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Environment International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325534/association-between-meteorological-factors-and-hepatitis-a-in-spain-2010-2014
#1
Pedro Gullón, Carmen Varela, Elena Vanessa Martínez, Diana Gómez-Barroso
BACKGROUND: There is growing concern of how climate change could affect public health, due to the increase number of extreme climate events. Hence, the study of the role that climate events play on the distribution of waterborne diseases, like Hepatitis A, could be key for developing new prevention approaches. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between climate factors and Hepatitis A in Spain between 2010 and 2014. METHODS: Weekly Hepatitis A cases between 2010 and 2014 were obtained from the Spanish Epidemiology Surveillance Network...
March 18, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320548/evaluating-the-influence-of-half-life-milk-plasma-partition-coefficient-and-volume-of-distribution-on-lactational-exposure-to-chemicals-in-children
#2
Marc-André Verner, Laurence Plouffe, Kyra K Kieskamp, Inés Rodríguez-Leal, Satori A Marchitti
Women are exposed to multiple environmental chemicals, many of which are known to transfer to breast milk during lactation. However, little is known about the influence of the different chemical-specific pharmacokinetic parameters on children's lactational dose. Our objective was to develop a generic pharmacokinetic model and subsequently quantify the influence of three chemical-specific parameters (biological half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution) on lactational exposure to chemicals and resulting plasma levels in children...
March 17, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318602/metals-hormones-and-sexual-maturation-in-flemish-adolescents-in-three-cross-sectional-studies-2002-2015
#3
Sam De Craemer, Kim Croes, Nicolas van Larebeke, Stefaan De Henauw, Greet Schoeters, Eva Govarts, Ilse Loots, Tim Nawrot, Vera Nelen, Elly Den Hond, Liesbeth Bruckers, Yue Gao, Willy Baeyens
Sex hormone levels and timing of sexual maturation are considered important markers for health status of adolescents in puberty, and previous research suggests they might be influenced by metal exposure. In three campaigns of the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS I 2002-2006; FLEHS II 2007-2011 and FLEHS III 2012-2015), data were collected on internal exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Mn, Tl, Ni, Sb, Hg, As and As species) and sexual maturation in 2671 14-15years old adolescents. All metals were measured in blood and/or urine, except total- and methylmercury which were measured in hair samples...
March 17, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325665/volatile-methylsiloxanes-through-wastewater-treatment-plants-a-review-of-levels-and-implications
#4
REVIEW
Daniela Capela, Nuno Ratola, Arminda Alves, Vera Homem
The use of siloxanes has been increasing due to physicochemical properties that are appropriate to be included in the formulations of a large variety of consumer products. This implies a considerable release of these chemicals into the environment, which caught the attention of the scientific community in view of some reports of potential hazardous effects. However, the studies related to the presence and partition of volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still scarce. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current state of the knowledge concerning the presence of VMSs in WWTPs and also a discussion of the efficiency of the removal technologies available...
March 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318601/strategies-and-knowledge-gaps-for-improving-nanomaterial-biocompatibility
#5
REVIEW
Xiangang Hu, Anqi Sun, Weilu Kang, Qixing Zhou
With rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials, nanosafety has attracted wide attention in all fields related to nanotechnology. As well known, a grand challenge in nanomaterial applications is their biocompatibility. It is urgent to explore effective strategies to control the unintentional effects. Although many novel methods for the synthesis of biocompatible and biodegradable nanomaterials are reported, the control strategy of nanotoxicity remains in its infancy. It is urgent to review the archived strategies for improving nanomaterial biocompatibility to clarify what we have done and where we should be...
March 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297681/isomers-of-perfluorooctanesulfonate-pfos-in-cord-serum-and-birth-outcomes-in-china-guangzhou-birth-cohort-study
#6
Meng Li, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Zhengmin Min Qian, Michael G Vaughn, Sébastien Sauvé, Gunther Paul, Shao Lin, Long Lu, Li-Wen Hu, Bo-Yi Yang, Yang Zhou, Xiao-Di Qin, Shu-Li Xu, Wen-Wen Bao, Ya-Zhi Zhang, Ping Yuan, Jia Wang, Chuan Zhang, Yan-Peng Tian, Min Nian, Xiang Xiao, Chuanxi Fu, Guang-Hui Dong
Prior investigations on the associations of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with fetal growth are mixed. Moreover, little research has accrued pertaining to the association between isomers of PFASs with gestational age and birth weight. To address this gap and present novel information, we conducted a study including 321 pairs of mothers and their infants recruited from Guangzhou, China. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to analyze isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) along with other PFAS levels in cord serum samples...
March 12, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291535/the-health-burden-and-economic-costs-averted-by-ambient-pm2-5-pollution-reductions-in-nagpur-india
#7
Tunde O Etchie, Saravanadevi Sivanesan, Gregory O Adewuyi, Kannan Krishnamurthi, Padma S Rao, Ayotunde T Etchie, Ajay Pillarisetti, Narendra K Arora, Kirk R Smith
National estimates of the health and economic burdens of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in India reveal substantial impacts. This information, often lacking at the local level, can justify and drive mitigation interventions. Here, we assess the health and economic gains resulting from attainment of WHO guidelines for PM2.5 concentrations - including interim target 2 (IT-2), interim target 3 (IT-3), and the WHO air quality guideline (AQG) - in Nagpur district to inform policy decision making for mitigation...
March 10, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284820/current-pesticide-profiles-in-blood-serum-of-adults-in-jiangsu-province-of-china-and-a-comparison-with-other-countries
#8
Chunxin Chang, Minjian Chen, Jiawei Gao, Jia Luo, Keqin Wu, Tianyu Dong, Kun Zhou, Xiaowei He, Weiyue Hu, Wei Wu, Chuncheng Lu, Bo Hang, John D Meeker, Xinru Wang, Yankai Xia
Although various pesticides were used globally, the pesticides profiles in human blood serum remain largely unknown. We determined pesticide exposure profiles using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography tandem with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in 200 human blood serum samples from the adult population in Jiangsu Province, China. A systematic and comprehensive literature review was carried out to identify the articles investigating pesticide exposure and compare exposure data. Of the 88 pesticides, 76 were found in the blood serum of the population in Jiangsu Province...
March 8, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284819/associations-between-long-term-exposure-to-pm2-5-component-species-and-blood-dna-methylation-age-in-the-elderly-the-va-normative-aging-study
#9
Jamaji C Nwanaji-Enwerem, Lingzhen Dai, Elena Colicino, Youssef Oulhote, Qian Di, Itai Kloog, Allan C Just, Lifang Hou, Pantel Vokonas, Andrea A Baccarelli, Marc G Weisskopf, Joel D Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Long-term PM2.5 exposure and aging have been implicated in multiple shared diseases; studying their relationship is a promising strategy to further understand the adverse impact of PM2.5 on human health. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship of major PM2.5 component species (ammonium, elemental carbon, organic carbon, nitrate, and sulfate) with Horvath and Hannum DNA methylation (DNAm) age, two DNA methylation-based predictors of chronological age...
March 8, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284818/distribution-and-importance-of-microplastics-in-the-marine-environment-a-review-of-the-sources-fate-effects-and-potential-solutions
#10
REVIEW
H S Auta, C U Emenike, S H Fauziah
The presence of microplastics in the marine environment poses a great threat to the entire ecosystem and has received much attention lately as the presence has greatly impacted oceans, lakes, seas, rivers, coastal areas and even the Polar Regions. Microplastics are found in most commonly utilized products (primary microplastics), or may originate from the fragmentation of larger plastic debris (secondary microplastics). The material enters the marine environment through terrestrial and land-based activities, especially via runoffs and is known to have great impact on marine organisms as studies have shown that large numbers of marine organisms have been affected by microplastics...
March 8, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283302/perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-endometriosis-related-infertility-in-chinese-women
#11
Bin Wang, Rongrong Zhang, Fan Jin, Hangying Lou, Yuchan Mao, Wenting Zhu, Wei Zhou, Ping Zhang, Jun Zhang
Endometriosis is one of the main causes for female infertility. Previous studies suggested that perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), a group of ubiquitous environmental chemicals with properties of endocrine disruption and reproductive toxicity, were risk factors for endometriosis but there lacks direct evidence on the possible role of PFASs in endometriosis-related infertility. To fill this gap, we examined the association between PFASs and endometriosis-related infertility among Chinese reproductive-age women in a case-control study, which comprised 157 surgically confirmed endometriosis cases and 178 controls seeking infertility treatment because of male reproductive dysfunction in 2014 and 2015...
March 7, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279481/high-selenium-exposure-lowers-the-odds-ratios-for-hypertension-stroke-and-myocardial-infarction-associated-with-mercury-exposure-among-inuit-in-canada
#12
Xue Feng Hu, Kristin M Eccles, Hing Man Chan
BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) has been reported to protect against the neurotoxicity of mercury (Hg). However, the effect of Se against Hg on cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. Inuit living in the Arctic have high exposure to both Se and Hg through their marine mammal and fish rich traditional diet. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the co-exposure of Hg and Se among Inuit in Canada and to assess the associations between Hg, Se and cardiovascular health outcomes, including stroke, hypertension, and myocardial infarction (MI)...
March 6, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274486/phthalates-non-phthalate-plasticizers-and-bisphenols-in-swedish-preschool-dust-in-relation-to-children-s-exposure
#13
Kristin Larsson, Christian H Lindh, Bo Ag Jönsson, Georgios Giovanoulis, Momina Bibi, Matteo Bottai, Anna Bergström, Marika Berglund
Children are exposed to a wide range of chemicals in their everyday environments, including the preschool. In this study, we evaluated the levels of phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in dust from 100 Swedish preschools and identified important exposure factors in the indoor environment. In addition, children's total exposure to these chemicals was determined by urine analysis to investigate their relation with dust exposure, and to explore the time trends by comparing with children who provided urine fifteen years earlier...
March 5, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262321/exploration-of-potential-biomarkers-and-related-biological-pathways-for-pcb-exposure-in-maternal-and-cord-serum-a-pilot-birth-cohort-study-in-chiba-japan
#14
Akifumi Eguchi, Kenichi Sakurai, Masahiro Watanabe, Chisato Mori
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been associated with adverse human reproductive and fetal developmental measures or outcomes because of their endocrine-disrupting effects; however, the biological mechanisms of adverse effects of PCB exposure in humans are not currently well established. In this study, we aimed to identify the biological pathways and potential biomarkers of PCB exposure in maternal and umbilical cord serum using a hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) metabolomics platform...
March 2, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259361/exposure-to-ambient-pm10-and-nitrogen-dioxide-and-adhd-risk-a-reply-to-min-min-2017
#15
LETTER
Keith Fluegge, Kyle Fluegge
Min and Min (2017) conducted an epidemiological investigation that revealed further support of a link between exposure to air pollution and risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. We have previously reported that exposure to the agricultural and combustion pollutant, nitrous oxide (N2O), may be a primary environmental trigger in the onset of neurodevelopmental disorders, like ADHD and autism spectrum disorders. In order to validate our prior work pointing to an association between farm use of nitrogen fertilizers and a severe ADHD phenotype, we have utilized a different statistical approach (i...
March 2, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249740/bridging-science-and-traditional-knowledge-to-assess-cumulative-impacts-of-stressors-on-ecosystem-health
#16
Chrystal S Mantyka-Pringle, Timothy D Jardine, Lori Bradford, Lalita Bharadwaj, Andrew P Kythreotis, Jennifer Fresque-Baxter, Erin Kelly, Gila Somers, Lorne E Doig, Paul D Jones, Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt
Cumulative environmental impacts driven by anthropogenic stressors lead to disproportionate effects on indigenous communities that are reliant on land and water resources. Understanding and counteracting these effects requires knowledge from multiple sources. Yet the combined use of Traditional Knowledge (TK) and Scientific Knowledge (SK) has both technical and philosophical hurdles to overcome, and suffers from inherently imbalanced power dynamics that can disfavour the very communities it intends to benefit...
February 26, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249739/dermal-absorption-of-semivolatile-organic-compounds-from-the-gas-phase-sensitivity-of-exposure-assessment-by-steady-state-modeling-to-key-parameters
#17
Maud Pelletier, Nathalie Bonvallot, Olivier Ramalho, Olivier Blanchard, Fabien Mercier, Corinne Mandin, Barbara Le Bot, Philippe Glorennec
Recent research has demonstrated the importance of dermal exposure for some semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) present in the gas phase of indoor air. Though models for estimating dermal intake from gaseous SVOCs exist, their predictions can be subject to variations in input parameters, which can lead to large variation in exposure estimations. In this sensitivity analysis for a steady state model, we aimed to assess these variations and their determinants using probabilistic Monte Carlo sampling for 8 SVOCs from different chemical families: phthalates, bisphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organophosphorus (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), synthetic musks, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybromodiphenylethers (PBDEs)...
February 26, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245931/disruption-of-thyroid-hormone-th-levels-and-th-regulated-gene-expression-by-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbdes-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-and-hydroxylated-pcbs-in-e-waste-recycling-workers
#18
Jing Zheng, Chun-Tao He, She-Jun Chen, Xiao Yan, Mi-Na Guo, Mei-Huan Wang, Yun-Jiang Yu, Zhong-Yi Yang, Bi-Xian Mai
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the primary toxicants released by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling, but their adverse effects on people working in e-waste recycling or living near e-waste sites have not been studied well. In the present study, the serum concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and hydroxylated PCBs, the circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs), and the mRNA levels of seven TH-regulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes of e-waste recycling workers were analyzed...
February 25, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238459/linking-sources-to-early-effects-by-profiling-urine-metabolome-of-residents-living-near-oil-refineries-and-coal-fired-power-plants
#19
Chi-Hsin Sally Chen, Tzu-Hsuen Yuan, Ruei-Hao Shie, Kuen-Yuh Wu, Chang-Chuan Chan
BACKGROUND: This study aims at identifying metabolic changes linking external exposure to industrial air toxics with oxidative stress biomarkers. METHODS: We classified 252 study subjects as 111 high vs. 141 low exposure subjects by the distance from their homes to the two main emission sources, oil refineries and coal-fired power plants. We estimated individual's external exposure to heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by dispersion and kriging models, respectively...
February 23, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237065/an-evaluation-of-the-health-benefits-achieved-at-the-time-of-an-air-quality-intervention-in-three-israeli-cities
#20
Lital Yinon, George Thurston
BACKGROUND: The statistical association between increased exposure to air pollution and increased risk of morbidity and mortality is well established. However, documentation of the health benefits of lowering air pollution levels, which would support the biological plausibility of those past statistical associations, are not as well developed. A better understanding of the aftereffects of interventions to reduce air pollution is needed in order to: 1) better document the benefits of lowered air pollution; and, 2) identify the types of reductions that most effectively provide health benefits...
February 22, 2017: Environment International
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