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Current Microbiology

Y N Mora-Cura, N P Meléndez-Rentería, M Delgado-García, J C Contreras-Esquivel, J A Morlett-Chávez, C N Aguilar, R Rodríguez-Herrera
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentation of dietary fiber from green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and prickly pear shell (Opuntia ficus-indica) by Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum 450B growing as mono-culture and co-culture, the fermentation products, and proteins expressed during this process. The analysis of the fermentation profile showed a major growth of bacteria in the culture media of each dietary fiber supplemented with glucose, and particularly B. bifidum 450B at 48 h showed the highest growth...
March 23, 2017: Current Microbiology
Abdollah Kasaei, Mohsen Mobini-Dehkordi, Foruzandeh Mahjoubi, Behnaz Saffar
Taxol or paclitaxel, an approved drug by the Food and Drug Administration, is being used for the treatment of human cancers. This study aimed to isolate and determine different species of native endophytic fungi from Iranian Taxus baccata (yew) plants located in the northern forests of Iran. To do so, a novel molecular screening approach was performed for 50 isolated endophytic fungi through amplification of exon No. 1 of taxadine synthase as a key gene in taxol production pathway. We used effective colony-polymerase chain reaction technique for rapid screening of potent taxol-producing fungi instead of genomic DNA extraction...
March 23, 2017: Current Microbiology
Amin Ilahi, Inès Hadrich, Sourour Neji, Houaida Trabelsi, Fattouma Makni, Ali Ayadi
Lipophilic yeast Malassezia species is widely found on the skin surface of humans and other animals. This fungus can cause pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis, and seborrheic dermatitis. Still now, there is a problem with species identification of Malassezia with conventional methods. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with multiple hybridization probes for detecting M. globosa, M. furfur, M. restricta, M. sympodialis, M. slooffiae, and M. pachydermatis. The amplification curves and specific melting peaks of the probes hybridized with real-time PCR product were used for species identifications...
March 22, 2017: Current Microbiology
Chenchen Zhang, Tingting Guo, Yongping Xin, Susu Zhang, Xudong Ouyang, Ruixia Gu, Jian Kong
The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system, which is used for folded protein secretion, is rare in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Previously, a Tat system composed of TatAS and TatCS subunits (the subscript S denotes a Streptococcus thermophilus origin) was identified in S. thermophilus CGMCC 7.179. In the present study, the tatA S and tatC S genes were cloned and functionally analyzed in Escherichia coli DE3 tat-deficient mutants. The E. coli tatABCDE-deficient mutant complemented with tatC S A S exhibited shortened cellular chains, but its ability to grow in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was not restored, suggesting that the S...
March 22, 2017: Current Microbiology
Daniella de Sousa Mendes Moreira Alves, Luciano Moreira Alves, Tatiane Luiza da Costa, Ana Maria de Castro, Marina Clare Vinaud
Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are of the most common protozoa that has been isolated from a variety of environment and affect immunocompromised individuals, causing granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and skin lesions. Acanthamoeba, in immunocompetent patients, may cause a keratitis related to corneal microtrauma. These free-living amoebas easily adapt to the host environment and wield metabolic pathways such as the energetic and respiratory ones in order to maintain viability for long periods. The energetic metabolism of cysts and trophozoites remains mostly unknown...
March 22, 2017: Current Microbiology
Minju Seong, Dong Gun Lee
The evolution of antibiotics-resistant bacteria is considered a major concern. To explore promising antibacterial materials and clarify their unknown mechanisms, the mode of action of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium was investigated. We investigated the effect of AgNPs on the bacterial membrane. The N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine assay showed that the permeability of the outer membrane was not changed by treatment with AgNPs. The O-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside assay showed that the inner membrane permeability increased as AgNPs concentration increased...
March 21, 2017: Current Microbiology
Ming Liu, Rongmei Liu, Guoxing Luo, Haitao Li, Jiguo Gao
Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIPs) are not homologous to other known Cry proteins, and they act against lepidopteran larvae via a unique process. All reported studies on the mode of action of Vip3 proteins have been performed on the Vip3A family, mostly on the Vip3Aa subfamily. Vip3Aa proteins are activated by midgut proteases, and they cross the peritrophic membrane and bind specific proteins in apical membrane epithelial midgut cells, which results in pore formation and, eventually, death to the insects...
March 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
Marcin Ciszewski, Eligia M Szewczyk
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a pyogenic, Lancefield C or G streptococcal pathogen. Until recently, it has been considered as an exclusive animal pathogen. Nowadays, it is responsible for both animal infections in wild animals, pets, and livestock and human infections often clinically similar to the ones caused by group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes). The risk of zoonotic infection is the most significant in people having regular contact with animals, such as veterinarians, cattlemen, and farmers...
March 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
Meiyuan Chen, Jianhua Liao, Hongrong Li, Zhixin Cai, Zhongjie Guo, Mark P Wach, Zesheng Wang
Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Imbach, well known as the common cultivated mushroom or white button mushroom, is widely cultivated all over the world. We used iTRAQ-MS/MS (i.e., isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification-coupled two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) to identify protein expression changes that occur during the post-harvest maturation of Agaricus bisporus fruitbodies at 0, 6, 12, and 48 h after harvest. A total of 5878 unique peptides, representing 1063 proteins, were identified...
March 16, 2017: Current Microbiology
Yongkai Chang, Jingfeng Fan, Jie Su, Hongxia Ming, Wen Zhao, Yan Shi, Fengyun Ji, Limei Guo, Shuaijun Zan, Bochao Li, Hao Guo, Daoming Guan
Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) play an important role in nitrification in estuaries. The aim of this study was to examine the spatial abundance, diversity, and activity of AOB in coastal sediments of the Liaohe Estuary using quantitative PCR, high-throughput sequencing of the amoA gene coding the ammonia monooxygenase enzyme active subunit, and sediment slurry incubation experiments. AOB abundance ranged from 8.54 × 10(4) to 5.85 × 10(6) copies g(-1) of wet sediment weight and exhibited an increasing trend from the Liaohe Estuary to the open coastal zone...
March 14, 2017: Current Microbiology
Yufang Liu, Fengchun Zhao, Jiye Liu, Huimin Wang, Xiao Han, Yongxin Zhang, Zhengyou Yang
High cholesterol level in serum is a major factor of influence for coronary heart disease. The cholesterol-lowering ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) without side effects makes them more and more attractive. Seventy-nine strains of LAB isolated from fermented food were screened in vitro for their ability to assimilate cholesterol. Then, ten strains which exhibited higher ability of cholesterol assimilation were investigated with the characteristics of acidic resistance, bile salt tolerance, and cell adhesion...
March 13, 2017: Current Microbiology
Vinod S Nandre, Sachin P Bachate, Rahul C Salunkhe, Aditi V Bagade, Yogesh S Shouche, Kisan M Kodam
Nutrient availability in nature influenced the microbial ecology and behavior present in existing environment. In this study, we have focused on isolation of arsenic-oxidizing cultures from arsenic devoid environment and studied effect of carbon starvation on rate of arsenite oxidation. In spite of the absence of arsenic, a total of 40 heterotrophic, aerobic, arsenic-transforming bacterial strains representing 18 different genera were identified. Nineteen bacterial species were isolated from tannery effluent and twenty-one from tannery soil...
March 10, 2017: Current Microbiology
Paulina Aguayo, Paulina González, Víctor Campos, Teresa L Maugeri, Maria Papale, Concetta Gugliandolo, Miguel A Martinez
The prokaryotic abundance and diversity in three cold, oligotrophic Patagonian lakes (Témpanos, Las Torres and Mercedes) in the northern region Aysén (Chile) were compared in winter and summer using 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique. Prokaryotic abundances, numerically dominated by Bacteria, were quite similar in the three lakes, but higher in sediments than in waters, and they were also higher in summer than in winter. The relative contribution of Archaea was greater in waters than in sediments, and in winter rather than in summer...
March 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
Manuela O Ramalho, Cintia Martins, Larissa M R Silva, Vanderlei G Martins, Odair C Bueno
This study focuses on the weaver ant, Camponotus textor, Forel which occurs in some areas of the Brazilian Cerrado and Atlantic Forest, and its symbionts: Blochmannia, an obligate symbiont of Camponotus, and Wolbachia, known for causing reproductive alterations in their hosts. The main goal of this study was to investigate the presence, frequency of occurrence, and diversity of Wolbachia and Blochmannia strains in C. textor colonies. We found high infection rates (100%) and the occurrence of at least two distinct strains of Blochmannia (H_1 or H_7) in the same species...
March 6, 2017: Current Microbiology
Vanessa Oliveira, Newton C M Gomes, Magda Santos, Adelaide Almeida, Ana I Lillebø, João Ezequiel, João Serôdio, Artur M S Silva, Mário M Q Simões, Sílvia M Rocha, Ângela Cunha
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the inoculation of the saltmarsh plant (Halimione portulacoides) with Pseudomonas sp. SPN31 nah+ combined with exposure to 2-methylnaphthalene (2-MtN) on the plant rhizosphere and endosphere bacterial communities as well as on plant health. To achieve this goal, microcosm experiments were set up. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles and statistical analysis showed that rhizosphere and endosphere bacterial communities had distinct responses to plant inoculation and/or exposure to 2-MtN...
March 4, 2017: Current Microbiology
Hanen Boukedi, Saoussen Ben Khedher, Dhouha Ghribi, Mariam Dammak, Slim Tounsi, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati
Vegetative insecticidal proteins produced by some Bacillus thuringiensis strains are specifically toxic to different agricultural pests such as the polyphagous Spodoptera and several other Lepidopteran insects, but one of the major problems found in the use of these biopesticides was the lack of an easy and credible method of quantification of such secreted toxins. Heterologous expression of B. thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 toxin was performed in Escherichia coli then the protein was purified by chromatography. Using blood agar as well as blood agar overlay (zymogram assay), we reported, for the first time, the capacity of Vip3Aa16 to induce hemolysis...
March 4, 2017: Current Microbiology
Mimi Zhou, Danyu Shen, Gaoge Xu, Fengquan Liu, Guoliang Qian
Lysobacter enzymogenes (L. enzymogenes) is an agriculturally important Gram-negative bacterium that employs T4P (type IV pili)-driven twitching motility to exhibit its antifungal function. Yet, it is still unclear how this bacterium regulates its twitching motility. Here, by using strain OH11 as the working model organism, we showed that a hybrid two-component system ChpA acts as a positive regulator in controlling twitching motility in L. enzymogenes. ChpA is a hybrid TCS (two-component transduction system) contains 7 domains including those for auto-phosphorylation and phosphate group transfer, as well as a phosphate receiver (REC) domain...
March 3, 2017: Current Microbiology
Anna A Toymentseva, Thorsten Mascher, Margarita R Sharipova
Expression of extracellular protease genes of Bacilli is subject to regulation by many positive and negative regulators. Here we analyzed 5' regulatory regions of genes encoding proteolytic proteases AprBp, GseBp, and MprBp from Bacillus pumilus strain 3-19. Gfp fusion constructs with upstream genomic regions of different lengths were created for all three genes to identify their natural promoters (regulatory regions). Our results suggest that the aprBp gene, encoding the major subtilisin-like protease, has the most extensive promoter region of approximately 445 bp, while the minor protease genes encoding glutamyl endopeptidase (gseBp) and metalloproteinase (mprBp) are preceded by promoters of 150 and 250 bp in length, respectively...
March 3, 2017: Current Microbiology
Niharika Singh, Mamta Raghav, Shifa Narula, Simran Tandon, Gunjan Goel
Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging pathogen causing meningitis, sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and immune-compromised adults. The present study describes the profiling of different virulence factors associated with C. sakazakii isolates derived from plant-based materials and environmental samples (soil, water, and vacuum dust). All the isolates exhibited β-hemolysis and chitinase activity, and were able to utilize inositol. Among the nine virulence-associated genes, hly gene coding for hemolysin was detected in all the isolates followed by ompA (outer membrane protein); however, plasmid-borne genes were detected at a level of 60% for both cpa (cronobacter plasminogen activator) and eitA (Ferric ion transporter protein) gene, respectively...
March 3, 2017: Current Microbiology
Thamires Klein de Souza, Scheila Silva Soares, Lisianne Brittes Benitez, Marilise Brittes Rott
The interactions that occur between bacteria and amoebae can give through mutual relations, where both organisms benefit from the association or parasitic in which one organism benefits at the expense of the other. When these organisms share the same environment, it can result in some changes in the growth of organisms, in adaptation patterns, in morphology, development or even in their ability to synthesize proteins and other substances. In this study, the interaction between Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was evaluated using a co-culture model at different incubation times...
March 3, 2017: Current Microbiology
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