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Environment International

Ann M Vuong, Joseph M Braun, Kimberly Yolton, Zhiyang Wang, Changchun Xie, Glenys M Webster, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M Calafat, Kim N Dietrich, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence from toxicological studies describing the potential neurotoxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), their role in neurodevelopment remains uncertain amid inconsistent findings from epidemiological studies. METHODS: Using data from 218 mother-child dyads from the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, we examined prenatal and childhood (3 and 8 years) serum concentrations of four PFAS and inattention, impulsivity, and visual spatial abilities...
July 14, 2018: Environment International
Jiaqiang Liao, Huifang Yu, Wei Xia, Bin Zhang, Bin Lu, Zhongqiang Cao, Shengwen Liang, Ke Hu, Shunqing Xu, Yuanyuan Li
BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain (GWG) is increasingly reported to be associated with adverse birth outcomes. However, the effect of PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy on GWG is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between the exposure to PM2.5 and GWGs during three pregnancy trimesters based on a prospective birth cohort. METHODS: Data were obtained from 2029 pregnant women who participated in a birth cohort between January 2013 and October 2014 in Wuhan, China...
July 11, 2018: Environment International
Sujin Kim, Yoon Hee Cho, Inae Lee, Wonji Kim, Sungho Won, Ja-Lok Ku, Hyo-Bang Moon, Jeongim Park, Sungkyoon Kim, Gyuyeon Choi, Kyungho Choi
Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to numerous adverse birth outcomes among newborn infants in many epidemiological studies. Although epigenetic modifications have been suggested as possible explanations for those associations, studies have rarely reported a relationship between POP exposure during pregnancy and DNA methylation in the placenta. In the present study, we investigated the association between prenatal exposure to several POPs, including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and methylation levels of long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1), as well as imprinted genes in placental DNAs among Korean mother-child pairs (N = 109)...
July 10, 2018: Environment International
Tao Xue, Tong Zhu, Yiqun Han
The association between maternal exposure to PM2.5 and birthweight varies geographically, which may be caused by susceptibility. Whether this population-level association is a function of mixtures of individuals with different susceptibilities is unclear. We investigated the probability distribution of individuals with different susceptibilities to PM2.5 -related birthweight change, and evaluated spatial variation of the effect across the United States (US). We estimated the individual-level susceptibility using the effect of PM2...
July 10, 2018: Environment International
Alexis Descatha, Grace Sembajwe, Michael Baer, Fabio Boccuni, Cristina Di Tecco, Clément Duret, Bradley A Evanoff, Diana Gagliardi, Ivan D Ivanov, Nancy Leppink, Alessandro Marinaccio, Linda L Magnusson Hanson, Anna Ozguler, Frank Pega, John Pell, Fernando Pico, Annette Prüss-Üstün, Matteo Ronchetti, Yves Roquelaure, Erika Sabbath, Gretchen A Stevens, Akizumi Tsutsumi, Yuka Ujita, Sergio Iavicoli
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from stroke attributable to exposure to long working hours, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology...
July 10, 2018: Environment International
Whanhee Lee, Yoonhee Kim, Yasushi Honda, Ho Kim
Many previous literatures suggested that high temperature and diurnal temperature range (DTR) are prominent risk factors to increase risk of mortality. However, the role of effect modification of temperature on the DTR-related mortality is unclear. We examined whether temperature was an effect modifier on the DTR-mortality association and how the modification patterns differed by cause of deaths and different regional climates using a nationwide 47 prefecture data in Japan (1972-2015). We used a two-stage analysis...
July 9, 2018: Environment International
Javier Vila, Michelle C Turner, Esther Gracia-Lavedan, Jordi Figuerola, Joseph D Bowman, Laurel Kincl, Lesley Richardson, Geza Benke, Martine Hours, Daniel Krewski, Dave McLean, Marie-Elise Parent, Siegal Sadetzki, Klaus Schlaefer, Brigitte Schlehofer, Joachim Schüz, Jack Siemiatycki, Martie van Tongeren, Elisabeth Cardis
INTRODUCTION: In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B), although the epidemiological evidence for the association between occupational exposure to RF-EMF and cancer was judged to be inadequate, due in part to limitations in exposure assessment. This study examines the relation between occupational RF and intermediate frequency (IF) EMF exposure and brain tumor (glioma and meningioma) risk in the INTEROCC multinational population-based case-control study (with nearly 4000 cases and over 5000 controls), using a novel exposure assessment approach...
July 8, 2018: Environment International
Kathrin Sackmann, Thorsten Reemtsma, Magnus Rahmberg, Dirk Bunke
REACH aims at promoting the safe use of chemicals in Europe, inter alia by identification and regulation of substances of very high concern (SVHCs). Once identified, SVHCs need to be substituted by safer alternatives. However, substitutes are frequently not safer than the substances that they replace but rather show similar hazard profiles, resulting in regrettable substitution. This paper investigates the impact of chemicals regulation on substitution of chemicals by analyzing time trends in the industrial use of chemicals from 2000 to 2014 in Scandinavia...
July 7, 2018: Environment International
Ayoung Jeong, Giovanni Fiorito, Pekka Keski-Rahkonen, Medea Imboden, Agneta Kiss, Nivonirina Robinot, Hans Gmuender, Jelle Vlaanderen, Roel Vermeulen, Soterios Kyrtopoulos, Zdenko Herceg, Akram Ghantous, Gianfranco Lovison, Claudia Galassi, Andrea Ranzi, Vittorio Krogh, Sara Grioni, Claudia Agnoli, Carlotta Sacerdote, Nahid Mostafavi, Alessio Naccarati, Augustin Scalbert, Paolo Vineis, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence indicates common risk factors, including air pollution exposure, for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, suggesting the involvement of common altered molecular pathways. OBJECTIVES: The goal was to find intermediate metabolites or metabolic pathways that could be associated with both air pollutants and health outcomes ("meeting-in-the-middle"), thus shedding light on mechanisms and reinforcing causality. METHODS: We applied a statistical approach named 'meet-in-the-middle' to untargeted metabolomics in two independent case-control studies nested in cohorts on adult-onset asthma (AOA) and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD)...
July 7, 2018: Environment International
Haochang Su, Xiaojuan Hu, Yu Xu, Wujie Xu, Xiaoshuai Huang, Guoliang Wen, Keng Yang, Zhuojia Li, Yucheng Cao
More attention has been paid to the abundance and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in aquatic environments. However, few studies have investigated the persistence and spatial variation of ARGs in aquatic organisms. This study investigated the occurrence and abundance of ARGs and the bacterial populations in shrimp intestinal tracts during the rearing period in different regions of Guangdong, South China. The results showed that sul1, sul2, qnrD, and floR were the predominant ARGs. Compared with those of juvenile shrimp, the total concentrations of ARGs in the intestinal tract of adult shrimp in three shrimp farms were 2...
July 7, 2018: Environment International
Jiaying Liu, Nour Wattar, Catherine J Field, Irina Dinu, Deborah Dewey, Jonathan W Martin
Diet is regarded as the main source of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure, but comparatively little is known about dietary sources of BPA-alternatives. Here we measured exposure of BPA and BPA-alternatives among pregnant women in Canada, estimated their 24-h intakes and examined the importance of various dietary sources. Free and total BPA, bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) were measured in 467 second trimester maternal urine samples, and in 455 paired samples collected at three months postpartum. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations between urinary concentrations of bisphenols and 24-h dietary recall data...
July 7, 2018: Environment International
Yang Xie, Hancheng Dai, Xinghan Xu, Shinichiro Fujimori, Tomoko Hasegawa, Kan Yi, Toshihiko Masui, Gakuji Kurata
Climate change mitigation involves reducing fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, which is expensive, particularly under stringent mitigation targets. The co-benefits of reducing air pollutants and improving human health are often ignored, but can play significant roles in decision-making. In this study, we quantified the co-benefits of climate change mitigation on ambient air quality and human health in both physical and monetary terms with a particular focus on Asia, where air quality will likely be degraded in the next few decades if mitigation measures are not undertaken...
July 7, 2018: Environment International
Manisha Lamba, Sonia Gupta, Rishabh Shukla, David W Graham, T R Sreekrishnan, S Z Ahammad
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global concern, especially in India where the burden of infectious diseases is high and health care spending is low. Here we quantified total coliform, faecal coliforms (FC), carbapenem-resistant enteric bacteria (CRE), blaNDM-1 , and three integron genes in samples collected from wastewater effluent of 12 hospitals, 12 sewage treatment plants (STPs), 20 sewer drains, and five locations along the Yamuna River in New Delhi over two seasons. Significant correlations were found between FC levels, CRE (r = 0...
July 6, 2018: Environment International
Nugroho Harry Susanto, Ann-Marie Malby Schoos, Marie Standl, Adrian J Lowe, Shyamali C Dharmage, Cecilie Svanes, Agus Salim, Andrea von Berg, Irina Lehmann, Morten Arendt Rasmussen, Matthias Werchan, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Caroline Lodge, Michael J Abramson, Joachim Heinrich, Hans Bisgaard, Bircan Erbas
BACKGROUND: Early life factors are associated with allergic respiratory diseases, but the role of high grass pollen concentrations during pregnancy and shortly after birth is not known. OBJECTIVE: To assess outdoor levels of grass pollen during the intrauterine period and at birth during peak pollen season on cord blood IgE in birth cohorts. METHODS: Three birth cohorts were included: MACS (n = 429), Australia; COPSAC2000 (n = 200), Denmark; and LISA (n = 1968), Germany...
July 6, 2018: Environment International
Enembe O Okokon, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Anu W Turunen, Pekka Tiittanen, Jukka Juutilainen, Timo Lanki
BACKGROUND: Road-traffic noise can induce stress, which may contribute to mental health disorders. Mental health problems have not received much attention in noise research. People perceive noise differently, which may affect the extent to which noise contributes to poor mental health at the individual level. This paper aims to assess the relationships between outdoor traffic noise and noise annoyance and the use of psychotropic medication. METHODS: We conducted a survey to assess noise annoyance and psychotropic medication among residents of the Helsinki Capital Region of Finland...
July 6, 2018: Environment International
Giuseppa Raitano, Daniele Goi, Valentina Pieri, Alice Passoni, Michele Mattiussi, Anna Lutman, Isabella Romeo, Alberto Manganaro, Marco Marzo, Nicola Porta, Diego Baderna, Andrea Colombo, Eleonora Aneggi, Fabrizio Natolino, Marco Lodi, Renzo Bagnati, Emilio Benfenati
Contaminants giving rise to emerging concern like pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) have been detected in wastewaters, as reported in the literature, but little is known about their (eco)toxicological effects and consequent human health impact. The present study aimed at overcoming this lack of information through the use of in silico methods integrated with traditional toxicological risk analysis. This is part of a pilot project involving the management of wastewater treatment plants in the Ledra River basin (Italy)...
July 5, 2018: Environment International
Stephane Buteau, Mark S Goldberg, Richard T Burnett, Antonio Gasparrini, Marie-France Valois, James M Brophy, Dan L Crouse, Marianne Hatzopoulou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2018: Environment International
Hyewon Lee, Woojae Myung, Byeong-Ho Jeong, Hong Choi, Byung Woo Jhun, Ho Kim
Despite increasing epidemiological evidence of an association between air pollution and adverse health outcomes, the detailed mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of air pollution on medical conditions remain unclear. We evaluated the effects of short- and long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on key inflammatory markers in non-smoking subjects. Serum fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and white blood cell counts were repeatedly measured 3 times in 6589 subjects at the Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, South Korea) between 2010 and 2016...
July 5, 2018: Environment International
Xiaojuan Guo, Xushen Chen, Jie Wang, Zhiyue Liu, Daniel Gaile, Hongmei Wu, Guan Yu, Guangyun Mao, Zuopeng Yang, Zhen Di, Xiuqing Guo, Li Cao, Peiye Chang, Binxian Kang, Jinyu Chen, Wen Gao, Xuefeng Ren
As a nonmutagenic human carcinogen, arsenic (As)'s carcinogenic activity is likely the result of epigenetic changes, particularly alterations in DNA methylation. While increasing studies indicate a potentially important role for timing of As exposure on DNA methylation patterns and the subsequent differential risks for As toxicity and carcinogenesis, there is a lack of research that tackles these critical questions, particularly in human based populations. Here we reported a family-based study including three generations, in which each generation living in the same household had a distinctive timing of As exposure: in adulthood, in utero and during early childhood, and in germlines exposure for grandparents, parents, and grandchildren, respectively...
July 4, 2018: Environment International
William J F Le Quesne, Craig Baker-Austin, David W Verner-Jeffreys, Hanan A Al-Sarawi, Hanan H Balkhy, Brett P Lyons
It is becoming increasingly clear that the genetic diversity and abundance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in non-clinical settings has been underestimated and that the environment plays an integral role in enabling the development of AMR. Due to specific demographic and environmental factors the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region may be particularly susceptible to the threat of AMR, with the marine and aquatic environment potentially playing a specific role in its development and propagation. The demographic factors include rapid population growth, significant international population movements, heavy antibiotic use and insufficient antibiotic stewardship...
July 3, 2018: Environment International
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