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Pathology, Research and Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764708/histological-assessment-use-of-immunohistochemical-markers-for-detection-of-dysplasia-in-barrett-s-esophageal-mucosa
#1
Prateek Kinra, Gaurav P S Gahlot, Rajni Yadav, Vandana Baloda, Govind K Makharia, Siddhartha Datta Gupta, Prasenjit Das
BACKGROUND: Histological assessment of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE) has high inter-observer variability. Hence, use of ancillary markers for early detection of dysplasia in BE is an important clinical question. METHODS: In this retrospective study consecutive cases of BE (n = 59), over a period of 4 years were included. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections were reviewed independently by 3 senior qualified pathologists, who graded the dysplasia according to the Vienna Classification system and inter-observer agreement was analysed using the Kappa statistics...
May 13, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773427/microphthalmia-associated-transcription-factor-mitf-promiscuous-staining-patterns-in-fibrohistiocytic-lesions-is-a-potential-pitfall
#2
Sambit K Mohanty, Shivani Sharma, Dinesh Pradhan, Shivani R Kandukuri, Navid Farahani, Catherine Barry, Julie M Wu, David Frishberg, Bonnie Balzer
Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF) is used as a marker of melanocytic differentiation. However, MiTF immunoexpression has also been observed in histiocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, which raise the concern of fibrohistiocytic (FH) lesions being misdiagnosed as melanoma based on MiTF immunoreactivity. MiTF has been known to be positive in FH tumors, but this is the first study evaluating ninety-three fibrohistiocytic neoplasms to understand and delineate the staining pattern of MiTF in these tumors...
May 11, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773428/mir-199a-3p-acts-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#3
Jianmin Liu, Beibei Liu, Yuanyuan Guo, Zhijun Chen, Wei Sun, Wuyue Gao, Hongliang Wu, Yan Wang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the biological function and mechanism of miR-199a-3p in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). METHODS: We investigated the expression of miR-199a-3p in CCRCC through quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Over expression of miR-199a-3p was performed in CCRCC cell lines, and cell growth curve, colony formation capacity, cell invasion, wound healing and cell apoptosis assay were used for investigating the roles of miR-199a-3p in CCRCC...
May 9, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753515/long-term-prognostic-impact-of-osteopontin-and-dickkopf-related-protein-1-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-hepatectomy
#4
Hyerim Byeon, Seung Duk Lee, Eun-Kyung Hong, Dong Eun Lee, Bo Hyun Kim, Yunsung Seo, Jungnam Joo, Sung-Sik Han, Seong Hoon Kim, Sang-Jae Park
BACKGROUND: New biomarkers are essential for improving the prediction of the survival and prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used biomarker, but the low sensitivity and specificity limit its clinical applications. The diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of osteopontin (OPN), dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and a combination of these biomarkers are being studied. METHODS: From January 2006 to December 2008, patients undergoing hepatectomy for HCC were screened and their serum stored in tumor banks was analyzed...
May 6, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773426/stem-cell-transcription-factor-sox2-in-synovial-sarcoma-and-other-soft-tissue-tumors
#5
Heba Zayed, Iver Petersen
BACKGROUND: SOX2 has gained considerable interest as a pluripotency inducing gene. Co-transfection of SOX2 together with NANOG, KLF4 and c-MYC into adult fibroblasts was able to generate pluripotent stem cells. SOX2 has been reported to be expressed in synovial sarcoma, a tumor being characterized by the SS18-SSX gene fusion forming part of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex that affects histone methylation. The role of SOX2 in this tumor type as well as other soft tissue tumor entities however is still poorly characterized...
May 4, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754932/mild-hypothermia-inhibits-the-notch-3-and-notch-4-activation-and-seizure-after-stroke-in-the-rat-model
#6
Guo-Shuai Yang, Xiao-Yan Zhou, Xue-Fang An, Xuan-Jun Liu, Yan-Jun Zhang, Dan Yu
Ischemic brain injury is an important cause for seizure. Mild hypothermia of the brain or the whole body is an effective way to remit the post-stroke seizure. Our previous study revealed an implication of Notch 1 and 2 in the post-stroke seizure. This study further investigated the involvement of Notch 3 and 4 in post-stroke seizure and the effect of mild hypothermia on these two factors. A global cerebral ischemia (GCI) model was conducted in Sprague Dawley rats. Seizure activity was evaluated by the frequency of seizure attacks, seizure severity scores, and seizure discharges...
May 4, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735403/proteins-of-the-retinoblastoma-pathway-fen1-and-mgmt-are-novel-potential-prognostic-biomarkers-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#7
Joel Isohookana, Kirsi-Maria Haapasaari, Ylermi Soini, Joni Leppänen, Peeter Karihtala
BACKGROUND: We studied the expression of some major proteins involved in cell-cycle regulation and DNA repair, the roles of which are not well known in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but which have a significant impact on carcinogenesis of many other cancers. METHODS: We immunohistochemically assessed expression levels of the cell-cycle regulators Rb1, p16 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), and the DNA repair enzymes O6-methylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (MGMT) and flap endonuclease-1 (FEN1) separately in malignant tissue and benign tissue from resection margins in 102 cases of PDAC...
May 1, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731265/mir-21-up-regulation-in-ampullary-adenocarcinoma-and-its-pre-invasive-lesions
#8
Deborah Saraggi, Francesca Galuppini, Giuseppe N Fanelli, Andrea Remo, Emanuele D L Urso, Ricardo Q Bao, Deborah Bacchin, Vincenza Guzzardo, Claudio Luchini, Chiara Braconi, Fabio Farinati, Massimo Rugge, Matteo Fassan
Poor information is available on the molecular landscape characterizing the carcinogenetic process leading to ampullary carcinoma. MiR-21 is one of the most frequently up-regulated miRNAs in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, a tumor sharing similar molecular features with ampullary adenocarcinomas (AVCs), above all with the pancreatic-biliary type. We profiled, by in situ hybridization (ISH), miR-21 expression in a series of 26 AVCs, 50 ampullary dysplastic lesions (35 low-grade [LG-IEN] and 15 high-grade [HG-IEN]) and 10 normal duodenal mucosa samples...
May 1, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731264/comprehensive-expression-analysis-of-tnf-related-apoptosis-inducing-ligand-and-its-receptors-in-colorectal-cancer-correlation-with-mapk-alterations-and-clinicopathological-associations
#9
Spyridon Tsikalakis, Ilenia Chatziandreou, Nikolaos V Michalopoulos, Georgios E Theodoropoulos, Stratigoula Sakellariou, Penelope Korkolopoulou, Efstratios Patsouris, Angelica A Saetta
TNF-related, apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) apoptotic pathway constitutes a promising therapeutic target due to high selectivity and low toxicity of TRAIL targeting agents when administered in combination therapies. 106 colorectal cancers were examined for: relative mRNA expression of TRAIL pathway genes, decoy receptors TRAIL-R3 and TRAIL-R4 promoter methylation and the presence of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF mutations. Elevated mRNA levels were observed in 26%, 15%, 13%, 12% and 10% of the cases for TRAIL-R4, TRAIL-R3, TRAIL-R2, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL genes respectively...
May 1, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729836/prognostic-value-of-egfr-family-expression-in-lymph-node-negative-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients
#10
Weiwei Yu, Xi Yang, Li Chu, Kuaile Zhao, Haiquan Chen, Jiaqing Xiang, Yawei Zhang, Hecheng Li, Weixin Zhao, Menghong Sun, Qiao Wei, Xiaolong Fu, Congying Xie, Zhengfei Zhu
The human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family has been widely studied in cancer, however, the prognostic role of EGFR family expression in lymph node-negative esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients have not been invalidated. This study was designed to determine the prognostic value of EGFR family expression in a population of lymph node-negative ESCC patients treated with curative resection. EGFR family protein expression was examined by immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays of 94 patients with lymph node-negative ESCC after radical esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy...
April 30, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728311/expression-of-neuroendocrine-differentiation-markers-in-lethal-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#11
Miika Sainio, Tapio Visakorpi, Teemu Tolonen, Joanna Ilvesaro, G Steven Bova
Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) is a common phenomenon in prostate cancer, and it has been associated with poor prognosis in some studies of primary prostate cancer. Incidence and patterns of NED in metastatic prostate cancer sites have not been examined widely. In this study, we studied expression of three commonly used markers of NED (chromogranin A, neuron specific enolase and synaptophysin) in 89 metastases from 31 men that died of castration-resistant prostate cancer and underwent rapid autopsy, and in 89 hormone-naïve primary tumors removed by radical prostatectomy...
April 26, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728310/lncrna-dancr-a-valuable-cancer-related-long-non-coding-rna-for-human-cancers
#12
REVIEW
Khaing Zar Thin, Xuefang Liu, Xiaobo Feng, Sudheesh Raveendran, Jian Cheng Tu
OBJECTIVES: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are a type of noncoding RNA that comprise of longer than 200 nucleotides sequences. They can regulate chromosome structure, gene expression and play an essential role in the pathophysiology of human diseases, especially in tumorigenesis and progression. Nowadays, they are being targeted as potential biomarkers for various cancer types. And many research studies have proven that lncRNAs might bring a new era to cancer diagnosis and support treatment management...
April 24, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709443/upregulation-of-lncrna-fezf-as1-is-associated-with-advanced-clinical-stages-and-family-history-of-cancer-in-patients-with-nsclc
#13
Wei Gong, Yi Cao, Yuanyuan Wang, Lei Yang, Wenpeng Su, Fuman Qiu, Soham Datta, Boqi Rao, Jianfeng Xian, Mingzhu Lin, Yingyi Feng, Xin Zhang, Yifeng Zhou, Xingcheng Gao, Jiachun Lu
Antisense RNA (AS) is a type of long non-coding RNAs that functions as a post-transcriptional regulatory element on regulating parental coding gene expression via directly binding to complementary mRNA sequences. We aimed to investigate the effect of the AS to FEZF1 gene on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development. The expression level of lncRNA FEZF-AS1 and FEZF1 was determined by the quantitative Real-time PCR in 160 cases of NSCLC tissues and their adjacent non-tumour tissues. We found that lncRNA FEZF-AS1 was significantly up-regulated in tumour tissues when compared to the adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P = 0...
April 24, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716766/activating-transcription-factor-3-promotes-intestinal-epithelial-cell-apoptosis-in-crohn-s-disease
#14
Liugen Gu, Zhenming Ge, Yamin Wang, Meiqin Shen, Ping Zhao
Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), which is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) modulates apoptosis under stress via regulating the p53 pathway. However, the expression and function of ATF3 in CD are unclear. In the present study, ATF3, p53, and p53 target gene Bax expression increased in CD patients; a mouse 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced CD model; and a TNF-α-treated HT29 cell colitis model...
April 22, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699903/evaluation-of-specific-modified-histones-in-lip-carcinogenesis
#15
Silas Antonio Juvencio de Freitas Filho, João Paulo Silva Servato, Rodrigo Tavares de Sá, Carla Silva Siqueira, Paulo Rogério de Faria, Adriano Mota Loyola, Sérgio Vitorino Cardoso
OBJECTIVE: Histones regulate chromatin density and therefore influence gene expression and cellular proliferation. These properties are modified by methylation, acetylation and phosphorylation of histones. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation of specific modified histones in actinic cheilitis (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma of the lip (SCCL). METHODS: Samples of non-neoplastic tissue of the lip (NNTL, n = 9), AC (n = 33), and SCCL (n = 27) were submitted to immunohistochemistry to detect the modified histones H3K36me3, H3K9ac, H4K12ac, and H3S10 ph...
April 22, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699902/intravenous-leiomyomatosis-of-the-uterus-a-clinicopathologic-analysis-of-13-cases-with-an-emphasis-on-histogenesis
#16
Lanlan Tang, Bingjian Lu
The object of this study is to investigate the prognosis and potential histologic origin of uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL). We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 13 cases of IVL from a single institute. The patients underwent hysterectomy (3 with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and 8 with excision of the broad ligaments and/or parametrium). They survived with no evidence of disease for 6-90 months. Intravascular worm-like plugs were macroscopically identified in the myometrium in 10 of 13 cases (76...
April 22, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724530/mir-876-5p-acts-as-an-inhibitor-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression-by-targeting-dnmt3a
#17
Yizhou Wang, Yanting Xie, Xifeng Li, Jianbo Lin, Shichao Zhang, Zheng Li, Lei Huo, Renyan Gong
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the biggest challenges that human beings faced with in 21st century. Previous researches have revealed that miRNAs can serve as regulators in various cancers. MiR-876-5p, a member of miRNA family, has been studied in lung cancer for its anti-oncogenic function. However, the exact function of it is not reported in HCC. Our study aims to find out the effects of miR-876-5p expression on HCC progression. Two HCC cells were chosen to do functional assays after miR-876-5p expression was detected in cell lines by qRT-PCR...
April 21, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699904/tumorigenic-role-of-yap-in-hepatocellular-carcinogenesis-is-involved-in-shp2-whose-function-is-different-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Min-Kyung Kim, Jee Young Park, Yu Na Kang
Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a nuclear effector of the cell-density sensing Hippo pathway and interacts with Src homology phosphotyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2), which controls cell proliferation and survival. The tumor promoting/suppressing activities of YAP and SHP2 during liver tumorigenesis remain controversial. This study aimed to investigate the tumorigenic roles of YAP and SHP2 in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Cell density associated subcellular distributions of YAP and SHP2 in normal human hepatocytes (THLE-2) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells (SK-Hep1, SNU-182) were investigated by Western blotting and cell block immunohistochemistry...
April 21, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685462/aldh1-and-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-as-predictors-for-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-response-in-breast-cancer
#19
Anbok Lee, Kyu Yeoun Won, Sung-Jig Lim, Sun Young Cho, Sang-Ah Han, SaeGwang Park, Jeong-Yoon Song
Many studies have reported that Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are related to breast cancer prognosis. However, the clinical significance of ALDH1 and tumor-infiltrating immune cells in breast cancer has not been fully investigated in patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). We studied the significance of the expression of ALDH1 and the population of TIL for predicting the prognosis and chemotherapeutic response of patients with breast cancer who had received NAC...
April 18, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724531/long-non-coding-rna-polr2e-rs3787016-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-in-chinese-population
#20
Bifeng Chen, Jinfeng Li, Can Yi, Yuwei Jiao, Xiuli Gu, Xianhong Feng
Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been shown to be involved in cancer tumorigenesis and progression. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the lncRNAs also play a vital role in carcinogenesis. We here explored the association between POLR2E rs3787016 and risk of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in a Chinese population, which was followed by a meta-analysis of POLR2E rs3787016 and cancer risk in Chinese population. A total of 409 PTC patients and 800 healthy individuals were enrolled in the present study...
April 17, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
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