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Current Microbiology

Yueping Zhang, Huaxiang Qu, Ping Zhao, Yongping Tang, Jingsong Zhou, Shaochun Luo, Yuling Yin, Guangyu Chen
The garden asparagus stem blight caused by filamentous fungus Phomopsis asparagi exposes a serious threat on asparagus production globally. However, to present, we understand poorly about the molecular mechanisms of fungal pathogenicity. To facilitate functional genomics research of P. asparagi, here we developed a highly efficient and stable Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation approach which yielded 150-200 transformants per 1 × 10(6) conidia. Our results indicated that 25 °C, acetosyringone concentration of 150 μmol/L, and 72 h were recommended as optimal co-cultivation conditions for the transformation...
July 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
Meriem Mokhtar, Giovanna Ginestra, Fatma Youcefi, Angela Filocamo, Carlo Bisignano, Ali Riazi
Antimicrobial activity of pepper polyphenols and capsaicinoids (Coumarin, caffeic acid, narangin, kaempferol, rutin, quercetin, capsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin) against 13 pathogen bacteria and three beneficial strains was studied using the disk diffusion and microdilution methods. In general, phenolic compounds had the most important activity with the highest inhibition zones obtained with caffeic acid (3.5-20.5 mm), quercetin (4.75-3.5 mm), and kaempferol (7-14 mm). In the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentrations, the effects of both quercetin and kaempferol were more important than caffeic acid...
July 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
Alexsandro S Vieira, Manuela O Ramalho, Cintia Martins, Vanderlei G Martins, Odair C Bueno
Bacterial endosymbionts are common in all insects, and symbiosis has played an integral role in ant evolution. Atta sexdens rubropilosa leaf-cutting ants cultivate their symbiotic fungus using fresh leaves. They need to defend themselves and their brood against diseases, but they also need to defend their obligate fungus gardens, their primary food source, from infection, parasitism, and usurpation by competitors. This study aimed to characterize the microbial communities in whole workers and different tissues of A...
July 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
Yanbin Tao, Fei Wang, Lingjun Meng, Yang Guo, Mengshu Han, Jinhai Li, Cheng Sun, Shaomang Wang
A novel strain Pseudomonas sp. YB2, which was isolated from activated sludge, was studied for biological decolorization and degradation of malachite green (MG). The results show that this aerobic strain is an aerobic bacterium, which has relatively high salt tolerance and high antibiotic resistance. The optimal performance condition for both bacterial growth and decolorization of MG was at 25-35 °C and pH 5.0-7.0. It could efficiently decolorize 90.40% MG at a high concentration up to 1500 mg/L in 24 h, and concentrations of MG lower than 1000 mg/L could be completely decolorized in 12 h...
July 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
Hiroyuki Fukuda, Fumiko Kojima, Shuji Fujimoto
This method was aimed targeting more Campylobacter species than conventional PCR-based identifications. They generally use species-specific primers focusing on clinically common species like C. jejuni, resulting in failure to recognize other species. We made the PCR-based identification more flexible using degenerate primers and DdeI- and MboI-separately used RFLP assay, which were designed on the basis of gyrB nucleotide sequence data of 14 Campylobacter species including C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus. Ninety-four clinical isolates from patients with Campylobacter gastroenteritis and 13 biochemically identified C...
July 17, 2017: Current Microbiology
Peiqi Meng, Chang Lu, Qian Zhang, Jiuxiang Lin, Feng Chen
Pan-genome refers to the sum of genes that can be found in a given bacterial species, including the core-genome and the dispensable genome. In this study, the genomes from 183 Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) isolates were analyzed from the pan-genome perspective. This analysis revealed that S. mutans has an "open" pan-genome, implying that there are plenty of new genes to be found as more genomes are sequenced. Additionally, S. mutans has a limited core-genome, which is composed of genes related to vital activities within the bacterium, such as metabolism and hereditary information storage or processing, occupying 35...
July 17, 2017: Current Microbiology
Krista M Salli, Ulvi K Gürsoy, Eva M Söderling, Arthur C Ouwehand
Few laboratory methods exist for evaluating the cariogenicity of food ingredients. In this study, a dental simulator was used to determine the effects of commercial sucrose and xylitol mint products on the adherence and planktonic growth of Streptococcus mutans. Solutions (3% w/v) of sucrose, xylitol, sucrose mints, xylitol mints, xylitol with 0.02% peppermint oil (PO), and 0.02% PO alone were used to test the levels of planktonic and adhered S. mutans. A dental simulator with continuous artificial saliva flow, constant temperature, and mixing was used as a test environment and hydroxyapatite (HA) discs were implemented into the model to simulate the tooth surface...
July 17, 2017: Current Microbiology
Haiping Zhao, Weili Sun, Zhuo Wang, Ting Zhang, Yanyan Fan, Haijun Gu, Guangyu Li
It is well documented that the microbial interactions and biodiversity play an important role in health and disease in mammalian species. There is a rare study about gut microbiota of Mustelidae family. In this study, 40 male and female minks from Northeast China were divided into three groups and fed until they reached maturity. The V3 region of 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced using NGS. There were 526 OTUs principally concentrated among five bacterial phyla. Two points about mink's body weight gaining were observed: (1) the weight of male individuals increased more rapidly than female individuals; (2) the weight of individuals whose feed was supplemented with Chinese herb additives increased more rapidly than individuals without giving food additives...
July 14, 2017: Current Microbiology
Kirtimaan Syal
Biofilm protects bacteria from stress and hostile environment. Crystal violet (CV) assay is the most popular method for biofilm determination adopted by different laboratories so far. However, biofilm layer formed at the liquid-air interphase known as pellicle is extremely sensitive to its washing and staining steps. Early phase biofilms are also prone to damage by the latter steps. In bacteria like mycobacteria, biofilm formation occurs largely at the liquid-air interphase which is susceptible to loss. In the proposed protocol, loss of such biofilm layer was prevented...
July 14, 2017: Current Microbiology
Piyamas Atiphasaworn, Sakon Monggoot, Eleni Gentekaki, Siraprapa Brooks, Patcharee Pripdeevech
Fourteen fungal endophytes were isolated from the Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflora leaves collected from Northern Thailand. Eight genera were identified including Aspergillus, Ascochyta, Nigrospora, Blastomyces, Colletotrichum, Exidia, Clitopilus, and Nomuraea. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts from all endophytic fungi was tested against nine human bacterial pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus...
July 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
Jun Hyeong Jang, Seho Cha, Dongwook Lee, Sathiyaraj Srinivasan, Weonhwa Jheong, Ha Sung Hwang, Myung Kyum Kim, Taegun Seo
A yellow-colored Gram-negative strain, Arct 1-12(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in Seoul Women's University, South Korea, and grown on R2A agar at 25 °C. Growth of strain Arct 1-12(T) was observed at a temperature range of 15-30 °C (optimal 25 °C), but not at 4 or 42 °C. The strain tolerated up to 1% NaCl (w/v) and displayed optimal growth in the absence of NaCl. Growth occurred at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimally at pH 7). According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence, the strain is moderately related to Spirosoma spitsbergense DSM 19989(T) (93...
July 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
Jun-Di Wang, Xu-Xiang Li, Cheng-Tun Qu
In this work, proteomic analysis was used to identify the up-regulated key proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P6), a bacteria used in petroleum degradation, responsible for its high efficiency in degrading crude oil. Seventeen proteins were identified as up-regulated proteins by proteomic analysis and classified by bioinformatics analysis. The results indicated that most of the up-regulated proteins were responsible for P. aeruginosa (P6) survival under harsh environmental conditions and utilization crude oil as carbon source in a better way...
July 11, 2017: Current Microbiology
Joong-Ki Kook, Soon-Nang Park, Yun Kyong Lim, Eugene Cho, Eojin Jo, Hansung Roh, Yeseul Shin, Jayoung Paek, Hwa-Sook Kim, Hongik Kim, Jeong Hwan Shin, Young-Hyo Chang
Fusobacterium nucleatum is classified as four subspecies, subsp. nucleatum, polymorphum, vincentii, and animalis, based on DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) patterns, phenotypic characteristics, and/or multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The gold standards for classification of bacterial species are DDH and 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) sequence homology. The thresholds of DDH and 16S rDNA similarity for delineation of bacterial species have been suggested to be >70 and 98.65%, respectively. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) and genome-to-genome distance (GGD) analysis based on genome sequences were recently introduced as a replacement for DDH to delineate bacterial species with ANI (95-96%) and GGD (70%) threshold values...
July 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
Jinye Zhang, Jinjin Gao, Yuxing Guo, Zhen Wu, Daodong Pan
An adhesion-related protein of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain CICC 6074 involved in binding to Caco-2 cells and inhibiting Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was isolated and characterized. The S-layer protein was extracted with 5M LiCl and the active fraction purified by gel filtration (G-75). The S-layer protein was visualized by SDS-PAGE and characterized by estimating the relative molecular weight using mass spectra. The inhibitory effect of L. acidophilus and its S-layer proteins on the ability of EPEC to adhere to cells was explored by using a Caco-2 cell model...
July 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
Peng Gao, Xibai Zeng, Lingyu Bai, Yanan Wang, Cuixia Wu, Ran Duan, Shiming Su
Bacteria capable of arsenate [As(V)] reduction can be used for remediation of As-contaminated soils via bio-extraction. In this study, As-resistant bacteria were isolated and their abilities to resist and reduce As(V) as well as As bio-extracted from soils naturally contaminated with As were studied. The results indicated that three isolates (2-2, 4-3, and 8-5) showed greater abilities to resist As(V) than other isolates. When the isolates were exposed to 10 mg L(-1) As(V), As(V) contents decreased, while arsenite [As(III)] increased over time...
July 4, 2017: Current Microbiology
Yoshiya Tashiro, Hideo Ueno, Masakazu Takaba, Sachio Hayashi
We report the production of functional inulin-type fructooligosaccharides such as trisaccharide 1-kestose, O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside, and tetrasaccharide nystose, O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside, from sucrose by an enzyme from Penicillium citrinum. Sucrose acted as a fructosyl donor and acceptor for the enzyme. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzymatic reaction were 5 and 50 °C, respectively...
July 4, 2017: Current Microbiology
Erko Stackebrandt, David Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Current Microbiology
Jun-Gang Li, Chuan-Dong Wang, Zhong-Hai Tang, Ying-Qiu Guo, Tian-Cai Zheng, Yue-Zhong Li, Zhang-Qiang You
Cervus albirostris (white-lipped deer) is an endemic species in China. As the name implies, C. albirostris has a characteristic pure white marking around their mouth and on the underside of the throat. The animal is a typical alpine species normally living at the height of 3500-4300 m. In this study, by pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA gene sequences, we for the first time analyzed the gut bacterial community composition in eight feces samples of wild C. albirostris. From a total of 243,634 high-quality sequences, we identified 186 genera, included in 17 prokaryotic phyla in the feces...
June 30, 2017: Current Microbiology
Amparo Gotor-Vila, Neus Teixidó, María Sisquella, Rosario Torres, Josep Usall
This work focuses on the biological understanding of the biocontrol agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CPA-8 in order to accomplish the characterization required in the registration process for the development of a microorganism-based product. The tolerance of CPA-8 to grow under different pH-temperature and water activity (a w)-temperature conditions was widely demonstrated. Regarding the pH results, optimum growth at the evaluated conditions was observed at 37 °C and pH between 7 and 5. On the contrary, the slowest growth was recorded at 20 °C and pH 4...
June 29, 2017: Current Microbiology
Ahmed Hamouda
Acinetobacter baumannii is a notorious nosocomial pathogen known for its ability to cause severe infections, especially in intensive care units. The identification of a conserved gene encoding a hypothetical protein in A. baumannii isolates but not in other Acinetobacter species during a comparative genomic analysis was reported. For the purpose of this study, we call this gene, A.b_hyp gene. The aim of this study was to report the results of screening for the presence of the A.b_hyp gene in a worldwide collection of well-characterized A...
June 29, 2017: Current Microbiology
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