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Current Microbiology

Toshio Mori, Ojiro Kondo, Hirokazu Kawagishi, Hirofumi Hirai
White-rot fungi are microorganisms capable of ethanol fermentation; however, the specific conditions activating ethanol fermentation are unclear in contrast to fermentation by yeasts. In this study, we investigated the conditions favoring ethanol fermentation by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624, which is able to produce ethanol from woody material. In aerobic stationary cultivation with various concentrations of glucose (0.8-33 g/l), the fungus produced ethanol in media containing an initial glucose concentration of 2...
January 3, 2019: Current Microbiology
Joshua N Gustine, Matthew B Au, John R Haserick, Erik C Hett, Eric J Rubin, Frank C Gibson, Lingyi L Deng
Cell wall hydrolases are enzymes that cleave bacterial cell walls by hydrolyzing specific bonds within peptidoglycan and other portions of the envelope. Two major sources of hydrolases in nature are from hosts and microbes. This study specifically investigated whether cell wall hydrolytic enzymes could be employed as exogenous reagents to augment the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against mycobacteria. Mycobacterium smegmatis cultures were treated with ten conventional antibiotics and six anti-tuberculosis drugs-alone or in combination with cell wall hydrolases...
January 2, 2019: Current Microbiology
Evgeniya V Prazdnova, Maria S Mazanko, Anzhelica B Bren, Vladimir A Chistyakov, Richard Weeks, Michael L Chikindas
The ability of fermentates of two potential probiotic strains, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895 and Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933, to lower the SOS response in bacteria was evaluated using Escherichia coli-based Lux biosensors (pRecA-lux) and the tested bacilli fermentates obtained through solid-state fermentation. The SOS response was stimulated by the addition of ciprofloxacine. Preparations of both Bacillus fermentates demonstrated SOS-inhibitory activity (up to 54.21%). The strain КATMIRA1933 was characterized by higher SOS-inhibitory activity...
January 2, 2019: Current Microbiology
Israa Mohamad El-Nemr, Mohanad Mushtaha, Sathyavathi Sundararaju, Charmaine Fontejon, Mohammed Suleiman, Patrick Tang, Ipek Goktepe, Mohammad Rubayet Hasan
MALDI-TOF MS has revolutionized the identification of microorganisms and has become an indispensable part of routine diagnostics in the clinical microbiological laboratory. However, application of this technique in microbial surveillance outside of clinical settings is limited. In this study, we have evaluated the performance of a Bruker MALDI Biotyper System for the identification of bacteria isolated from the hand palms of fresh produce handlers and their surrounding environments in a wholesale fresh produce market in Doha, Qatar...
January 2, 2019: Current Microbiology
Sanjit C Debnath, Can Chen, Shu-Xia Liu, Ya-Nan Di, Dao-Qiong Zheng, Xin-Yang Li, Xue-Wei Xu, Jin-Zhong Xu, Pin-Mei Wang
A novel bacterial strain A7.6T was isolated from the sediments collected near the Zhairuo Island located in the East China Sea and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore forming, non-flagellated but motile by gliding. The strain was aerobic, positive for oxidase and catalase activities. The strain can grow at 4-35 °C, pH 5.5-9.0, and 0-3% (w/v) NaCl concentration. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine, the predominant fatty acids (> 10%) were iso-C15:0 and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c)...
January 2, 2019: Current Microbiology
Josiara Furtado Mendes, Andrea Von Groll, Vanice Rodrigues Poester, Carolina Litchina Brasil, Tchana Martinez Brandolt, Gabriel Baracy Klafke, Carlos Eduardo Wayne Nogueira, Mário Carlos Araújo Meireles, Melissa Orzechowski Xavier
High rates of paracoccidioidomycosis disease and infection have been recently reported in southern Brazil. However, the knowledgment about the ecoepidemiology of Paracoccidioides spp. in the region is limited, therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the presence of Paracoccidioides spp. DNA in soil samples from a rural area in Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thirty pools of soil samples from Bagé, RS (31º19'53"S 54º06'25"W) were submitted to physicochemical analysis, and to fungal DNA extraction by Norgen Biotek® Kit (Thorold, Canada), followed by Nested PCR technique with ITS4 and ITS5 as external primers, and PBITS-E and PBITS-T as internal primers...
January 2, 2019: Current Microbiology
Duc Ha Danh, Oanh Nguyen Thi
A chloroaniline-degrading bacterial strain isolated from polluted sediment in the Mekong River was identified as Geobacter sp. KT5. The obtained isolate was found to utilize a wide range of trichloroanilines (TCAs), dichloroanilines (DCAs), monochloroanilines (MACs), and aniline as sources of carbon and energy. It also used Fe(III) as a terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. Among the chlorinated anilines, KT5 utilized 2,3,4-trichloroaniline (234TCA) with the highest rate (2.48 ± 0.32 µM day-1 )...
January 2, 2019: Current Microbiology
Naiema Yousef, Asmaa Mawad, Amany Abeed
The huge applications of cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials in the various fields of life lead to accumulation of its wastes that became one of the major sources of environmental pollution. In this study, a Gram-positive cellulose-decomposing endophytic bacterium (Chi-04) was isolated from medicinal plant Chiliadenus montanus which inhabitant Saint Catherine (Sinai) region in Egypt. The bacterial strain was identified based on the sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes as Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus. This isolate was capable of degrading 58% of cellulosic filter paper (100 g/l) within 15 days of incubation...
January 2, 2019: Current Microbiology
Sajan C Achi, Prakash M Halami
In the present study, probiotic, safety and functional characteristics of eight indigenous bifidobacterial isolates were compared to identify suitable strains for functional food application. Among the isolates, six strains of Bifidobacterium longum and one each of Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium bifidum were identified by 16S rRNA, xfp and hsp60 gene sequencing. Diversity among these strains was established by RAPD and Rep-PCR. Genes associated with sortase-dependent pili (SDP) (credited for role in adhesion) and serpin (immunomodulation) which can serve as potential marker genes for rapid identification of probiotic Bifidobacterium, was also evaluated...
January 2, 2019: Current Microbiology
Katsuya Okuno, Jun Xu, Emiko Isogai, Shuichi Nakamura
Salmonella Typhimurium is the causative agent of non-typhoidal, foodborne salmonellosis. Contamination of hen eggs by the bacterium is a common source of S. Typhimurium infection. S. Typhimurium is peritrichous, and flagellum-dependent motility and chemotaxis are believed to facilitate egg contamination despite the presence of many antimicrobial egg components. We performed motility and chemotaxis assays to demonstrate that S. Typhimurium cells are attracted to egg yolks and are repelled by albumen. The bacterial flagellar motor shows bidirectional rotation, and counterclockwise-biased rotation allows cells to swim smoothly...
January 2, 2019: Current Microbiology
Bo Yang, Chang Ye, Bingyu Yan, Xionglei He, Ke Xing
Diet is known to play a major role in determining the composition and function of the gut microbiota. Previous studies have often focused on the immediate effects of dietary intervention. How dietary history prior to a given dietary intervention influences the gut microbiota is, however, not well understood. To assess the influence of dietary history, in this study, mice with different dietary histories were subjected to the same dietary interventions, and the gut microbial communities of these mice were characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing...
December 19, 2018: Current Microbiology
Weiyan Zhang, Xuezhen Zhou, Ye Yuan, Biyin Liu, Slava S Epstein, Shan He
We present the genome sequence of Saccharospirillum mangrovi HK-33T , isolated from a mangrove sediment sample in Haikou, China. The complete genome of S. mangrovi HK-33T consisted of a single-circular chromosome with the size of 3,686,911 bp as well as an average G + C content of 57.37%, and contained 3,383 protein-coding genes, 4 operons of 16S-23S-5S rRNA genes, and 52 tRNA genes. Genomic annotation indicated that the genome of S. mangrovi HK-33T had many genes related to oligosaccharide and polysaccharide degradation and utilization of polyhydroxyalkanoate...
December 18, 2018: Current Microbiology
Paula L A P A Silva, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Thais F M Reis, Eliane P Mendonça, Roberta T Melo, Victor A S Penha, Phelipe A B M Peres, Patrícia G Hoepers, Marcelo E Beletti, Belchiolina B Fonseca
Little is known about Salmonella biofilm assembly, making the prevention of the disease a challenge in the poultry production chain. The objective of the present study was then to evaluate biofilm formation from different serotypes of Salmonella spp. in both polystyrene plates and eggshells. Salmonella Gallinarum and S. Minnesota were both classified as producers of biofilms of moderate intensity. Interestingly, S. Gallinarum produces biofilm even though being a serotype without flagellum and not having the lux gene in its genome, suggesting that there might be other important structures and genes associated with biofilm formation...
December 17, 2018: Current Microbiology
Nan Jiang, Huan Liu, Peng Wang, Jing Huang, Hui Han, Qinfu Wang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant animal morbidity and mortality and economic losses worldwide. In this study, we analyzed the microbiota in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), mucosa, and feces in cecum of the PRRSV-challenged pigs using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform, to investigate the role of microbiota in the pathogenesis and development of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Quantitative insights into microbial ecology analyses indicated that the dominant bacterial groups in the lung from the PRRSV-challenged pigs were Haemophilus parasuis and Mycoplasma hyorhinis, with a relative abundance of 35-48% and 27-41%, respectively...
December 15, 2018: Current Microbiology
Runzhi Guo, Hao Liu, Xiaobei Li, Qiaolin Yang, Lingfei Jia, Yunfei Zheng, Weiran Li
Although periodontal diseases during fixed appliance treatment are a common issue, few studies have focused on the clinical and microbial factors associated with orthodontic appliances. Hence, we investigated changes in the subgingival microbial community and their association with periodontal changes at the early stage of fixed appliance treatment. Subgingival plaques from ten female patients with fixed appliances were obtained at three time points: before, 1 month and 3 months after the placement of the brackets (T0, T1 and T2)...
December 13, 2018: Current Microbiology
Wenfei Zhang, Jianru Gong, Siyu Wu, Haoneng Yin, Yinghong Jin, Hongping Wu, Peng Li, Ruiping Wang
Acinetobacter tandoii SC36 was isolated from a mangrove wetland ecosystem in the Dongzhaigang Nature Reserve in Haikou, China. This bacterium was found to have a capacity for polyphosphate accumulation. To provide insight into its phosphorus metabolism and facilitate its application in phosphorus removal, we developed a draft genome of this strain. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) annotation revealed three ppk genes and several phosphate metabolic related pathways in the genome of SC36. These genome data of Acinetobacter tandoii SC36 will facilitate elucidation of the mechanism of polyphosphate accumulation...
December 12, 2018: Current Microbiology
Xia Zhang, Manlin Xu, Juxiang Wu, Weibo Dong, Dianxu Chen, Lei Wang, Yucheng Chi
Peanut web blotch, a peanut disease with both web and blotch symptom leaflets, is an emerging threat for peanut cultivation worldwide and one of the most important fungal diseases in China. However, the limited pieces of information in genomic resources and pathogenesis are the major constraints to integrated disease management. The genome contains a large number of pathogenicity-related genes, but the genomic information of the pathogen is still blank. Considering this fact, current study presented the draft genome sequence of a Phoma arachidicola isolate named Wb2...
December 10, 2018: Current Microbiology
Suelle V Rodrigues, Vanessa Laviniki, Karen A Borges, Thales Q Furian, Hamilton L S Moraes, Vladimir P Nascimento, Carlos T P Salle
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is one of the pathogens that most concerns the poultry industry worldwide due to the economic losses it can cause. APEC persistence and survival, both in the environment and in the host, may be a consequence of biofilm-producing capabilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate APEC strains' biofilm production and its relationship to in vivo pathogenicity. Two hundred thirty-eight APEC isolates from three different origins (broiler bedding material, cellulite lesions, and respiratory diseases) were selected...
December 4, 2018: Current Microbiology
Kanmani Anandan, Ravishankar Rai Vittal
Bioactive natural compounds play pivotal roles in drug discovery and the emergence of multi-drug resistance pathogens demands the development of better/new drugs. Paenibacillus amylolyticus KMCLE06 endophytic bacterium isolated from the medicinal plant Coix lachryma-jobi were analyzed for the potential bioactive secondary metabolite compounds and its gene responsible within polyketide synthases (PKS) clusters. Ethyl acetate extraction of P. amylolyticus KMCLE06 showed significant antibacterial activity which was further processed to partial purification and characterization for bioactive compound...
November 29, 2018: Current Microbiology
Wenna Gao, Chunsheng Zheng, Yahong Lei, Weigang Kuang
White clover widely cultivated in China is one of the most important perennial leguminous forages in temperate and subtropical regions. There is a large quantity of white clover seeds imported into China each year for demands of high-quality grass seeds. Seedborne diseases may cause significant economic losses. DNA sequencing technologies allow for the direct estimation of microbial community diversity, avoiding culture-based biases. Therefore, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the bacterial communities in white clover seeds collected from four different countries...
November 29, 2018: Current Microbiology
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