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Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

Dusan Hirjak, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Stefan Fritze, Fabio Sambataro, Katharina M Kubera, Robert C Wolf
Although genuine motor abnormalities (GMA) are frequently found in schizophrenia, they are also considered as an intrinsic feature of bipolar, obsessive-compulsive, and neurodevelopmental disorders with early onset such as autism, ADHD, and Tourette syndrome. Such transnosological observations strongly suggest a common neural pathophysiology. This systematic review highlights the evidence on GMA and their neuroanatomical substrates in bipolar, obsessive-compulsive, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The data lends support for a common pattern contributing to GMA expression in these diseases that seems to be related to cerebello-thalamo-cortical, fronto-parietal, and cortico-subcortical motor circuit dysfunction...
September 17, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
George F Koob, Jay Schulkin
Allostasis, or stability through change, has most often been linked with challenges to homeostasis, in which repeated challenges or stressors produce sufficient allostatic load to generate an allostatic state that can ultimately lead to a disease state. The present review argues that the impact of stress on drug addiction fits with an allostatic model and represents a challenge to brain circuit regulatory mechanisms that underlie the emotional state of the animal. The central thesis is that stress leads to changes in corticotropin-releasing factor in the brain that impact addiction...
September 15, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Alireza Azarfar, Niccoló Calcini, Chao Huang, Fleur Zeldenrust, Tansu Celikel
What any sensory neuron knows about the world is one of the cardinal questions in Neuroscience. Information from the sensory periphery travels across synaptically coupled neurons as each neuron encodes information by varying the rate and timing of its action potentials (spikes). Spatiotemporally correlated changes in this spiking regimen across neuronal populations are the neural basis of sensory representations. In the somatosensory cortex, however, spiking of individual (or pairs of) cortical neurons is only minimally informative about the world...
September 15, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Laurent Karila, Maude Marillier, Boris Chaumette, Joel Billieux, Franchitto Nicolas, Benyamina Amine
Synthetic opioids (SO) are a major risk for public health across the world. These drugs can be divided into 2 categories, pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical fentanyls. A new generation of SO has emerged on the drug market since 2010. North America is currently facing an opioid epidemic of morbi-mortality, caused by over-prescription of opioids, illegally diverted prescribed medicines, the increasing use of heroin, is and the emergence of SO. Furthermore, this opioid crisis is also seen in Europe. SO are new psychoactive substances characterized by different feature such as easy availability on the Internet, low price, purity, legality, and lack of detection in laboratory tests...
September 11, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Ely M Marceau, Denise Meuldijk, Michelle L Townsend, Nadia Solowij, Brin F S Grenyer
Studies of neurobiological mechanisms in borderline personality disorder (BPD) have increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of its development and course. Less is known about how psychotherapy may influence these neurobiological factors, and also whether biomarkers may predict psychotherapy outcomes. We conducted a systematic review using PRISMA guidelines. Fourteen studies providing data from 467 participants diagnosed with BPD met inclusion criteria to: (a) investigate biomarkers predicting response to psychotherapy for BPD; or (b) examine neurobiological factors altered by psychotherapy...
September 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
David De Sa Nogueira, Karine Merienne, Katia Befort
Substance use disorders involve long-term changes in the brain that lead to compulsive drug seeking, craving, and a high probability of relapse. Recent findings have highlighted the role of epigenetic regulations in controlling chromatin access and regulation of gene expression following exposure to drugs of abuse. In the present review, we focus on data investigating genome-wide epigenetic modifications in the brain of addicted patients or in rodent models exposed to drugs of abuse, with a particular focus on DNA methylation and histone modifications associated with transcriptional studies...
September 8, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Bart Larsen, Beatriz Luna
The transition from adolescence to adulthood is characterized by improvements in higher-order cognitive abilities and corresponding refinements of the structure and function of the brain regions that support them. Whereas the neurobiological mechanisms that govern early development of sensory systems are well-understood, the mechanisms that drive developmental plasticity of association cortices, such as prefrontal cortex (PFC), during adolescence remain to be explained. In this review, we synthesize neurodevelopmental findings at the cellular, circuit, and systems levels in PFC and evaluate them through the lens of established critical period (CP) mechanisms that guide early sensory development...
September 7, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Larissa N Dooley, Kate R Kuhlman, Theodore F Robles, Naomi I Eisenberger, Michelle G Craske, Julienne E Bower
A wealth of evidence has implicated inflammation in the development of depression. Yet, the heterogeneous nature of depression has impeded efforts to understand, prevent, and treat the disease. The purpose of this integrative review is to summarize the connections between inflammation and established core features of depression that exhibit more homogeneity than the syndrome itself: exaggerated reactivity to negative information, altered reward processing, decreased cognitive control, and somatic syndrome. For each core feature, we first provide a brief overview of its relevance to depression and neurobiological underpinnings, and then review evidence investigating a potential role of inflammation...
September 7, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
V Bonapersona, M Joëls, R A Sarabdjitsingh
Adverse early life events are a well-established risk factor for the precipitation of behavioral disorders characterized by anomalies in the dopaminergic system, such as schizophrenia and addiction. The correlation between early life conditions and the dopaminergic system has been causally investigated in more than 90 rodent publications. Here, we tested the validity of the hypothesis that early life stress (ELS) alters dopamine signaling by performing an extensive 3-level mixed effect meta-analysis. We included several ELS models and biochemical indicators of the dopaminergic system in a variety of brain areas, for a total of 1009 comparisons...
September 7, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Shugui Wang, Louise Harvey, Rocio Martin, Eline M van der Beek, Jan Knol, John Cryan, Ingrid B Renes
In the first 2 - 3 years of life, the gut microbiota of infants quickly becomes diverse and rich. Disruptions in the evolving gut microbiota during this critical developmental period can impact brain development. Communication between the microbiota, gut and brain is driven by hormonal and neural regulation, as well as immune and metabolic pathways, however, our understanding of how the parallel developments that may underlie this communication are limited. In this paper, we review the known associations between the gut microbiota and brain development and brain function in early life, speculate on the potential mechanisms involved in this complex relationship and describe how nutritional intervention can further modulate the microbiota and, ultimately, brain development and function...
September 6, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
P Danjou, G Viardot, D Maurice, P Garcés, E J Wams, K G Phillips, V Bertaina-Anglade, A P McCarthy, D J Pemberton
Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease impacts on various sensory processings are extensively reviewed in the present publication. This article describes aspects of a research project whose aim is to delineate the neurobiology that may underlie Social Withdrawal in Alzheimer's disease, Schizophrenia and Major Depression. This is a European-funded IMI 2 project, identified as PRISM (Psychiatric Ratings using Intermediate Stratified Markers). This paper focuses specifically on the selected electrophysiological paradigms chosen based on a comprehensive review of all relevant literature and practical constraints...
September 6, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Gustavo Sudre, Aman Mangalmurti, Philip Shaw
We consider developmental and cognitive models to explain why some children 'grow out' of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by adulthood. The first model views remission as a convergence towards more typical brain function and structure. In support, some studies find that adult remitters are indistinguishable from those who were never affected in the neural substrates of 'top-down' mechanisms of cognitive control, some 'bottom-up' processes of vigilance/response preparation, prefrontal cortical morphology and intrinsic functional connectivity...
September 5, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
B Postigo-Alonso, A Galvao-Carmona, I Benítez, C Conde-Gavilán, A Jover, S Molina, M A Peña-Toledo, E Agüera
BACKGROUND: Cognitive-motor interference (CMI) has been proposed as a valid marker of daily life impairment in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The heterogeneity and scarce number of studies regarding CMI in MS has hampered the synthesis of the existing evidence. The present systematic review employed a mixed methods approach with the aim of identifying and describing variables under which CMI is particularly useful to assess patients with MS. RESULTS: MS patients showed significant CMI...
September 3, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Serge H Ahmed, Aldo Badiani, Klaus A Miczek, Christian P Müller
Based on their pharmacological properties, psychoactive drugs are supposed to take control of the natural reward system to finally drive compulsory drug seeking and consumption. However, psychoactive drugs are not used in an arbitrary way as pure pharmacological reinforcement would suggest, but rather in a highly specific manner depending on non-pharmacological factors. While pharmacological effects of psychoactive drugs are well studied, neurobiological mechanisms of non-pharmacological factors are less well understood...
September 1, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Oliver J Watkeys, Kyle Kremerskothen, Yann Quidé, Janice M Fullerton, Melissa J Green
The glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) is a critical component of the stress response system. Cytosine methylation of NR3C1 has been repeatedly associated with trauma and mental disorders, including major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and personality disorders, suggesting that NR3C1 methylation may play a role in stress-related psychopathology. We systematically reviewed 55 studies examining NR3C1 DNA methylation in association with trauma exposure, psychopathology, gene expression, and/or common genetic variants...
August 31, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Sarah J Baracz, Nicholas A Everett, Jennifer L Cornish
Early life trauma is strongly associated with an increased vulnerability to abuse illicit drugs and the impairment of neural development. This includes alterations to the development of the oxytocin system, which plays a pivotal role in the regulation of social behaviours and emotion. Dysregulation of this important system also contributes to increased susceptibility to develop drug addiction. In this review, we provide an overview of the animal models of early life stress that are widely used, and discuss the impact that early life stress has on drug-taking behaviour in adolescence and adulthood in both sexes...
August 30, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Matthew J Euler
Hierarchical predictive processing (PP) has recently emerged as a candidate theoretical paradigm for neurobehavioral research. To date, PP has found support through its success in offering compelling explanations for a number of perceptual, cognitive, and psychiatric phenomena, as well as from accumulating neurophysiological evidence. However, its implications for understanding intelligence and its neural basis have received relatively little attention. The present review outlines the key tenets and evidence for PP, and assesses its implications for intelligence research...
August 25, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Katrin Preckel, Philipp Kanske
The recent review by Hennessey, Andari and Rainnie (2018) utilizes the proposed Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) to classify amygdala functions and relate them to autism symptomatology. This approach has the potential to challenge the overarching autism diagnosis by furthering our knowledge of the mechanisms giving rise to autism psychopathology and generate novel treatment options. The purpose of this commentary is to provide additional information on a number of points raised in the review. Thus, (1) we discuss the issue of amygdala and brain overgrowth in children with autism and relate it to developmental oxytocin changes, (2) examine potential mechanisms that underlie amygdala overgrowth and dysfunction of the oxytocin system, (3) zoom in on the sexually dimorphic characteristics of the amygdala and potential parallels with the oxytocin system and (4) discuss how the interplay of oxytocin and vasopressin may explain the partially inconsistent findings of their effects on amygdala functioning...
August 24, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Leif Østergaard, Martin Balslev Jørgensen, Gitte Moos Knudsen
Are energy demands too high, or our energy resources either too low or inappropriately prioritized, as we develop stress and/or depression? We review evidence of dysregulated cellular energy homeostasis and energy depletion in stress and depression, identifying factors that might limit energy substrate availability. Resetting of cellular energy-sensors, splanchnic hypoxia, and catecholamine effects on blood viscosity emerge as mechanisms that might disrupt normal energy homeostasis, accelerate cell injury, and cause depression-like symptoms in severe or prolonged stress...
August 23, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Philip J Sumner, Imogen H Bell, Susan L Rossell
The aim of the current systematic review was to synthesise the research that has investigated thought disorder (TD) using task-based functional neuroimaging techniques to target executive, language, or semantic functions. Thirty-five pertinent studies were identified from January 1990 to August 2016. Functional correlates of TD included the superior and middle temporal, fusiform, and inferior frontal gyri bilaterally, as well as the left and right cingulate cortex, the right caudate nucleus, and the cerebellum...
August 22, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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