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Current Microbiology

Kalpana Sriraman, Kayzad Nilgiriwala, Dhananjaya Saranath, Anirvan Chatterjee, Nerges Mistry
Alternate mechanisms of drug resistance involving intrinsic defense pathways play an important role in development of drug resistance. Deregulation of drug efflux, cellular metabolism, and DNA repair have been indicated to have effect on drug tolerance and persistence. Here we chose eight genes from these pathways to investigate their association with development of multidrug resistance (MDR). We generated mono drug resistant and MDR strains of rifampicin and isoniazid and examined the differential expression of genes belonging to efflux, DNA repair and cell wall lipid synthesis pathways...
November 16, 2017: Current Microbiology
Jiafang Fu, Gongli Zong, Peipei Zhang, Yuanxin Gu, Guangxiang Cao
Rv1057 is the only β-propeller protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its biological function is still unclear. In this study, we generated a deletion mutant of Rv1057 (D1057) in the virulent M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv and examined the characteristics of the mutant in vitro and in macrophages. We found that deletion of Rv1057 reduces secretion of the major virulence factor ESAT-6 and ESAT-6 stops in the cell envelope fraction during secretion, although ESAT-6 levels were similar in lysates of the mutant and control strains...
November 13, 2017: Current Microbiology
Shiori Kamatani, Kaoru Takegawa, Yoshio Kimura
Polyphosphate kinase 1 (Ppk1) catalyzes reverse transfer of the terminal phosphate from ATP to form polyphosphate (polyP) and from polyP to form ATP, and is responsible for the synthesis of most of cellular polyPs. When Ppk1 from Myxococcus xanthus was incubated with 0.2 mM polyP60-70 and 1 mM ATP or ADP, the rate of ATP synthesis was approximately 1.5-fold higher than that of polyP synthesis. If in the same reaction the proportion of ADP in the ATP/ADP mixture exceeded one-third, the equilibrium shifted to ATP synthesis, suggesting that M...
November 10, 2017: Current Microbiology
Bin Huang, Shumei Gao, Zhixiang Xu, Huan He, Xuejun Pan
Electron shuttles extensively exist in various environments. Some kinds of organic substances can be applied by microorganisms to produce electrons, and then the electrons can be transferred to other substances or microorganisms through electron shuttles, resulting in coexistence and interaction of diverse species of microbes. In this review, the functional mechanisms of extracellular electron transfer mediated by different electron shuttles are described. And different subtypes as well as the application of electron shuttles in microbial degradation of pollutants, microbial electricity, and the promotion of energy generation are also discussed...
November 10, 2017: Current Microbiology
Xiu Chen, Qin-Yuan Li, Gui-Ding Li, Fang-Ji Xu, Li Han, Yi Jiang, Xue-Shi Huang, Cheng-Lin Jiang
Huge numbers of bacteria reside in the digestive tract of host and these microorganisms play a vital role in the host health, especially in the digestion of food and the development of immune system. Host phylogeny and diet, especially long-term diet, both have great influence on the gut bacterial community. Other aspects of host, such as gender, age, and the geography and weather they lived, are also correlated to their gut bacterial community. Feces are usually used for gut bacteria study and fecal bacteria can represent the distal gut bacteria...
November 10, 2017: Current Microbiology
Chongxi Liu, Chuanyu Han, Shanwen Jiang, Xueli Zhao, Yuanyuan Tian, Kai Yan, Xiangjing Wang, Wensheng Xiang
During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria in insects, a novel actinobacteria with antifungal activity, designated strain 5H-CA11(T), was isolated from the head of an ant (Lasius flavus) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 5H-CA11(T) is a member of the genus Streptomyces, with the highest sequence similarity to Streptomyces scabrisporus DSM 41855(T) (98...
November 8, 2017: Current Microbiology
Pallavi Baliga, Malathi Shekar, Moleyur Nagarajappa Venugopal
Reverse vaccinology is a widely used approach that has facilitated the rapid identification of vaccine candidates suitable in vaccine development for pathogens. Vibrio anguillarum is a major pathogen responsible for vibriosis in fish and shellfish leading to huge economic losses to the aquaculture industry. Although commercial vaccines are available for fish against this bacterium they have their own limitations. In this study, we used the reverse vaccinology strategy to screen and identify V. anguillarum outer membrane proteins (OMPs) that could serve as vaccine candidates...
November 8, 2017: Current Microbiology
Li Weilan, Jae-Jin Lee, Seung-Yeol Lee, Sangkyu Park, Leonid N Ten, Hee-Young Jung
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterial strain, designated S7-4-1(T), was isolated from soil in Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea and characterized using a polyphasic approach to determine its taxonomic position. Phylogenic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain S7-4-1(T) belonged to the family Cytophagaceae and was most closely related to Spirosoma fluviale MSd3(T) (96.2%), 'Spirosoma radiotolerans' DG5A (96.0%), Spirosoma pulveris JSH5-14(T) (95.9%), and Spirosoma linguale DSM 74(T) (95...
November 8, 2017: Current Microbiology
Marinella Silva Laport, Mathieu Bauwens, Marie Collard, Isabelle George
In this study, we have investigated the phylogeny and the antagonistic interactions of culturable bacteria isolated from the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus collected from Aber and Morgat, both located in Crozon peninsula, France. Bacteria were isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of ten specimens by using conventional culture-dependent method and then investigated by using phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. Assays for antagonistic interactions among the bacterial strains were performed; bacteria (including at least one strain representative of each OTU identified) were screened for antimicrobial substance production...
November 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
C Anisha, P Sachidanandan, E K Radhakrishnan
The bioactivity spectrum of fungal endophytes isolated from Zingiber officinale was analyzed against clinical pathogens and against the phytopathogen Pythium myriotylum, which causes Pythium rot in ginger. One of the isolates GFM13 showed broad bioactivity against various pathogens tested including P. myriotylum. The spore suspension as well as the culture filtrate of the endophytic fungal isolate was found to effectively protect ginger rhizomes from Pythium rot. By molecular identification, the fungal endophyte was identified as Paraconiothyrium sp...
November 3, 2017: Current Microbiology
Xuesong Jiang, Kyle R Overdeep, Elliot R Wainwright, Timothy P Weihs, Hai-Quan Mao
The emergence of Bacillus anthracis as a potential bioterrorism and biological warfare agent points to the need for safe, effective, and economical sporicides for infection prevention and control. This work examined the efficacy of iodine vapor decontamination technologies to inactivate a surrogate for B. anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis spores on glass materials. 10(6)-10(7) colony-forming units of spores inoculated onto circular glass cover slips were treated with different concentrations of iodine vapor under various temperature and relative humidity...
November 2, 2017: Current Microbiology
Ga-Eun Lee, Wan-Taek Im, Jin-Sook Park
A Gram-reaction negative, aerobic, motile, non-pigmented and rod-shaped bacterium, designated as 168GH5-2-16(T), was isolated from seawater Jeju island. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that the strain formed a distinct lineage within the genus Vibrio and was most closely related to Vibrio variabilis R-40492(T) (96.0%). The DNA G+C content was 49.3 mol%. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). The predominant quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8)...
October 31, 2017: Current Microbiology
Jinjin Jiang, Yongjun Liu, Yu Liu, Siyu Hou
A novel bacterial cells immobilized carrier (ZnONPs/PVA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites decorated with ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), was prepared and used for immobilization of the strain Ochrobactrum sp. LC-1, and subsequently for quinoline degrading in water. Characterization of ZnONPs/PVA by using X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that ZnO NPs were coated on the surface of PVA cubes evenly and the bacterium grew well on the ZnONPs/PVA. Quinoline biodegradation results showed that the degradation effect of quinoline by ZnONPs/PVA immobilized cells was superior to the free cells significantly...
October 31, 2017: Current Microbiology
Yang Zhang, Xu Su, A J Harris, Marcos A Caraballo-Ortiz, Zhumei Ren, Yang Zhong
Buchnera aphidicola is a primary symbiotic bacterium which provides essential amino acids to aphids. In this study, we sequenced nuclear 16s rDNA and atpAGD genes for 156 individuals of B. aphidicola from eight geographically distant populations to investigate the genetic diversity and structure of B. aphidicola associated to the sumac gall aphid Schlechtendalia chinensis in central and southern China. Our analyses of the combined sequences showed that B. aphidicola from S. chinensis had high haplotype and nucleotide diversity (h = 0...
October 30, 2017: Current Microbiology
Jessica M Schmidt, Susan Henken, Scot E Dowd, Richard William McLaughlin
Using bacterial and fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing, the microbiota of the fecal material of seven giraffes living in captivity at the Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens, Jacksonville, FL was investigated. In all samples, the most predominant bacterial phylum was the Firmicutes followed by Bacteroidetes. The most predominant fungi were members of the phylum Ascomycota followed by Neocallimastigomycota in five of seven samples. The reverse was true in the other two samples.
October 30, 2017: Current Microbiology
Yan-Hong Du, Yuan-Jun Zhao, Fa-Hui Tang
We analyzed the secondary structure of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes of Mobilida (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) and found that the secondary structures of some regions within the SSU-rRNA gene are distinct between the families Trichodinidae and Urceolariidae. Therefore, some of these important regions including H10, H11, H17, H47, H29, H30, H37, E10-1, H45-H46, and V4 (E23-4, E23-7) could be used as the barcodes for classification of these two families. In contrast, V4 (E23-1, E23-2) belongs to a hypervariable region and is not a good barcode at the genus level because of its great inter-specific variation...
October 26, 2017: Current Microbiology
Hongzhi Zhang, Min Chen
We evaluated the accuracy and ease of operation of three methods to identify tdh-positive Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates, including the Kanagawa phenomenon test (KP test), a tdh gene PCR test, and a colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay (CGIA). A total of 221 V. parahaemolyticus isolates were collected from patients, freshly harvested seafood, and fresh seawater. Using the KP test, 92% of V. parahaemolyticus isolates from patients were identified tdh-positive, including four weak KP-positive isolates...
October 25, 2017: Current Microbiology
Tanushree Naik, Shanadrahalli Chandrashekaraiah Vanitha, Pradumn Kumar Rajvanshi, Manjegowda Chandrika, Subban Kamalraj, Chelliah Jayabaskaran
Eighteen endophytic fungi were isolated from various tissues of Datura metel and genes encoding for putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT), tropinone reductase 1 (TR1) and hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (H6H) were used as molecular markers for PCR-based screening approach for tropane alkaloids (TAs) producing endophytic fungi. These fungi were identified taxonomically by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and also based on morphological characteristics of the fungal spore as Colletotrichum boninense, Phomopsis sp...
October 24, 2017: Current Microbiology
Michael B Maas, Giles H C Maybery, Willem J Perold, Deon P Neveling, Leon M T Dicks
Polyclonal antibodies against Escherichia coli and fluorescent, secondary, antibodies were immobilized on borosilicate glass fibers pre-treated with 3-glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPS). Light with an average wavelength of 627 nm, emitted by a diode placed at one end of the glass fiber, was detected by an ultrasensitive photodiode with peak sensitivity at 640 nm. Changes in fluorescence, caused by binding of E. coli to the antibodies, changed the net refractive index of the glass fiber and thus the internal reflection of light...
October 24, 2017: Current Microbiology
Bo Zeng, Lijin Sun, Yongmei Chen, Yin Qian, Qian Cao, Zhi Zhang, Zaixin Li
Parasitic pathogens, such as H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori), are considered as primary elements for causing stomach infection and leading to chronic gastritis or ulcers. Here, an unreported urease- and oxidase-producing Neisseria flavescens-like bacteria was isolated from the gastroscopic biopsies of (14)C-UBT-positive gastritis patients. The isolate expressed the activity of urease, which is a pathogenic factor and considered as a reliable marker for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. However, the isolate didn't express the key functional genes of H...
October 24, 2017: Current Microbiology
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