with highly contaminated conditions...
August 14, 2018: Current Microbiology
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