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Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928071/a-behavioral-and-cognitive-neuroscience-perspective-on-impulsivity-suicide-and-non-suicidal-self-injury-meta-analysis-and-recommendations-for-future-research
#1
REVIEW
Richard T Liu, Zoë M Trout, Evelyn M Hernandez, Shayna M Cheek, Nimesha Gerlus
We conducted a meta-analysis of neurobehavioral and neurocognitive indices of impulsivity in relation to suicidal thoughts and behaviors, as well as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). In our systematic review, 34 studies were identified and submitted to a random-effects meta-analysis. A small pooled effect size was observed for the association between behavioral impulsivity and NSSI (OR=1.34, p<0.05). A small-to-medium pooled effect size (OR=2.23, p<0.001) was found for the association between behavioral impulsivity and suicide attempts, and a medium-to-large pooled effect size was observed for this outcome in relation to cognitive impulsivity (OR=3...
September 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919431/neurocircuitry-of-impaired-affective-sound-processing-a-clinical-disorders-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Sascha Frühholz, Matthias Staib
Decoding affective meaning from sensory information is central to accurate and adaptive behavior in many natural and social contexts. Human vocalizations (speech and non-speech), environmental sounds (e.g. thunder, noise, or animal sounds) and human-produced sounds (e.g. technical sounds or music) can carry a wealth of important aversive, threatening, appealing, or pleasurable affective information that sometimes implicitly influences and guides our behavior. Deficits in processing such affective information is detrimental to adaptive environmental behavior, psychological well-being, and social interactive abilities...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918360/do-bacteria-shape-our-development-crosstalk-between-intestinal-microbiota-and-hpa-axis
#3
REVIEW
Carolina de Weerth
The human body contains as many bacteria in the intestine as the total number of human body cells. These bacteria have a central position in human health and disease, and would also play a role in the regulation of emotions, behavior, and even higher cognitive functions. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a major physiological stress system that produces cortisol. This hormone is involved in responding to environmental stress and also shapes many aspects of brain development. Both the HPA axis and the intestinal microbiota show rapid and profound developmental changes during the first years of life...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918359/major-depressive-disorder-and-anxiety-disorders-from-the-glial-perspective-etiological-mechanisms-intervention-and-monitoring
#4
REVIEW
Mari Sild, Edward S Ruthazer, Linda Booij
Despite intense ongoing research efforts, the etiology of psychiatric disorders remains incompletely understood. Among biological factors playing a role in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Anxiety Disorders (ANX), emerging evidence points to the relevance of different types of glia cells and efficient neuron-glia interactions. Here, we review recent findings highlighting the involvement of central nervous system (CNS) glia in MDD and ANX etiology and treatment response. Additionally, several relatively underexplored topics will be discussed: 1) glial response to non-pharmacological therapies, 2) impact of early life adversity on glia, 3) influence of lifestyle factors on glia in the context of MDD and ANX, and 4) monitoring glial functions in patients...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918358/the-role-of-central-and-medial-amygdala-in-normal-and-abnormal-aggression-a-review-of-classical-approaches
#5
REVIEW
Jozsef Haller
The involvement of the amygdala in aggression is supported by overwhelming evidence. Frequently, however, the amygdala is studied as a whole, despite its complex internal organization. To reveal the role of various subdivisions, here we review the involvement of the central and medial amygdala in male rivalry aggression, maternal aggression, predatory aggression, and models of abnormal aggression where violent behavior is associated with increased or decreased arousal. We conclude that: (1) rivalry aggression is controlled by the medial amygdala; (2) predatory aggression is controlled by the central amygdala; (3) hypoarousal-associated violent aggression recruits both nuclei, (4) a specific upregulation of the medial amygdala was observed in hyperarousal-driven aggression...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916271/the-effects-of-preferred-natural-stimuli-on-humans-affective-states-physiological-stress-and-mental-health-and-their-potential-implications-for-well-being-in-captive-animals
#6
REVIEW
Misha Ross, Georgia J Mason
Exposure to certain natural stimuli improves people's moods, reduces stress, enhances stress resilience, and promotes mental and physical health. Laboratory studies and real estate prices also reveal that humans prefer environments containing a broad range of natural stimuli. Potential mediators of these outcomes include: 1) therapeutic effects of specific natural products; 2) positive affective responses to stimuli that signalled safety and resources to our evolutionary ancestors; 3) attraction to environments that satisfy innate needs to explore and understand; and 4) ease of sensory processing, due to the stimuli's "evolutionary familiarity" and/or their fractal, self-repeating properties...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916270/understanding-taurine-cns-activity-using-alternative-zebrafish-models
#7
REVIEW
Nathana J Mezzomo, Barbara D Fontana, Allan V Kalueff, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Denis B Rosemberg
Taurine is a highly abundant "amino acid" in the brain. Despite the potential neuroactive role of taurine in vertebrates has long been recognized, the underlying molecular mechanisms related to its pleiotropic effects in the brain remain poorly understood. Due to the genetic tractability, rich behavioral repertoire, neurochemical conservation, and small size, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful candidate for neuropsychopharmacology investigation and in vivo drug screening. Here, we summarize the main physiological roles of taurine in mammals, including neuromodulation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, and antioxidant action...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916269/the-sterile-controversy-on-the-amyloid-cascade-hypothesis
#8
Marco Canevelli, Giuseppe Bruno, Matteo Cesari
In these last years, several phase III randomized controlled trials testing promising candidates sharing Aβ depots as target of their action have failed, despite showing some reductions of the brain Aβ charge. The announcements of the negative results have heated the discussion in the field and divided the scientific community between the defenders versus the opponents of the Aβ theory. In the present article, we discuss the limits of these drastic, opposite positions and we propose a novel approach to Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912091/is-hippocampal-neurogenesis-modulated-by-the-sensation-of-self-motion-encoded-by-the-vestibular-system
#9
REVIEW
Paul F Smith
It is now well accepted that physical exercise stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and may promote cognitive ability. Less clear are the mechanisms by which this process occurs. One potential contributing influence, that is usually neglected, is the vestibular system, which by its very nature must be activated during physical exercise and which essentially cannot be turned off without complete bilateral vestibular lesions. This paper reviews a small literature that demonstrates that bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) in rats modulates cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) and that artificial electrical activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation, does also...
September 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903059/cognitive-flexibility-in-neurological-disorders-cognitive-components-and-event-related-potentials
#10
REVIEW
Florian Lange, Caroline Seer, Bruno Kopp
Performance deficits on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in patients with prefrontal cortex (PFC) lesions are traditionally interpreted as evidence for a role of the PFC in cognitive flexibility. However, WCST deficits do not occur exclusively after PFC lesions, but also in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. We propose a multi-component approach that can accommodate this pattern of omnipresent WCST deficits: the WCST is not a pure test of cognitive flexibility, but relies on the effective functioning of multiple dissociable cognitive components...
September 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893555/pacing-stereotypies-in-laboratory-rhesus-macaques-implications-for-animal-welfare-and-the-validity-of-neuroscientific-findings
#11
REVIEW
Colline Poirier, Melissa Bateson
Stereotypic behaviours are commonly observed in captive animals and are usually interpreted as a sign of poor welfare. Stereotypies have also been linked with brain abnormalities. However, stereotypies are a heterogeneous class of behaviours and mounting evidence indicates that different stereotypies can have different causes, and can be linked to different affective states. As a consequence, the implications of a specific stereotypy in a specific species cannot be safely inferred from evidence on other stereotypies or species...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893554/functional-gait-analysis-in-a-spinal-contusion-rat-model
#12
REVIEW
Abhiraj D Bhimani, Pouyan Kheirkhah, Gregory D Arnone, Cindy R Nahhas, Prateek Kumar, Matt Wonais, Hugo Hidrogo, Eddy Aguilar, Daniel Spalinski, Mahie Gopalka, Steven Roth, Ankit I Mehta
Evaluating functional performance of spinal cord injury (SCI) rat models is essential for the development of novel treatments and breakthroughs. However, due to the variety of functional analysis methods available - each with its own strengths and weaknesses - it can be challenging to choose the most appropriate functional analysis test for the animal model. Therefore, we analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of five methods in order to determine which test is not only accurate and easily reproducible, but also relatively inexpensive so that it can be adopted universally...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890199/distinct-cognitive-impairments-in-different-disease-courses-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Andreas Johnen, Nils C Landmeyer, Paul-Christian Bürkner, Heinz Wiendl, Sven G Meuth, Heinz Holling
Cognitive impairment (CI) is common and debilitating in patients with multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about how different disease courses affect CI, impeding prognosis and disease management. Here, we contrasted the magnitude and profile of CI measured with standardized neuropsychological tests in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) against relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) while considering potentially confounding demographic and clinical differences. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis was performed finding 47 eligible studies (N=4460 patients)...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890198/crosstalk-between-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-oxidative-stress-in-schizophrenia-the-dawn-of-new-therapeutic-approaches
#14
REVIEW
Shivangi Patel, Dilip Sharma, Kiran Kalia, Vinod Tiwari
Disruption of oxidant/anti-oxidant ratio as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. These stresses can lead to impairments in brain functions progressively leading to neuronal inflammation followed by neuronal cell death. Moreover, the cellular stresses are interlinked leading us to the conclusion that protein misfolding, oxidative stress and apoptosis are intricately intertwined events requiring further research into their mechanistic and physiological pathways...
September 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888535/from-psychological-moments-to-mortality-a-multidisciplinary-synthesis-on-heart-rate-variability-spanning-the-continuum-of-time
#15
REVIEW
Andrew H Kemp, Julian Koenig, Julian F Thayer
Heart rate variability (HRV) indexes functioning of the vagus nerve, arguably the most important nerve in the human body. The Neurovisceral Integration Model has provided a structural framework for understanding brain-body integration, highlighting the role of the vagus in adaptation to the environment. In the present paper, we emphasise a temporal framework in which HRV may be considered a missing, structural link between psychological moments and mortality, a proposal we label as Neurovisceral Integration Across a Continuum of Time (or NIACT)...
September 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888534/psychiatric-phenotypes-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#16
REVIEW
Ian Mahar, Michael L Alosco, Ann C McKee
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder involving cognitive, motor, and psychiatrically-relevant symptoms resulting from repetitive head impacts. Psychiatric phenotypes of CTE, including depression and suicidality, present particular challenges for CTE research, given that the diagnosis requires postmortem neuropathological examination. The pathognomonic lesion of CTE is the perivascular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau (ptau) protein at the depths of cortical sulci. These lesions are found in the earliest disease stages, and with advancing pathological severity, ptau deposition occurs in widespread brain regions in a four-stage scheme of severity...
September 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888533/an-overview-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-genetic-studies-by-analyzing-and-integrating-genetic-data-into-genetic-database-ptsdgene
#17
REVIEW
Kunlin Zhang, Susu Qu, Suhua Chang, Gen Li, Chengqi Cao, Kechi Fang, Miranda Olff, Li Wang, Jing Wang
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric syndrome with complex etiology. Studies aiming to explore genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers of PTSD have been increasing. However, the results are limited and highly heterogeneous. To understand the genetic study status of PTSD and explore more reliable candidates, we obtained 105 PTSD related genetic studies by comprehensively literature searching and filtering 1762 studies. Detailed phenotype and sample information for each study and association results for each genetic marker were extracted...
September 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887227/probabilistic-language-models-in-cognitive-neuroscience-promises-and-pitfalls
#18
REVIEW
Kristijan Armeni, Roel M Willems, Stefan Frank
Cognitive neuroscientists of language comprehension study how neural computations relate to cognitive computations during comprehension. On the cognitive part of the equation, it is important that the computations and processing complexity are explicitly defined. Probabilistic language models can be used to give a computationally explicit account of language complexity during comprehension. Whereas such models have so far predominantly been evaluated against behavioral data, only recently have the models been used to explain neurobiological signals...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887226/reconciling-the-different-faces-of-hippocampal-theta-the-role-of-theta-oscillations-in-cognitive-emotional-and-innate-behaviors
#19
REVIEW
Tatiana Korotkova, Alexey Ponomarenko, Caitlin K Monaghan, Steven L Poulter, Francesca Cacucci, Tom Wills, Michael E Hasselmo, Colin Lever
The theta oscillation (5-10Hz) is a prominent behavior-specific brain rhythm. This review summarizes studies showing the multifaceted role of theta rhythm in cognitive functions, including spatial coding, time coding and memory, exploratory locomotion and anxiety-related behaviors. We describe how activity of hippocampal theta rhythm generators - medial septum, nucleus incertus and entorhinal cortex, links theta with specific behaviors. We review evidence for functions of the theta-rhythmic signaling to subcortical targets, including lateral septum...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887225/substance-p-and-neurotensin-in-the-limbic-system-their-roles-in-reinforcement-and-memory-consolidation
#20
REVIEW
L Lénárd, K László, E Kertes, T Ollmann, L Péczely, A Kovács, V Kállai, O Zagorácz, R Gálosi, Z Karádi
Substance P (SP) and neurotensin (NT) are neuropeptides isolated in the periphery and in the central nervous system. They are involved in various regulatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract, in the circulatory and respiratory systems, kidney and endocrine system. In addition to the peripheral effects, SP and NT act as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system, regulating various behavioural actions, such as general and motor activity, pain, food and water intake, anxiety, reward/reinforcement and memory consolidation...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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