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Animal Reproduction Science

Marc Yeste, Miriam Castillo-Martín, Sergi Bonet, Joan E Rodríguez-Gil
Light irradiation has been demonstrated to exert positive effects on gametes, and particularly on sperm. In effect, a high number of studies conducted in several species, including humans, mice, pigs, cattle and sheep, and using different light sources (such as lasers and light-emitting diodes) have demonstrated that photo-stimulation increases sperm motility. In addition, other works have shown that sperm fertilizing ability both in vitro and in vivo can be increased following light irradiation; there are also some evidences pointing out to an extend of lifespan of preserved semen...
February 9, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Jennifer L Juengel, George H Davis, Roger Wheeler, Ken G Dodds, Peter D Johnstone
The objectives of this study were to determine factors affecting lamb birth weight (BWT) and differences between BWT of the largest and smallest littermates (BWTD) and to assess the relative importance of BWT and BWTD on lamb survival and growth to weaning. Records from twin (n = 5369) or triplet (n = 1664) litters born on pasture were utilised. Breeds included Coopworth, Romney, Perendale, composite and Texel. Ewe and sire breed, age and weight of the dam, sex, and number of lambs born (NLB) affected BWT. Neither embryo loss nor ovulation pattern (i...
February 7, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Karol Wierzchosławski, Krzysztof Kwit, Zygmunt Pejsak, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól
Lactation impairment in sows is a frequent and significant clinical problem. Due to a complex aetiopathogenesis, early diagnosis of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) is difficult and so far has usually been based on physical examination performed in the first days after farrowing. To date no data have been provided on the diagnostic usefulness of acute phase proteins (APP) in early diagnosis of peripartum disorders, including lactation disorders in sows. This study aimed at measuring the serum concentration of selected APP (C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP)) in sows with physiological and pathological course of the peripartum period and at evaluating the possibility of utilising the studied markers in the early diagnosis of lactation disorders...
February 7, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Valentina Vernocchi, Maria Giorgia Morselli, Massimo Faustini, Gianfranco Gabai, Laura Da Dalt, Gaia Cecilia Luvoni
The present study evaluated changes of fecal sexual steroids in two female cheetahs (Geijsha and Duchessa) in Northern Italy throughout one year. Wet feces were collected daily from two sibling animals of the same age, housed with conspecific males and managed in the same conditions, and estrogens and progestogens concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Evidence of ovarian activity based on regular fluctuation in estrogen excretion was demonstrated in both females. None of the animals was continuously cycling, as follicular activity was interrupted by anestrous periods, during the spring and early winter...
February 2, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Tiago Figueiredo Abdo, Lucas Marcon, Nilo Bazzoli
To analyze the effect of the Irapé reservoir on the reproduction of "curimba", Prochilodus hartii, a migratory species, 503 specimens were collected during the reproductive period from February 2012 to January 2013. Specimens were collected from two river sections within the Jequitinhonha River Basin: Site 1 - a section of the Itacambiruçu River, a tributary of the Jequitinhonha River upstream of the Irapé reservoir; and Site 2 - a section of the Jequitinhonha River immediately downstream from the Irapé dam...
February 2, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Min-Su Kim, Kwan-Sik Min, Hwan-Hoo Seong, Chan-Lan Kim, Ik Soo Jeon, Sung Woo Kim, Kazuhiko Imakawa
Conceptus interferon tau (IFNT), produced by the embryonic trophectoderm, is known as a major signaling protein essential for the process of maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminants. Similar to other IFN gene families such as IFNA and IFNB, multiple IFNT genes exist. The number of IFNT genes actively transcribed and regulated in conceptuses of cattle has, however, not been well characterized. In this study, IFNT transcripts in utero were studied through the use of next generation sequencer. Among 38 IFN genes registered and eight annotated as IFNT, only two transcripts, IFNT1 and IFNTc1, were found in conceptuses in utero...
February 2, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Xiaomei Wang, Pengda Zou, Yuanyuan He, Kai Meng, Fusheng Quan, Yong Zhang
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein that regulates the function of ovarian follicular cells. Theca cells (TCs) also have a key role in follicular growth and atresia. The effects and intracellular signaling mechanisms were investigated of LH on apoptosis and steroidogenesis in goat gonadotropin-independent follicular (1.0-4.0 mm) TCs. The results indicated that LH increased androstenedione secretion and relative abundance of CYP17A1 and BCL2 mRNA in the TCs, whereas LH in combination with LY294002, a PI3K/AKT inhibitor, decreased LH-induced function...
February 1, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
L Gallego-Calvo, M C Gatica, J L Guzmán, L A Zarazaga
When the sexual activity of bucks is minimal, there is a minimal male effect on does regardless of their body weight (BW)/body condition (BC) and whether does are treated with melatonin or not. The study examines whether sexually active bucks can induce an adequate male effect in does with an increasing or decreasing trajectory of change in BW/BC when does are or not treated with melatonin. During natural anoestrus, 46 Blanca Andaluza does were assigned to two groups: 1) low BW/low BC group in which does were fed 1...
February 1, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
M P T Owen, K J McCarty, C G Hart, C S Steadman, C O Lemley
Previous studies have characterized ovarian steroid synthesis which directly affects uterine environment and blood flow. Clearance of steroids occurs primarily in hepatic tissues, however, it was discovered that there is an abundant activity of the phase II steroid metabolizing enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) in uterine biopsies. No minimally invasive techniques for collecting endometrial perfusion, which is affected by steroids and indicative of reproductive health, have been developed for livestock...
February 1, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Debora Agata Anzalone, Luca Palazzese, Domenico Iuso, Giuseppe Martino, Pasqualino Loi
In addition to the iconic wild species, such as the pandas and Siberian tigers, an ever-increasing number of domestic species are also threatened with extinction. Biobanking of spermatozoa could preserve genetic heritages of extinct species, and maintain biodiversity of existing species. Because lyophilized spermatozoa retain fertilizing capacity, the aim was to assess whether freeze-dried spermatozoa are an alternative option to save endangered sheep breeds. To achieve this objective, semen was collected from an Italian endangered sheep breed (Pagliarola), and a biobank of cryopreserved and freeze-dried spermatozoa was established, and evaluated using IVF (for frozen spermatozoa) and ICSI procedures (for frozen and freeze-dried spermatozoa)...
January 31, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
M Schulze, C Kuster, J Schäfer, M Jung, R Grossfeld
The processing of ejaculates is a fundamental step for the fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa. The aim of the present study was to identify factors that affect quality of boar semen doses. The production process during 1 day of semen processing in 26 European boar studs was monitored. In each boar stud, nine to 19 randomly selected ejaculates from 372 Pietrain boars were analyzed for sperm motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and thermo-resistance (TRT). Each ejaculate was monitored for production time and temperature for each step in semen processing using the special programmed software SEQU (version 1...
January 31, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
José M Vilar, M Batista, R Pérez, A Zagorskaia, E Jouanisson, L Díaz-Bertrana, S Rosales
This study assessed the influence of 3 different anesthetic protocols based on the quality of anesthesia induction and maintenance in four dog breeds (French Bulldog, n = 13; Yorkshire terrier, n = 12; Chihuahua, n = 10; Bull Terrier, n = 10) subjected to cesarean section. Neonatal mortality, birth defects and newborn viability were assessed. All females were pre-medicated with morphine (IM), and then were assigned to three different anesthetic protocols: group P (n = 17), anesthesia was induced with propofol (IV) and then also maintained with propofol until the complete delivery of puppies and then anesthesia was maintained afterwards with sevoflurane; group PS (n = 14), anesthesia was induced with IV propofol, and maintenance of the anesthesic plan was performed with sevoflurane; group PES (n = 14) the females were induced by propofol and an epidural anesthesia was then performed, anesthesia was then maintained with propofol until the complete extraction of all puppies and then anesthesia was maintained afterwards with sevoflurane...
January 30, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Marcos C Abalos, Francisco Acuña, Andrea K Cancino, Juan F Aller
The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of exogenous GnRH administered 7 days after breeding on the formation of an accessory corpus luteum (ACL), plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations and pregnancy rates. Adult females (n = 71) having a follicle ≥ 7 mm in diameter in the ovary were naturally mated (Day 0). On Day 7, ultrasonic examination was performed to confirm the occurrence of ovulation as evidenced by presence of an induced corpus luteum (ICL). Females with an ICL plus a dominant follicle ≥ 7 mm (n = 56) were treated with saline solution (SS, n = 29) or GnRH analogue (n = 27)...
January 29, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Jurandir Joaquim Bernardes Júnior, Jhon Edison Jimenez, Robie Allan Bombardelli, Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuñer
Understanding the effects of environmental factors on sperm motility characteristics can increase artificial reproduction efficiency in species that do not spawn naturally in captivity, such as Megaleporinus obtusidens. This study evaluated the effects of the osmolality (25, 85, 145, 205, 265, and 325 mOsm kg-1) and composition of activating solutions (NaCl, KCl, or fructose) on the percentage of motile sperm, and the swimming velocity and path straightness of M. obtusidens spermatozoa. The concentrations of major ions in the seminal fluid were also assessed and Na+ (74...
January 29, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
D H Yang, N T Standley, Z Z Xu
Systems for preserving semen in liquid form for artificial insemination were developed before cryopreserved semen became widely available in the 1960s. Advantages of liquid semen include reduced number of sperm per dose, reduced storage and transportation costs, increased insemination speed and safety in the field. A liquid semen dose requires one tenth the sperm number in a frozen semen dose to achieve equivalent fertility (24 day non-return rate: 67.6% for liquid versus 67.8% for frozen). The main disadvantage of liquid semen is its relatively short shelf life, thus limiting its application mainly to countries, like New Zealand and Ireland, with predominantly seasonal dairy production systems...
January 16, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Xiaolei Yao, M A Ei-Samahy, Hua Yang, Xu Feng, Fengzhe Li, Fanxing Meng, Haitao Nie, Feng Wang
The cellular response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vit D3; biologically active form of Vitamin D) is complex and depends not only on Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression but also on cellular uptake of circulating Vit D3 and the presence and activity of Vitamin D-metabolizing enzyme. This study evaluated the expression of VDR and Vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes in the ram reproductive tract at different developmental stages and in spermatozoa. Nearly all cell types in the testes and epithelial cells of the caput, corpus, and cauda expressed VDR, CYP27B1, and CYP24A1 proteins...
January 10, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Trish Berger, Barbara J Nitta-Oda
Previous studies have demonstrated that reducing endogenous testicular estradiol in neonatal boars would stimulate increased proliferation of Sertoli cells during the neonatal interval. The objective of this experiment was to determine if increasing testicular estradiol would have the opposite effect of reducing Sertoli cell numbers during the neonatal interval. Five littermate pairs of boars were evaluated with one littermate receiving a silastic implant containing estradiol and the second receiving only silastic at 1...
January 6, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
N A Gomez, A J Conley, P H Robinson
This study aimed to contribute to understanding the interface between reproductive and nutritional energetic physiology in contemporary dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 32) between 70 and 180 days in milk were used in a study starting 10 d prior to the artificial insemination (AI) date and were estrous synchronized using a hormonal regimen. Fourteen cows were determined pregnant on day 39 post-AI. Coccygeal blood samples of all cows were collected on d -10 and -3 prior to AI to determine estrous cyclicity, as well as at AI and at 6, 13 and 20 d post-AI...
January 4, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Ran Lee, Won-Young Lee, Hyun-Jung Park, Woo-Tae Ha, Jae-Seok Woo, Hak-Jae Chung, Ji-Heon Lee, Kwonho Hong, Hyuk Song
Spermatogenesis begins with spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which are located in the basement membrane of the adult testes. Previous studies have described specific biomarkers for undifferentiated porcine spermatogonia or SSCs; however, these markers are not sufficient to understand spermatogenesis at different developmental stages. The objective of this study was characterize the expression of DEAD-Box polypeptide 4 (DDX4, also known as VASA) and tyrosine-protein kinase kit (c-kit), as potential markers of male germ cells in the porcine testis...
December 30, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
M Bottrel, D Acha, I Ortiz, M Hidalgo, J Gósalvez, J Camisão, J Dorado
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of amino acid addition to semen on post-thaw quality of donkey spermatozoa. Eighteen ejaculates were pooled and divided into aliquots which were cryopreserved in Gent A® containing 1% ethylene glycol (Gent-EG) and supplemented with 0 (as control), 20, 40, or 60 mM of glutamine, proline, or taurine. The greatest concentration (60 mM) of glutamine and taurine resulted in greater (P < 0.001) post-thaw sperm motility. Amino acid supplementation did not improve (P > 0...
December 30, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
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