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Environment International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645013/per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-in-human-serum-and-urine-samples-from-a-residentially-exposed-community
#1
Rachel Rogers Worley, Susan McAfee Moore, Bruce C Tierney, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M Calafat, Sean Campbell, Million B Woudneh, Jeffrey Fisher
BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are considered chemicals of emerging concern, in part due to their environmental and biological persistence and the potential for widespread human exposure. In 2007, a PFAS manufacturer near Decatur, Alabama notified the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) it had discharged PFAS into a wastewater treatment plant, resulting in environmental contamination and potential exposures to the local community. OBJECTIVES: To characterize PFAS exposure over time, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) collected blood and urine samples from local residents...
June 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645012/associations-between-toxic-and-essential-trace-elements-in-maternal-blood-and-fetal-congenital-heart-defects
#2
Yanqiu Ou, Michael S Bloom, Zhiqiang Nie, Fengzhen Han, Jinzhuang Mai, Jimei Chen, Shao Lin, Xiaoqing Liu, Jian Zhuang
Prenatal exposure to toxic trace elements, including heavy metals, is an important public health concern. Few studies have assessed if individual and multiple trace elements simultaneously affect cardiac development. The current study evaluated the association between maternal blood lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) levels and congenital heart defects (CHDs) in offspring. This hospital-based case-control study included 112 case and 107 control infants. Maternal peripheral blood draw was made during gestational weeks 17-40 and used to determine trace element levels by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
June 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644961/bisphenol-a-and-other-environmental-risk-factors-for-prostate-cancer-in-hong-kong
#3
Lap Ah Tse, Priscilla Ming Yi Lee, Wing Ming Ho, Augustine Tsan Lam, Man Kei Lee, Simon Siu Man Ng, Yonghua He, Ka-Sing Leung, Jennifer C Hartle, Howard Hu, Haidong Kan, Feng Wang, Chi Fai Ng
BACKGROUND: Environmental exposures are contributing factors to prostate cancer etiology, but these remain unclear. We aimed to document the associations between environmental risk factors and prostate cancer in Chinese, with special reference to bisphenol A (BPA). METHODS: We recruited 431 newly diagnosed prostate cancer cases and 402 age-matched controls from Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong. We obtained each participant's clinical data and epidemiological information on chronic BPA exposure and other environmental risk factors (e...
June 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633084/public-health-costs-accounting-of-inorganic-pm2-5-pollution-in-metropolitan-areas-of-the-united-states-using-a-risk-based-source-receptor-model
#4
Jinhyok Heo, Peter J Adams, H Oliver Gao
In order to design effective strategies to reduce the public health burden of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) imposed in an area, it is necessary to identify the emissions sources affecting that location and quantify their contributions. However, it is challenging because PM2.5 travels long distances and most constituents are the result of complex chemical processes. We developed a reduced-form source-receptor model for estimating locations and magnitudes of downwind health costs from a source or, conversely, the upwind sources that contribute to health costs at a receptor location...
June 17, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628784/identifying-populations-sensitive-to-environmental-chemicals-by-simulating-toxicokinetic-variability
#5
Caroline L Ring, Robert G Pearce, R Woodrow Setzer, Barbara A Wetmore, John F Wambaugh
The thousands of chemicals present in the environment (USGAO, 2013) must be triaged to identify priority chemicals for human health risk research. Most chemicals have little of the toxicokinetic (TK) data that are necessary for relating exposures to tissue concentrations that are believed to be toxic. Ongoing efforts have collected limited, in vitro TK data for a few hundred chemicals. These data have been combined with biomonitoring data to estimate an approximate margin between potential hazard and exposure...
June 16, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625818/quantitative-assessment-of-lung-and-bladder-cancer-risk-and-oral-exposure-to-inorganic-arsenic-meta-regression-analyses-of-epidemiological-data
#6
Heather N Lynch, Ke Zu, Erin M Kennedy, Thuy Lam, Xiaobin Liu, Daniella M Pizzurro, Christine T Loftus, Lorenz R Rhomberg
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water varies geographically and is prevalent worldwide. While exposures in the US are generally low, there are some areas with higher levels of naturally occurring iAs (potentially >100μg/L) where residents rely on unregulated drinking water wells. Much of the evidence on the association between iAs and cancer comes from epidemiological studies conducted in South American and Asian populations. These populations have generally been exposed to much higher levels of iAs and have differing underlying characteristics, both of which make comparing them to Western populations difficult...
June 16, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624751/organophosphate-esters-flame-retardants-in-the-indoor-environment
#7
Martina Vykoukalová, Marta Venier, Šimon Vojta, Lisa Melymuk, Jitka Bečanová, Kevin Romanak, Roman Prokeš, Joseph O Okeme, Amandeep Saini, Miriam L Diamond, Jana Klánová
Concentrations of 13 organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPEs) were measured in air, dust and window wipes from 63 homes in Canada, the Czech Republic and the United States in the spring and summer of 2013 to look for abundances, differences among regions, and partitioning behavior. In general, we observed the highest concentrations for halogenated OPEs, particularly TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP, and also non-halogenated TPHP. Differences between regions strongly depended on the matrix. The concentrations of OPEs in dust were significantly higher in the US than in Canada (CAN) and Czech Republic (CZ)...
June 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624750/long-term-indoor-air-conditioner-filtration-and-cardiovascular-health-a-randomized-crossover-intervention-study
#8
Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Kin-Fai Ho, Lian-Yu Lin, Ta-Yuan Chang, Gui-Bing Hong, Chi-Ming Ma, I-Jung Liu, Kai-Jen Chuang
The association of short-term air pollution filtration with cardiovascular health has been documented. However, the effect of long-term indoor air conditioner filtration on the association between air pollution and cardiovascular health is still unclear. We recruited 200 homemakers from Taipei and randomly assigned 100 of them to air filtration or control intervention; six home visits were conducted per year from 2013 to 2014. The participants under air filtration intervention during 2013 were reassigned to control intervention in 2014...
June 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623811/residential-exposure-to-pesticides-as-risk-factor-for-childhood-and-young-adult-brain-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Geneviève Van Maele-Fabry, Laurence Gamet-Payrastre, Dominique Lison
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a positive association between exposure to non-agricultural pesticides and childhood brain tumors (CBT). OBJECTIVE: (1) To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between residential/household/domestic exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. (2) To clarify variables that could impact the results. METHODS: Publications in English were identified from a MEDLINE search through 28 February 2017 and from the reference list of identified publications...
June 14, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600986/neonatal-exposure-to-environmental-pollutants-and-placental-mitochondrial-dna-content-a-multi-pollutant-approach
#10
Annette Vriens, Tim S Nawrot, Willy Baeyens, Elly Den Hond, Liesbeth Bruckers, Adrian Covaci, Kim Croes, Sam De Craemer, Eva Govarts, Nathalie Lambrechts, Ilse Loots, Vera Nelen, Martien Peusens, Stefaan De Henauw, Greet Schoeters, Michelle Plusquin
BACKGROUND: Placental mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content can be indicative of oxidative damage to the placenta during fetal development and is responsive to external stressors. In utero exposure to environmental pollutants that may influence placental mtDNA needs further exploration. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated if placental mtDNA content is altered by environmental pollution in newborns and identified pollutants independently associated to alterations in placental mtDNA content...
June 7, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599171/peripubertal-blood-lead-levels-and-growth-among-russian-boys
#11
Jane S Burns, Paige L Williams, Mary M Lee, Boris Revich, Oleg Sergeyev, Russ Hauser, Susan A Korrick
BACKGROUND: Childhood blood lead levels (BLL) have been associated with growth impairment. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations of peripubertal BLL with adolescent growth and near adult height in a longitudinal cohort of Russian boys. METHODS: 481 boys were enrolled at ages 8-9years and followed annually to age 18. At enrollment, BLL was measured, and height, weight, and pubertal staging were obtained annually during 10years of follow-up. Mixed effects models were used to assess the associations of BLL with longitudinal age-adjusted World Health OrganizationZ-scores for height (HT-Z) and body mass index (BMI-Z), and annual height velocity (HV)...
June 7, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602489/prenatal-naled-and-chlorpyrifos-exposure-is-associated-with-deficits-in-infant-motor-function-in-a-cohort-of-chinese-infants
#12
Monica K Silver, Jie Shao, Binquan Zhu, Minjian Chen, Yankai Xia, Niko Kaciroti, Betsy Lozoff, John D Meeker
BACKGROUND: Organophosphate insecticides (OPs) are used worldwide, yet despite nearly ubiquitous exposure in the general population, few have been studied outside the laboratory. Fetal brains undergo rapid growth and development, leaving them susceptible to long-term effects of neurotoxic OPs. The objective here was to investigate the extent to which prenatal exposure to OPs affects infant motor development. METHODS: 30 OPs were measured in umbilical cord blood using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in a cohort of Chinese infants...
June 6, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591667/exposure-to-residential-road-traffic-noise-prior-to-conception-and-time-to-pregnancy
#13
Jeppe Schultz Christensen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Matthias Ketzel, Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen, Bodil Hammer Bech, Jørn Olsen, Mette Sørensen
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between residential road traffic noise and fecundity estimated by time to pregnancy (TTP). DESIGN: We identified 65,201 mothers from the Danish National Birth Cohort with self-reported information on TTP collected through computer assisted telephone interviews. Road traffic noise was modelled at all historical addresses and expressed as time-weighted means for periods corresponding to individual TTP. Associations were analyzed using logistic regression for analyses of dichotomous outcomes and ordinal logistic regression for TTP in four categories, adjusting for maternal age at conception, disposable household income, education and air pollution (NOx)...
June 4, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558301/crop-bioaccumulation-and-human-exposure-of-perfluoroalkyl-acids-through-multi-media-transport-from-a-mega-fluorochemical-industrial-park-china
#14
Zhaoyang Liu, Yonglong Lu, Yajuan Shi, Pei Wang, Kevin Jones, Andrew J Sweetman, Andrew C Johnson, Meng Zhang, Yunqiao Zhou, Xiaotian Lu, Chao Su, Suriyanarayanan Sarvajayakesavaluc, Kifayatullah Khan
Significant quantities of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are released to the environment from fluorochemical manufacturing processes through wastewater discharge and air emission in China, which may lead to human exposure and health risks through crop bioaccumulation from PFAAs-contaminated soil and irrigation water. This paper systematically studied the distribution and transport of PFAAs in agricultural soil, irrigation water and precipitation, followed by crop bioaccumulation and finally human exposure of PFAAs within a 10km radius around a mega-fluorochemical industrial park (FIP)...
May 27, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558300/urine-cadmium-levels-and-albuminuria-in-a-general-population-from-spain-a-gene-environment-interaction-analysis
#15
Maria Grau-Perez, Gernot Pichler, Inma Galan-Chilet, Laisa S Briongos-Figuero, Pilar Rentero-Garrido, Raul Lopez-Izquierdo, Ana Navas-Acien, Virginia Weaver, Tamara García-Barrera, Jose L Gomez-Ariza, Juan C Martín-Escudero, F Javier Chaves, Josep Redon, Maria Tellez-Plaza
BACKGROUND: The interaction of cadmium with genes involved in oxidative stress, cadmium metabolism and transport pathways on albuminuria can provide biological insight on the relationship between cadmium and albuminuria at low exposure levels. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that specific genotypes in candidate genes may confer increased susceptibility to cadmium exposure. METHODS: Cadmium exposure was estimated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) in urine from 1397 men and women aged 18-85years participating in the Hortega Study, a representative sample of a general population from Spain...
May 27, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554097/the-effect-of-high-temperature-on-cause-specific-mortality-a-multi-county-analysis-in-china
#16
Jie Ban, Dandan Xu, Mike Z He, Qinghua Sun, Chen Chen, Wentao Wang, Pengfei Zhu, Tiantian Li
Although existing studies have linked high temperature to mortality in a small number of regions, less evidence is available on the variation in the associations between high temperature exposure and cause-specific mortality of multiple regions in China. Our study focused on the use of time series analysis to quantify the association between high temperature and different cause-specific mortalities for susceptible populations for 43 counties in China. Two-stage analyses adopting a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) and a meta-analysis allowed us to obtain county-specific estimates and national-scale pooled estimates of the nonlinear temperature-mortality relationship...
May 26, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554096/phthalates-and-thyroid-function-in-preschool-age-children-sex-specific-associations
#17
Rachelle Morgenstern, Robin M Whyatt, Beverly J Insel, Antonia M Calafat, Xinhua Liu, Virginia A Rauh, Julie Herbstman, Gary Bradwin, Pam Factor-Litvak
BACKGROUND: Research relating either prenatal or concurrent measures of phthalate exposure to thyroid function in preschool children is inconclusive. METHODS: In a study of inner-city mothers and their children, metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diethyl phthalate were measured in a spot urine sample collected from women in late pregnancy and from their children at age 3years. We measured children's serum free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) at age 3...
May 26, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552550/endocrine-disrupting-compounds-in-drinking-water-supply-system-and-human-health-risk-implication
#18
REVIEW
Sze Yee Wee, Ahmad Zaharin Aris
To date, experimental and epidemiological evidence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) adversely affecting human and animal populations has been widely debated. Notably, human health risk assessment is required for risk mitigation. The lack of human health risk assessment and management may thus unreliably regulate the quality of water resources and efficiency of treatment processes. Therefore, drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) may be still unwarranted in assuring safe access to potable drinking water...
May 25, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551493/residential-greenness-and-adiposity-findings-from-the-uk-biobank
#19
Chinmoy Sarkar
BACKGROUND: With the rapid urbanization and prevailing obesity pandemic, the role of residential green exposures in obesity prevention has gained renewed focus. The study investigated the effects of residential green exposures on adiposity using a large and diverse population sample drawn from the UK Biobank. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a population based cross-sectional study of 333,183 participants aged 38-73years with individual-level data on residential greenness and built environment exposures...
May 25, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545656/cord-plasma-insulin-and-in-utero-exposure-to-ambient-air-pollution
#20
Narjes Madhloum, Bram G Janssen, Dries S Martens, Nelly D Saenen, Esmée Bijnens, Wilfried Gyselaers, Joris Penders, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Wouter Lefebvre, Michelle Plusquin, Tim S Nawrot
INTRODUCTION: Cardio-metabolic risk factors including insulin levels are at young age barely perceived as harmful, but over time these risk factors may track and lead to higher risk of metabolic syndrome. Studies showed that exposure to air pollution is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in childhood. We determined whether the origin of type 2 diabetes can be found in the early childhood by examining the levels of insulin in the neonatal cord blood and whether this can be considered as a disease marker for later life...
May 22, 2017: Environment International
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