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Environment International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738263/prenatal-exposure-to-pm2-5-and-birth-weight-a-pooled-analysis-from-three-north-american-longitudinal-pregnancy-cohort-studies
#1
Maria José Rosa, Ashley Pajak, Allan C Just, Perry E Sheffield, Itai Kloog, Joel Schwartz, Brent Coull, Michelle Bosquet Enlow, Andrea A Baccarelli, Kathi Huddleston, John E Niederhuber, Martha María Téllez Rojo, Robert O Wright, Chris Gennings, Rosalind J Wright
A common practice when analyzing multi-site epidemiological data is to include a term for 'site' to account for unmeasured effects at each location. This practice should be carefully considered when site can have complex relationships with important demographic and exposure variables. We leverage data from three longitudinal North American pregnancy cohorts to demonstrate a novel method to assess study heterogeneity and potential combinability of studies for pooled analyses in order to better understand how to consider site in analyses...
July 21, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738262/systematic-review-of-community-health-impacts-of-mountaintop-removal-mining
#2
REVIEW
Abee L Boyles, Robyn B Blain, Johanna R Rochester, Raghavendhran Avanasi, Susan B Goldhaber, Sofie McComb, Stephanie D Holmgren, Scott A Masten, Kristina A Thayer
BACKGROUND: The objective of this evaluation is to understand the human health impacts of mountaintop removal (MTR) mining, the major method of coal mining in and around Central Appalachia. MTR mining impacts the air, water, and soil and raises concerns about potential adverse health effects in neighboring communities; exposures associated with MTR mining include particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, hydrogen sulfide, and other recognized harmful substances...
July 21, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735152/a-systematic-review-of-cardiovascular-emergency-department-visits-hospital-admissions-and-mortality-associated-with-ambient-black-carbon
#3
REVIEW
Thomas J Luben, Jennifer L Nichols, Steven J Dutton, Ellen Kirrane, Elizabeth O Owens, Laura Datko-Williams, Meagan Madden, Jason D Sacks
BACKGROUND: Black carbon (BC) is a ubiquitous component of particulate matter (PM) emitted from combustion-related sources and is associated with a number of health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the potential for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following exposure to ambient BC, or the related component elemental carbon (EC), in the context of what is already known about the associations between exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2...
July 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735151/do-air-pollution-and-neighborhood-greenness-exposures-improve-the-predicted-cardiovascular-risk
#4
Maayan Yitshak-Sade, Itai Kloog, Victor Novack
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies show associations between exposure to Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current cardiovascular equations incorporate the major risk factors for CVD. The patients' environment, however, is not incorporated in these equations. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, we assessed the contribution of neighborhood greenness and particulate matter (coarse-PM and PM<2.5μm-PM2.5) to the development of CVD by analyzing the change in prediction abilities...
July 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735150/inverse-relationship-between-urban-green-space-and-childhood-autism-in-california-elementary-school-districts
#5
Jianyong Wu, Laura Jackson
Green space has a variety of health benefits. However, little is known about its impact on autism, the fastest-growing neurodevelopmental disorder in children. This study examined the relationship between green space and childhood autism prevalence. Autism count data in 2010 were obtained for 543 of ~560 public elementary school districts in California. Multiple types of green space were measured in each school district, including percentages of forest, grassland, and average tree canopy and near-road tree canopy...
July 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732305/association-between-gaseous-air-pollutants-and-inflammatory-hemostatic-and-lipid-markers-in-a-cohort-of-midlife-women
#6
Xiangmei May Wu, Rupa Basu, Brian Malig, Rachel Broadwin, Keita Ebisu, Ellen B Gold, Lihong Qi, Carol Derby, Rochelle S Green
BACKGROUND: Exposures to ambient gaseous pollutants have been linked to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but the biological mechanisms remain uncertain. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the changes in CVD marker levels resulting from elevated exposure to ambient gaseous pollutants in midlife women. METHODS: Annual repeated measurements of several inflammatory, hemostatic and lipid makers were obtained from 2306 midlife women enrolled in the longitudinal Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) between 1999 and 2004...
July 18, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719840/environmental-and-human-health-challenges-of-industrial-livestock-and-poultry-farming-in-china-and-their-mitigation
#7
REVIEW
Yuanan Hu, Hefa Cheng, Shu Tao
Driven by the growing demand for food products of animal origin, industrial livestock and poultry production has become increasingly popular and is on the track of becoming an important source of environmental pollution in China. Although concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have higher production efficiency and profitability with less resource consumption compared to the traditional family-based and "free range" farming, they bring significant environmental pollution concerns and pose public health risks...
July 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709636/effects-of-climate-and-fine-particulate-matter-on-hospitalizations-and-deaths-for-heart-failure-in-elderly-a-population-based-cohort-study
#8
Alain Vanasse, Denis Talbot, Fateh Chebana, Diane Bélanger, Claudia Blais, Philippe Gamache, Jean-Xavier Giroux, Roxanne Dault, Pierre Gosselin
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the effects of climate and air pollutant exposure on heart failure (HF) within taking into account individual and contextual variables. OBJECTIVES: We measured the lag effects of temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on hospitalizations and deaths for HF in elderly diagnosed with this disease on a 10-year period in the province of Quebec, Canada. METHODS: Our population-based cohort study included 112,793 elderly diagnosed with HF between 2001 and 2011...
July 11, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704700/environmental-exposure-to-pesticides-and-the-risk-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-netherlands
#9
Maartje Brouwer, Anke Huss, Marianne van der Mark, Peter C G Nijssen, Wim M Mulleners, Antonetta M G Sas, Teus van Laar, Geert R de Snoo, Hans Kromhout, Roel C H Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: Exposure to pesticides has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), although associations between specific pesticides and PD have not been well studied. Residents of rural areas can be exposed through environmental drift and volatilization of agricultural pesticides. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the association between lifetime environmental exposure to individual pesticides and the risk of PD, in a national case-control study. METHODS: Environmental exposure to pesticides was estimated using a spatio-temporal model, based on agricultural crops around the residential address...
July 10, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692913/particle-and-bioaerosol-characteristics-in-a-paediatric-intensive-care-unit
#10
Congrong He, Ian M Mackay, Kay Ramsay, Zhen Liang, Timothy Kidd, Luke D Knibbs, Graham Johnson, Donna McNeale, Rebecca Stockwell, Mark G Coulthard, Debbie A Long, Tara J Williams, Caroline Duchaine, Natalie Smith, Claire Wainwright, Lidia Morawska
The paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) provides care to critically ill neonates, infants and children. These patients are vulnerable and susceptible to the environment surrounding them, yet there is little information available on indoor air quality and factors affecting it within a PICU. To address this gap in knowledge we conducted continuous indoor and outdoor airborne particle concentration measurements over a two-week period at the Royal Children's Hospital PICU in Brisbane, Australia, and we also collected 82 bioaerosol samples to test for the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens...
July 7, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689118/prenatal-and-postnatal-exposure-to-no2-and-child-attentional-function-at-4-5years-of-age
#11
Alexis Sentís, Jordi Sunyer, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Ainara Andiarena, Ferran Ballester, Marta Cirach, Marisa Estarlich, Ana Fernández-Somoano, Jesús Ibarluzea, Carmen Íñiguez, Aitana Lertxundi, Adonina Tardón, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Martine Vrijheid, Mònica Guxens
BACKGROUND: Prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution has been linked to cognitive impairment in children, but very few studies have assessed its association with attentional function. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and attentional function in children at 4-5years of age. METHODS: We used data from four regions of the Spanish INMA-Environment and Childhood-Project, a population-based birth cohort...
July 6, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689110/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-infants-and-toddlers-relationship-between-concentrations-in-matched-plasma-and-faecal-samples
#12
Yiqin Chen, Andreas Sjodin, Michael S McLachlan, Karin English, Lesa L Aylward, Leisa-Maree L Toms, Julie Varghese, Peter D Sly, Jochen F Mueller
Early-childhood biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is challenging due to the logistic and ethical limitations associated with blood sampling. We investigated using faeces as a non-invasive matrix to estimate internal exposure to POPs. The concentrations of selected POPs were measured in matched plasma and faecal samples collected from 20 infants/toddlers (aged 13±4.8months), including a repeat sample time point for 13 infants (~5months apart). We observed higher rates of POP quantification in faeces (2g dry weight) than in plasma (0...
July 6, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689109/organophosphate-pesticides-and-pon1-l55m-in-parkinson-s-disease-progression
#13
Kimberly C Paul, Janet S Sinsheimer, Myles Cockburn, Jeff M Bronstein, Yvette Bordelon, Beate Ritz
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) has motor and non-motor features that contribute to its phenotype and functional decline. Organophosphate (OP) pesticides and PON1 L55M, which influences OP metabolism, have been implicated in multiple mechanisms related to neuronal cell death and may influence PD symptom progression. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether ambient agricultural OP exposure and PON1 L55M influence the rate of motor, cognitive, and mood-related symptom progression in PD...
July 6, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668725/patterns-of-cellular-phone-use-among-young-people-in-12-countries-implications-for-rf-exposure
#14
Chelsea E Langer, Patricia de Llobet, Albert Dalmau, Joe Wiart, Geertje Goedhart, Martine Hours, Geza P Benke, Evdoxia Bouka, Revital Bruchim, Kyung-Hwa Choi, Amanda Eng, Mina Ha, Maria Karalexi, Kosuke Kiyohara, Noriko Kojimahara, Daniel Krewski, Hans Kromhout, Brigitte Lacour, Andrea 't Mannetje, Milena Maule, Enrica Migliore, Charmaine Mohipp, Franco Momoli, Eleni Petridou, Katja Radon, Thomas Remen, Siegal Sadetzki, Malcolm R Sim, Tobias Weinmann, Roel Vermeulen, Elisabeth Cardis, Martine Vrijheid
Characterizing exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields from wireless telecommunications technologies during childhood and adolescence is a research priority in investigating the health effects of RF. The Mobi-Expo study aimed to describe characteristics and determinants of cellular phone use in 534 young people (10-24years) in 12 countries. The study used a specifically designed software application installed on smartphones to collect data on the use of wireless telecommunications devices within this age group...
June 29, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668173/mapping-urban-air-quality-in-near-real-time-using-observations-from-low-cost-sensors-and-model-information
#15
Philipp Schneider, Nuria Castell, Matthias Vogt, Franck R Dauge, William A Lahoz, Alena Bartonova
The recent emergence of low-cost microsensors measuring various air pollutants has significant potential for carrying out high-resolution mapping of air quality in the urban environment. However, the data obtained by such sensors are generally less reliable than that from standard equipment and they are subject to significant data gaps in both space and time. In order to overcome this issue, we present here a data fusion method based on geostatistics that allows for merging observations of air quality from a network of low-cost sensors with spatial information from an urban-scale air quality model...
June 28, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666241/paternal-and-maternal-urinary-phthalate-metabolite-concentrations-and-birth-weight-of-singletons-conceived-by-subfertile-couples
#16
Carmen Messerlian, Joseph M Braun, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Paige L Williams, Jennifer B Ford, Vicente Mustieles, Antonia M Calafat, Irene Souter, Thomas Toth, Russ Hauser
BACKGROUND: Prenatal phthalate exposure has been inconsistently associated with fetal growth and infant birth weight. However, the effect of exposure during the paternal and maternal preconception period remains understudied. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations of paternal and maternal preconception and maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with birth weight. METHODS: The study comprised 364 singletons born to 364 mothers and 195 fathers (195 couples) from the EARTH Study, a prospective cohort of couples from Boston, MA...
June 27, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662399/obesogens-in-the-aquatic-environment-an-evolutionary-and-toxicological-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Ana Capitão, Angeliki Lyssimachou, Luís Filipe Costa Castro, Miguel M Santos
The rise of obesity in humans is a major health concern of our times, affecting an increasing proportion of the population worldwide. It is now evident that this phenomenon is not only associated with the lack of exercise and a balanced diet, but also due to environmental factors, such as exposure to environmental chemicals that interfere with lipid homeostasis. These chemicals, also known as obesogens, are present in a wide range of products of our daily life, such as cosmetics, paints, plastics, food cans and pesticide-treated food, among others...
June 26, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658634/dietary-human-exposure-to-mercury-in-two-artisanal-small-scale-gold-mining-communities-of-northwestern-colombia
#18
Carlos Salazar-Camacho, Manuel Salas-Moreno, Siday Marrugo-Madrid, José Marrugo-Negrete, Sergi Díez
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the largest anthropogenic source of mercury pollution worldwide, posing a grave threat to human health. The present study identifies current levels of mercury in the human population from mining areas of the Chocó Department, Colombia, through total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) measurements in human hair. Mercury exposure of the local population was assessed in two towns affected by ASGM and was related to different variables of interest. Concentrations of THg in human hair ranged from 0...
June 25, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651244/the-health-policy-implications-of-individual-adaptive-behavior-responses-to-smog-pollution-in-urban-china
#19
Jie Ban, Lian Zhou, Yi Zhang, G Brooke Anderson, Tiantian Li
Smog pollution is a serious public health issue in urban China, where it is associated with public health through a range of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. Despite the negative health impacts of smog pollution, individual adaptive behaviors are poorly understood. This knowledge gap hinders the development of effective public policy to support and encourage the adoption of individual adaptive and mitigating behaviors to smog pollution. A questionnaire survey of 1141 randomly sampled individuals in a typical PM2...
June 23, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651166/air-quality-inside-subway-metro-indoor-environment-worldwide-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Bin Xu, Jinliang Hao
The air quality in the subway metro indoor microenvironment has been of particular public concern. With specific reference to the growing demand of green transportation and sustainable development, subway metro systems have been rapidly developed worldwide in last decades. The number of metro commuters has continuously increased over recent years in metropolitan cities. In some cities, metro system has become the primary public transportation mode. Although commuters typically spend only 30-40min in metros, the air pollutants emitted from various interior components of metro system as well as air pollutants carried by ventilation supply air are significant sources of harmful air pollutants that could lead to unhealthy human exposure...
June 23, 2017: Environment International
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