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Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238944/brain-correlates-of-hypnosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analytic-exploration
#1
REVIEW
Mathieu Landry, Michael Lifshitz, Amir Raz
Imaging of the living human brain elucidates the neural dynamics of hypnosis; however, few reliable brain patterns emerge across studies. Here, we methodically assess neuroimaging assays of hypnosis to uncover common neural configurations using a twofold approach. First, we systematically review research on the neural correlates of hypnotic phenomena; then, we meta-analyze these collective data seeking specific activation and deactivation patterns that typify hypnosis. Anchored around the role of top-down control processes, our comprehensive examination focuses on the involvement of intrinsic brain networks known to operationalize cognitive control and self-referential cognition, including the executive, salience, and default networks...
February 23, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238943/sensory-neural-pathways-revisited-to-unravel-the-temporal-dynamics-of-the-simon-effect-a-model-based-cognitive-neuroscience-approach
#2
REVIEW
Yael Salzer, Gilles de Hollander, Birte U Forstmann
The Simon task is one of the most prominent interference tasks and has been extensively studied in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Despite years of research, the underlying mechanism driving the phenomenon and its temporal dynamics are still disputed. Within the framework of the review, we adopt a model-based cognitive neuroscience approach. We first go over key findings in the literature of the Simon task, discuss competing qualitative cognitive theories and the difficulty of testing them empirically...
February 23, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237726/transfer-of-maternal-psychosocial-stress-to-the-fetus
#3
REVIEW
Florian Rakers, Sven Rupprecht, Michelle Dreiling, Christoph Bergmeier, Otto W Witte, Matthias Schwab
Psychosocial maternal stress experienced during different vulnerable periods throughout gestation is thought to increase the individual's risk to develop neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic disease in later life. Cortisol has generally been identified as the major mediator of maternal stress transfer to the fetus. Its lipophilic nature allows a trans-placental passage and thus excessive maternal cortisol could persistently impair the development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA)...
February 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235545/clinical-and-neurocognitive-aspects-of-hallucinations-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Mohamad El Haj, Jean Roche, Renaud Jardri, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Karim Gallouj, Pascal Antoine
Due to their prevalence, hallucinations are considered as one of the most frequent psychotic symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These psychotic manifestations reduce patients' well-being, increase the burden of caregivers, contribute to early institutionalization, and are related with the course of cognitive decline in AD. Considering their consequences, we provide a comprehensive account of the current state of knowledge about the prevalence and characteristics of hallucinations in AD. We propose a comprehensive and testable theoretical model about hallucinations in AD: the ALZHA (ALZheimer and HAllucinations) model...
February 21, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232092/commentary-on-a-non-reward-attractor-theory-of-depression-a-proposal-to-include-the-habenula-connection
#5
Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
The non-reward attractor theory of depression describes this mood disorder as originating from a neuronal dysfunction that arises from increased vulnerability of a cortical network that detects failure to receive an expected reward. From an evolutionary standpoint, the concept that the cerebral cortex determines susceptibility to mood disorders is open to criticism. Instead, using the regulation of reward-seeking, and aversive events-avoiding behaviours of the earliest vertebrates as a start point, the authors have developed a theory of depression in which subcortical regulatory systems that involve the lateral and medial habenula, respectively, play a critical role in regulating these behaviours, and susceptibility to depressive symptoms...
February 20, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232050/prosody-in-birdsong-a-review-and-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Carien Mol, Aoju Chen, René Kager, Sita M Ter Haar
MOL, C., Chen, A., Kager, R., ter Haar, S.M. Prosody in birdsong: A review and perspective. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(X) XXX-XXX, XXXX. - Birdsong shows striking parallels with human speech. Previous comparisons between birdsong and human vocalizations focused on syntax, phonology and phonetics. In this review, we propose that future comparative research should expand its focus to include prosody, i.e. the temporal and melodic properties that extend over larger units of song. To this end, we consider the similarities between birdsong structure and the prosodic hierarchy in human speech and between context-dependent acoustic variations in birdsong and the biological codes in human speech...
February 19, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223129/regenerative-medicine-in-huntington-s-disease-strengths-and-weaknesses-of-preclinical-studies
#7
REVIEW
A M Tartaglione, P Popoli, G Calamandrei
TARTAGLIONE, A.M., P. Popoli and G. Calamandrei. Regenerative medicine in Huntington's disease: strengths and weaknesses of pre-clinical studies. NEUROSCIENCE BIOBEHAV REV (2016). Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by impairment in motor, cognitive and psychiatric domains. Currently, there is no specific therapy to act on the onset or progression of HD. The marked neuronal death observed in HD is a main argument in favour of stem cells (SCs) transplantation as a promising therapeutic perspective to replace the population of lost neurons and restore the functionality of the damaged circuitry...
February 18, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216171/toward-a-unified-theory-of-childhood-trauma-and-psychosis-a-comprehensive-review-of-epidemiological-clinical-neuropsychological-and-biological-findings
#8
REVIEW
Błażej Misiak, Maja Krefft, Tomasz Bielawski, Ahmed A Moustafa, Maria M Sąsiadek, Dorota Frydecka
There is a growing body of research focused on the relationship between childhood trauma and the risk of developing psychosis. Numerous studies, including many large-scale population-based studies controlling for possible mediating variables, provide persuasive evidence of a dose-response association and are indicative of a causal relationship. Existing evidence supports the specificity model, showing differential associations between particular adversities and clinical symptoms, with cumulative adversity causing less favorable clinical and functional outcomes in psychotic patients...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223097/the-roles-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-via-the-habenula-in-non-reward-and-depression-and-in-the-responses-of-serotonin-and-dopamine-neurons
#9
Edmund T Rolls
Cortical regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex involved in reward and in non-reward and which are implicated in depression, and the amygdala, are connected to the habenula via the striatum and pallidum, and via subcortical limbic structures. The habenula in turn projects to the raphe nuclei, the source of the serotonin-containing neurons that project to the forebrain. It is proposed that this provides a route for cortical signals related to reward, and to not obtaining expected rewards, to influence the serotonin-containing neuronal system that is influenced by many antidepressant treatments...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212857/temporal-modulations-in-speech-and-music
#10
REVIEW
Nai Ding, Aniruddh D Patel, Lin Chen, Henry Butler, Cheng Luo, David Poeppel
Speech and music have structured rhythms. Here we discuss a major acoustic correlate of spoken and musical rhythms, the slow (0.25-32Hz) temporal modulations in sound intensity and compare the modulation properties of speech and music. We analyze these modulations using over 25h of speech and over 39h of recordings of Western music. We show that the speech modulation spectrum is highly consistent across 9 languages (including languages with typologically different rhythmic characteristics). A different, but similarly consistent modulation spectrum is observed for music, including classical music played by single instruments of different types, symphonic, jazz, and rock...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223096/the-habenula-in-psychiatric-disorders-more-than-three-decades-of-translational-investigation
#11
REVIEW
Marc Fakhoury
The habenula is an epithalamic structure located at the center of the dorsal diencephalic conduction system, a pathway involved in linking forebrain to midbrain regions. Composed of a medial and lateral subdivisions, the habenula receives inputs from the limbic system and basal ganglia mainly through the stria medullaris (SM), and projects to midbrain regions through the fasciculus retroflexus (FR). An increasing number of studies have also implicated this structure in psychiatric disorders associated with dysregulated reward circuitry function, notably mood disorders, schizophrenia and substance use disorder...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193454/new-developments-in-brain-research-of-internet-and-gaming-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Aviv Weinstein, Abigail Livny, Abraham Weizman
There is evidence that the neural mechanisms underlying Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) resemble those of drug addiction. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies of the resting state and measures of gray matter volume have shown that Internet game playing was associated with changes to brain regions responsible for attention and control, impulse control, motor function, emotional regulation, sensory-motor coordination. Furthermore, Internet game playing was associated with lower white matter density in brain regions that are involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and emotional regulation...
February 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193453/energy-and-the-alzheimer-brain
#13
REVIEW
Mortimer Mamelak
The high energy demands of the poorly myelinated long axon hippocampal and cortical neurons render these neurons selectively vulnerable to degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. However, pathology engages all of the major elements of the neurovascular unit of the mature Alzheimer brain, the neurons, glia and blood vessels. Neurons present with retrograde degeneration of the axodendritic tree, capillaries with string vessels and markedly reduced densities and glia with signs of inflammatory activation. The neurons, capillaries and astrocytes of the mature Alzheimer brain harbor structurally defective mitochondria...
February 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193452/the-core-and-beyond-in-the-language-ready-brain
#14
REVIEW
Peter Hagoort
In this paper a general cognitive architecture of spoken language processing is specified. This is followed by an account of how this cognitive architecture is instantiated in the human brain. Both the spatial aspects of the networks for language are discussed, as well as the temporal dynamics and the underlying neurophysiology. A distinction is proposed between networks for coding/decoding linguistic information and additional networks for getting from coded meaning to speaker meaning, i.e. for making the inferences that enable the listener to understand the intentions of the speaker...
February 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188890/the-hierarchical-basis-of-neurovisceral-integration
#15
REVIEW
Ryan Smith, Julian F Thayer, Sahib S Khalsa, Richard D Lane
The neurovisceral integration (NVI) model was originally proposed to account for observed relationships between peripheral physiology, cognitive performance, and emotional/physical health. This model has also garnered a considerable amount of empirical support, largely from studies examining cardiac vagal control. However, recent advances in functional neuroanatomy, and in computational neuroscience, have yet to be incorporated into the NVI model. Here we present an updated/expanded version of the NVI model that incorporates these advances...
February 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188888/two-hands-one-brain-and-aging
#16
REVIEW
Celine Maes, Jolien Gooijers, Jean-Jacques Orban de Xivry, Stephan P Swinnen, Matthieu P Boisgontier
Many activities of daily living require moving both hands in an organized manner in space and time. Therefore, understanding the impact of aging on bimanual coordination is essential for prolonging functional independence and well-being in older adults. Here we investigated the behavioral and neural determinants of bimanual coordination in aging. The studies surveyed in this review reveal that aging is associated with cortical hyper-activity (but also subcortical hypo-activity) during performance of bimanual tasks...
February 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188889/language-architecture-and-its-import-for-evolution
#17
Noam Chomsky
Inquiry into the evolution of some biological system evidently can proceed only as far as its nature is understood. Lacking such understanding, its manifestations are likely to appear to be chaotic, highly variable, and lacking significant general properties; and, accordingly, study of its evolution cannot be seriously undertaken. These truisms hold of the study of the human faculty of language FL just as for other biological systems. As discussed below, FL appears to be a shared human capacity in essentials, with options of variation of a kind to which we return...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188887/neurobiological-underpinnings-and-modulating-factors-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-with-a-comorbid-substance-use-disorder-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Ana Adan, Arantxa Y Arredondo, Maria Del Mar Capella, Gemma Prat, Diego A Forero, José Francisco Navarro
Recently there is a growing interest in the interaction of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and substance use disorders (SUD), a condition named dual schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD+). While previous research has focused on clinical and cognitive aspects, little is known about the impact of comorbidity in the brain structure and functions. Evidence suggests that dual diagnosis patients, including SSD+, show a better neurocognitive functioning during the first years of illness, followed by a serious long-term decline...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185872/neuronal-and-molecular-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-the-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-implications-for-novel-schizophrenia-treatments
#19
REVIEW
Justine Renard, Christopher Norris, Walter Rushlow, Steven R Laviolette
Growing clinical and pre-clinical evidence points to a critical role for cannabidiol (CBD), the largest phytochemical component of cannabis, as a potential pharmacotherapy for various neuropsychiatric disorders. In contrast to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is associated with acute and neurodevelopmental pro-psychotic side-effects, CBD possesses no known psychoactive or dependence-producing properties. However, evidence has demonstrated that CBD strongly modulates the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and may possess promising anti-psychotic properties...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185874/psychosocial-stress-on-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-dysfunctions-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-emerging-role-for-microglia
#20
REVIEW
Sami Piirainen, Andrew Youssef, Cai Song, Allan V Kalueff, Gary E Landreth, Tarja Malm, Li Tian
Chronic psychosocial stress is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and associated cognitive deficits. Chronic stress also primes microglia and induces inflammatory responses in the adult brain, thereby compromising synapse-supportive roles of microglia and deteriorating cognitive functions during aging. Substantial evidence demonstrates that failure of microglia to clear abnormally accumulating amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in AD...
February 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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