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Environment International

Alison Govaerts, Vera Verhaert, Adrian Covaci, Veerle L B Jaspers, Ole Kristian Berg, Abraham Addo-Bediako, Antoinette Jooste, Lieven Bervoets
Biomagnification of Hg and persistent organic pollutants (POPs: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) in aquatic food chains can lead to high pollutant concentrations in top predators, including humans. Despite this threat to human health, research concerning bioaccumulation is still underrepresented in the southern hemisphere and in (sub)arctic and (sub)tropical areas, emphasizing the need for research in these locations. In this study, samples of water, sediment and aquatic biota were analyzed to determine concentrations of POPs and total mercury (THg) in the Ga-Selati river (South Africa) and two rivers Rena and Gudbrandsdalslågen in Norway...
November 6, 2018: Environment International
Xia Meng, Jenny L Hand, Bret A Schichtel, Yang Liu
Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) is a complex mixture of chemical constituents emitted from various emission sources or through secondary reactions/processes; however, PM2.5 is regulated mostly based on its total mass concentration. Studies to identify the impacts on climate change, visibility degradation and public health of different PM2.5 constituents are hindered by limited ground measurements of PM2.5 constituents. In this study, national models were developed based on random forest algorithm, one of machine learning methods that is of high predictive capacity and able to provide interpretable results, to predict concentrations of PM2...
November 6, 2018: Environment International
Mireille Desrochers-Couture, Youssef Oulhote, Tye E Arbuckle, William D Fraser, Jean R Séguin, Emmanuel Ouellet, Nadine Forget-Dubois, Pierre Ayotte, Michel Boivin, Bruce P Lanphear, Gina Muckle
BACKGROUND: Lead exposure predicts altered neurodevelopment and lower intelligence quotient (IQ) in children, but few studies have examined this association in children who have relatively low blood lead concentrations. OBJECTIVES: To test the associations between blood lead concentrations and cognitive function in Canadian preschoolers, with a possible moderation by sex. METHODS: The data were gathered from 609 mother-child pairs from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study...
November 1, 2018: Environment International
Linyan Yang, Xueming Chen, Qianhong She, Guomin Cao, Yongdi Liu, Victor W-C Chang, Chuyang Y Tang
The microbial safety of swimming pool waters (SPWs) becomes increasingly important with the popularity of swimming activities. Disinfection aiming at killing microbes in SPWs produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which has attracted considerable public attentions due to their high frequency of occurrence, considerable concentrations and potent toxicity. We reviewed the latest research progress within the last four decades on the regulation, formation, exposure, and treatment of DBPs in the context of SPWs...
November 1, 2018: Environment International
Marcus S Cooke, Chiung-Wen Hu, Yuan-Jhe Chang, Mu-Rong Chao
The exposome is a concept that encompasses the totality of internal and external environmental exposures, from conception onwards. Evaluation of the exposome, across the lifecourse represents a significant challenge, e.g., methods/technology may simply not exist to comprehensively assess all exposures, or they may not be applicable to human populations, or may have insufficient sensitivity. Cellular DNA adductomics aims to determine the totality of DNA adducts in the cellular genome. However, application to human populations requires the necessarily invasive sampling of tissue, to obtain sufficient DNA for sensitive analysis, which can represent a logistical and IRB challenge, particularly when investigating vulnerable populations...
November 1, 2018: Environment International
Nolwenn Joffin, Philippe Noirez, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Min-Ji Kim, Philippe Marchand, Marion Falabregue, Bruno Le Bizec, Claude Forest, Claude Emond, Robert Barouki, Xavier Coumoul
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are known to accumulate in adipose tissues (AT). This storage may be beneficial by diverting POPs from other sensitive tissues or detrimental because of chronic release of pollutants as indirectly suggested during weight loss. The aim is to study the biological and/or toxic effects that chronic POP release from previously contaminated grafted AT could exert in a naïve mouse. METHODS: C57BL/6J male mice were exposed intraperitoneally to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-doxin (TCDD); their epididymal fat pads were collected and grafted on the back skin of uncontaminated recipient mice whose brain, liver, and epididymal ATs were analyzed (TCDD concentration, relevant gene expression)...
October 31, 2018: Environment International
Gongbo Chen, Zhijuan Jin, Shanshan Li, Xingming Jin, Shilu Tong, Shijian Liu, You Yang, Hong Huang, Yuming Guo
BACKGROUND: The evidence for adverse effects of ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution on mental health is limited. Studies in Western countries suggested higher risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) associated with PM air pollution, but no such study has been done in developing countries. METHODS: A case-control study was performed in Shanghai with a multi-stage random sampling design. Children's exposures to PM1 , PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 1 μm, < 2...
October 30, 2018: Environment International
Peder Wolkoff
"Dry air" is a major and abundant indoor air quality complaint in office-like environments. The causality of perceived "dry air" and associated respiratory effects continues to be debated, despite no clear definition of the complaint, yet, has been provided. The perception of "dry air" is semantically confusing without an associated receptor but mimics a proto-state of sensory irritation like a cooling sensation. "Dry air" may also be confused with another common indoor air quality complaint "stuffy air", which mimics the sense of no fresh air and of nasal congestion...
October 30, 2018: Environment International
Zijian Li
Pesticide residues in groundwater, mainly transported from contaminated soil, may threaten drinking water sources and cause adverse health effects. Therefore, pesticide groundwater standards were implemented by international environmental agencies to ensure the quality of groundwater, which serves as the direct drinking water source in many countries. However, regulatory inconsistencies are always found among groundwater, soil, drinking water, and even health standards due to the lack of communication among the regulatory processes...
October 30, 2018: Environment International
Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Paige L Williams, Yu-Han Chiu, Audrey J Gaskins, Feiby L Nassan, Ramace Dadd, John Petrozza, Russ Hauser, Jorge E Chavarro
BACKGROUND: Multiple meta-analyses have shown sperm count declines in Western countries spanning eight decades. Secular trends in other parameters remain unclear, as are potential predictors of these trends. OBJECTIVE: To analyze secular trends in semen quality and to evaluate whether factors previously found to be related to semen quality were responsible for these patterns. METHODS: This is a prospective study including 936 men of couples seeking infertility treatment who provided 1618 semen samples at a single center (2000-2017)...
October 30, 2018: Environment International
Shohreh F Farzan, Caitlin G Howe, Yu Chen, Diane Gilbert-Diamond, Kathryn L Cottingham, Brian P Jackson, Adam R Weinstein, Margaret R Karagas
Growing evidence suggests that environmental exposures can influence blood pressure over the course of a lifetime. Exposure to toxic metals, such as lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults, but few studies have examined the impacts of in utero and early life toxic metals exposure on blood pressure in childhood. As subclinical vascular changes are thought to begin early in life, it is possible that in utero toxic metals exposure may play a role in blood pressure homeostasis...
October 30, 2018: Environment International
Ji Lu, Yue Wang, Jie Li, Likai Mao, Son Hoang Nguyen, Tania Duarte, Lachlan Coin, Philip Bond, Zhiguo Yuan, Jianhua Guo
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance poses an increasing threat to public health. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) promoted by antibiotics is recognized as a significant pathway to disseminate antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, it is unclear whether non-antibiotic, anti-microbial (NAAM) chemicals can directly promote HGT of ARGs in the environment. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether triclosan (TCS), a widely-used NAAM chemical in personal care products, is able to stimulate the conjugative transfer of antibiotic multi-resistance genes carried by plasmid within and across bacterial genera...
October 30, 2018: Environment International
Ivana Kulhánová, Xavier Morelli, Alain Le Tertre, Dana Loomis, Barbara Charbotel, Sylvia Medina, Jean-Nicolas Ormsby, Johanna Lepeule, Rémy Slama, Isabelle Soerjomataram
Outdoor air pollution is a leading environmental cause of death and cancer incidence in humans. We aimed to estimate the fraction of lung cancer incidence attributable to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure in France, and secondarily to illustrate the influence of the input data and the spatial resolution of information on air pollution levels on this estimate. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated using a nationwide spatially refined chemistry-transport model with a 2-km spatial resolution, neighbourhood-scale population density data, and a relative risk from a published meta-analysis...
October 30, 2018: Environment International
Qingyu Huang, Dayu Hu, Xiaofei Wang, Yahong Chen, Yan Wu, Lu Pan, Hongyu Li, Jie Zhang, Furong Deng, Xinbiao Guo, Heqing Shen
BACKGROUND: Exposure to airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the linkages between PM2.5 exposure, PM2.5 -related biomarkers, COPD-related biomarkers and COPD remain poorly elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the linkages between PM2.5 exposure and COPD outcome by using the meet-in-middle strategy based on urinary metabolic biomarkers...
October 30, 2018: Environment International
Yan Wu, Jie Zhang, Siyuan Peng, Xiaofei Wang, Lianzhong Luo, Liangpo Liu, Qingyu Huang, Meiping Tian, Xueqin Zhang, Heqing Shen
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a typical fetus development niches dysfunction and many toxic/nutrient elements have been associated with its onset and progression. However, the classic epidemiologic approach is regarded as "black-box epidemiology" and fails to elucidate these elements' biological roles on the damaged fetus developmental microenvironment. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the associations between meconium of multiple elements with GDM for illustrating their interruption effects on in-uterus microenvironment...
October 29, 2018: Environment International
Jing Guo, Na Lv, Jun Tang, Xue Zhang, Lihe Peng, Xiaofu Du, Shuai Li, Qiong Luo, Dan Zhang, Guangdi Chen
BACKGROUND: Few epidemiological studies have investigated associations of exposure to multiple metals with thyroid hormone homeostasis, especially for the pregnant women. METHODS: Among all the 1644 participants enrolled in Hangzhou Birth Cohort Study (HBCS) at baseline, a total of 915 pregnant women with complete data of interest were analyzed. Eleven metals were measured in blood samples collected around 25 weeks gestation. Serum levels of thyroid hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were abstracted from the medical records...
October 29, 2018: Environment International
Yanqiu Zhou, Hongxiu Liu, Jiufeng Li, Shunqing Xu, Yuanyuan Li, Hongzhi Zhao, Hangbiao Jin, Wenyu Liu, Arthur C K Chung, Yanjun Hong, Xiaojie Sun, Yangqian Jiang, Wenxin Zhang, Jing Fang, Wei Xia, Zongwei Cai
BACKGROUND: Benzotriazoles (BTRs) and benzothiazoles (BTHs) are emerging contaminants with high production volume worldwide, which exhibit potential health risk to human. To date, little is known about the exposure of BTRs and BTHs (BTs) on human, especially in the context of pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize the exposure profiles, temporal variability, and potential predictors of urinary BTs during pregnancy. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2015, we recruited 856 pregnant women in Wuhan who provided urine samples at three trimesters (13...
October 29, 2018: Environment International
Wenyuan Li, Marguerite M Nyhan, Elissa H Wilker, Carolina L Z Vieira, Honghuang Lin, Joel D Schwartz, Diane R Gold, Brent A Coull, Abdulaziz Mansour Aba, Emelia J Benjamin, Ramachandran S Vasan, Petros Koutrakis, Murray A Mittleman
BACKGROUND: Decay products of radioactive materials may attach to ambient fine particles and form radioactive aerosol. Internal ionizing radiation source from inhaled radioactive aerosol may contribute to the fine particulate matter (PM2.5 )-inflammation pathway. However, few studies in humans have examined the associations. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between particle radioactivity and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation among participants from the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts...
October 27, 2018: Environment International
Jephthe Jean, Supratik Kar, Jerzy Leszczynski
Physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model has immense role to play in the risk assessment process due to specified mathematical representation of the absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity (ADMET) of chemicals in diverse environmental compartment. Determination of adipose/blood partition coefficient [logP(adipose/blood) ] is regarded as one of the crucial constraints of PBTK models. In respect to the challenge for identifying the chemical-definite parameters for these models, especially within short time frame and with limited resources, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are beneficial for providing the chemical-specific parameters of PBTK models...
October 27, 2018: Environment International
Simon Chang, Sonia El-Zaemey, Jane Heyworth, Meng-Chi Tang
Researchers still lack consensus on the association between exposure to DDT and the risk of breast cancer. One reason could be that the measurements of DDT obtained during or near the time of diagnosis may not reflect exposure during the etiologically relevant time period in a woman's life. This study undertook an ecological analysis to investigate whether exposure to DDT among cohort born between 1951 and 1959 (i.e. age 0-5 years) and who reached the age 50-54 years during 2001-2013 had an increased risk of breast cancer in adulthood...
October 27, 2018: Environment International
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