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Current Microbiology

Na Yang, Fuhang Song
Marine actinomycetes are less investigated compared to terrestrial strains as potential sources of natural products. To date, few investigations have been performed on culturable actinomycetes associated with South China Sea sediments. In the present study, twenty-eight actinomycetes were recovered from South China Sea sediments after dereplication by traditional culture-dependent method. The 16S rRNA gene sequences analyses revealed that these strains related to five families and seven genera. Twelve representative strains possessed at least one of the biosynthetic genes coding for polyketide synthase I, II, and nonribosomal peptide synthetase...
September 16, 2017: Current Microbiology
Hyun-Sook Kim, John J Bang, Sang-Seob Lee
A Gram-stain-negative bacterial strain designated Con4(T) was isolated from activated sludge in a seawater treatment system. The strain was rod-shaped, motile, aerobic, and formed yellow-colored colonies on agar medium. Cells contained carotenoid pigments, but flexirubin-type pigments were absent. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strain was assigned to the genus Gelidibacter. Optimum growth occurred at 20 °C, pH 7.0, and 1-2% (w/v) NaCl. Prominent fatty acid types were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, and iso-C16:0 3OH...
September 14, 2017: Current Microbiology
Fu Namai, Suguru Shigemori, Koichi Sudo, Takashi Sato, Yoshinari Yamamoto, Shireen Nigar, Tasuku Ogita, Takeshi Shimosato
An osteoblastic protein, osteocalcin (OC), exists in vivo in two forms: carboxylated OC, and uncarboxylated or low-carboxylated OC (ucOC). ucOC acts as a hormone to regulate carbon and energy metabolism. Recent studies demonstrated that ucOC exerts insulinotropic effects, mainly through the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) pathway. GLP-1 is an insulinotropic hormone secreted by enteroendocrine L cells in the small intestine. Thus, efficient delivery of ucOC to the small intestine may be a new therapeutic option for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity...
September 13, 2017: Current Microbiology
Wenjun Zhu, Wei Wei, Shaopeng Zhang, Yonglian Zheng, Ping Chen, Xiaowen Xu
Wolfiporia cocos is an important medicinal and edible fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium has been used as a traditional medicine in China for centuries. However, the commercial production of W. cocos sclerotia is currently limited by shortages in pine wood resources. Since protein phosphatases (PPs) play significant roles in growth, signal transduction, development, metabolism, sexual reproduction, cell cycle, and environmental stress responses in fungi, the phosphatome of W...
September 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
Xiao-Yun Yu, Jing-Yu Zhai, Ge-Yi Fu, Xia Shen, Zhe Zhao, Min Wu, Xin-Qi Zhang
A gram-stain-negative, aerobic, ovoid or short rod-shaped, and non-motile strain, designed G7(T) was isolated from a tidal flat sample collected from the coast of East Sea in Zhoushan, China. Strain G7(T) grew at 4-40 °C and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, 28 °C and pH 7.5) and with 0-7% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1%). The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-10 and the major fatty acids (>10%) identified were C18:1 ω7c, C16:0 and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c). The polar lipids of strain G7(T) consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and four unidentified lipids...
September 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
Martinus J A Daas, Bastienne Vriesendorp, Antonius H P van de Weijer, John van der Oost, Richard van Kranenburg
In attempt to obtain a thermophilic host for the conversion of lignocellulose derived substrates into lactic acid, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12 was isolated from a compost heap. It was selected from over 500 isolates as a genetically tractable hemicellulolytic lactic acid producer, requiring little nutrients. The strain is able to ferment glucose and xylose simultaneously and can produce lactic acid from xylan, making it a potential host for biotechnological applications. The genome of strain T12 consists of a 3...
September 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
Michael M Babykin, Tobias S A Obando, Vladislav V Zinchenko
In Gram-negative bacteria, transport of ferric siderophores through outer membrane is a complex process that requires specific outer membrane transporters and energy-transducing TonB-ExbB-ExbD system in the cytoplasmic membrane. The genome of the non-siderophore-producing cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 encodes all putative components of the siderophore-mediated iron uptake system. So far, there has been no experimental evidence for the existence of such a pathway in this organism. On the contrary, its reductive iron uptake pathway has been studied in detail...
September 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
Ying-Hsin Hsieh, Steven Simpson, Khalil Kerdahi, Irshad M Sulaiman
Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of foodborne travelers' diarrhea worldwide. Although a large number cases of campylobacteriosis go undiagnosed or unreported, it is considered as the second most common foodborne illness in the USA affecting over 1.3 million individuals every year. Of various Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari have been accounted for causing more than 99% of human infections. Thus, there is a need to have efficient isolation method to protect public health on food safety and monitoring the burden of campylobacteriosis...
September 8, 2017: Current Microbiology
Kunal Jani, Vikas Ghattargi, Shrikant Pawar, Mitali Inamdar, Yogesh Shouche, Avinash Sharma
The Ganges is the largest river of India, worshiped by Hindus with a belief that bathing in the river causes the remission of sins and is considered very pure. It is heavily polluted by the unrestricted human usage including ritual practices, urbanization, and industrialization. Such perturbations may subsequently influence the bacterial community composition and ecosystem functioning. Here, we applied targeted amplicon sequencing to determine the impact of spatial variation on the microbial community assemblage of the Ganga River...
September 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
S D Bhargavi, V K Praveen, M Anil Kumar, J Savitha
Lovastatin is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) in cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and hence used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. In a previous study, we report a tropical soil isolate, Aspergillus terreus (KM017963), which produces ample amount of lovastatin than its counterpart that are endophytic in origin. Bioinformatic analysis of whole genome sequence of A. terreus (AH007774.1), a soil isolate revealed the presence of gene cluster (AF141924.1 & AF141925...
September 6, 2017: Current Microbiology
Chinae Thammarongtham, Intawat Nookaew, Tayvich Vorapreeda, Tanawut Srisuk, Miriam L Land, Sukanya Jeennor, Kobkul Laoteng
The selected robust fungus, Aspergillus oryzae strain BCC7051 is of interest for biotechnological production of lipid-derived products due to its capability to accumulate high amount of intracellular lipids using various sugars and agro-industrial substrates. Here, we report the genome sequence of the oleaginous A. oryzae BCC7051. The obtained reads were de novo assembled into 25 scaffolds spanning of 38,550,958 bps with predicted 11,456 protein-coding genes. By synteny mapping, a large rearrangement was found in two scaffolds of A...
September 1, 2017: Current Microbiology
Denis Magaña-Ortíz, Francisco Fernández, Achim M Loske, Miguel A Gómez-Lim
Nucleoside hydrolase and sterol 24-c-methyltransferase, two antigenic proteins of Leishmania sp., were expressed in Aspergillus niger. Genetic transformation of conidia was achieved using underwater shock waves. scFv antibody addressed to DEC205, a receptor of dendritic cells, was fused to two proteins of Leishmania sp. Receptor 205 has a relevant role in the immune system in mammals; it can modulate T cell response to different antigens. Extracellular expression strategy of recombinant antibody was achieved using a fragment of native glucoamylase A (514 aa) as a carrier...
August 31, 2017: Current Microbiology
Leïla Aguech-Oueslati, Hela Jaidane, Famara Sane, Nedia Jrad-Battikh, Sabrine Ben Hamed, Didier Hober, Jawhar Gharbi
Coxsackie B4 (CV-B4), is a major cause of viral myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and pancreatitis. Like other human enteroviruses, CV-B4 is ubiquitous, excreted in the stool, transmitted by fecal-oral route, and persists in the environment. In the context of studies on CV-B4 infection, it is important to investigate how this virus can be eliminated and to show the possibility of contamination risk with a CV-B4 E2 infected Swiss albino mice. Swiss albino female mice were inoculated with CV-B4 E2 strain and divided in two groups: the first was intraperitoneally (I...
August 30, 2017: Current Microbiology
Soon-Nang Park, Yun Kyong Lim, Mi-Hwa Choi, Eugene Cho, Iel Soo Bang, Jung Min Kim, Sug-Joon Ahn, Joong-Ki Kook
Triterpenoid saponin derivatives oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA), but not betulinic acid (BA), were previously found to have strong antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans. OA and UA inhibited the transcription of genes related to peptidoglycan biosynthesis, thereby preventing bacterial growth. However, it is not clear whether this is the only pathway involved in the antimicrobial activity of these compounds against S. mutans. Therefore, we used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and microarray analyses to examine the expression of genes related to essential metabolic pathways in S...
August 29, 2017: Current Microbiology
Zhenglong Wang, Ying Sun, Xiaodan Li, Haoran Hu, Chunyang Zhang
Salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase (sALDH) can oxidize salicylaldehyde, which is an intermediate in the naphthalene catabolism in bacteria. However, genes encoding sALDH have not been discovered so far in Rhodococcus. Here, we report the discovery of a novel aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene in the naphthalene degrader Rhodococcus ruber OA1 based on phylogenetic analysis. Interestingly, apart from ALDH activity, ALDH of R. ruber OA1 (OA1-ALDH) also showed sALDH activity. Moreover, its sALDH specific activity was higher than its ALDH specific activity...
August 28, 2017: Current Microbiology
Xiao-Feng Zhang, Hai-Hua Wang, Xi-Yu Sun, Chun-Mei Pan
The Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile bacterial strain, designated ZGLJ7-1(T), was isolated from a pit mud. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain ZGLJ7-1(T) was related to the genus Lysobacter and had the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strain of Lysobacter arseniciresistens ZS79(T) (97.4%). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C17:1ω9c, iso-C11:0 and iso-C11:03-OH. Strain ZGLJ7-1(T) had Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone...
August 24, 2017: Current Microbiology
Andrew S Urquhart, Alexander Idnurm
An insertional mutant with reduced pathogenicity on Brassica napus was identified in the plant pathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans. The transfer-DNA molecule from Agrobacterium tumefaciens inserted into a gene encoding a protein with similarity to Sit4-associated proteins (SAPs). In contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae which has four members of the SAP family, there is a single copy of the gene in L. maculans. The mutant had normal spore production and spore germination, but altered hyphal branching, suggesting that nutrient signaling is impaired in the strain...
August 24, 2017: Current Microbiology
Scheila S Soares, Thamires K Souza, Francisco K Berté, Vlademir V Cantarelli, Marilise B Rott
This study determined the occurrence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) and bacteria associated with amoebae in air-conditioning cooling towers in southern Brazil. Water samples were collected from 36 cooling systems from air-conditioning in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The organisms were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing automated. The results showed that these aquatic environments, with variable temperature, are potential "hot spots" for emerging human pathogens like free-living amoebae and bacteria associated...
August 24, 2017: Current Microbiology
Ana Claudia A M Fernandez, Maurício F Rosa, Carla M M Fernandez, Wanessa C Bortolucci, Ulisses Z Melo, Vera L D Siqueira, Diógenes A G Cortez, José E Gonçalves, Giani A Linde, Zilda C Gazim
Tetradenia riparia (Lamiaceae) is native to Central Africa popularly known as myrrh, used in folk medicine to treat various diseases like malaria, gastroenteritis, and tropical skin disease. This research was to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the crude extract (CE) and fractions (FR) of the T. riparia by classical chromatography. The CE of T. riparia leaves was submitted to column chromatographic fractionation to obtain four fractions of the interest, which were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrum: FR-I (abieta-7,9(11)-dien-13-β-ol), FR-II (Ibozol), FR-III (8 (14), 15-sandaracopimaradiene-2α, 18-diol and 8 (14), 15-sandaracopimaradiene-7α, 18-diol), and FR-IV (Astragalin, Boronolide and Luteolin)...
August 24, 2017: Current Microbiology
Jae-Jin Lee, Nabil Elderiny, Seung-Yeol Lee, Dae Sung Lee, Myung Kyum Kim, Leonid N Ten, Hee-Young Jung
A Gram-reaction-negative, nonmotile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterial strain, designated 15J10-9T5(T), was isolated from beach soil on Jeju Island, South Korea, and was characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belonged to the family Cytophagaceae in the phylum Bacteroidetes, and was most closely related to Spirosoma aerolatum PR1012k(T) (96.1%) and Spirosoma panaciterrae DSM 21099(T) (95.7%). The detection of menaquinone MK-7 as the predominant respiratory quinone, a fatty acid profile with summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), C16:1 ω5c, and iso-C15:0 as the major components, and a polar lipid profile with phosphatidylethanolamine as the major component also supported the affiliation of strain 15J10-9T5(T) in the genus Spirosoma...
August 23, 2017: Current Microbiology
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