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International Journal of Law and Psychiatry

Christoph Bublitz, Andreas Wolkenstein, Ralf R Jox, Orsolya Friedrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Natalie R Kippin, Suze Leitão, Rochelle Watkins, Amy Finlay-Jones, Carmen Condon, Rhonda Marriott, Raewyn C Mutch, Carol Bower
BACKGROUND: While studies confirm high prevalence of language disorder among justice-involved young people, little is known about the impact of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) on language among this population. It is also not clear how language skills vary according to language diversity in Australian youth justice settings, where a disproportionate number of justice-involved youth are Aboriginal and may not speak Standard Australian English (SAE) as their first language. Language skills are important to understand, as language disorder and language difference can lead to a mismatch between the communication skills of a young person and the communication skills of the justice workforce with whom they are communicating...
November 9, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Martha E Shenton, Bruce H Price, Laura Levin, Judith G Edersheim
Important advances in neuroscience and neuroimaging have revolutionized our understanding of the human brain. Many of these advances provide new evidence regarding compensable injuries that have been used to support changes in legal policy. For example, we now know that regions of the brain involved in decision making continue to develop into the mid-20s, and this information weighs heavily in determining that execution or automatic sentence of life without the possibility of parole for someone younger than 18 years old, at the time of the crime, violates the 8th Amendment prohibition against "cruel and unusual punishment...
October 31, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Jillian Craigie, Michael Bach, Sándor Gurbai, Arlene Kanter, Scott Y H Kim, Oliver Lewis, Graham Morgan
Against a backdrop of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities having been in place for over a decade, discussions about legal capacity, the relevance of mental capacity and the shift to supported decision-making, continue to develop. A panel event was held at the King's Transnational Law Summit in 2018 with the aim of understanding the contours of the dialogue around these issues. This paper presents the contributions of the panel members, a summary of the discussion that took place and a synthesis of the views expressed...
October 31, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Katherine Moss, Marianne Wyder, Vivienne Braddock, David Arroyo, Steve Kisely
OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of community treatment orders (CTOs) and forensic orders (FOs) in a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) population to that in a non-CALD population. METHODS: We analysed the relationship between coming from a CALD background and the use of CTOs and FOs on discharge from hospital using merged data from the Metro South Addiction and Mental Health Service's Transitions of Care (ToC) and Consumer Integrated Mental Health Application (CIMHA) databases...
September 28, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Darby B Winningham, Richard Rogers, Eric Y Drogin, Sarah F Velsor
Internationally, millions of arrests occur each year, but very little is known about how suspects are informed regarding their rights as the accused and whether these rights are accurately understood. Concerns regarding accurate comprehension are further heightened for suspects with severe mental disorders (SMDs). In the United States alone, it is estimated ≥300,000 mentally disordered suspects are arrested annually and Mirandized (i.e., given American warnings regarding the rights of the accused). Despite this widespread prevalence, only two published studies have specifically targeted impaired Miranda comprehension for persons with SMDs, and none has focused directly on Miranda reasoning and waiver decisions...
September 24, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Shih-Ning Then, Terry Carney, Christine Bigby, Jacinta Douglas
Article 12 of the UNCRPD on equal recognition before the law, places an obligation on member states to 'provide access by persons with disabilities to the support they may require in exercising their legal capacity'. This has resulted in an increased focus on the concept and practice of supported decision-making, as opposed to substitute decision-making, for those with cognitive disabilities. To date, translation of this concept into law has been limited. However, Law Reform Agencies, tasked with reviewing legal decision-making schemes are increasingly recommending incorporation of legally recognised supported decision-making measures...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Natalie K Skead, Shane L Rogers, Jerome Doraisamy
Research indicates that, in comparison to professionals and University students in other disciplines, lawyers and law students may be at greater risk of experiencing high levels of psychological distress. There is also a large body of literature supporting an association between stress, anxiety and depression and unhealthy eating. This article reports on the results of a study of Australian legal professionals and law students that evidence a positive association between psychological distress; disordered eating, weight and shape concerns; and maladaptive eating habits in lawyers and law students...
September 12, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Tony Godet, Gérard Niveau
The French Mental Health Law of 5 July 2011 stipulates that psychiatric patients can be hospitalized in five different ways. Three types of admission for involuntary treatment are defined under "admission at the request of a third party". The first is "psychiatric care at the request of a third party", followed by two "exceptional" admission measures in the case of an emergency ("emergency psychiatric care at the request of a third party") and imminent danger ("psychiatric care in the case of imminent danger")...
September 8, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Elizabeth Shaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Giulio Castelpietra, Leonardo Egidi, Marina Caneva, Sara Gambino, Tamara Feresin, Aldo Mariotto, Matteo Balestrieri, Diego De Leo, Lisa Marzano
The aim of this observational study was to assess rates of suicide and suicide attempts, in relation to gender, age, place of birth and security levels, in north-eastern Italian prisons during 2010-2016, and investigate associations with prison overcrowding, offence type and prior self-harm and suicide attempts. The study was based on individual data on suicides and suicide attempts from 16 prisons, with an average yearly number of 3900 inmates during the study period, for all prisons combined. Descriptive and binomial regression analyses were performed...
November 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
J Guivarch, M D Piercecchi-Marti, F Poinso
Folie à deux is a psychiatric illness involved in homicides. OBJECTIVE: To study the mechanisms leading to homicide and determine homicide risk factors in folie à deux patients through a literature review and the study of a complex clinical case. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included articles available on PubMed, ScienceDirect or Cairn that address the forensic implications of folie à deux. Then, we analyzed the criminal psychiatric assessments of two murderers (husband and wife) of a child in a case of folie à deux...
November 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Valerie Moulin, Caroline Mouchet, Tessa Pillonel, G-M Gkotsi, Bernard Baertschi, Jacques Gasser, Benoit Testé
This article explores the impact of neuroscience evidence on how expert reports are perceived and their effects on the decisions made by trial judges. Experimental psychology has demonstrated a number of cognitive effects arising from exposure to neuroimaging data which may bias judgments and lead to (mis)interpretations that can affect decisions. We conducted a study on a sample of 62 Swiss and French judges in order to determine whether their perceptions of the credibility, quality and scientific basis of a psychiatric evaluation of a criminal defendant vary according to whether or not the evaluation includes neuroscientific data...
November 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Els Plettinckx, Jérôme Antoine, Lies Gremeaux, Herman Van Oyen
OBJECTIVE: Imprisonment has a more pronounced criminogenic effect on drug offenders than on other types of offenders. Additionally, little research has been conducted on the practical application of drug-related alternatives to prison. Therefore, this study describes drug-related alternatives to prison in Belgium over a ten years' period since 2005. METHODS: The applied drug-related alternatives to prison ('probation', 'conditional release', 'mediation in criminal cases', 'community service' and 'electronic monitoring') were subject to a secondary data analysis of the database of the Houses of Justice...
November 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Mauro Porta, Domenico Servello, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Carlotta Zanaboni Dina, Alberto Bona, Guido Carlo Alleva
Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a developmental neurobehavioral disorder with childhood onset and relevant burden in terms of disability and reduced quality of life. In Italy the biological basis of this syndrome is still frequently ignored and TS is often recognised as a psychiatric manifestation, or even it is not recognised as pathology, which may result in inadequate treatment, social isolation and improper hospitalization. Indeed, the organic medical nature of TS needs to be taken into great consideration in evaluating causality of committing crimes in affected patients...
November 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Sheryl Kubiak, Erin B Comartin, Bradley Ray, Elizabeth Tillander
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Maiko Fukasawa, Michi Miyake, Yuriko Suzuki, Yusuke Fukuda, Yoshio Yamanouchi
The relationship between the number of nurses in psychiatric wards and frequency of use of seclusion and restraint has been unclear. We aimed to clarify this relationship in Japanese general psychiatric wards while controlling for patient and ward-level characteristics. We hypothesized that seclusion and mechanical restraint are less likely to be used in a ward with more nurses. We used data for individual admissions from April 2015 to March 2017 in hospitals participating in the Psychiatric Electronic Clinical Observation (PECO) system, which extracted data from each hospital's electronic health record system...
September 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Jennifer Oates, Toby Brandon, Carole Burrell, Selma Ebrahim, John Taylor, Paul Veitch
The 2007 amendments to the Mental Health Act, 1983 in England and Wales enabled non-medics to take on the role of legally 'responsible clinician' for the overall care and treatment of service users detained under the Act, where previously this was the sole domain of the psychiatrist as Responsible Medical Officer. Following state sanction as an 'Approved Clinician', certain psychologists, nurses, social workers or occupational therapists may be allocated as a Responsible Clinician for specific service users...
September 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Petra Schaftenaar, Ivo van Outheusden, Geert-Jan Stams, Andries Baart
BACKGROUND: Criminal recidivism within two years after discharge from secure Forensic Psychiatric Hospitals (FPHs) is high, that is, over 36% for short-term judicial measures. It is assumed that relational care during treatment and continued voluntary contact and informal care after discharge, are factors that contribute to the reduction of criminal recidivism. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the provision of relational care and continued contact after treatment can be effective in reducing criminal recidivism two years after discharge (prevalence and time to re-offense) in patients who received treatment according to article 37 of the Dutch Penal Law (i...
September 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
M Mostert, B M Koomen, J J M van Delden, A L Bredenoord
In Big Data health research, concerns have risen about privacy and data protection. While the ethical and legal discussion about these issues is ongoing, so is research practice. The aim of this qualitative case study is to gain more insight into how these concerns are currently dealt with in practice. For this multiple-case study, the YOUth cohort, a longitudinal cohort focusing on psychosocial development, and Big Data Psychiatry, a pilot study in Big Data analytics on psychiatric health data, were selected...
September 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
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