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Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645779/schizophrenia-and-neurogenesis-a-stem-cell-approach
#1
REVIEW
Angela Iannitelli, Adele Quartini, Paola Tirassa, Giuseppe Bersani
Several recent research findings indicate that schizophrenia (SCZ) may begin with an abnormal neuro-genesis from embryonic Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) and that this process may be particularly vulnerable to a number of genetic and/or environmental disturbances of early brain development. Since it is now well known that neurogenesis is not confined to the womb, but is a protracted process continuing in postnatal life well into adolescence and beyond, and since in the majority of subjects diagnosed with SCZ the first psychotic break occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood, the aim of our paper is to summarize the main findings supporting a possible link between changes in developmental postnatal neurogenesis and SCZ, with a specific focus on the critical period of adolescence and associated environmental risk factors...
June 20, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642071/the-link-between-motor-and-cognitive-development-in-children-born-preterm-and-or-with-low-birth-weight-a-review-of-current-evidence
#2
REVIEW
Ora Oudgenoeg-Paz, Hanna Mulder, Marian J Jongmans, Ineke J M van der Ham, Stefan Van der Stigchel
The current review focuses on evidence for a link between early motor development and later cognitive skills in children born preterm or with Low Birth Weight (LBW). Studies with term born children consistently show such a link. Motor and cognitive impairments or delays are often seen in children born preterm or with LBW throughout childhood and studies have established a cross-sectional association between the two. However, it is not yet clear if, and if so, how, motor and cognitive skills are longitudinally interrelated in these children...
June 19, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642070/conceptualising-compensation-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-reflections-from-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Lucy Anne Livingston, Francesca Happé
Within research into neurodevelopmental disorders, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning changes in symptom severity across development. When the behavioural presentation of a condition improves/symptoms lessen, this may be because core underlying atypicalities in cognition/neural function have ameliorated. An alternative possibility is 'compensation'; that the behavioural presentation appears improved, despite persisting deficits at cognitive and neurobiological levels. There is, however, currently no agreed technical definition of compensation or its behavioural, cognitive and neural characteristics...
June 19, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629713/the-effects-of-maternal-antidepressant-use-on-offspring-behaviour-and-brain-development-implications-for-risk-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Samuel J Millard, Katrina Weston-Green, Kelly A Newell
Approximately 10% of pregnant women are prescribed antidepressant drugs (ADDs), with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) the most widely prescribed. SSRIs bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT), blocking the reabsorption of serotonin by the presynaptic neuron and increasing serotonin levels in the synaptic cleft. The serotonergic system regulates a range of brain development processes including neuronal proliferation, migration, differentiation and synaptogenesis. Given the presence of SERT in early brain development, coupled with the ability of SSRIs to cross the placenta and also enter breast milk, concerns have been raised regarding the effects of SSRI exposure on the developing foetus and newborns...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595827/the-ovine-motor-cortex-a-review-of-functional-mapping-and-cytoarchitecture
#5
REVIEW
Sam E John, Timothy J H Lovell, Nicholas L Opie, Stefan Wilson, Theodore C Scordas, Yan T Wong, Gil S Rind, Stephen Ronayne, Sébastien H Bauquier, Clive N May, David B Grayden, Terence J O'Brien, Thomas J Oxley
In recent years, sheep (Ovis aries) have emerged as a useful animal model for neurological research due to their relatively large brain and blood vessel size, their cortical architecture, and their docile temperament. However, the functional anatomy of sheep brain is not as well studied as that of non-human primates, rodents, and felines. For example, while the location of the sheep motor cortex has been known for many years, there have been few studies of the somatotopy of the motor cortex and there were a range of discrepancies across them...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624434/brain-glucose-metabolism-role-of-wnt-signaling-in-the-metabolic-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Pedro Cisternas, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
The brain is an organ that has a high demand for glucose. In the brain, glucose is predominantly used in energy production, with almost 70% of the energy used by neurons. The importance of the energy requirement in neurons is clearly demonstrated by the fact that all neurodegenerative disorders exhibit a critical metabolic impairment that includes decreased glucose uptake/utilization and decreased mitochondrial activity, with a consequent diminution in ATP production. In fact, in Alzheimer's disease, the measurement of the general metabolic rate of the brain has been reported to be an accurate tool for diagnosis...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624433/the-highs-and-lows-of-the-human-brain-on-dopaminergics-evidence-from-neuropharmacology
#7
REVIEW
Daniel Martins, Mitul A Mehta, Diana Prata
Rewards are appetitive events that elicit approach. Ground-breaking findings from neurophysiological experiments in animals, alongside neuropharmacology and neuroimaging research in human samples have identified dopamine as the main neurochemical messenger of global reward processing in the brain. However, dopamine's contribution to the different components of reward processing remains to be precisely defined. To facilitate the informed design and interpretation of reward studies in humans, we have systematically reviewed all existing human pharmacological studies investigating how drug manipulation of the dopamine system affects reward-related behaviour and its neural correlates...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624432/zinc-transporter-3-znt3-and-vesicular-zinc-in-central-nervous-system-function
#8
REVIEW
Brendan B McAllister, Richard H Dyck
Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) is the sole mechanism responsible for concentrating zinc ions within synaptic vesicles in a subset of the brain's glutamatergic neurons. This vesicular zinc can then be released into the synaptic cleft in an activity-dependent fashion, where it can exert many signaling functions. This review provides a comprehensive discussion of the localization and function of ZnT3 and vesicular zinc in the central nervous system. We begin by reviewing the fundamentals of zinc homeostasis and transport, and the discovery of ZnT3...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624435/revisiting-the-flip-side-long-term-depression-of-synaptic-efficacy-in-the-hippocampus
#9
REVIEW
Cristina Pinar, Christine J Fontaine, Juan Triviño-Paredes, Carina P Lottenberg, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Brian R Christie
Synaptic plasticity is widely regarded as a putative biological substrate for learning and memory processes. While both decreases and increases in synaptic strength are seen as playing a role in learning and memory, long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic efficacy has received far less attention than its counterpart long-term potentiation (LTP). Never-the-less, LTD at synapses can play an important role in increasing computational flexibility in neural networks. In addition, like learning and memory processes, the magnitude of LTD can be modulated by factors that include stress and sex hormones, neurotrophic support, learning environments, and age...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601666/a-conditioning-model-of-delusion
#10
REVIEW
Douglas John Roy
"Delusions" are beliefs that are false and persistent. It is suggested here that these characteristics can emerge from interplays between two fundamental learning processes: (1) the allocation of attentional resources among stimuli; and (2) the effects of feedback on learning. The former of these has been operationalized in the learned irrelevance and latent inhibition paradigms; the latter in studies of the effects of persistence-training. Normally, the attentional process functions to constrain persistence-training effects so that only valid associations acquire persistence...
June 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591595/mapping-the-effect-of-the-x-chromosome-on-the-human-brain-neuroimaging-evidence-from-turner-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Chenxi Zhao, Gaolang Gong
In addition to determining sex, the X chromosome has long been considered to play a crucial role in brain development and intelligence. Turner syndrome (TS) is caused by the congenital absence of all or part of one of the X chromosomes in females. Thus, Turner syndrome provides a unique "knock-out model" for investigating how the X chromosome influences the human brain in vivo. Numerous cutting-edge neuroimaging techniques and analyses have been applied to investigate various brain phenotypes in women with TS, which have yielded valuable evidence toward elucidating the causal relationship between the X chromosome and human brain structure and function...
June 4, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579492/characterizing-the-course-of-non-suicidal-self-injury-a-cognitive-neuroscience-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Richard T Liu
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has received increasing recognition as a clinically significant phenomenon. Although in most individuals who engage in NSSI, this behavior is short-lived, for a significant proportion of these individuals, NSSI follows a chronic course. There is a need for research advancing our understanding of the mechanisms of risk for NSSI, and how these mechanisms may change over time to account for the persistence of this behavior. In the current paper, a conceptual framework is proposed for characterizing the processes underlying the transition from initial engagement in NSSI to a chronic trajectory of this behavior...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579491/recommendation-to-reconsider-examining-cannabis-subtypes-together-due-to-opposing-effects-on-brain-cognition-and-behavior
#13
Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Mette Buhl Callesen, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
Cannabis use represents a major public health issue throughout the globe. Yet, we still lack the most fundamental knowledge on long-term effects of cannabis on neural, cognitive, and behavioral function. Part of this stems from how cannabis has been measured historically. To this end, most empirical examinations of cannabis have consolidated all types of cannabis collectively. However, this approach obscures differences in how cannabinoids operate. In this commentary, we address the contrasting properties of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and their opposing effects on cognitive function...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579490/habituation-is-altered-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-a-comprehensive-review-with-recommendations-for-experimental-design-and-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Troy A McDiarmid, Aram C Bernardos, Catharine H Rankin
Abnormalities in the simplest form of learning, habituation, have been reported in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders as etiologically diverse as Autism Spectrum Disorder, Fragile X syndrome, Schizophrenia, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Tourette's Syndrome, and Migraine. Here we provide the first comprehensive review of what is known about alterations in this form of non-associative learning in each disorder. Across several disorders, abnormal habituation is predictive of symptom severity, highlighting the clinical significance of habituation and its importance to normal cognitive function...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577879/developmental-psychoneuroendocrine-and-psychoneuroimmune-pathways-from-childhood-adversity-to-disease
#15
REVIEW
Kate Ryan Kuhlman, Jessica J Chiang, Sarah Horn, Julienne E Bower
Childhood adversity has been repeatedly and robustly linked to physical and mental illness across the lifespan. Yet, the biological pathways through which this occurs remain unclear. Functioning of the inflammatory arm of the immune system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis are both hypothesized pathways through which childhood adversity leads to disease. This review provides a novel developmental framework for examining the role of adversity type and timing in inflammatory and HPA-axis functioning...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576511/elucidating-opportunities-and-pitfalls-in-the-treatment-of-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-to-optimize-and-facilitate-clinical-translation
#16
REVIEW
Patricia B de la Tremblaye, Darik A O'Neil, Megan J LaPorte, Jeffrey P Cheng, Joshua A Beitchman, Theresa Currier Thomas, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
The aim of this review is to discuss the research presented in a symposium entitled "Current progress in characterizing therapeutic strategies and challenges in experimental CNS injury" which was presented at the 2016 International Behavioral Neuroscience Society annual meeting. Herein we discuss diffuse and focal traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ensuing chronic behavioral deficits as well as potential rehabilitative approaches. We also discuss the effects of stress on executive function after TBI as well as the response of the endocrine system and regulatory feedback mechanisms...
May 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576510/the-role-of-the-habenula-in-the-transition-from-reward-to-misery-in-substance-use-and-mood-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Albert Batalla, Judith R Homberg, Tatiana V Lipina, Guillaume Sescousse, Maartje Luijten, Svetlana A Ivanova, Arnt F A Schellekens, Anton J M Loonen
The habenula (Hb) is an evolutionary well-conserved structure located in the epithalamus. The Hb receives inputs from the septum, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex, and projects to several midbrain centers, most importantly the inhibitory rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and the excitatory interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), which regulate the activity of midbrain monoaminergic nuclei. The Hb is postulated to play a key role in reward and aversion processing across species, including humans, and to be implicated in the different stages of transition from recreational drug intake to addiction and co-morbid mood disorders...
May 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576509/a-neuroanatomical-account-of-mental-time-travelling-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-and-structural-neuroimaging-data
#18
REVIEW
Giorgia Abete Fornara, Costanza Papagno, Manuela Berlingeri
Mental time travel (MTT) abilities could be particularly compromised in schizophrenic patients due to a deficit of the cognitive processes at the basis of remembering the past and imaging the future: constructive processes, theory of mind and self-awareness. Accordingly, we assumed that the neural circuits typically associated with MTT in healthy people might be partially compromised in chronic schizophrenic patients. To quantitatively and anatomically test our hypothesis, we run two meta-analyses using the Activation Likelihood Estimate method: (i) a neurofunctional meta-analysis on MTT in healthy subjects, (ii) a morphometrical meta-analysis on chronic schizophrenia...
May 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576508/a-review-of-the-role-of-serotonin-system-genes-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Vanessa Sinopoli, Christie L Burton, Sefi Kronenberg, Paul D Arnold
SINOPOLI, V., C.L. Burton, S. Kronenberg and P.D. Arnold. A review of the role of serotonin system genes in obsessive-compulsive disorder. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV X(X) XXX-XXX, 2017.- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder that causes the patient to experience intrusive thoughts and/or to carry out repetitive, ritualized behaviors that are time consuming and impairing. OCD is familial and heritable. The genetic factors responsible for pathogenesis, however, remain largely unknown despite the numerous candidate gene studies conducted...
May 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571877/shaping-vulnerability-to-addiction-the-contribution-of-behavior-neural-circuits-and-molecular-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Gabor Egervari, Roberto Ciccocioppo, J David Jentsch, Yasmin L Hurd
Substance use disorders continue to impose increasing medical, financial and emotional burdens on society in the form of morbidity and overdose, family disintegration, loss of employment and crime, while advances in prevention and treatment options remain limited. Importantly, not all individuals exposed to abused substances effectively develop the disease. Genetic factors play a significant role in determining addiction vulnerability and interactions between innate predisposition, environmental factors and personal experiences are also critical...
May 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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