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Environment International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908457/developmental-neurotoxicity-of-succeeding-generations-of-insecticides
#1
REVIEW
Yael Abreu-Villaça, Edward D Levin
Insecticides are by design toxic. They must be toxic to effectively kill target species of insects. Unfortunately, they also have off-target toxic effects that can harm other species, including humans. Developmental neurotoxicity is one of the most prominent off-target toxic risks of insecticides. Over the past seven decades several classes of insecticides have been developed, each with their own mechanisms of effect and toxic side effects. This review covers the developmental neurotoxicity of the succeeding generations of insecticides including organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotinoids...
November 28, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908456/wastewater-based-epidemiology-to-assess-human-exposure-to-pyrethroid-pesticides
#2
Nikolaos I Rousis, Ettore Zuccato, Sara Castiglioni
Pesticides are active substances with potentially adverse effects on human health, and therefore great effort is addressed to study the relation between their widespread use and the effects on humans. To track human exposure to pesticides, novel approaches are needed to give additional information on exposure at population level. In this study, a novel application of Wastewater-Based Epidemiology (WBE) was developed to measure the intake of pyrethroid pesticides in a population. Three human urinary metabolites of pyrethroids were selected and validated as biomarkers of exposure by evaluating their sources and stability in wastewater...
November 28, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894512/probabilistic-approach-for-assessing-infants-health-risks-due-to-ingestion-of-nanoscale-silver-released-from-consumer-products
#3
Chengfang Pang, Danail Hristozov, Alex Zabeo, Lisa Pizzol, Michael P Tsang, Phil Sayre, Antonio Marcomini
Silver nanoparticles (n-Ag) are widely used in consumer products and many medical applications because of their unique antibacterial properties. Their use is raising concern about potential human exposures and health effects. Therefore, it is informative to assess the potential human health risks of n-Ag in order to ensure that nanotechnology-based consumer products are deployed in a safe and sustainable way. Even though toxicity studies clearly show the potential hazard of n-Ag, there have been few attempts to integrate hazard and exposure assessments to evaluate risks...
November 25, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890345/prenatal-exposure-to-outdoor-air-pollution-and-child-behavioral-problems-at-school-age-in-japan
#4
Takashi Yorifuji, Saori Kashima, Midory Higa Diez, Yoko Kado, Satoshi Sanada, Hiroyuki Doi
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest positive associations between prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution and neurodevelopment of children, but evidence on the adverse effects of exposure to air pollution on child neurobehavioral development remains limited. We thus examined associations between prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and child behavioral problems at school age, using data from a nationwide population-based longitudinal survey in Japan, where participants were recruited in 2001 and are continuously followed...
November 24, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887783/a-systematic-review-of-mancozeb-as-a-reproductive-and-developmental-hazard
#5
REVIEW
Jennifer Runkle, Joan Flocks, Jeannie Economos, Anne L Dunlop
BACKGROUND: The potential adverse reproductive and developmental effects of Mancozeb, especially in sensitive subpopulations, have not been fully reviewed for this widely used fungicide. OBJECTIVE: To review the experimental and epidemiologic evidence for the association between exposure to Mancozeb and reproductive and developmental health outcomes using an adaptation of the National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) systematic review framework...
November 22, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887782/ambient-particulate-matter-landscape-fire-smoke-and-emergency-ambulance-dispatches-in-sydney-australia
#6
Farhad Salimi, Sarah B Henderson, Geoffrey G Morgan, Bin Jalaludin, Fay H Johnston
BACKGROUND: Emergency ambulance dispatches (EAD) are a novel outcome for evaluating the public health impacts of air pollution. We assessed the relationships between ambient particulate matter (PM) from all sources, PM from landscape fire smoke (LFS), and EADs likely to be associated with cardiorespiratory problems in the Sydney greater metropolitan region for an 11-year period from 2004 to 2015. METHODS: EAD codes are assigned at the time of the call to emergency services using standard computer assisted algorithms...
November 22, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884404/exposure-to-perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-thyroid-function-in-pregnant-women-and-children-a-systematic-review-of-epidemiologic-studies
#7
REVIEW
Virginia Ballesteros, Olga Costa, Carmen Iñiguez, Tony Fletcher, Ferran Ballester, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid hormones (THs) are especially important for brain maturation and development during the fetal period and childhood. Several epidemiological studies have assessed the possible association between exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and thyroid outcomes during the early stages of life. We aimed to review this evidence. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review in compliance with the PRISMA Statement (search conducted in PubMed and Embase, as well as in the citations of the selected articles)...
November 21, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871799/molecular-mechanisms-of-pfoa-induced-toxicity-in-animals-and-humans-implications-for-health-risks
#8
REVIEW
Kan Li, Peng Gao, Ping Xiang, Xuxiang Zhang, Xinyi Cui, Lena Q Ma
As an emerging persistent organic pollutant (POP), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is one of the most abundant perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the environment. This review summarized the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of PFOA-induced toxicity in animals and humans as well as their implications for health risks in humans. Traditional PFOA-induced signal pathways such as peroxisome proliferating receptor alpha (PPARα), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and pregnane-X receptor (PXR) may not be important for PFOA-induced health effects on humans...
November 18, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871798/the-association-of-air-pollution-and-greenness-with-mortality-and-life-expectancy-in-spain-a-small-area-study
#9
Carmen de Keijzer, David Agis, Albert Ambrós, Gustavo Arévalo, Jose M Baldasano, Stefano Bande, Jose Barrera-Gómez, Joan Benach, Marta Cirach, Payam Dadvand, Stefania Ghigo, Èrica Martinez-Solanas, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Ennio Cadum, Xavier Basagaña
BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure has been associated with an increase in mortality rates, but few studies have focused on life expectancy, and most studies had restricted spatial coverage. A limited body of evidence is also suggestive for a beneficial association between residential exposure to greenness and mortality, but the evidence for such an association with life expectancy is still very scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of exposure to air pollution and greenness with mortality and life expectancy in Spain...
November 18, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881237/exposure-to-traffic-related-air-pollution-and-risk-of-development-of-childhood-asthma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Haneen Khreis, Charlotte Kelly, James Tate, Roger Parslow, Karen Lucas, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The question of whether children's exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) contributes to their development of asthma is unresolved. We conducted a systematic review and performed meta-analyses to analyze the association between TRAP and asthma development in childhood. DATA SOURCES: We systematically reviewed epidemiological studies published until 8 September 2016 and available in the Embase, Ovid MEDLINE (R), and Transport databases...
November 17, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866723/association-between-ambient-particulate-matter-exposure-and-semen-quality-in-wuhan-china
#11
Li Wu, Lei Jin, Tingming Shi, Bing Zhang, Yun Zhou, Ting Zhou, Wei Bao, Hua Xiang, Yao Zuo, Guanlian Li, Cheng Wang, Yonggang Duan, Zhe Peng, Xiji Huang, Hai Zhang, Tian Xu, Yonggang Li, Xinyun Pan, Ying Xia, Xun Gong, Weihong Chen, Yuewei Liu
BACKGROUND: Health effects of exposure to particulate matter (PM) on male reproductive health remain unclear. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of PM2.5 or PM10 exposure on semen quality, and the results were largely inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To quantitatively assess the exposure-response association between PM exposure and semen quality in Chinese men who were exposed to a wide concentration range of PM. METHODS: We investigated 1759 men from Wuhan, China, who were partners of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology procedures, and had semen examined at least once between 2013 and 2015...
November 17, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866722/effectiveness-of-traffic-related-elements-in-tree-bark-and-pollen-abortion-rates-for-assessing-air-pollution-exposure-on-respiratory-mortality-rates
#12
Regiani Carvalho-Oliveira, Luís F Amato-Lourenço, Tiana C L Moreira, Douglas R Rocha Silva, Bruna D Vieira, Thais Mauad, Mitiko Saiki, Paulo H Nascimento Saldiva
The majority of epidemiological studies correlate the cardiorespiratory effects of air pollution exposure by considering the concentrations of pollutants measured from conventional monitoring networks. The conventional air quality monitoring methods are expensive, and their data are insufficient for providing good spatial resolution. We hypothesized that bioassays using plants could effectively determine pollutant gradients, thus helping to assess the risks associated with air pollution exposure. The study regions were determined from different prevalent respiratory death distributions in the Sao Paulo municipality...
November 17, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865525/maternal-stress-modifies-the-effect-of-exposure-to-lead-during-pregnancy-and-24-month-old-children-s-neurodevelopment
#13
Marcela Tamayo Y Ortiz, Martha María Téllez-Rojo, Belem Trejo-Valdivia, Lourdes Schnaas, Erika Osorio-Valencia, Brent Coull, David Bellinger, Rosalind J Wright, Robert O Wright
BACKGROUND: Lead and psychosocial stress disrupt similar but not completely overlapping mechanisms. Exposure during the prenatal period to each of these insults singularly has been found to alter normal neurodevelopment; however, longitudinal associations with stress modifying the effect of lead have not been sufficiently analyzed in epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prenatal stress as an effect modifier of gestational lead neurotoxicity. METHODS: We used a structural equations modeling approach with a trivariate response to evaluate cognitive, language and motor scores of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III in 24month-old children (n=360)...
November 16, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865524/exposure-to-uv-filters-during-summer-and-winter-in-danish-kindergarten-children
#14
Marianna Krause, Anna-Maria Andersson, Niels E Skakkebaek, Hanne Frederiksen
BACKGROUND: Ultra violet (UV) filters with known or suspected endocrine disrupting properties are widely used in sunscreens and other personal care products, clothing, food packaging and many other consumer products. Danish kindergarten children have sunscreens applied daily during summer to prevent skin burns. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the assumed contribution of sunscreens to the total exposure to UV filters, we measured the urinary excretion of UV filters during summer and winter in kindergarten children...
November 16, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865523/alterations-in-high-density-lipoprotein-proteome-and-function-associated-with-persistent-organic-pollutants
#15
Stefan A Ljunggren, Ingela Helmfrid, Ulf Norinder, Mats Fredriksson, Gun Wingren, Helen Karlsson, Mats Lindahl
There is a growing body of evidence that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanisms remain unclear. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) acts protective against CVD by different processes, and we have earlier found that HDL from subjects with CVD contains higher levels of POPs than healthy controls. In the present study, we have expanded analyses on the same individuals living in a contaminated community and investigated the relationship between the HDL POP levels and protein composition/function...
November 16, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855972/transformation-products-in-the-water-cycle-and-the-unsolved-problem-of-their-proactive-assessment-a-combined-in-vitro-in-silico-approach
#16
Jakob Menz, Anju Priya Toolaram, Tushar Rastogi, Christoph Leder, Oliver Olsson, Klaus Kümmerer, Mandy Schneider
Transformation products (TPs) emerging from incomplete degradation of micropollutants in aquatic systems can retain the biological activity of the parent compound, or may even possess new unexpected toxic properties. The chemical identities of these substances remain largely unknown, and consequently, the risks caused by their presence in the water cycle cannot be assessed thoroughly. In this study, a combined approach for the proactive identification of hazardous elements in the chemical structures of TPs, comprising analytical, bioanalytical and computational methods, was assessed by the example of the pharmaceutically active micropollutant propranolol (PPL)...
November 15, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843011/effects-of-cell-phone-use-on-semen-parameters-results-from-the-marhcs-cohort-study-in-chongqing-china
#17
LETTER
S A R Mortazavi, Fatemeh Shekoohi-Shooli, Ghazal Mortazavi, S M J Mortazavi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27839853/assessment-of-health-burden-caused-by-particulate-matter-in-southern-china-using-high-resolution-satellite-observation
#18
Xingcheng Lu, Changqing Lin, Ying Li, Teng Yao, Jimmy C H Fung, Alexis K H Lau
As the major engine of economic growth in China, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region is one of the most urbanized regions in the world. Rapid development has brought great wealth to its citizens; however, at the same time, increasing emissions of ambient pollutants from vehicles and industrial combustions have caused considerable air pollution and negative health effects for the region's residents. In this study, the concentration response function method was applied together with satellite-retrieved particulate matter (PM10 and PM2...
November 10, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27839852/effect-of-a-clean-stove-intervention-on-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-pregnant-women-in-ibadan-nigeria-a-randomized-controlled-study
#19
Christopher O Olopade, Elizabeth Frank, Emily Bartlett, Donee Alexander, Anindita Dutta, Tope Ibigbami, Damilola Adu, John Olamijulo, Ganiyu Arinola, Theodore Karrison, Oladosu Ojengbede
BACKGROUND: Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) has been linked to systemic inflammation. We determined the impact of transition from traditional firewood/kerosene stove to bioethanol-burning stove on inflammatory biomarkers in pregnant Nigerian women. METHODS: Women (n=324), cooking with kerosene/firewood, were recruited during their first trimester of pregnancy from June 2013-October 2015 and were randomly allocated to either control (n=162) or intervention (n=162) group using web-based randomization...
November 10, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27839851/genetic-and-methylation-variation-in-the-cyp2b6-gene-is-related-to-circulating-p-p-dde-levels-in-a-population-based-sample
#20
Lars Lind, Esther Ng, Erik Ingelsson, Cecilia Lindgren, Samira Salihovic, Bert van Bavel, Anubha Mahajan, Erik Lampa, Andrew P Morris, P Monica Lind
OBJECTIVES: Since the metabolism of the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is not fully known in humans, we evaluated if circulating levels of a major breakdown product of DDT, p,p'-DDE, were related to genome-wide genetic and methylation variation in a population-based sample. METHODS: In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), circulating levels of p,p'-DDE were analyzed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS)...
November 10, 2016: Environment International
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