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Environment International

Haoran Dong, Long Li, Yue Lu, Yujun Cheng, Yaoyao Wang, Qin Ning, Bin Wang, Lihua Zhang, Guangming Zeng
The technology of integrating nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and functional anaerobic bacteria has broad prospects for groundwater remediation. This review focuses on the interactions between nZVI and three kinds of functional anaerobic bacteria: organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB), sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron reducing bacteria (IRB), which are commonly used in the anaerobic bioremediation. The coupling effects of nZVI and the functional bacteria on the contaminant removal in the integrated system are summarized...
January 16, 2019: Environment International
Fanrong Zhao, Qiyue Kang, Xiaohua Zhang, Jiaying Liu, Jianying Hu
While monomeric aryl organophosphate flame retardants (m-aryl-OPFRs) are used worldwide in a variety of consumer products, specific biomarkers for epidemiologic studies are lacking. To explore the potential of urinary hydroxylated metabolites of m-aryl-OPFRs as the biomarkers, we detected triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), and tricresyl phosphate (TCrP) in 259 whole blood samples and their 5 hydroxylated and 2 diester metabolites in the paired urine samples from the general population...
January 16, 2019: Environment International
Mohammad L Rahman, Cuilin Zhang, Melissa M Smarr, Sunmi Lee, Masato Honda, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Fasil Tekola-Ayele, Germaine M Buck Louis
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are linked with insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes (T2D) in the general population. However, their associations with gestational diabetes (GDM) are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively evaluated the associations of POPs measured in early pregnancy with GDM risk. We also assessed whether pre-pregnancy BMI (ppBMI) and family history of T2D modify this risk. METHODS: In NICHD Fetal Growth Study, Singletons, we measured plasma concentration of 76 POPs, including 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 9 polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), 44 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 11 per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) among 2334 healthy non-obese women at 8-13 weeks of gestation...
January 16, 2019: Environment International
Aurélie Marcelle Nicole Danjou, Thomas Coudon, Delphine Praud, Emilie Lévêque, Elodie Faure, Pietro Salizzoni, Muriel Le Romancer, Gianluca Severi, Francesca Romana Mancini, Karen Leffondré, Laure Dossus, Béatrice Fervers
BACKGROUND: Dioxins, Group 1 carcinogens, are emitted by industrial chlorinated combustion processes and suspected to increase breast cancer risk through receptor-mediated pathways. OBJECTIVES: We estimated breast cancer risk associated with airborne dioxin exposure, using geographic information system (GIS) methods and historical exposure data. METHODS: We designed a case-control study (429 breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1990 and 2008, matched to 716 controls) nested within the E3N (Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale) cohort...
January 15, 2019: Environment International
Donatella D'Antoni, Vivian Auyeung, Heather Walton, Gary W Fuller, Andrew Grieve, John Weinman
Although poor air quality can have a negative impact on human health, studies have shown suboptimal levels of adherence to health advice associated with air quality alerts. The present study compared the behavioural impact of the UK Air Quality Index (DAQI) with an alternative message format, using a 2 (general population vs. at-risk individuals) X 2 (usual DAQI messages vs. behaviourally enhanced messages) factorial design. Messages were sent via a smartphone application. Eighty-two participants were randomly allocated to the experimental groups...
January 14, 2019: Environment International
Vojtěch Ettler, Markéta Cihlová, Alice Jarošíková, Martin Mihaljevič, Petr Drahota, Bohdan Kříbek, Aleš Vaněk, Vít Penížek, Ondra Sracek, Mariana Klementová, Zbyněk Engel, Fred Kamona, Ben Mapani
Ore mining and processing in semi-arid areas is responsible for the generation of metal(loid)-containing dust, which is easily transported by wind to the surrounding environment. To assess the human exposure to dust-derived metal(loid)s (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Zn), as well as the potential risks related to incidental dust ingestion, we studied mine tailing dust (n = 8), slag dust (n = 5) and smelter dust (n = 4) from old mining and smelting sites in northern Namibia (Kombat, Berg Aukas, Tsumeb). In vitro bioaccessibility testing using extraction in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) was combined with determination of grain-size distributions, chemical and mineralogical characterizations and leaching tests conducted on original dust samples and separated PM10 fractions...
January 14, 2019: Environment International
Marta Oliveira, Klara Slezakova, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Maria Carmo Pereira, Simone Morais
Children, an important vulnerable group, spend most of their time at schools (up to 10 h per day, mostly indoors) and the respective air quality may significantly impact on children health. Thus, this work reviews the published studies on children biomonitoring and environmental exposure to particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at school microenvironments (indoors and outdoors), major sources and potential health risks. A total of 28, 35, and 31% of the studies reported levels that exceeded the international outdoor ambient air guidelines for PM10 , PM2...
January 14, 2019: Environment International
Massimo Stafoggia, Tom Bellander, Simone Bucci, Marina Davoli, Kees de Hoogh, Francesca De' Donato, Claudio Gariazzo, Alexei Lyapustin, Paola Michelozzi, Matteo Renzi, Matteo Scortichini, Alexandra Shtein, Giovanni Viegi, Itai Kloog, Joel Schwartz
Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is one of the major causes of death worldwide, with demonstrated adverse effects from both short-term and long-term exposure. Most of the epidemiological studies have been conducted in cities because of the lack of reliable spatiotemporal estimates of particles exposure in nonurban settings. The objective of this study is to estimate daily PM10 (PM < 10 μm), fine (PM < 2.5 μm, PM2.5 ) and coarse particles (PM between 2.5 and 10 μm, PM2.5-10 ) at 1-km2 grid for 2013-2015 using a machine learning approach, the Random Forest (RF)...
January 14, 2019: Environment International
Panagiotis Filis, Natasha Walker, Linda Robertson, Emily Eaton-Turner, Lauma Ramona, Michelle Bellingham, Maria R Amezaga, Zulin Zhang, Beatrice Mandon-Pepin, Neil P Evans, Richard M Sharpe, Corinne Cotinot, William D Rees, Peter O'Shaughnessy, Paul A Fowler
BACKGROUND: The increased incidence of diseases, including metabolic syndrome and infertility, may be related to exposure to the mixture of chemicals, which are ubiquitous in the modern environment (environmental chemicals, ECs). Xeno-detoxification occurs within the liver which is also the source of many plasma proteins and growth factors and plays an important role in the regulation of homeostasis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ECs on aspects of liver function, in a well characterized ovine model of exposure to a real-life EC mixture...
January 11, 2019: Environment International
Liu Yao, Cui LiangLiang, Liu JinYue, Song WanMei, Su Lili, Li YiFan, Li HuaiChen
BACKGROUND: Few epidemiological studies have explored the effects of air pollution on the risk of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short and long term residential concentrations of ambient air pollutants (particulate matter <10 μm in diameter (PM10 ) and particulate matter≤2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), ozone (O3 ), and carbon monoxide (CO)) in relation to the risk of DR-TB in a typical air pollution city, Jinan city, China...
January 11, 2019: Environment International
Jared A Fisher, Robin C Puett, Francine Laden, Gregory A Wellenius, Amir Sapkota, Duanping Liao, Jeff D Yanosky, Olivia Carter-Pokras, Xin He, Jaime E Hart
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Associations between short-term exposures to particulate matter (PM) air pollution and stroke are inconsistent. Many prior studies have used administrative and hospitalization databases where misclassification of the type and timing of the stroke event may be problematic. METHODS: In this case-crossover study, we used a nationwide kriging model to examine short-term ambient exposure to PM10 and PM2...
January 11, 2019: Environment International
Jing Ding, Dong Zhu, Bin Hong, Hong Tao Wang, Gang Li, Yi Bing Ma, Yu Ting Tang, Qing Lin Chen
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), prevalent across multiple environmental media, threaten human health worldwide and are considered emerging environmental contaminants. Earthworm gut, a niche for bacteria to survive, represents a potential reservoir for ARGs in soil. However, the compositions of ARGs in the earthworm gut microbiota remain elusive, especially under field conditions. In this study, we applied high-throughput quantitative PCR to profile the ARGs in the gut microbiota of earthworms after chronic exposure to fertilizers...
January 11, 2019: Environment International
Kateryna B Fuks, Anke Hüls, Dorothea Sugiri, Hicran Altug, Andrea Vierkötter, Michael J Abramson, Jan Goebel, Gert G Wagner, Ilja Demuth, Jean Krutmann, Tamara Schikowski
During the last two decades, it has been well established that a short-term exposure to ozone (O3 ) elicits an oxidative stress response in human and mouse skin, which leads to aberrant transcriptional expression of genes consistent with increased skin aging. Whether a long-term exposure to ambient O3 is associated with any skin aging traits, has remained unclear. We addressed this question in two elderly German cohorts: the SALIA study (806 women aged 66-79 years), and the BASE-II study (1207 men and women aged 60-84 years)...
January 11, 2019: Environment International
Yan-Peng Tian, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Michael S Bloom, Shao Lin, Si-Quan Wang, Steve Hung Lam Yim, Mo Yang, Chu Chu, Namratha Gurram, Li-Wen Hu, Kang-Kang Liu, Bo-Yi Yang, Dan Feng, Ru-Qing Liu, Min Nian, Guang-Hui Dong
Previous investigations on the associations of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with overweight/obesity are mixed. Moreover, little information has been reported about the association between isomers of PFASs with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or overweight. To address this shortcoming in the literature, we conducted a study involving 1612 Chinese adults (1204 men and 408 women), ages 22-96 years old, from Shenyang, China, to analyze serum isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other PFASs...
January 11, 2019: Environment International
Mengke Song, Chunling Luo, Longfei Jiang, Ke Peng, Dayi Zhang, Ruijie Zhang, Yongtao Li, Gan Zhang
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are the main hotspots for the release of antibiotics, including the widely used sulphonamides. Microbes play important roles in eliminating sulphonamides in WWTPs, and knowledge about these degraders and their interactions within the microbial community is crucial for operating and optimising WWTPs. In the present study, stable isotope probing (SIP) coupled with high-throughput sequencing as culture-independent approach revealed four operational taxonomic units (OTUs) involved in sulphamethoxazole (SMX) degradation in activated sludge...
January 11, 2019: Environment International
Pascal Petit, Anne Maître, Renaud Persoons, Dominique J Bicout
BACKGROUND: Millions of workers are exposed to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures. The toxicity of PAH mixtures is variable and depends on the composition of the mixture, which is related to the emission sources. Although several indicators exist, the cancer risk estimation associated with occupational exposure to PAHs is poorly known. OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk of lung cancer associated with PAHs in several industries using the atmospheric concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as a proxy...
January 11, 2019: Environment International
Chengkai Qu, Stefano Albanese, Annamaria Lima, Dave Hope, Pat Pond, Alberto Fortelli, Nunzio Romano, Pellegrino Cerino, Antonio Pizzolante, Benedetto De Vivo
I am often reminded of the famous saying of Goethe: "Vedi Napoli e poi muori! - See Naples and die!". Sadly, Naples is now confronted with a number of serious, ongoing problems with a need to alleviate pressure on the worsening environment. One serious problem facing the environment is the presence of the potentially hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs), although few systematic studies at regional scale have been conducted. In this study, samples of soil, air, and bulk deposition were collected in Naples metropolitan area (NMA) to characterize the status of POPs, including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...
January 10, 2019: Environment International
Vasileios Antoniadis, Evangelia E Golia, Yu-Ting Liu, Shan-Li Wang, Sabry M Shaheen, Jörg Rinklebe
Agricultural lands adjacent to industrial activities are vulnerable due to the risk of trace elements (TEs) being accumulated into crops and subsequently humans. One such case concerns the industrial area of Volos, Greece, a suspected contaminated area which has never been studied. We measured Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn in soil and maize (leaves and grains) and assessed health risk of human exposure via soil ingestion and grain consumption. We found that the most highly enriched elements in soils were Tl (enrichment factor = 19), Se (17...
January 10, 2019: Environment International
Michael O Mireku, Mary M Barker, Julian Mutz, Iroise Dumontheil, Michael S C Thomas, Martin Röösli, Paul Elliott, Mireille B Toledano
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the relationship between night-time screen-based media devices (SBMD) use, which refers to use within 1 h before sleep, in both lit and dark rooms, and sleep outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among 11 to 12-year-olds. METHODS: We analysed baseline data from a large cohort of 6616 adolescents from 39 schools in and around London, United Kingdom, participating in the Study of Cognition Adolescents and Mobile Phone (SCAMP)...
January 10, 2019: Environment International
Carolina Donat-Vargas, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Andreas Tornevi, Maria Wennberg, Johan Sommar, Jani Koponen, Hannu Kiviranta, Agneta Åkesson
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent synthetic chemicals that may affect components of metabolic risk through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor but epidemiological data remain scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To estimate associations between repeated measurements of the main PFAS in plasma and total cholesterol, triglycerides and hypertension among the control subjects from a population-based nested case-control study on diabetes type 2 in middle-aged women and men...
January 9, 2019: Environment International
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