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Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528960/prenatal-stress-and-epigenetics
#1
REVIEW
L Cao-Lei, S R De Rooij, S King, S G Matthews, G A S Metz, T J Roseboom, M Szyf
In utero exposure to environmental stress in both animals and humans could result in long-term epigenome alterations and which further lead to consequences for adaptation and development in the offspring. Epigenetics, especially DNA methylation, is considered one of the most widely studied and well-characterized mechanisms involved in the long-lasting effects of in utero stress exposure. In this review, we outlined evidence from animal and human prenatal research supporting the view that prenatal stress could lead to lasting, broad and functionally organized signatures in DNA methylation which, in turn, could mediate exposure-phenotype associations...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528196/a-review-of-psychiatric-co-morbidity-described-in-genetic-and-immune-mediated-movement-disorders
#2
REVIEW
K J Peall, M S Lorentzos, I Heyman, M A J Tijssen, M J Owen, R C Dale, M A Kurian
Psychiatric symptoms are an increasingly recognised feature of movement disorders. Recent identification of causative genes and autoantibodies has allowed detailed analysis of aetiologically homogenous subgroups, thereby enabling determination of the spectrum of psychiatric symptoms in these disorders. This review evaluates the incidence and type of psychiatric symptoms encountered in patients with movement disorders. A broad spectrum of psychiatric symptoms was identified across all subtypes of movement disorder, with depression, generalised anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder being most common...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522119/neural-changes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-from-circuit-to-molecule-perspective-of-optogenetics
#3
REVIEW
Qinghu Yang, Da Song, Hong Qing
Alzheimer's disease (AD), as a crucial neurodegenerative disorder, affects neural activities at many levels. Synaptic plasticity and neural circuits are most susceptible in AD, but the detailed mechanism is unclear. Optogenetic tools provide unprecedented spatio-temporal specificity to stimulate specific neural circuits or synaptic molecules to reveal the precise function of normal brain and mechanism of deficits in AD models. Furthermore, using optogenetics to stimulate neurons can rescue learning and memory loss caused by AD...
May 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506927/connecting-minds-and-sharing-emotions-through-mimicry-a-neurocognitive-model-of-emotional-contagion
#4
REVIEW
Eliska Prochazkova, Mariska E Kret
During social interactions, people tend to automatically align with or mimic their interactor's facial expressions, vocalizations, postures, and other bodily states. Automatic mimicry might be implicated in empathy, affiliation, and empathy, and is impaired in several pathologies. Despite a growing body of literature on its phenomenology, the function and underlying mechanisms of mimicry remain poorly understood. The current review puts forward a new Neurocognitive Model of Emotional Contagion (NMEC) demonstrating how basic automatic mimicry can give rise to emotional contagion...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506926/high-times-for-cannabis-epigenetic-imprint-and-its-legacy-on-brain-and-behavior
#5
REVIEW
Henrietta Szutorisz, Yasmin L Hurd
Extensive debates continue regarding marijuana (Cannabis spp), the most commonly used illicit substance in many countries worldwide. There has been an exponential increase of cannabis studies over the past two decades but the drug's long-term effects still lack in-depth scientific data. The epigenome is a critical molecular machinery with the capacity to maintain persistent alterations of gene expression and behaviors induced by cannabinoids that have been observed across the individual's lifespan and even into the subsequent generation...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506925/social-connectedness-mental-health-and-the-adolescent-brain
#6
REVIEW
M Lamblin, C Murawski, S Whittle, A Fornito
Social relationships promote health and wellbeing. Brain regions regulating social behavior continue to develop throughout adolescence, as teens learn to navigate their social environment with increasing sophistication. Adolescence is also a time of increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders, many of which are characteristically associated with social dysfunction. In this review, we consider the links between adolescent brain development and the broader social environment. We examine evidence that individual differences in social ability, partly determined by genetic influences on brain structure and function, impact the quality and quantity of social ties during adolescence and that, conversely, the structure of one's social network exerts complex yet profound influences on individual behavior and mental health...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506924/olfactory-and-gustatory-functions-in-bipolar-disorders-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Francois Kazour, Sami Richa, Thomas Desmidt, Mathieu Lemaire, Boriana Atanasova, Wissam Elhage
Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction have been described in different psychiatric disorders. Several studies have found gustatory and olfactory function change in Bipolar Disorders with various results. The aim of this study is to have a systematic review of studies evaluating gustatory and olfactory function in bipolar disorders. After a systematic search, 15 studies on olfaction and 5 studies on taste were included in this review. The UPSIT and Sniffin' Sticks were the most used tests to evaluate smell. Some studies on olfaction described dysfunction in smell identification as potential markers for Bipolar disorders...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506923/core-social-and-moral-disgust-are-bounded-a-review-on-cognitive-and-neural-bases-of-repugnance-in-clinical-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Carmelo M Vicario, Robert D Rafal, Davide Martino, Alessio Avenanti
Disgust is a multifaceted experience that might affect several aspects of life. Here, we reviewed research on neurological and psychiatric disorders that are characterized by abnormal disgust processing to test the hypothesis of a shared neurocognitive architecture in the representation of three disgust domains: i) personal experience of 'core disgust'; ii) social disgust, i.e., motor and vocal expressions of disgust; iii) moral disgust, i.e., sensitivity to ethical violations. Our analysis provides some support to the shared neurocognitive hypothesis and suggests that the insula might be the "hub" structure linking the three domains of disgust sensitivity, while other brain regions may subserve specific facets of the multidimensional experience...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506922/oxytocin-effects-in-schizophrenia-reconciling-mixed-findings-and-moving-forward
#9
REVIEW
Ellen R Bradley, Joshua D Woolley
Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that causes major functional impairment. Current pharmacologic treatments are inadequate, particularly for addressing negative and cognitive symptoms of the disorder. Oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to moderate social behaviors, has been investigated as a potential therapeutic for schizophrenia in recent years. Results have been decidedly mixed, leading to controversy regarding oxytocin's utility. In this review, we outline several considerations for interpreting the extant literature and propose a focused agenda for future work that builds on the most compelling findings regarding oxytocin effects in schizophrenia to date...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502600/the-puzzling-question-of-inhibitory-control-in-tourette-syndrome-a-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Simon Morand-Beaulieu, Stéphanie Grot, Jacob Lavoie, Julie B Leclerc, David Luck, Marc E Lavoie
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder involving motor and phonic tics. Inhibitory control is a key issue in TS, and many disruptive or impulsive behaviors might arise from inhibitory deficits. However, conflicting findings regarding TS patients' inhibitory performance in neuropsychological tasks have been reported throughout the literature. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate inhibitory control through neuropsychological tasks, and to analyze the factors modulating inhibitory deficits...
May 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501553/progressive-cortical-reorganisation-a-framework-for-investigating-structural-changes-in-schizophrenia
#11
REVIEW
Lena Palaniyappan
One of the few well-replicated features of schizophrenia is the demonstration of neuroanatomical abnormalities affecting cortical and subcortical grey matter (GM). Evidence to date suggests that the greatest reduction in GM occurs in the immediate post-onset phase. The predominant view to date is that the accelerated grey matter (GM) loss represents an adverse process (degenerative or developmental deficit) contributing to the unfavourable course of schizophrenia. This prevailing emphasis on decompensation often overlooks the fact that human brain has an inherent capacity to remodel itself in response to insults that affect its function...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501552/taking-turns-across-channels-conversation-analytic-tools-in-animal-communication
#12
REVIEW
Marlen Fröhlich
To advance bridging the gulf between the fields of linguistics and animal communication, interest has recently been drawn to turn-taking behaviour in social interaction. While vocal turn-taking is the major form of conservational language usage in humans, recent studies on great apes has shown that they engage in a bodily form, gestural turn-taking, to achieve mutual communicative goals. However, most studies on turn-taking behaviour neglected the fact that signals are perceived and produced in a multimodal format...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499504/williams-syndrome-deletions-and-duplications-genetic-windows-to-understanding-anxiety-sociality-autism-and-schizophrenia
#13
REVIEW
Bernard J Crespi, Tanya L Procyshyn
We describe and evaluate an integrative hypothesis for helping to explain the major neurocognitive features of individuals with Williams syndrome region deletions and duplications. First, we demonstrate how the cognitive differences between Williams syndrome individuals, individuals with duplications of this region, and healthy individuals parallel the differences between individuals subject to effects of increased or decreased oxytocin. Second, we synthesize evidence showing that variation in expression of the gene GTF2I (General Transcription Factor II-I) underlies the primary social phenotypes of Williams syndrome and that common genetic variation in GTF2I mediates oxytocin reactivity, and its correlates, in healthy populations...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499503/mast-cells-in-neuroinflammation-and-brain-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Erik Hendriksen, Doris van Bergeijk, Ronald S Oosting, Frank A Redegeld
It is well recognized that neuroinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia and astrocytes are major pathogenic components within this process and known to respond to proinflammatory mediators released from immune cells such as mast cells. Mast cells reside in the brain and are an important source of inflammatory molecules. Mast cell interactions with glial cells and neurons result in the release of mediators such as cytokines, proteases and reactive oxygen species...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487157/cerebrovascular-reactivity-measured-by-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-during-breath-hold-challenge-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Adam L Urback, Bradley J MacIntosh, Benjamin I Goldstein
Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is the cerebral hemodynamic response to a vasoactive substance. Breath-hold (BH) induced CVR has the advantage of being non-invasive and easy to implement during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We systematically reviewed the literature regarding MRI measurement of BH induced CVR. The literature was searched using MEDLINE with the search terms breath-hold; and MRI or cerebrovascular reactivity. The search yielded 2244 results and 54 articles were included. Between-group comparisons have found that CVR was higher among healthy controls than patients with various pathologies (e...
May 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479278/the-relationship-between-genetic-risk-variants-with-brain-structure-and-function-in-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-genetic-neuroimaging-studies
#16
REVIEW
Licia P Pereira, Cristiano A Köhler, Rafael T de Sousa, Marco Solmi, Bárbara P de Freitas, Michele Fornaro, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Kamilla W Miskowiak, Eduard Vieta, Nicola Veronese, Brendon Stubbs, André F Carvalho
Genetic-neuroimaging paradigms could provide insights regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Nevertheless, findings have been inconsistent across studies. A systematic review of gene-imaging studies involving individuals with BD was conducted across electronic major databases from inception until January 9th, 2017. Forty-four studies met eligibility criteria (N=2122 BD participants). Twenty-six gene variants were investigated across candidate gene studies and 4 studies used a genome-wide association approach...
May 4, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478182/hyperlexia-systematic-review-neurocognitive-modelling-and-outcome
#17
REVIEW
Alexia Ostrolenk, Baudouin Forgeot d'Arc, Patricia Jelenic, Fabienne Samson, Laurent Mottron
Hyperlexia is defined as the co-occurrence of advanced reading skills relative to comprehension skills or general intelligence, the early acquisition of reading skills without explicit teaching, and a strong orientation toward written material, generally in the context of a neurodevelopmental disorder. In this systematic review of cases (N=82) and group studies (including 912 participants of which 315 are hyperlexic), we address: whether the hyperlexic profile is associated with autism and why, whether models of non-autistic reading can teach us about hyperlexia, and what additional information we can get from models specific to autistic cognitive functioning...
May 3, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476525/the-effects-of-aging-in-the-hippocampus-and-cognitive-decline
#18
REVIEW
Luis E B Bettio, Luckshi Rajendran, Joana Gil-Mohapel
Aging is a natural process that is associated with cognitive decline as well as functional and social impairments. One structure of particular interest when considering aging and cognitive decline is the hippocampus, a brain region known to play an important role in learning and memory consolidation as well as in affective behaviours and mood regulation, and where both functional and structural plasticity (e.g., neurogenesis) occur well into adulthood. Neurobiological alterations seen in the aging hippocampus including increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, altered intracellular signalling and gene expression, as well as reduced neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, are thought to be associated with age-related cognitive decline...
May 2, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472631/perinatal-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-medication-ssri-effects-on-social-behaviors-neurodevelopment-and-the-epigenome
#19
REVIEW
Mary Gemmel, Eszter Bögi, Christina Ragan, Mariah Hazlett, Michal Dubovicky, Daniel L van den Hove, Tim F Oberlander, Thierry D Charlier, Jodi L Pawluski
Recent research has linked early life exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) to modifications of social behaviors in children. Serotonin is a key regulator of neurodevelopment, social behaviors and mental health, and with the growing use of SSRIs to treat maternal affective disorders during the perinatal period, questions have been raised about the benefits and risks of SSRI exposure on the developing child. This review will highlight how perinatal SSRIs affect maternal care and neurodevelopmental outcomes related to social affiliative behaviors in offspring; such as play behaviors, social interactions, reproductive behaviors, and maternal care of the next generation...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467893/meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-interpretation-and-expression-of-emotions
#20
REVIEW
Jenni Leppanen, Kah Wee Ng, Kate Tchanturia, Janet Treasure
Accurate interpretation and appropriate expression of emotions are key aspects of social-cognition. Several mental disorders are characterised by transdiagnostic difficulties in these areas and, recently, there has been increasing interest in exploring the effects of oxytocin on social-emotional functioning. This review consists of 33 studies. Fifteen of the studies included people with autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, frontotemporal dementia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and opioid and alcohol dependence...
April 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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