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Current Microbiology

Ankit Kumar Chauhan, Dinesh Kumar Maheshwari, Shrivardhan Dheeman, Vivek K Bajpai
Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) is the main bioactive component of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) having remarkable multipotent medicinal and therapeutic applications. Two Bacilli isolated from termitarium soil and identified as Bacillus endophyticus TSH42 and Bacillus cereus TSH77 were used for bacterization of rhizome for raising C. longa ver. suguna for growth and enhancement. Both the strains showed remarkable PGP activities and also chemotactic in nature with high chemotactic index. Turmeric plants bacterized with strains B...
December 2, 2016: Current Microbiology
Han Han, Xiaoting Wei, Yi Wei, Xiufeng Zhang, Xuemin Li, Jinzhong Jiang, Ran Wang
Salmonella Enteritidis remains a major threat for food safety. To take efforts to develop phage-based biocontrol for S. Enteritidis contamination in food, in this study, the phages against S. Enteritidis were isolated from sewage samples, characterized by host range assays, DNA restriction enzyme pattern analyses, and transmission electron microscope observations, and tested for antibacterial activity in food; some potent phages were further characterized by bioinformatic analyses. Results showed that based on the plaque quality and host range, seven lytic phages targeting S...
November 30, 2016: Current Microbiology
Sayandeep Gupta, Mousam Roy, Abhrajyoti Ghosh
The signal recognition particle (SRP) and its receptor constitute universally conserved and essential cellular machinery that controls the proper membrane localization of nascent polypeptides with the transmembrane domain. In the past decade, there has been an immense advancement in our understanding of this targeting machine in all three domains of life. A significant portion of such progress came from the structural analysis of archaeal SRP components. Despite the availability of structural insights from different archaeal SRP components, little is known about protein translocation in this domain of life compared to either bacteria or eukaryotes...
November 29, 2016: Current Microbiology
Anna Toplaghaltsyan, Inga Bazukyan, Armen Trchounian
Lactobacillus rhamnosus R-2002 strain isolated from Armenian pickled cheese sample has a fungicide effect, which was carried out by the first-time designed method. The fungicide effect of LAB strain was expressed after 5 days of co-cultivation with Mucor plumbeus and 6 days of co-cultivation with Penicillium aurantioviolaceum. The growth as well as the antifungal activity of L. rhamnosus R-2002 was shown to directly depend on the nature of the medium's carbon source. The antifungal activity of this strain against both moulds was inhibited when the combination of 10 g l(-1) glucose and 10 ml l(-1) ethanol in the medium was used as a carbon source...
November 28, 2016: Current Microbiology
Agata Anna Cisek, Iwona Dąbrowska, Karolina Paulina Gregorczyk, Zbigniew Wyżewski
The therapeutic use of bacteriophages has seen a renewal of interest blossom in the last few years. This reversion is due to increased difficulties in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics, a serious problem in contemporary medicine, does not implicate resistance to phage lysis mechanisms. Lytic bacteriophages are able to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria at the end of the phage infection cycle. Thus, the development of phage therapy is potentially a way to improve the treatment of bacterial infections...
November 28, 2016: Current Microbiology
Disa Dahlman, Farnaz Jalalvand, Marianne Alanko Blomé, Anders Håkansson, Håkan Janson, Susanne Quick, Anna C Nilsson
To investigate the prevalence, distribution, and colonization burden of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and MRSA in different body sites among people who inject drugs (PWID) and compare it to a control group consisting of non-injectors. In this cross-sectional survey, 49 active PWID from the needle exchange program (NEP) in Malmö, Sweden, and 60 non-injecting controls from an emergency psychiatric inpatient ward at Malmö Addiction Centre were tested for S. aureus (including MRSA) by culture, PCR, and MALDI-TOF...
November 28, 2016: Current Microbiology
Michael J Rothrock, Hong Zhuang, Kurt C Lawrence, Brian C Bowker, Gary R Gamble, Kelli L Hiett
The goal of this study was to test the efficacy of in-package dielectric barrier discharge-cold plasma (DBD-CP) treatment to inactivate poultry-associated spoilage (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and pathogenic (Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, Campylobacter jejuni) bacteria. Liquid cultures of the bacterial isolates were sealed within packages containing ambient air (Trial 1) or modified air (65% O2:30% CO2:5% N2; Trial 2). The packages were subjected to treatment times ranging from 30 to 180 s, and after 24 h incubation at 4 °C, bacterial titers were determined...
November 24, 2016: Current Microbiology
Ichiro Kamei
White-rot fungi are the main decomposers of wood cell-wall polymer in forest ecosystems. Little is known, however, about the interactions between white-rot fungi and other coexisting microorganisms in decayed wood. A white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor strain TN6F, was isolated from a fruit body, and 44 strains of coexisting cultivable bacteria were isolated from its substrate, natural white rot-decayed wood. The effects of these bacteria on fungal growth were examined by an in vitro confrontation growth assay...
November 22, 2016: Current Microbiology
Jing-Yu Liu, Ming-Chang Chang, Jun-Long Meng, Cui-Ping Feng, Yong-Nan Liu
Flammulina velutipes is a potentially excellent fungus to study basic mechanisms of basidiomycete mycelium biology. To provide a better understanding of the mechanism of hyphae growth and fruit-body formation, the biological functions of the differentially abundant proteins between the fruiting dikaryon and the non-fruiting monokaryon of F. velutipes were investigated at the proteomic level using iTRAQ-coupled two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry technique. Among the 1198 proteins identified with high confidence, a total of 472 proteins were detected differentially abundant at least one of the mycelium development stages...
November 19, 2016: Current Microbiology
Natalia Pimentel Esposito-Polesi, Monita Fiori de Abreu-Tarazi, Cristina Vieira de Almeida, Siu Mui Tsai, Marcílio de Almeida
Asepsis, defined as the absence of microbial contamination, is one of the most important requirements of plant micropropagation. In long-term micropropagated cultures, there may occasionally occur scattered microorganism growth in the culture medium. These microorganisms are common plant components and are known as latent endophytes. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the presence of endophytic bacteria in asymptomatic pineapple and orchid microplants, which were cultivated in three laboratories for 1 year...
November 19, 2016: Current Microbiology
Antonio Curtoni, Raffaella Cipriani, Elisa Simona Marra, Anna Maria Barbui, Rossana Cavallo, Cristina Costa
Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is a useful tool for rapid identification of microorganisms. Unfortunately, its direct application to positive blood culture is still lacking standardized procedures. In this study, we evaluated an easy- and rapid-to-perform protocol for MALDI-TOF MS direct identification of microorganisms from positive blood culture after a short-term incubation on solid medium. This protocol was used to evaluate direct identification of microorganisms from 162 positive monomicrobial blood cultures; at different incubation times (3, 5, 24 h), MALDI-TOF MS assay was performed from the growing microorganism patina...
November 17, 2016: Current Microbiology
Genhui Xiao, Zongfu Wu, Shouming Zhang, Huanyu Tang, Fengqiu Wang, Chengping Lu
Streptococcus suis is a major pathogen of pigs and also an important zoonotic agent for humans. A S. suis protein containing Mac-1 domain (designated Mac) is a protective antigen, exclusively cleaves porcine IgM, and contributes to complement evasion with the presence of high titers of specific porcine anti-S. suis IgM, but its role in S. suis virulence has not been investigated in natural healthy host without specific IgM. In this study, a mac deletion mutant was constructed by homologous recombination in S...
November 15, 2016: Current Microbiology
Yi-Hui Lu, Li-Ping Jin, Li-Chun Kong, Ying-Lao Zhang
Insect gut microbes have been considered as a resource for bioactive metabolites. The aim of this study was to characterize the compounds of a fungus Aspergillus terreus QT122 associated with the gut of dragonfly. Five main phytotoxic, antifungal, and immunosuppressive substances were isolated from the fungus QT122. The structures of such compounds were identified as emodin (1), 1-methyl emodin (2), terrein (3), methyl 6-acetyl-4-methoxy-7,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylate (4), and dihydrogeodin (5) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of the corresponding data to those reported in the literature previously...
November 14, 2016: Current Microbiology
Behnam Tabatabai, AnithaChristy S Arumanayagam, Oluwatomisin Enitan, Arunmani Mani, Savithiry S Natarajan, Viji Sitther
Energy metabolism and photosynthetic pigment accumulation are affected by salt stress in cyanobacteria leading to cessation of growth. In this study, the effect of salinity on the freshwater cyanobacterium, Fremyella diplosiphon, was investigated and mutagenesis-based efforts were undertaken to enhance salt tolerance. Salinity at a concentration of 10 g/L sodium chloride (NaCl) inhibited growth of wild type F. diplosiphon under white, red, and green light. Efforts to enhance halotolerance resulted in a mutant that could survive in 20 g/L NaCl for 15 generations with no significant reduction in phycobiliproteins (phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, and allophycocyanin) or chlorophyll a...
November 14, 2016: Current Microbiology
Xinqi Huang, Yan Gao, Zhiping Ma, Guanghui Lin, Zhonghua Cai, Jin Zhou
Marine algae provide a unique niche termed the phycosphere for microorganism inhabitation. The phycosphere environment is an important niche for mutualistic and competitive interactions between algae and bacteria. Quorum sensing (QS) serves as a gene regulatory system in the microbial biosphere that allows bacteria to sense the population density with signaling molecules, such as acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), and adapt their physiological activities to their surroundings. Understanding the QS system is important to elucidate the interactions between algal-associated microbial communities in the phycosphere condition...
November 2, 2016: Current Microbiology
Katsuki Hirabayashi, Nobuhiro Kondo, Hiroshi Toyota, Sachio Hayashi
We report the production of the functional trisaccharide 1-kestose, O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside, by β-fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus japonicus using sugar cane molasses as substrate. Sucrose in cane sugar molasses acted as a fructosyl donor and acceptor for the enzyme. The tetrasaccharide nystose, O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside, was produced from 1-kestose. Cane sugar molasses mixed with water provided a better substrate solution for β-fructofuranosidase compared to undiluted molasses due to the high concentration of product inhibitors such as glucose and fructose in molasses...
November 1, 2016: Current Microbiology
Asmita Pramanik, Dibyendu Paik, Kshudiram Naskar, Tapati Chakraborti
The conventional drugs used for the treatment of human visceral leishmaniasis have concerns about the toxicity and most importantly parasite resistance. To overcome these troubles, more efforts are made for the development of innovative therapeutic agents having effective antileishmanial activity and simultaneously stimulate adaptive immune system of host cells. Hence, search for new leishmanicidal from the natural origin like plants has shown its effectiveness for the treatment of this tropical disease. The aim of this study is to investigate and characterize the antileishmanial efficacy of Coccinia grandis (L...
October 31, 2016: Current Microbiology
Kang Wang, Pingfang Tian
Although plasmid-dependent microbial breeding is predominant in manufacturing bio-based chemicals, it shows pitfall of genetic instability and thus hinders industrial production. Alternatively, chromosome engineering free from plasmid enables genetic stability and thus represents the new trend of microbial breeding. 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an economically important platform compound as the versatile precursor of a suite of C3 compound, such as 1, 3-PDO. Klebsiella pneumoniae is regarded as a promising host strain due to both its dha regulon and exceptional glycerol fermentation ability...
October 27, 2016: Current Microbiology
Manaf AlMatar, Mohamed Eldeeb, Essam A Makky, Fatih Köksal, Işıl Var, Begüm Kayar
Microbial-derived natural products have functional and structural diversity and complexity. For several decades, they have provided the basic foundation for most drugs available to modern medicine. Microbial-derived natural products have wide-ranging applications, especially as chemotherapeutics for various diseases and disorders. By exploring distinct microorganisms in different environments, small novel bioactive molecules with unique functionalities and biological or biomedical significance can be identified...
October 26, 2016: Current Microbiology
Tomonori Suzuki, Thomas Nagano, Koichi Niwa, Masataka Uchino, Motohiro Tomizawa, Yoshimasa Sagane, Toshihiro Watanabe
A non-toxigenic mutant of the toxigenic serotype C Clostridium botulinum strain Stockholm (C-St), C-N71, does not produce the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). However, the original strain C-St produces botulinum toxin complex, in which BoNT is associated with non-toxic non-hemagglutinin (NTNHA) and three hemagglutinin proteins (HA-70, HA-33, and HA-17). Therefore, in this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of bont gene knockout on the formation of the "toxin complex." Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that a premature stop codon was introduced in the bont gene, whereas other genes were not affected by this mutation...
October 26, 2016: Current Microbiology
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