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Current Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803266/a-degradome-based-polymerase-chain-reaction-to-resolve-the-potential-of-environmental-samples-for-2-4-dichlorophenol-biodegradation
#1
Eslam S Ibrahim, Mona T Kashef, Tamer M Essam, Mohammed A Ramadan
A clean way to overcome environmental pollution is biodegradation. In this perspective, at the intersection of biodegradation and metagenomics, the degradome is defined as the totality of genes related to the biodegradation of a certain compound. It includes the genetic elements from both culturable and uncultured microorganisms. The possibility of assessing the biodegradation potential of an environmental samples, using a degradome-based polymerase chain reaction, was explored. 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was chosen as a model and the use of tfdB gene as a biodegradation marker was confirmed by bioinformatics study of TfdB protein...
August 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785831/transcriptome-analysis-of-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum-at-different-infection-stages-on-brassica-napus
#2
Qi Peng, Qingxuan Xie, Feng Chen, Xiaoying Zhou, Wei Zhang, Jiefu Zhang, Huiming Pu, Ying Ruan, Chunlin Liu, Song Chen
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is one of the most important plant pathogens, causing enormous losses in a variety of economically important crops including Brassica napus. The interaction of S. sclerotiorum with its hosts is more complex than initially thought, and still poorly understood. In this study, transcriptome analysis was conducted using S. sclerotiorum RNA from the leaf of B. napus. We mapped 11,074,508 and 11,495,788 paired-end reads. A total of 13,313 genes were obtained and classified according to their functional categories...
August 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780699/community-composition-and-abundance-of-anammox-bacteria-in-cattail-rhizosphere-sediments-at-three-phenological-stages
#3
Xiaohong Zhou, Jinping Zhang, Chunzi Wen
The distribution of anammox bacteria in rhizosphere sediments of cattail (Typha orientalis) at different phenological stages was investigated. Results showed that the number of 16S rRNA gene copies of the anammox bacteria was considerably higher in the rhizosphere sediment than in the nonrhizosphere sediment and control sediment. The abundances of the anammox bacteria exhibited striking temporal variations in the three different cattail phenological stages. In addition, the Chao1 and Shannon H indexes of the anammox bacteria in cattail rhizosphere sediments had evident spatial and temporal variations at different phenological stages...
August 5, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779357/evaluating-a-new-high-throughput-twin-arginine-translocase-assay-in-bacteria-for-therapeutic-applications
#4
Deepanjan Ghosh, Shridhar Chougule, Vellore Sunder Avinash, Sureshkumar Ramasamy
The twin-arginine translocase (Tat) pathway is involved in the transport of folded proteins in bacteria, and has been implicated in virulence and pathogenesis. A simple but efficient assay based on the quantification of the exopolysaccharide colanic acid was developed as a new means to study Tat function. Colanic acid contains a methylpentose (L-fucose) component, and its production is directly linked to the Tat pathway through the transport of enzymes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis. Monitoring of L-fucose levels can be applied for identification of new Tat substrates and high-throughput screening of Tat inhibitors for therapeutic applications...
August 4, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779356/isolation-and-characterization-of-fusarium-verticillioides-nkf1-for-unsaturated-fatty-acid-production
#5
R Manjoo, S Deepa, Alok K Yadav, Nand K Singh
Polyunsaturated fatty acid helps to prevent diseases like cardiovascular, inflammation, and cognitive abilities for developmental disorders. The main objective of this research is the screening of polyunsaturated fatty acid producing fungi from soil samples of mangrove from the seashore coastal areas in India. Fusarium verticillioides species showed the presence of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid in the starch yeast-extract medium. Among the representative isolate, F. verticillioides NKF1 was found to grow in a YEP broth medium and produce the maximum lipid...
August 4, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761980/effects-of-disodium-fumarate-on-in-vitro-rumen-fermentation-the-production-of-lipopolysaccharide-and-biogenic-amines-and-the-rumen-bacterial-community
#6
Wei Jin, Chunxu Xue, Junhua Liu, Yuyang Yin, Weiyun Zhu, Shengyong Mao
The effect of disodium fumarate (DF) on the ruminal fermentation profiles, the accumulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bioamines, and the composition of the ruminal bacterial community was investigated by in vitro rumen fermentation. The addition of DF increased the total gas production; the concentrations of propionate, valerate, total volatile fatty acids, and ammonia-nitrogen; and the rumen pH after a 24 h fermentation. By contrast, DF addition decreased the ratio of acetate to propionate and the concentrations of lactate, lipopolysaccharide, methylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, histamine, and tyramine (P < 0...
July 31, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761979/probiotics-and-probiotic-metabolic-product-improved-intestinal-function-and-ameliorated-lps-induced-injury-in-rats
#7
Bo Deng, Jie Wu, Xiaohui Li, Xiaoming Men, Ziwei Xu
In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of Bacillus subtilis (BAS) and Bacillus licheniformis (BAL) in rats after lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute intestinal inflammation. We also determined whether the B. subtilis metabolic product (BASM) is as effective as the live-cell probiotic. 60 male SD rats were randomly assigned to five groups and administered a diet containing 0.05% B. licheniformis (BAL group), 0.05% B. subtilis (BAS group), 0.5% B. subtilis metabolic product (BASM group), or a basic diet (PC group and NC group) for 40 days...
July 31, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756573/classification-of-culturable-bifidobacterial-population-from-colonic-samples-of-wild-pigs-sus-scrofa-based-on-three-molecular-genetic-methods
#8
Radko Pechar, Jiří Killer, Chahrazed Mekadim, Martina Geigerová, Vojtěch Rada
Occurrence of bifidobacteria, known as health-promoting probiotic microorganisms, in the digestive tract of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) has not been examined yet. One hundred forty-nine fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase positive bacterial strains were isolated from colonic content of twenty-two individuals of wild pigs originated from four localities in the Czechia. Based on PCR-DGGE technique targeting the variable V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes, strains were initially differentiated into four groups represented by: (i) probably a new Bifidobacterium species (89 strains), (ii) B...
July 29, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755026/sensitivity-of-enzymatic-toxins-from-corneal-isolate-of-acanthamoeba-protozoan-to-physicochemical-parameters
#9
Viviane P Sant'Ana, Annette S Foronda, Denise de Freitas, Linda C Carrijo-Carvalho, Fábio Ramos de Souza Carvalho
Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba that causes severe corneal infection (Acanthamoeba keratitis) and produces a variety of extracellular enzymes, called exoproteome. Since physicochemical characters are suggested being associated with therapeutic profile and clinical severity of the infection, we investigated the physicochemical properties of proteolysis mediated by amoebic exoproteome. Corneal scraping was collected from a patient who showed typical symptoms of acute Acanthamoeba keratitis. Axenic amoeba was phylogenetically identified by 18S rDNA sequencing analysis...
July 28, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752341/comparative-correlation-between-chemical-composition-and-cytotoxic-potential-of-the-coral-associated-fungus-aspergillus-sp-2c1-egy-against-human-colon-cancer-cells
#10
Faten K Abd El-Hady, Kamel H Shaker, Ahmed M A Souleman, Walid Fayad, Mohamed S Abdel-Aziz, Ahmed A Hamed, Carmine Iodice, Giuseppina Tommonaro
Cancer is a leading cause of death in several countries. In the search for new anticancer drugs, marine organisms have played an important role in the discovery of lead compounds and the development of new pharmaceuticals for their wide diversity of chemical structures and biological activities. In the present study, the cytotoxicity on colorectal cancer cells HCT116 exerted by marine fungus Aspergillus sp. 2C1-EGY extracts associated with the soft coral Sinularia sp. was investigated; the sub-fractions Fr 2c and Fr 2d had significantly high cytotoxic activity (88 and 85%, respectively)...
July 27, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748273/changes-in-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-gibel-carp-carassius-gibelio-associated-with-cyprinid-herpesvirus-2-cyhv-2-infection
#11
Rong She, Tong-Tong Li, Dan Luo, Jia-Bao Li, Liu-Yi Yin, Huan Li, Yao-Min Liu, Xiang-Zhen Li, Qi-Gui Yan
Gut microbiota are integral to the host, and have received increased attention in recent years. However, information regarding the intestinal microbiota of many aquaculture animals is insufficient; elucidating the dynamics of the intestinal microbiota can be beneficial for nutrition, immunity, and disease control. In this study, we used 16S rRNA sequencing to observe changes in the intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) associated with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) infection. Our results indicate that the diversity of the intestinal microbiota was strongly reduced, and the composition was dramatically altered following CyHV-2 infection...
July 26, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748272/a-small-cellulose-binding-domain-protein-cbd1-in-phytophthora-is-highly-variable-in-the-non-binding-amino-terminus
#12
Richard W Jones, Frances G Perez
The small cellulose-binding-domain protein CBD1 is tightly bound to the cellulosic cell wall of the plant pathogenic stramenopile Phytophthora infestans. Transgene expression of the protein in potato plants also demonstrated binding to plant cell walls. A study was undertaken using 47 isolates of P. infestans from a worldwide collection, along with 17 other Phytophthora species and a related pathogen Plasmopara halstedii, to determine if the critical cell wall protein is subject to amino acid variability. Within the amino acid sequence of the secreted portion of CBD 1, encoded by the P...
July 26, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733909/genetics-molecular-and-proteomics-advances-in-filamentous-fungi
#13
REVIEW
Prakriti Sharma Ghimire, Cheng Jin
Filamentous fungi play a dynamic role in health and the environment. In addition, their unique and complex hyphal structures are involved in their morphogenesis, integrity, synthesis, and degradation, according to environmental and physiological conditions and resource availability. However, in biotechnology, it has a great value in the production of enzymes, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients. The beginning of nomenclature of overall fungi started in early 1990 after which the categorization, interior and exterior mechanism, function, molecular and genetics study took pace...
July 22, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733908/assessment-of-cultivable-oral-bacterial-flora-from-important-venomous-snakes-of-india-and-their-antibiotic-susceptibilities
#14
Innus K Shaikh, Prashant P Dixit, Balasaheb S Pawade, Mugdha Potnis-Lele, Babasaheb P Kurhe
Snakebite is a common, frequently devastating, occupational, socio-economic hazard, and it has a great impact on the rural population of India. Snakebite is a major cause of the human morbidity and mortality since ancient times, as it not only affects the victim by systemic envenomation but also by wound infections originating from deadly pathogenic microorganisms from the oral cavity of the offending snake. The pathogens from the oral cavity of the snake tend to initiate an infection, resulting in gas gangrene, soft tissue necrosis, and permanent physical disabilities...
July 21, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730458/generation-and-screening-of-t-dna-insertion-mutants-mediated-by-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-in-the-garden-asparagus-stem-blight-pathogen-phomopsis-asparagi
#15
Yueping Zhang, Huaxiang Qu, Ping Zhao, Yongping Tang, Jingsong Zhou, Shaochun Luo, Yuling Yin, Guangyu Chen
The garden asparagus stem blight caused by filamentous fungus Phomopsis asparagi exposes a serious threat on asparagus production globally. However, to present, we understand poorly about the molecular mechanisms of fungal pathogenicity. To facilitate functional genomics research of P. asparagi, here we developed a highly efficient and stable Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation approach which yielded 150-200 transformants per 1 × 10(6) conidia. Our results indicated that 25 °C, acetosyringone concentration of 150 μmol/L, and 72 h were recommended as optimal co-cultivation conditions for the transformation...
July 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721659/antimicrobial-activity-of-selected-polyphenols-and-capsaicinoids-identified-in-pepper-capsicum-annuum-l-and-their-possible-mode-of-interaction
#16
Meriem Mokhtar, Giovanna Ginestra, Fatma Youcefi, Angela Filocamo, Carlo Bisignano, Ali Riazi
Antimicrobial activity of pepper polyphenols and capsaicinoids (Coumarin, caffeic acid, narangin, kaempferol, rutin, quercetin, capsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin) against 13 pathogen bacteria and three beneficial strains was studied using the disk diffusion and microdilution methods. In general, phenolic compounds had the most important activity with the highest inhibition zones obtained with caffeic acid (3.5-20.5 mm), quercetin (4.75-3.5 mm), and kaempferol (7-14 mm). In the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentrations, the effects of both quercetin and kaempferol were more important than caffeic acid...
July 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721658/microbial-communities-in-different-tissues-of-atta-sexdens-rubropilosa-leaf-cutting-ants
#17
Alexsandro S Vieira, Manuela O Ramalho, Cintia Martins, Vanderlei G Martins, Odair C Bueno
Bacterial endosymbionts are common in all insects, and symbiosis has played an integral role in ant evolution. Atta sexdens rubropilosa leaf-cutting ants cultivate their symbiotic fungus using fresh leaves. They need to defend themselves and their brood against diseases, but they also need to defend their obligate fungus gardens, their primary food source, from infection, parasitism, and usurpation by competitors. This study aimed to characterize the microbial communities in whole workers and different tissues of A...
July 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721657/biological-decolorization-and-degradation-of-malachite-green-by-pseudomonas-sp-yb2-process-optimization-and-biodegradation-pathway
#18
Yanbin Tao, Fei Wang, Lingjun Meng, Yang Guo, Mengshu Han, Jinhai Li, Cheng Sun, Shaomang Wang
A novel strain Pseudomonas sp. YB2, which was isolated from activated sludge, was studied for biological decolorization and degradation of malachite green (MG). The results show that this aerobic strain is an aerobic bacterium, which has relatively high salt tolerance and high antibiotic resistance. The optimal performance condition for both bacterial growth and decolorization of MG was at 25-35 °C and pH 5.0-7.0. It could efficiently decolorize 90.40% MG at a high concentration up to 1500 mg/L in 24 h, and concentrations of MG lower than 1000 mg/L could be completely decolorized in 12 h...
July 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717848/new-identification-of-three-or-more-campylobacter-species-on-the-basis-of-a-degenerate-pcr-rflp-method-targeting-gyrb-gene
#19
Hiroyuki Fukuda, Fumiko Kojima, Shuji Fujimoto
This method was aimed targeting more Campylobacter species than conventional PCR-based identifications. They generally use species-specific primers focusing on clinically common species like C. jejuni, resulting in failure to recognize other species. We made the PCR-based identification more flexible using degenerate primers and DdeI- and MboI-separately used RFLP assay, which were designed on the basis of gyrB nucleotide sequence data of 14 Campylobacter species including C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus. Ninety-four clinical isolates from patients with Campylobacter gastroenteritis and 13 biochemically identified C...
July 17, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717847/exploring-the-genomic-diversity-and-cariogenic-differences-of-streptococcus-mutans-strains-through-pan-genome-and-comparative-genome-analysis
#20
Peiqi Meng, Chang Lu, Qian Zhang, Jiuxiang Lin, Feng Chen
Pan-genome refers to the sum of genes that can be found in a given bacterial species, including the core-genome and the dispensable genome. In this study, the genomes from 183 Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) isolates were analyzed from the pan-genome perspective. This analysis revealed that S. mutans has an "open" pan-genome, implying that there are plenty of new genes to be found as more genomes are sequenced. Additionally, S. mutans has a limited core-genome, which is composed of genes related to vital activities within the bacterium, such as metabolism and hereditary information storage or processing, occupying 35...
July 17, 2017: Current Microbiology
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