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Animal Reproduction Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215454/sperm-quality-and-oxidative-status-as-affected-by-homogenization-of-liquid-stored-boar-semen-diluted-in-short-and-long-term-extenders
#1
Mariana B Menegat, Ana Paula G Mellagi, Rafael C Bortolin, Tila A Menezes, Amanda R Vargas, Mari Lourdes Bernardi, Ivo Wentz, Daniel P Gelain, José Cláudio F Moreira, Fernando P Bortolozzo
Homogenization of diluted boar semen during storage has for a long time been regarded as beneficial. Recent studies indicated an adverse effect of homogenization on sperm quality for yet unknown reasons. This study aimed to verify the effect of homogenization on sperm parameters and to elucidate the impact of oxidative stress. Twenty-one normospermic ejaculates (21 boars) were diluted with Androstar(®) Plus (AND) and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS). Semen doses were submitted to no-homogenization (NoHom) or twice-a-day manual homogenization (2xHom) during storage at 17°C for 168h...
February 12, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228338/extra-and-intracellular-calcium-signaling-pathway-s-differentially-regulate-histamine-induced-myometrial-contractions-during-early-and-mid-pregnancy-stages-in-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis
#2
Abhishek Sharma, Udayraj P Nakade, Soumen Choudhury, Rajkumar Singh Yadav, Satish Kumar Garg
This study examines the differential role of calcium signaling pathway(s) in histamine-induced uterotonic action during early and mid-pregnancy stages in buffaloes. Compared to mid pregnancy, tonic contraction, amplitude and mean-integral tension were significantly increased by histamine to produce myometrial contraction during early pregnancy with small effects on phasic contraction and frequency. Although uterotonic action of histamine during both stages of pregnancy is sensitive to nifedipine (a L-type Ca(2+) channels blocker) and NNC55-0396 (T-type Ca(2+) channels blocker), the role of extracellular calcium seems to be more significant during mid-pregnancy as in this stage histamine produced only 9...
February 7, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190662/prospective-ultrasonographic-and-endocrine-predictors-of-spermatogenic-onset-in-ram-lambs
#3
Pawel M Bartlewski, Jennifer L Giffin, Olutobi A Oluwole, Ann C Hahnel
The objective of this study was to examine testicular ultrasonographic characteristics and endocrine profiles in prepubescent ram lambs for correlations with the age at first detection of elongated spermatids (ESt age). Bi-weekly ultrasound examinations and weekly testicular biopsies began at 10 weeks of age or at the time that testicular volume reached 15cm(3), and continued until 1-2 weeks after Est's were first detected by histological examination of testicular biopsies in twenty-two spring-born Rideau Arcott×Polled Dorset lambs...
February 6, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189349/the-reproductive-performance-of-female-goats-treated-with-melatonin-is-not-improved-after-introduction-to-bucks-displaying-springtime-sexual-activity-if-these-does-are-experiencing-decreasing-body-weight-condition-score
#4
L A Zarazaga, M C Gatica, L Gallego-Calvo, J L Guzmán
The aim of the present work was to determine whether treatment with melatonin modifies the reproductive response of female goats experiencing increasing or decreasing body weight (BW)/body condition score (BCS) when introduced to bucks displaying springtime sexual activity. During natural anoestrus, 53 does were isolated from bucks for a period of 42days and distributed into two groups: 1) low BW/low BCS animals (N=24) (LLg group), which were fed 1.9 times their maintenance requirements so they would experience increasing BW and BCS; and 2) high BW/high BCS animals (N=29) (HHl group), which were fed 0...
February 6, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214066/identification-of-g-170g-a-and-g-332g-a-mutations-in-exon-3-of-leptin-gene-bcnl-and-cail-and-their-association-with-semen-quality-and-testicular-dimensions-in-sanjabi-rams
#5
Roya Bakhtiar, Alireza Abdolmohammadi, Hadi Hajarian, Zahra Nikousefat, Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki
The purpose of this study was to investigate leptin gene polymorphisms and their relationships with the characteristics of sperm quality and testicular dimensions. Semen samples were collected from 96 Sanjabi rams during autumn and spring seasons over two years. Simultaneously, the dimensions of length, width and scrotal circumference were measured. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein to extract DNA. PCR was performed to amplify a 463bp fragment including exon 3 of leptin gene. PCR products were digested by Bcnl and Cail restriction enzymes to identify 170G>A and 332G>A mutations in exon 3, respectively...
February 4, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189350/the-cryoprotective-effect-of-iodixanol-in-buffalo-semen-cryopreservation
#6
Dheer Singh Swami, Pradeep Kumar, R K Malik, Monika Saini, Dharmendra Kumar, M H Jan
This is the first report to examine the effect of iodixanol (OptiPrep(TM)) on cryosurvival of buffalo spermatozoa. A total of thirty ejaculates (five ejaculates from each bull) from six buffalo bulls were used for this experiment. Each ejaculate was divided into four aliquots and diluted in freezing extender supplemented with different concentrations of OptiPrep(TM) (0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5%) and then cryopreserved. The semen quality variables were evaluated before and after freezing of the semen. There were no effects of OptiPrep(TM) (P>0...
February 3, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148467/comparison-of-fertility-of-liquid-or-frozen-semen-when-varying-the-interval-from-cidr-removal-to-insemination
#7
Brittany N Richardson, Erin L Larimore, Julie A Walker, Matthew D Utt, J Mel DeJarnette, George A Perry
Cryopreservation allows for long-term storage of semen; however, it leads to damage of sperm that may result in complete loss of viability or changes that possibly decrease sperm functionality. Liquid semen is not exposed to these stressors and may result in a longer lifespan in the female reproductive tract, thus increasing the range in timing of insemination without affecting fertility. The objective of this study was to compare fertility of liquid and frozen semen when varying the interval from CIDR removal to AI using the 7-day CO-Synch+CIDR protocol for synchronization of time of estrus...
January 24, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139300/identification-of-a-novel-12-bp-insertion-deletion-indel-of-ips-related-oct4-gene-and-its-association-with-reproductive-traits-in-male-piglets
#8
Fa Ren, Shuai Yu, Rui Chen, Xiaoyan Lv, Chuanying Pan
As a key factor of cellular reprogramming, Oct4 is one of vital transcription factors for induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Loss of its function or deletion causes apoptosis in primordial germ cells (PGCs), which affect reproductive traits in mammals. In this study, a novel 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism (NC_010449:g.2759-2760insGGTTTTTGTCTA) within the Oct4 gene was identified in 442 pigs of Large White (LW) and Landrace (LD) breeds, showing three genotypes designated as II, ID, and DD...
January 23, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126267/evaluation-of-porcine-stem-cell-competence-for-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-and-production-of-cloned-animals
#9
Jan O Secher, Ying Liu, Stoyan Petkov, Yonglun Luo, Dong Li, Vanessa J Hall, Mette Schmidt, Henrik Callesen, Jacob F Bentzon, Charlotte B Sørensen, Kristine K Freude, Poul Hyttel
Porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been used extensively to create genetically modified pigs, but the efficiency of the methodology is still low. It has been hypothesized that pluripotent or multipotent stem cells might result in increased SCNT efficacy as these cells are closer than somatic cells to the epigenetic state found in the blastomeres and therefore need less reprogramming. Our group has worked with porcine SCNT during the last 20 years and here we describe our experience with SCNT of 3 different stem cell lines...
January 19, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122665/expression-of-adenosine-5-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-in-ovine-testis-ovis-aries-in-vivo-regulation-by-nutritional-state
#10
N Taibi, J Dupont, Z Bouguermouh, P Froment, C Ramé, A Anane, Z Amirat, F Khammar
In the present study, we identified AMPK and investigated its potential role in steroidogenesis in vivo in the ovine testis in response to variation in nutritional status (fed control vs. restricted). We performed immunoblotting to show that both active and non-active forms of AMPK exist in ovine testis and liver. In testis, we confirmed these results by immunohistochemistry. We found a correlation between ATP (Adenosine-Triphosphate) levels and the expression of AMPK in liver. Also, low and high caloric diets induce isoform-dependent AMPK expression, with an increase in α2, ß1ß2 and γ1 activity levels...
January 19, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118946/high-frequency-of-leptospiral-vaginal-carriers-among-slaughtered-cows
#11
A P Loureiro, C Pestana, M A Medeiros, W Lilenbaum
Bovine leptospirosis is one of the most important reproductive diseases that compromise the productivity of cattle farming. However, the presence of the agent on vaginal environment is still poorly understood in cattle. Considering this context, the present study aimed to detect the presence of pathogenic Leptospira sp. in vaginal fluid (VF) of cows. VF and urine were collected from 254 cows from a slaughterhouse for bacteriological culture and PCR (lipL32 gene). Overall, eleven pure culture (4.3%) of leptospiral isolates were obtained...
January 19, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131605/physiological-changes-and-reproductive-performance-of-sterlet-sturgeon-acipenser-ruthenus-injected-with-thiamine
#12
Sareh Ghiasi, Bahram Falahatkar, Murat Arslan, Konrad Dabrowski
To evaluate the effects of thiamine on physiological changes and spawning performance of Sterlet sturgeon Acipenser ruthenus, 45 farmed female fish (698.6±8.9g) were randomly distributed in 9 tanks (1000L) and fed a diet with 1g/kg of an anti-thiamine drug. This was provided for 5 months prior to spawning. Thiamine hydrochloride was intraperitoneally injected to fish at three different doses: 0 (T0, as control), 5 (T5) and 50 (T50) mg/kg body weight at days 30, 90 and 150 after the experiment started. After five months, the results showed no significant differences in weight gain and hemoglobin level, but hematocrit significantly increased in T5 group...
January 15, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108049/expression-and-localization-of-guanine-nucleotide-binding-protein-alpha-s-in-the-testis-and-epididymis-of-rams-at-different-developmental-stages
#13
Zhen Li, Jieli Lu, Jia Chen, Quanhai Pang, Ruipeng Nan, Zhiwei Zhu
The guanine nucleotide-binding alpha S subunit (Gαs) is an important element of key signaling pathways, which is widely expressed in mammalian tissues; however, its role in the reproductive system is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression and localization of Gαs in the testes and epididymis of rams at different developmental stages using quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting. In 1-, 6-, and 12-month-old rams, the transcription of Gαs-encoding gene (Gnαs) was significantly upregulated in the corpus and cauda epididymis compared to the testes and caput epididymis (P<0...
January 15, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215453/beef-heifers-with-diminished-numbers-of-antral-follicles-have-decreased-uterine-protein-concentrations
#14
Anthony K McNeel, Émerson M Soares, Allyson L Patterson, Jeffrey L Vallet, Elane C Wright, Erin L Larimore, Olivia L Amundson, Jeremy R Miles, Chadwick C Chase, Clay A Lents, Jennifer R Wood, Andrea S Cupp, George A Perry, Robert A Cushman
Previous research demonstrated a favorable relationship between the number of follicles detectable in the bovine ovary by ultrasonography and fertility, and bovine females with diminished numbers of antral follicles had smaller reproductive tracts. Therefore, we hypothesized that uterine function would be compromised in beef heifers with diminished numbers of antral follilcles. Angus heifers (n=480) were submitted for ultrasonographic evaluation of antral follicle number at 325 and 355d of age. After the second ultrasonographic examination, 40 pubertal heifers with the greatest average number of antral follicles (30...
January 12, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089263/adiponectin-orexin-a-and-orexin-b-concentrations-in-the-serum-and-uterine-luminal-fluid-during-early-pregnancy-of-pigs
#15
Nina Smolinska, Marta Kiezun, Kamil Dobrzyn, Karol Szeszko, Anna Maleszka, Tadeusz Kaminski
Adiponectin is the most abundant adipose-released protein that circulates in human plasma at high concentrations. The neuropeptides orexin A (OXA, hypocretin-1) and orexin B (OXB, hypocretin-2) are derived from a common precursor peptide, prepro-orexin and are produced mainly by neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus. It has been demonstrated that the peptides such as adiponectin and orexins have an important role in the regulation of energy metabolism and neuroendocrine functions. These hormones appear to be implicated in both normal and disturbed pregnancy...
January 9, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081858/oligo-dt-selected-spermatozoal-transcript-profiles-differ-among-higher-and-lower-fertility-dairy-sires
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
C J Card, K E Krieger, M Kaproth, B L Sartini
Spermatozoal messenger RNA (mRNA) has the potential as a molecular marker for sire fertility because this population can reflect gene expression that occurred during spermatogenesis and may have a functional role in early embryonic development. The goal of this study was to compare the oligo-dT selected spermatozoal transcript profiles of higher fertility (Conception Rate (CR) 1.8-3.5) and lower fertility (CR -2.9 to -0.4) sires using Ribonucleic Acid Sequencing (RNA-Seq). A total of 3227 transcripts and 5366 transcripts were identified in the higher and lower fertility populations, respectively...
February 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063626/effect-of-chamber-characteristics-loading-and-analysis-time-on-motility-and-kinetic-variables-analysed-with-the-casa-mot-system-in-goat-sperm
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
R Del Gallego, S Sadeghi, E Blasco, C Soler, J L Yániz, M A Silvestre
Several factors unrelated to the semen samples could be influencing in the sperm motility analysis. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of four chambers with different characteristics, namely; slide-coverslip, Spermtrack, ISAS D4C10, and ISAS D4C20 on the sperm motility. The filling procedure (drop or capillarity) and analysis time (0, 120 and 240s), depth of chamber (10 or 20μm) and field on motility variables were analysed by use of the CASA-mot system in goat sperm. Use of the drop-filling chambers resulted in greater values than capillarity-filling chambers for all sperm motility and kinetic variables, except for LIN (64...
February 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041654/effects-of-dietary-soybean-isoflavones-si-on-reproduction-in-the-young-breeder-rooster
#18
Dai Heng, Tao Zhang, Ye Tian, Shangyu Yu, Wenbo Liu, Kaili Xu, Juan Liu, Yu Ding, Baochang Zhu, Yanzhou Yang, Cheng Zhang
Soybean isoflavones (SIs) are phytoestrogens that competitive with estrogens in body. Although SIs play an important role in reproduction, their role in testicular development in roosters is unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of SIs on testicular development and serum reproductive hormone profiles in young breeder roosters (70-133days old). Gene expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), which are related to testosterone synthesis, in rooster testis were also evaluated after treatment with different SI doses...
February 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041653/effect-of-different-feeding-levels-during-three-short-periods-of-gestation-on-sow-and-litter-performance-over-two-reproductive-cycles
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
P Ren, X J Yang, J S Kim, D Menon, S K Baidoo
The present study investigated the effects of different feeding levels during 3 short periods of gestation on sow and litter performance and its impact on subsequent reproductive performance. A total of 160 multiparous sows were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments using a randomized complete block design with initial body weight (BW) and backfat (BF) as the blocking criteria. All sows were fed one common corn-soybean meal-based diet with the amount of 1.0×maintenance energy intake (100×BW(0.75)kcalME/d) throughout gestation except 3 periods of 7 d when dietary treatments were imposed on d 27, d 55 and d 83 of gestation...
February 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017451/cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin-improves-ram-sperm-cryoresistance-in-skim-milk-extender
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Vianney M Salmon, François Castonguay, Vincent Demers-Caron, Pierre Leclerc, Janice L Bailey
Cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) is known to improve ram sperm cryosurvival. This study expands on previous research to: (1) determine the mechanism by which CLC improves ram sperm cryosurvival and (2) compare the efficiency of a novel, skim milk-based extender containing CLC to a traditional egg yolk-based extender. Hypothesis #1 was that CLC enhances membrane cholesterol content to increase the resistance of ram sperm to cold and osmotic stress, thereby improving cryosurvival. We first assessed the ability of fresh sperm treated with CLC to withstand cold shock...
February 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
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