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Current Microbiology

Eiji Yokoyama, Shinichiro Hirai, Taichiro Ishige, Satoshi Murakami
Nine Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7/H- (O157) strains were serially cultured three times on LB agar plates. After each sub-culture, five colonies were picked for DNA isolation and whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis. After exclusion of possible recombination-related SNPs, 11, 9, and 34 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in genes in the backbone, O-island, and mobile elements gene categories. This suggested that those SNPs due to cultivation could influence the threshold value set for molecular epidemiological studies of O157...
February 14, 2017: Current Microbiology
Lindsey O'Neal, Peter Schumann, Enevold Falsen, Paul A Lawson
The entomopathogen "Corynebacterium okanaganae" was described by Lüthy in 1974 but the name was never validly published. Phylogenetic analysis employing 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrate that "Corynebacterium okanaganae" is not a member of the genus Corynebacterium but related to members of the Microbacteriaceae being most closely related to, but distinct from, members of the genera Rathayibacter, Mycetocola and Curtobacterium. The bacterium is an aerobic, Gram-positive staining, rod-shaped actinobacterium with the cell-wall peptidoglycan based on 2,4, diaminobutyric acid as the diagnostic diamino acid...
February 13, 2017: Current Microbiology
Sherin Zachariah, Prabla Kumari, Subrata K Das
Two closely related aerobic, Gram reaction-negative rod-shaped bacteria (S7-75(T) and S7-80) were isolated from mucus of coral Fungia seychellensis from Andaman Sea, India. Heterotrophic growth on marine agar was observed at 4-35 °C and pH 6.5-10.5; optimum growth occurred at 25-30 °C and pH 7-8. 16 S rRNA sequence analysis confirmed the strains belonged to the genus Sulfitobacter and the two isolates shared more than 99.28% pairwise sequence similarity. DNA-DNA similarity between two isolates S7-75(T) and S7-80 was above 96%...
February 10, 2017: Current Microbiology
Hosni Sassi, Frank Delvigne, Héla Kallel, Patrick Fickers
The dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has become an emerging cell factory for recombinant proteins production. Expression vectors involving LIP2 promoter (pLIP2) have been developed and used successfully. However, the relationship between dimorphic transition (i.e., cell morphology) and pLIP2 regulation is still unclear and must be assessed to improve process robustness. This requests to discriminate the effect of cell morphology from that of effectors, such as pH, that trigger the dimorphic transition. This was performed using gene reporter system based on β-galactosidase activity and DsRed fluorescence, single-cell analysis by flow cytometry, and quantification of gene expression...
February 9, 2017: Current Microbiology
Caixia Liu, Yuhong Dong, Lingyu Hou, Nan Deng, Ruzhen Jiao
Acidobacteria is a new bacterial group, identified by molecular research, which is widely distributed and has specific ecological functions in forest soil. In this study, we investigated Acidobacteria response to N input, and the effects were related to N form and dose. The experimental design included two N forms (NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N) and five levels of N deposition (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 kg N ha(-1)) for 2 years. Research into the Acidobacteria community was conducted using 16Sr RNA gene-based high-throughput pyrosequencing methods...
February 9, 2017: Current Microbiology
Gemma Agustí, Mariana Fittipaldi, Francesc Codony
Currently, one of the most challenged points to expand the use of viability PCR technique is achieving the complete exclusion of dead cells amplification signals, thus avoiding the overestimation of live cells population. Considering that, and based on the hypothesis that DNA may be retained by microtube walls, the impact of the microtube was addressed on signals from live and heat-killed cells. A double-dye reagent, PEMAX™, which comprises a mix of photo-reactive azide forms of phenanthridium, was used in this work...
February 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
Lucía C Lozano, Jenny Dussán
Lysinibacillus sphaericus is used for the biological control of mosquitoes. The main toxicity mechanism of pathogenic strains is a binary toxin produced during sporulation. S-layer is a proteinaceous structure on the surface of bacteria; its functions have been involved in the interaction between bacterial cells and the environment, for example, as protective coats, surface recognition, and biological control. In L. sphaericus, S-layer protein (SlpC) is expressed in vegetative cells, and is also found in spore-crystal preparations; it has larvicidal activity in Culex spp...
February 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
Zhe Wang, Yan Shen
The fast growing evidences have indicated that the natural product osthole is a promising drug candidate for fighting several serious human diseases, for example, cancer and inflammation. However, the mode-of-action (MoA) of osthole remains largely incomplete. In this study, we investigated the growth inhibition activity of osthole using fission yeast as a model, with the goal of understanding the osthole's mechanism of action, especially from the molecular level. Microarray analysis indicated that osthole has significant impacts on gene transcription levels (In total, 214 genes are up-regulated, and 97 genes are down-regulated)...
February 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
Chen Wang, Yang Liu, Tao-Tao Zhang, Cai-Ge Lu, Ya Liu, Dian-Peng Zhang, Wei-Cheng Liu
Three yeast strains, named as FHL-A, FHL-B, and FHL-C, were isolated from peach fruit surfaces collected from different regions in the North of China highly produced protease and were presented as single separate group in the genus Metschnikowia by sequence comparisons of 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. BLASTn alignments on NCBI showed that the similarity of 26S rRNA gene sequences of the three strains to all sequences of other yeasts accessed into the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ and other database was very low (≦93%)...
February 6, 2017: Current Microbiology
Sara Quero, Marian García-Núñez, Noemí Párraga-Niño, M Luisa Pedro-Botet, Lourdes Mateu, Miquel Sabrià
Molecular epidemiologic studies of Legionella have shown different molecular types coexisting in the same environment, with only one having the ability to trigger an outbreak. We therefore studied the proteome of isolates of these different molecular types in search of the proteins responsible for infection. In this study, we performed a differential proteomic analysis between patient-related and non-patient-related environmental isolates using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with mass spectrometry...
January 31, 2017: Current Microbiology
Franziska Kloska, Maximilian Casteel, Frederik Wilms-Schulze Kump, Günter Klein
This field study aimed to establish a risk-orientated hygiene analysis on two broiler farms in Northwestern Germany for the practical use in broiler housing to evaluate the success of disinfection procedures for eradicating S. Java. The risk-orientated hygiene analysis enables fast, reproducible and cost-effective testing of broiler farms and in turn helps minimize the public health risk ensuing from S. Java. Farms were tested before and after cleaning as well as after disinfection according to a risk-orientated hygiene analysis for the presence of Salmonella DNA with qPCR...
January 31, 2017: Current Microbiology
Ahongshangbam Ibeyaima, Anuj Kumar Dwivedi, Narendra Saini, Sanjay Gupta, Indira P Sarethy
During a screening program for actinomycetes from underexplored and arid Thar Desert (India), TD-093 was isolated. The isolate was characterized based on 16S rDNA sequencing. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of culture supernatant were investigated for antimicrobial activity. Bioactive fractions, after column chromatography separation, were subjected to GC-MS analysis. Based on 16S rDNA sequence result, isolate TD-093 showed nearest match to Saccharothrix (96%) and is a potential new species. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Escherichia coli as well as clinical isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii)...
January 24, 2017: Current Microbiology
Mu Peng, Hongbai Jia, Qiuyu Wang
Saline-alkali soil can inhibit the growth of crops as a consequence of cellular damage through oxidation of lipids and proteins and degradation of nucleic acids, ultimately leading to cell death. The bacterial community composition and diversity in saline-alkali soil across different land uses, such as agricultural land, forest land, and grassland, were evaluated using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Significant differences in the soil physicochemical characteristics and bacterial community among different land uses were observed in this study...
January 19, 2017: Current Microbiology
Adi Setyo Purnomo, Refdinal Nawfa, Fahimah Martak, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Ichiro Kamei
Aldrin and its metabolite dieldrin are persistent organic pollutants that contaminate soil in many parts of the world. Given the potential hazards associated with these pollutants, an efficient degradation method is required. In this study, we investigated the ability of Pleurotus ostreatus to transform aldrin as well as dieldrin in pure liquid cultures. This fungus completely eliminated aldrin in potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium during a 14-day incubation period. Dieldrin was detected as the main metabolite, and 9-hydroxylaldrin and 9-hydroxyldieldrin were less abundant metabolites...
January 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
Ruth Nahurira, Lei Ren, Jinlong Song, Yang Jia, Junhuan Wang, Shuanghu Fan, Haisheng Wang, Yanchun Yan
One bacterial strain, YC-RL2, isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil, could utilize environmental hormone Di(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a sole carbon source for growth. Strain YC-RL2 was identified as Gordonia alkanivorans by 16S rRNA gene analysis and Biolog tests. The effects of environmental factors which might affect the degrading process were optimized at 30 °C and pH 8.0. Strain YC-RL2 showed superior halotolerance and could tolerate up to 0-5% NaCl in trace element medium supplemented with DEHP, although the DEHP degradation rates slowed as NaCl concentration increased...
January 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
David Smith, Dunja Martin, Tatyana Novossiolova
The life-science community is a key stakeholder in the effort to ensure that the advances in biotechnology are not misused. Unfortunately, to date, the engagement of life scientists with issues of biosecurity has been limited. Microorganisms have been harnessed for the benefit of humankind but in the wrong hands could be used in direct or indirect acts against humans, livestock, crops, food, water infrastructure and other economically valuable entities. The Microbial Resources Research Infrastructure in its preparatory phase has addressed the topic implementing a code of conduct as part of its programme of prevention of malicious use and continues to work with the international community to raise awareness of best practice to avoid misuse of microorganisms...
December 26, 2016: Current Microbiology
Salima Aissaoui, Houria Ouled-Haddar, Mohamed Sifour, Kamel Harrouche, Haitham Sghaier
The presence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as diclofenac (DCF), in the environment, is an emerging problem due to their harmful effects on non-target organisms, even at low concentrations. We studied the biodegradation of DCF by the strain D15 of Enterobacter hormaechei. The strain was isolated from an activated sludge, and identified as E. hormaechei based on its physiological characteristics and its 16 S RNA sequence. Using HPTLC and GC-MS methods, we demonstrated that this strain metabolized DCF at an elimination rate of 52...
March 2017: Current Microbiology
Bheong-Uk Lee, Moon-Seop Choi, Dong-Min Kim, Kye-Heon Oh
A genome-shuffled Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain showing the enhanced ability of RDX degradation was constructed, and its characteristics were compared with those of the wild-type one. The shuffled strain was able to completely degrade 25, 50, and 75 µM RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) within 10, 30, and 50 days, respectively. However, it took 30 and 70 days for the wild-type strain to degrade 25 and 50 µM RDX, respectively, and at day 70, the strain degraded only 67% of 75 µM RDX...
February 2017: Current Microbiology
Turki M Dawoud, Anita Khatiwara, Si Hong Park, Morgan L Davis, Christopher A Baker, Steven C Ricke, Young Min Kwon
Contamination of food products by pathogenic microorganisms continues to be a major public health and food industry concern. Non-typhoidal Salmonella species have led to numerous outbreaks associated with various foods. A wide variety of methods have been applied and introduced for treatment of fresh foods to eliminate pathogenic as well as spoilage microorganisms. Salmonella can become exposed to elevated temperatures while associated with hosts such as poultry. In addition, heat treatment is also applied at various stages of processing to retain the shelf life of food products...
February 2017: Current Microbiology
Caroline Fritsch, André Jänsch, Matthias A Ehrmann, Simone Toelstede, Rudi F Vogel
A high variety of plants that are used for food production contain esterified hydroxycinnamic acids. As their free forms display several benefits, like an enhanced absorption in human intestinal tract, anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic effects, an improved protein solubility and reduced discoloration, the microbial ability to cleave the ester bond is highly desired. In order to examine potential fermentation strains for this purpose, six different lactic acid bacteria and one bifidobacterial strain were screened for their ability to degrade esterified hydroxycinnamic acids because these strains are commonly used for fermentation of plant-based foods...
February 2017: Current Microbiology
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