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Environment International

Zeinab Farhat, Richard W Browne, Matthew R Bonner, Lili Tian, Furong Deng, Mya Swanson, Lina Mu
This study aims to investigate how antioxidant enzyme activity and overall antioxidant capacity respond to short-term changes in exposure to air pollution. 201 participants were recruited before- and followed up during- and after- the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Serum levels of antioxidant enzymes including glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured. We used linear mixed-effects models to compare changes in antioxidant enzymes across the three periods after adjusting for potential confounding factors...
January 8, 2018: Environment International
Nachiket P Marathe, Anders Janzon, Stathis D Kotsakis, Carl-Fredrik Flach, Mohammad Razavi, Fanny Berglund, Erik Kristiansson, D G Joakim Larsson
Evolution has provided environmental bacteria with a plethora of genes that give resistance to antibiotic compounds. Under anthropogenic selection pressures, some of these genes are believed to be recruited over time into pathogens by horizontal gene transfer. River sediment polluted with fluoroquinolones and other drugs discharged from bulk drug production in India constitute an environment with unprecedented, long-term antibiotic selection pressures. It is therefore plausible that previously unknown resistance genes have evolved and/or are promoted here...
January 6, 2018: Environment International
Ami R Zota, Susanna D Mitro, Joshua F Robinson, Emily G Hamilton, June-Soo Park, Emily Parry, R Thomas Zoeller, Tracey J Woodruff
BACKGROUND: Human fetal exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their metabolites (OH-PBDEs) are unique from adults, and in combination with a different metabolic profile, may make fetal development more sensitive to adverse health outcomes from these exposures. However, we lack data to characterize human fetal PBDE exposures and the metabolic factors that can influence these exposures. OBJECTIVE: We examined differences between 2nd trimester maternal and fetal exposures to PBDEs and OH-PBDEs...
January 6, 2018: Environment International
Lu Pan, Shaowei Wu, Hongyu Li, Junhui Xu, Wei Dong, Jiao Shan, Xuan Yang, Yahong Chen, Masayuki Shima, Furong Deng, Xinbiao Guo
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported adverse health effects of indoor air pollutants especially particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been shown to be more likely with cardiovascular comorbidities in which cardiac autonomic dysfunction plays an important role. However, there is little evidence for the effect of indoor PM and BC exposures on cardiac autonomic function in COPD patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between exposure to indoor size-fractioned PM and BC and changes in HRV and HR in COPD patients...
January 3, 2018: Environment International
Ursula Strandberg, Satyendra P Bhavsar, Tarn Preet Parmar, Michael T Arts
Restricted fish consumption due to elevated contaminant levels may limit the intake of essential omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) acids. We analyzed lake- and length-specific mercury and EPA+DHA contents in Walleye (Sander vitreus; Mitchell 1818) from 20 waterbodies in Ontario, Canada, and used this information to calculate the theoretical intake of EPA+DHA when the consumption advisories are followed. The stringent consumption advisory resulted in decreased EPA+DHA intake regardless of the EPA+DHA content in Walleye...
January 2, 2018: Environment International
Tom Cole-Hunter, Audrey de Nazelle, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Nadine Kubesch, Glòria Carrasco-Turigas, Florian Matt, Maria Foraster, Tania Martínez, Albert Ambros, Marta Cirach, David Martinez, Jordina Belmonte, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen
BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution is known to affect both short and long-term outcomes of the cardiopulmonary system; however, findings on short-term outcomes have been inconsistent and often from isolated and long-term rather than coexisting and short-term exposures, and among susceptible/unhealthy rather than healthy populations. AIMS: We aimed to investigate separately the annual, daily and daily space-time-activity-weighted effect of ambient air pollution, as well as confounding or modification by other environmental (including noise) or space-time-activity (including total daily physical activity) exposures, on cardiopulmonary outcomes in healthy adults...
December 30, 2017: Environment International
Kelly K Ferguson, John D Meeker, David E Cantonwine, Bhramar Mukherjee, Gerry G Pace, David Weller, Thomas F McElrath
Environmental phenols are used commonly in personal care products and exposure is widespread in pregnant women. In this study, we sought to assess the association between maternal urinary phenol concentrations in pregnancy and fetal growth. The study population included 476 mothers who participated in the prospective LIFECODES birth cohort between 2006 and 2008 at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Dichlorophenols (DCPs), benzophenone-3, parabens, triclosan, triclocarban, and bisphenol-S were measured in urine from three time points during pregnancy and averaged...
December 30, 2017: Environment International
Yongfeng Deng, Melvin Bonilla, Hongqiang Ren, Yan Zhang
Contaminated reclaimed wastewater has the potential to induce adverse effects on the health of wastewater workers and residents. However, few studies have focused on these health risks. In this study, we assessed the health risk of samples collected from different treatment processing units used in a typical water reclamation plant in Nanjing, China. Chemical analysis revealed that 40 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and 6 N-nitrosamines (NAs) persisted after wastewater treatment. A health risk assessment revealed that the SVOCs in effluents pose negligible non-carcinogenic risk to wastewater workers and local residents as both the hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were all below 1...
December 29, 2017: Environment International
Laia Font-Ribera, Esther Gràcia-Lavedan, Nuria Aragonés, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Marina Pollán, Pilar Amiano, Ana Jiménez-Zabala, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Aina Roca-Barceló, Eva Ardanaz, Rosana Burgui, Antonio José Molina, Tania Fernández-Villa, Inés Gómez-Acebo, Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos, Victor Moreno, Guillermo Fernandez-Tardon, Rosana Peiró, Manolis Kogevinas, Cristina M Villanueva
BACKGROUND: Exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water has consistently been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, but evidence on other cancers including the breast is very limited. OBJECTIVES: We assessed long-term exposure to THMs to evaluate the association with female breast cancer (BC) risk. METHODS: A multi case-control study was conducted in Spain from 2008 to 2013. We included 1003 incident BC cases (women 20-85years old) recruited from 14 hospitals and 1458 population controls...
December 28, 2017: Environment International
Kyra Kimberly Kieskamp, Rachel Rogers Worley, Eva D McLanahan, Marc-André Verner
BACKGROUND: Multiple agencies have developed health-based toxicity values for exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Although PFOA exposure occurs in utero and through breastfeeding, current health-based toxicity values have not been derived using fetal or child dosimetry. Therefore, current values may underestimate the potential risks to fetuses and nursing infants. OBJECTIVE: Using fetal and child dosimetry, we aimed to calculate PFOA maternal human equivalent doses (HEDs), corresponding to a developmental mouse study lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL, 1mg/kg/day)...
December 23, 2017: Environment International
Angelico Mendy, Jesse Wilkerson, Pӓivi M Salo, Richard D Cohn, Darryl C Zeldin, Peter S Thorne
RATIONALE: Although endotoxin is a recognized cause of environmental lung disease, how its relationship with respiratory outcomes varies with climate is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the endotoxin predictors as well as endotoxin association with asthma, wheeze, and sensitization to inhalant allergens in various US climate regions. METHODS: We analyzed data on 6963 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Endotoxin measurements of house dust from bedroom floor and bedding were performed at the University of Iowa...
December 22, 2017: Environment International
Yanhua Wang, Huawei Duan, Tao Meng, Meili Shen, Qianpeng Ji, Jie Xing, Qingrong Wang, Ting Wang, Yong Niu, Tao Yu, Zhong Liu, Hongbing Jia, Yuliang Zhan, Wen Chen, Zhihu Zhang, Wenge Su, Yufei Dai, Xuchun Zhang, Yuxin Zheng
BACKGROUND: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases. However, few population-based studies have been conducted to assess the alterations in circulating pulmonary proteins due to long-term PM2.5 exposure. METHODS: We designed a two-stage study. In the first stage (training set), we assessed the associations between PM2.5 exposure and levels of pulmonary damage markers (CC16, SP-A and SP-D) and lung function in a coke oven emission (COE) cohort with 558 coke plant workers and 210 controls...
December 21, 2017: Environment International
Weixiang Wu, Ke Zhang, Shunli Jiang, Dayang Liu, Hao Zhou, Rong Zhong, Qiang Zeng, Liming Cheng, Xiaoping Miao, Yeqing Tong, Qing Lu
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing health problem worldwide. Recent studies have suggested the potential associations between exposure to metals and CKD events, particularly in participants with hypertension. However, relevant studies are limited. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the associations of metal exposure with renal function in participants with essential hypertension. METHODS: Nine hundred and thirty-four participants with essential hypertension were recruited at the Department of Cardiology, Union Hospital, Wuhan, China...
December 21, 2017: Environment International
Brenda C Minatel, Adam P Sage, Christine Anderson, Roland Hubaux, Erin A Marshall, Wan L Lam, Victor D Martinez
More than 200 million people in 70 countries are exposed to arsenic through drinking water. Chronic exposure to this metalloid has been associated with the onset of many diseases, including cancer. Epidemiological evidence supports its carcinogenic potential, however, detailed molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Despite the global magnitude of this problem, not all individuals face the same risk. Susceptibility to the toxic effects of arsenic is influenced by alterations in genes involved in arsenic metabolism, as well as biological factors, such as age, gender and nutrition...
December 21, 2017: Environment International
Yanan Du, Yan Wang, Liqing Du, Chang Xu, Kaihua Ji, Jinhan Wang, Qiang Liu
In this data article, 146 villagers (exposed group) were randomly selected from the workers who involved in the e-wastes recycling directly as a daily job in Tianjin. Control group, including 121 villagers, came from another town without e-waste disposal sites. Chromosomal aberrations (CA) and cytokinesis blocking micronucleus (CBMN) were performed to detect the cytogenetic effect for each subject. DNA damage was detected using comet assay; the DNA percentage in the comet tail (TDNA%), tail moment (TM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) were recorded to describe DNA damage to lymphocytes and spermatozoa...
December 21, 2017: Environment International
L Migault, C Piel, C Carles, F Delva, A Lacourt, E Cardis, C Zaros, R de Seze, I Baldi, G Bouvier
OBJECTIVES: To study the relations between maternal cumulative exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) and the risk of moderate prematurity and small for gestational age within the Elfe cohort. METHODS: The Elfe study included 18,329 infants born at 33weeks of gestation or more in France in 2011 and was designed to follow the children until 20years of age. Gestational age and anthropometric data at birth were collected in medical records and small for gestational age was defined according to a French customized growth standard...
December 20, 2017: Environment International
Elise L Rush, Alison B Singer, Matthew P Longnecker, Line S Haug, Azemira Sabaredzovic, Elaine Symanski, Kristina W Whitworth
OBJECTIVE: Because oral contraceptives (OC) tends to lessen menstrual fluid loss - a route of excretion for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) - we hypothesized that such use would be positively associated with PFAS concentrations. METHODS: This analysis was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) study. We included 1090 women from two previous substudies of women enrolled from 2003 to 2007. Characteristics of OC use were obtained at baseline: use in the past 12months, duration and recency of use, age at first use...
December 19, 2017: Environment International
Damien Barbeau, Simon Lutier, Luc Choisnard, Marie Marques, Renaud Persoons, Anne Maitre
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous pollutants present as complex mixtures in the environment. Among them, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency of Research on Cancer. Taking into account all absorption ways, human biomonitoring allows PAH exposure assessment, but biomarkers both specific to carcinogenic effect and sufficiently sensitive are lacking. In this work, we proposed the urinary 7,8,9,10-tetrahydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (7,8,9,10-OHBaP) stemming from hydrolysis of BaP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide, the ultimate carcinogenic BaP metabolite, as biomarker of PAH exposure...
December 19, 2017: Environment International
Qian Cao, Deyong Yu, Matei Georgescu, Jianguo Wu, Wei Wang
China is the largest and most rapidly urbanizing nation in the world, and is projected to add an additional 200 million city dwellers by the end of 2030. While this rapid urbanization will lead to vast expansion of built-up areas, the possible climate effect and associated human health impact remain poorly understood. Using a coupled urban-atmospheric model, we first examine potential effects of three urban expansion scenarios to 2030 on summer climate in eastern China. Our simulations indicate extensive warming up to 5°C, 3°C, and 2°C in regard to low- (>0%), high- (>75%), and 100% probability urban growth scenarios, respectively...
December 19, 2017: Environment International
Jiwon Oh, Jeong Weon Choi, Young-Ah Ahn, Sungkyoon Kim
Bisphenol S (BPS) has been introduced as a substitute for bisphenol A (BPA), and widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins and thermal papers. Despite its adverse health outcomes and widespread exposure, pharmacokinetic data of BPS are not available for either animals or humans. The objective of the study is to describe pharmacokinetic characteristics of BPS in human body after a single oral administration with a compartmental pharmacokinetic model. Seven healthy young adults were orally exposed to 8...
December 19, 2017: Environment International
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