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Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728937/the-impact-of-machine-learning-techniques-in-the-study-of-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Diego Librenza-Garcia, Bruno Jaskulski Kotzian, Jessica Yang, Benson Mwangi, Bo Cao, Luiza Nunes Pereira Lima, Mariane Bagatin Bermudez, Manuela Vianna Boeira, Flávio Kapczinski, Ives Cavalcante Passos
Machine learning techniques provide new methods to predict diagnosis and clinical outcomes at an individual level. We aim to review the existing literature on the use of machine learning techniques in the assessment of subjects with bipolar disorder. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science for articles published in any language up to January 2017. We found 757 abstracts and included 51 studies in our review. Most of the included studies used multiple levels of biological data to distinguish the diagnosis of bipolar disorder from other psychiatric disorders or healthy controls...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711663/cognitive-workload-across-the-spectrum-of-cognitive-impairments-a-systematic-review-of-physiological-measures
#2
REVIEW
Maud Ranchet, John C Morgan, Abiodun E Akinwuntan, Hannes Devos
Our objective was to identify the physiological measures that are sensitive to assessing cognitive workload across the spectrum of cognitive impairments. Three database searches were conducted: PubMed, PsychINFO, and Web of Science. Studies from the last decade that used physiological measures of cognitive workload in older adults (mean age >65 years-old) were reviewed. The cognitive workload of healthy older individuals was compared with the cognitive workload of younger adults, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with Alzheimer's diseases (AD)...
July 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711662/the-clinical-and-prognostic-value-of-motor-abnormalities-in-psychosis-and-the-importance-of-instrumental-assessment
#3
REVIEW
Peter N van Harten, Sebastian Walther, Jerillyn S Kent, Scott R Sponheim, Vijay A Mittal
Motor abnormalities comprise several clinical signs intrinsic to psychosis. Critically, these features are of prognostic value in individuals at-risk for psychosis, and for those in early stages of psychotic disorders. Motor abnormalities such as tremor, rigidity, and neurological soft signs often go unrecognized. Currently, advances in this area are limited by a paucity of theoretical conceptions categorizing or linking these behaviors to underlying neurobiology affected in psychosis. However, emerging technological advances have significantly improved the ability to detect and assess motor abnormalities with objective instruments in a timely and reliable manner...
July 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711661/mechanisms-of-action-and-clinical-efficacy-of-nmda-receptor-modulators-in-mood-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Mehdi Ghasemi, Cristy Phillips, Atoossa Fahimi, Margaret Windy McNerney, Ahmad Salehi
Although the biogenic amine models have provided meaningful links between clinical phenomena and pharmacological management of with mood disorders (MDs), the onset of action of current treatments is slow and a proportion of individuals fail to adequately respond. A growing number of investigations have focused on the glutamatergic system as a viable target. Herein we review the putative role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) signaling in the pathophysiology of MDs. Prompting this focus are several lines of evidence: 1) altered glutamate and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) expression and functioning; 2) antidepressant effects of NMDAR signaling blockers; 3) interaction between conventional therapeutic regimens and NMDAR signaling modulators; 4) biochemical evidence of interaction between monoaminergic system and NMDAR signaling; 5) interaction between neurotrophic factors and NMDAR signaling in mood regulation; 6) cross-talk between NMDAR signaling and inflammatory processes; and 7) antidepressant effects of a number of NMDA modulators in recent clinical trials...
July 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698082/mechanisms-of-facial-emotion-recognition-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-insights-from-eye-tracking-and-electroencephalography
#5
REVIEW
Melissa H Black, Nigel T M Chen, Kartik K Iyer, Ottmar V Lipp, Sven Bölte, Marita Falkmer, Tele Tan, Sonya Girdler
While behavioural difficulties in facial emotion recognition (FER) have been observed in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), behavioural studies alone are not suited to elucidate the specific nature of FER challenges in ASD. Eye tracking (ET) and electroencephalography (EEG) provide insights in to the attentional and neurological correlates of performance, and may therefore provide insight in to the mechanisms underpinning FER in ASD. Given that these processes develop over the course of the developmental trajectory, there is a need to synthesise findings in regard to the developmental stages to determine how the maturation of these systems may impact FER in ASD...
July 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698022/sexual-orientation-and-neurocognitive-ability-a-meta-analysis-in-men-and-women
#6
REVIEW
Yin Xu, Sam Norton, Qazi Rahman
The cross-sex-shift hypothesis predicts that homosexual men and women will be similar in certain neurobehavioral traits to their opposite-sex counterparts. Accordingly, it predicts that homosexual men should perform in the direction of heterosexual women, and homosexual women in the direction of heterosexual men, on neurocognitive tests that show normative sex differences. We conducted a meta-analysis on the relationship between sexual orientation and cognitive performance, and tested the effects of potential moderating variables separately by sex...
July 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694012/self-injurious-behavior
#7
REVIEW
Sylvia Huisman, Paul Mulder, Janneke Kuijk, Myrthe Kerstholt, Agnies van Eeghen, Arnold Leenders, Ingrid van Balkom, Chris Oliver, Sigrid Piening, Raoul Hennekam
Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a relatively common behavior in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Severe SIB can be devastating and potentially life-threatening. There is increasing attention for somatic substrates of behavior in genetic syndromes, and growing evidence of an association between pain and discomfort with SIB in people with ID and genetic syndromes. In this review on SIB phenomenology in people with ID in general and in twelve genetic syndromes, we summarize different SIB characteristics across these etiologically distinct entities and identify influencing factors...
July 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688701/basic-and-functional-effects-of-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-tes-an-introduction
#8
REVIEW
Fatemeh Yavari, Asif Jamil, Mohsen Mosayebi Samani, Liliane Pinto Vidor, Michael A Nitsche
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been gaining increased popularity in human neuroscience research during the last years. Among the emerging NIBS tools is transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), whose main modalities are transcranial direct, and alternating current stimulation (tDCS, tACS). In tES, a small current (usually less than 3mA) is delivered through the scalp. Depending on its shape, density, and duration, the applied current induces acute or long-lasting effects on excitability and activity of cerebral regions, and brain networks...
July 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669754/the-impact-of-gut-hormones-on-the-neural-circuit-of-appetite-and-satiety-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Davide Zanchi, Antoinette Depoorter, Laura Egloff, Sven Haller, Laura Mählmann, Undine E Lang, Jürgen Drewe, Christoph Beglinger, André Schmidt, Stefan Borgwardt
The brain-gut-axis is an interdependent system affecting neural functions and controlling our eating behaviour. In recent decades, neuroimaging techniques have facilitated its investigation. We systematically looked into functional and neurochemical brain imaging studies investigating how key molecules such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose and insulin influence the function of brain regions regulating appetite and satiety. Of the 349 studies published before July 2016 identified in the database search, 40 were included (27 on healthy and 13 on obese subjects)...
June 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666827/physical-exercise-as-an-epigenetic-modulator-of-brain-plasticity-and-cognition
#10
REVIEW
Jansen Fernandes, Ricardo Mario Arida, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
A large amount of evidence has demonstrated the power of exercise to support cognitive function, the effects of which can last for considerable time. An emerging line of scientific evidence indicates that the effects of exercise are longer lasting than previously thought up to the point to affect future generations. The action of exercise on epigenetic regulation of gene expression seem central to building an "epigenetic memory" to influence long-term brain function and behavior. In this review article, we discuss new developments in the epigenetic field connecting exercise with changes in cognitive function, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs (miRNAs)...
June 27, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645779/schizophrenia-and-neurogenesis-a-stem-cell-approach
#11
REVIEW
Angela Iannitelli, Adele Quartini, Paola Tirassa, Giuseppe Bersani
Several recent research findings indicate that schizophrenia (SCZ) may begin with an abnormal neuro-genesis from embryonic Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) and that this process may be particularly vulnerable to a number of genetic and/or environmental disturbances of early brain development. Since it is now well known that neurogenesis is not confined to the womb, but is a protracted process continuing in postnatal life well into adolescence and beyond, and since in the majority of subjects diagnosed with SCZ the first psychotic break occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood, the aim of our paper is to summarize the main findings supporting a possible link between changes in developmental postnatal neurogenesis and SCZ, with a specific focus on the critical period of adolescence and associated environmental risk factors...
June 20, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642071/the-link-between-motor-and-cognitive-development-in-children-born-preterm-and-or-with-low-birth-weight-a-review-of-current-evidence
#12
REVIEW
Ora Oudgenoeg-Paz, Hanna Mulder, Marian J Jongmans, Ineke J M van der Ham, Stefan Van der Stigchel
The current review focuses on evidence for a link between early motor development and later cognitive skills in children born preterm or with Low Birth Weight (LBW). Studies with term born children consistently show such a link. Motor and cognitive impairments or delays are often seen in children born preterm or with LBW throughout childhood and studies have established a cross-sectional association between the two. However, it is not yet clear if, and if so, how, motor and cognitive skills are longitudinally interrelated in these children...
June 19, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642070/conceptualising-compensation-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-reflections-from-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Lucy Anne Livingston, Francesca Happé
Within research into neurodevelopmental disorders, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning changes in symptom severity across development. When the behavioural presentation of a condition improves/symptoms lessen, this may be because core underlying atypicalities in cognition/neural function have ameliorated. An alternative possibility is 'compensation'; that the behavioural presentation appears improved, despite persisting deficits at cognitive and neurobiological levels. There is, however, currently no agreed technical definition of compensation or its behavioural, cognitive and neural characteristics...
June 19, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629713/the-effects-of-maternal-antidepressant-use-on-offspring-behaviour-and-brain-development-implications-for-risk-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Samuel J Millard, Katrina Weston-Green, Kelly A Newell
Approximately 10% of pregnant women are prescribed antidepressant drugs (ADDs), with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) the most widely prescribed. SSRIs bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT), blocking the reabsorption of serotonin by the presynaptic neuron and increasing serotonin levels in the synaptic cleft. The serotonergic system regulates a range of brain development processes including neuronal proliferation, migration, differentiation and synaptogenesis. Given the presence of SERT in early brain development, coupled with the ability of SSRIs to cross the placenta and also enter breast milk, concerns have been raised regarding the effects of SSRI exposure on the developing foetus and newborns...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595827/the-ovine-motor-cortex-a-review-of-functional-mapping-and-cytoarchitecture
#15
REVIEW
Sam E John, Timothy J H Lovell, Nicholas L Opie, Stefan Wilson, Theodore C Scordas, Yan T Wong, Gil S Rind, Stephen Ronayne, Sébastien H Bauquier, Clive N May, David B Grayden, Terence J O'Brien, Thomas J Oxley
In recent years, sheep (Ovis aries) have emerged as a useful animal model for neurological research due to their relatively large brain and blood vessel size, their cortical architecture, and their docile temperament. However, the functional anatomy of sheep brain is not as well studied as that of non-human primates, rodents, and felines. For example, while the location of the sheep motor cortex has been known for many years, there have been few studies of the somatotopy of the motor cortex and there were a range of discrepancies across them...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624435/revisiting-the-flip-side-long-term-depression-of-synaptic-efficacy-in-the-hippocampus
#16
REVIEW
Cristina Pinar, Christine J Fontaine, Juan Triviño-Paredes, Carina P Lottenberg, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Brian R Christie
Synaptic plasticity is widely regarded as a putative biological substrate for learning and memory processes. While both decreases and increases in synaptic strength are seen as playing a role in learning and memory, long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic efficacy has received far less attention than its counterpart long-term potentiation (LTP). Never-the-less, LTD at synapses can play an important role in increasing computational flexibility in neural networks. In addition, like learning and memory processes, the magnitude of LTD can be modulated by factors that include stress and sex hormones, neurotrophic support, learning environments, and age...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624434/brain-glucose-metabolism-role-of-wnt-signaling-in-the-metabolic-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Pedro Cisternas, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
The brain is an organ that has a high demand for glucose. In the brain, glucose is predominantly used in energy production, with almost 70% of the energy used by neurons. The importance of the energy requirement in neurons is clearly demonstrated by the fact that all neurodegenerative disorders exhibit a critical metabolic impairment that includes decreased glucose uptake/utilization and decreased mitochondrial activity, with a consequent diminution in ATP production. In fact, in Alzheimer's disease, the measurement of the general metabolic rate of the brain has been reported to be an accurate tool for diagnosis...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624433/the-highs-and-lows-of-the-human-brain-on-dopaminergics-evidence-from-neuropharmacology
#18
REVIEW
Daniel Martins, Mitul A Mehta, Diana Prata
Rewards are appetitive events that elicit approach. Ground-breaking findings from neurophysiological experiments in animals, alongside neuropharmacology and neuroimaging research in human samples have identified dopamine as the main neurochemical messenger of global reward processing in the brain. However, dopamine's contribution to the different components of reward processing remains to be precisely defined. To facilitate the informed design and interpretation of reward studies in humans, we have systematically reviewed all existing human pharmacological studies investigating how drug manipulation of the dopamine system affects reward-related behaviour and its neural correlates...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624432/zinc-transporter-3-znt3-and-vesicular-zinc-in-central-nervous-system-function
#19
REVIEW
Brendan B McAllister, Richard H Dyck
Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) is the sole mechanism responsible for concentrating zinc ions within synaptic vesicles in a subset of the brain's glutamatergic neurons. This vesicular zinc can then be released into the synaptic cleft in an activity-dependent fashion, where it can exert many signaling functions. This review provides a comprehensive discussion of the localization and function of ZnT3 and vesicular zinc in the central nervous system. We begin by reviewing the fundamentals of zinc homeostasis and transport, and the discovery of ZnT3...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601666/a-conditioning-model-of-delusion
#20
REVIEW
Douglas John Roy
"Delusions" are beliefs that are false and persistent. It is suggested here that these characteristics can emerge from interplays between two fundamental learning processes: (1) the allocation of attentional resources among stimuli; and (2) the effects of feedback on learning. The former of these has been operationalized in the learned irrelevance and latent inhibition paradigms; the latter in studies of the effects of persistence-training. Normally, the attentional process functions to constrain persistence-training effects so that only valid associations acquire persistence...
June 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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