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Irish Journal of Medical Science

Ruth-Aoibheann O'Leary, Brian Marsh, Paul O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Transfer of critically ill patients within the hospital is commonly associated with adverse incidents, but, despite this, no standardised training exists on how to carry out this task. Very little information is published in the literature on the learning needs of staff undertaking these transfers, and this limits our ability to provide a focused and appropriate educational intervention. AIMS: This study aimed to explore the organisational, environmental and individual issues that increase risk to patients during intrahospital transport (IHT) and to explore the potential educational solutions to these issues as articulated by these practitioners...
January 12, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Caroline E van Gemert, Niamh Murphy, Tara A Mitchell, Margaret E Hellard, Lelia Thornton
The original version contained a mistake. The published version of this article incorrectly lists Lelia Thornton as Thornton Thornton. The correct author name is presented above.
January 10, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Petya Bogdanova-Mihaylova, David Burke, John P O'Dwyer, David Bradley, Jennifer A Williams, Simon J Cronin, Shane Smyth, Raymond P Murphy, Sinead M Murphy, Catherine Wall, Dominick J H McCabe
BACKGROUND: Patients with 'suspected viral encephalitis' are frequently empirically treated with intravenous aciclovir. Increasing urea and creatinine are 'common', but rapidly progressive renal failure is reported to be 'very rare'. AIMS: To describe the clinical course and outcome of cases of aciclovir-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) encountered by the Liaison Neurology Service at AMNCH and to highlight the importance of surveillance and urgent treatment of this iatrogenic complication...
January 6, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Claire Thompson, Ciara McCormick, Waseem Kamran, Ciaran O'Riain, Lucy Norris, David Gallagher, Noreen Gleeson
BACKGROUND: High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common tubo-ovarian cancer. The fallopian tube harbours the precursor lesion: serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC). Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is an effective risk-reducing surgical (RRS) strategy for breast cancer susceptibility gene mutation carriers (BRCAm). The value of RRS in those without defined genetic risk is unknown but these women represent a substantial cohort in prophylactic surgical practice. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of RRS at an Irish university teaching hospital...
January 3, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Aisling M O'Malley, Walid H El Kininy, Helina Debebe, Azreena B Burukan, Shane W Davy
AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of variation in the branching pattern of aortic arch (AA) vessels in an Irish population. METHOD: A cadaveric study of 24 subjects was conducted. The vessels of the AA were identified, their branching patterns were noted and photographed and the following measurements were recorded: the angle of the AA to the coronal plane, the distance from the midline to the brachiocephalic trunk (BCT); the left common carotid artery (LCC) ; the left subclavian artery (LSC), the distance between the BCT and the right subclavian artery (RSC); the RSC and the right vertebral artery (RVA), and between the LSC and left vertebral artery (LVA)...
December 29, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
David A Crosby, Claire O'Reilly, Helen McHale, Fionnuala M McAuliffe, Rhona Mahony
BACKGROUND: The incidence of labour induction has risen worldwide over the past decade, and this may contribute to the rising caesarean delivery rate. The mechanisms for induction of labour are generally divided into two categories: mechanical and pharmacological. AIMS: The objective of this study was to determine if mechanical induction with Dilapan-S is an acceptable, safe method of induction of labour in post-dates uncomplicated nulliparous pregnancy. METHODS: This was a single-centre prospective observational pilot study trial...
December 21, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Aisling Barrett, Margaret Moore, Patricia Ferrins, Patrick Thornton, Philip Murphy, John Quinn
The introduction of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) has led to their widespread use for stroke prevention and venous thromboembolism, but little is known about the numbers of patients switching from a DOAC to (or back to) a warfarin or the reasons for doing so. This study was an analysis of prospectively collected data from a 4-year period surveying a warfarin dose adjustment clinic in a large city centre hospital with the primary objective to identify these reasons. In our clinic with 1791 patients annually under review, 40 patients were identified as having switched from a DOAC to warfarin with the most common reasons for switching being bleeding, re-thrombosis and renal deterioration...
December 21, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Tian-Tian Lv, Peng Wang, Shi-Yang Guan, Hong-Miao Li, Xiao-Mei Li, Bin Wang, Hai-Feng Pan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been suggested to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the results of prevalence studies on PH in SLE vary substantially. To derive a more precise estimation on the prevalence of PH in SLE, a meta-analysis was performed. METHODS: Relevant literatures were searched in PubMed and EMBASE until November 2017. A total of 1366 articles were obtained after searching databases, and 23 studies were finally included in the meta-analysis...
December 18, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Frank Keane, Laura Hammond, Gerry Kelliher, Ken Mealy
BACKGROUND: In the year to July 2017, surgical disciplines accounted for 73% of the total national inpatient and day case waiting list and, of these, day cases accounted for 72%. Their proper classification is therefore important so that patients can be managed and treated in the most suitable and efficient setting. AIMS: We set out to sub-classify the different elective surgical day cases treated in Irish public hospitals in order to assess their need to be managed as day cases and the consistency of practice between hospitals...
December 12, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Caroline E van Gemert, Niamh Murphy, Tara A Mitchell, Margaret E Hellard, Thornton Thornton
BACKGROUND: Ireland has a low prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection; however, there are limited recently published epidemiological data. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of chronic HBV in Ireland between 2004 and 2014 using routine surveillance data and identify and interrogate additional data sources in Ireland to complement the interpretation of HBV surveillance data. METHODS: Routinely collected passive surveillance data of notified cases of HBV infection were collated for 2004-2014...
December 9, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Sheng F Oon, Robert W Foley, Deirdre Quinn, David M Quinlan, Robert G Gibney
BACKGROUND: Focal renal masses are typically evaluated by means of triphasic contrast-enhanced CT or MRI scan but use of iodinated contrast or gadolinium is unsuitable for some patients. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an imaging alternative in this scenario but has limited availability in Ireland. AIM: The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate experience with selective use of CEUS for non-invasive characterization of focal renal masses in a tertiary referral institution in Ireland, with a particular focus on cystic renal lesions and the influence of CEUS on final Bosniak classification and treatment outcomes...
December 7, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Qurat Ul Ain, Yasir Bashir, Emmanuel Eguare
INTRODUCTION: With high incidence of haemorrhoidal disease and significant complication rates of traditional haemorrhoidectomy procedures, transanal haemorrhoidal artery ligation and mucopexy (THD) emerges as a minimally invasive procedure with superior results. However, it is crucial that effectiveness of results and patient satisfaction be gauged based on post-operative experience, symptomology and recurrence. AIM: Our aim is to provide a long-term analysis of efficacy and patient's satisfaction for the procedure, for the largest patient population, in correlation to presenting symptoms and degree of haemorrhoids...
December 6, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Ciara O'Connor, David Le Blanc, Richard J Drew
BACKGROUND: Rubella is caused by the rubella virus, a single-stranded RNA virus of the Togaviridae family. The most severe complications of rubella in adult women occur during pregnancy when infection can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth or congenital rubella syndrome. Antenatal rubella susceptibility screening is no longer performed in England, Scotland or Wales but continues in Northern Ireland. AIM: The aims of this seroprevalence study were to (1) determine amongst women presenting for antenatal care the percentage of women who are rubella susceptible, rubella immune and those with equivocal rubella antibody levels by year of birth and (2) to consider how rubella vaccination resources can best be utilised...
December 5, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Brian Carey, Patrick Sheahan
BACKGROUND: Epistaxis is the most prevalent ENT emergency and a significant burden on ENT services. Our objective was to study the incidence and outcomes of patients presenting with epistaxis at a major teaching hospital. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of 721 patients, who presented with epistaxis over a 1-year period, was carried out. Data collected was analysed using SPSS software version 20. RESULTS: Of the 721 patients, initial treatment consisted of nasal cautery (298), nasal packing (200), or no treatment (223)...
December 2, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Aleksandra Ignjatović, Miodrag Stojanović, Zoran Milošević, Marija Anđelković Apostolović
BACKGROUND: The interest in developing risk models in medicine not only is appealing, but also associated with many obstacles in different aspects of predictive model development. Initially, the association of biomarkers or the association of more markers with the specific outcome was proven by statistical significance, but novel and demanding questions required the development of new and more complex statistical techniques. METHODS: Progress of statistical analysis in biomedical research can be observed the best through the history of the Framingham study and development of the Framingham score...
December 2, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Adam H Dyer, Tony Foley, Brendan O'Shea, Sean P Kennelly
BACKGROUND: The collateral (or informant) history is a key component in the assessment of older adults presenting with a memory problem or concern over cognition. Despite this, it rarely features in medical literature and academic curricula. Its role in general practice has never been assessed. AIMS: The aim of this study is to assess the role of the collateral history in the investigation of cognitive impairment in general practice. METHODS: An online survey distributed to three nationally representative cohorts of GPs in Ireland (n = 692)...
December 2, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
H Kearney, A M Cahalane, R P Killeen, C McGuigan
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The presentation of Table 1 was incorrectly captured. The Publisher regrets that it introduced errors to Table 1 during the typesetting of the article. The corrected Table is given below. The original article has been corrected.
November 28, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
M Sponder, C Minichsdorfer, I-A Campean, M Emich, M Fritzer-Szekeres, B Litschauer, J Strametz-Juranek
BACKGROUND: Circulating cathepsin S (CS) has been associated with a lower risk for breast cancer in a large Swedish cohort. Long-term physical activity has been shown to have beneficial effects on the development of various cancer subtypes, in particular breast and colorectal cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term endurance sport on CS levels in females. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-six of 40 subjects completed the study. Subjects were told to increase their activity pensum for 8 months reaching 150 min/week moderate or 75 min/week intense exercise...
November 27, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Alexis M Cahalane, Hugh Kearney, Yvonne M Purcell, Christopher McGuigan, Ronan P Killeen
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an integral role in the management of multiple sclerosis (MS), from both diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives. This 2-part review aims to detail the evolving and expanding role of MRI for both radiologists and neurologists. In this article, we discuss the diagnostic criteria for MS relevant to radiologists, as well as its varying imaging manifestations. The role of MRI in therapeutic modification and complications are discussed.
November 25, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Aisling de Paor
BACKGROUND: With rapid scientific and technological advances, the past few years has witnessed the emergence of a new genetic era and a growing understanding of the genetic make-up of human beings. These advances have propelled the introduction of companies offering direct to consumer (DTC) genetic testing, which facilitates the direct provision of such tests to consumers, (for example, via the internet). Although DTC genetic testing offers benefits by enhancing consumer accessibility to such technology, promoting proactive healthcare and increasing genetic awareness, it presents a myriad of challenges, from an ethical, legal and regulatory perspective...
November 25, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
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