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Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412701/emotional-control-reappraised
#1
REVIEW
Saskia B J Koch, Rogier B Mars, Ivan Toni, Karin Roelofs
We are frequently challenged with situations requiring the control of our emotions, often under substantial time-pressure and rapidly changing contextual demands. Coping with those demands requires the ability to flexibly and rapidly switch between different emotional control strategies. However, this ability has been largely neglected by current neurocognitive models on emotional control. Drawing on the decision-making literature, we propose that rapid switching between alternative emotional control strategies requires the concurrent evaluation of unchosen (counterfactual) options...
November 6, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412700/attachment-style-the-neurobiological-substrate-interaction-with-genetics-and-role-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-risk-pathways
#2
REVIEW
Linda A Antonucci, Paolo Taurisano, Gabrielle Coppola, Rosalinda Cassibba
Literature has suggested that attachment insecurity has been previously associated with subsequent onset of several psychiatric conditions characterized by emotion dysregulation. Nevertheless, only few studies have investigated the neurobiological basis of attachment style and whether attachment insecurity may share a common neurobiological substrate with neurodevelopmental disorders. In this narrative contribution, we aimed to review existing literature on functional neurobiological correlates of attachment style to further understand (1) specific neurobiological patterns associated with attachment security variation, and (2) whether it is possible to identify a neurobiological overlap between attachment insecurity-related and neurodevelopmental disorders-related anomalies...
November 6, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399356/empathy-is-not-in-our-genes
#3
REVIEW
Cecilia Heyes
In academic and public life empathy is seen as a fundamental force of morality - a psychological phenomenon, rooted in biology, with profound effects in law, policy, and international relations. But the roots of empathy are not as firm as we like to think. The matching mechanism that distinguishes empathy from compassion, envy, schadenfreude, and sadism is a product of learning. Here I present a dual system model that distinguishes Empathy1 , an automatic process that catches the feelings of others, from Empathy2 , controlled processes that interpret those feelings...
November 3, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399355/relating-constructs-of-attention-and-working-memory-to-social-withdrawal-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-schizophrenia-issues-regarding-paradigm-selection
#4
REVIEW
Gary Gilmour, Stefano Porcelli, Valérie Bertaina-Anglade, Estibaliz Arce, Juergen Dukart, Anja Hayen, Antonio Lobo, Raul Lopez Anton, Emilio Merlo Pich, Darrel J Pemberton, Martha N Havenith, Jeffrey Glennon, Brian Harel, Gerard Dawson, Hugh Marston, Rouba Kozak, Alessandro Serretti
Central nervous system diseases are not currently diagnosed based on knowledge of biological mechanisms underlying their symptoms. Greater understanding may be offered through an agnostic approach to traditional disease categories, where learning more about shared biological mechanisms across conditions could potentially reclassify sub-groups of patients to allow realisation of more effective treatments. This review represents the output of the collaborative group "PRISM", tasked with considering assay choices for assessment of attention and working memory in a transdiagnostic cohort of Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia patients exhibiting symptomatic spectra of social withdrawal...
November 3, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395924/review-of-interventions-for-the-management-of-anxiety-symptoms-in-children-with-asd
#5
REVIEW
Christine K Syriopoulou Delli, Stavroula A Polychronopoulou, Gerasimos A Kolaitis, Alexandros-Stamatios G Antoniou
BACKGROUND: Anxiety isa common accompanying symptom in people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). OBJECTIVES: To investigate interventions available for the management of anxietyin children with ASD internationally. METHODS: Review was made of relevant studies found through PubMed, the National Institute of Health (NIH) publications and resources in the libraries of the University of Macedoniaand the Greek NationalResearch Foundation. RESULTS: Of the372 studiesretrieveddealing withinterventionsfor children with ASD who have anxiety disorders published from the 1980s to 2017, 137 were included in this review...
November 2, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395923/regular-cannabis-use-is-associated-with-altered-activation-of-central-executive-and-default-mode-networks-even-after-prolonged-abstinence-in-adolescent-users-results-from-a-complementary-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Grace Blest-Hopley, Vincent Giampietro, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
Whether the effects of cannabis use on brain function persist or recover following abstinence remains unclear. Therefore, using meta-analytic techniques, we examined whether functional alterations measured using fMRI persist in cannabis users abstinent for over 25 days (or 600 hours) as evidence suggests that the effects on cognitive performance no longer persist beyond this period. Systematic literature search identified 20 studies, of which, 12 examined current cannabis users (CCU) (361 CCU versus 394 non-cannabis using controls (NU)) and 3 examined abstinent cannabis users (ACU) in 5 separate comparisons (98 ACU versus 106 NU)...
November 2, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395922/nutritional-interventions-and-cognitive-related-outcomes-in-patients-with-late-life-cognitive-disorders-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Pasquale Agosti, Madia Lozupone, Carlo Custodero, Andrea Schilardi, Vincenzo Valiani, Andrea Santamato, Rodolfo Sardone, Vittorio Dibello, Luca Di Lena, Roberta Stallone, Maurizio Ranieri, Antonello Bellomo, Antonio Greco, Antonio Daniele, Davide Seripa, Carlo Sabbà, Giancarlo Logroscino, Francesco Panza
There have been a large number of observational studies on the impact of nutrition on neuroprotection, however, there was a lack of evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs). In the present systematic review, from the 32 included RCTs published in the last four years (2014-2017) in patients aged 60 years and older with different late-life cognitive disorders, nutritional intervention through medical food/nutraceutical supplementation and multidomain approach improved magnetic resonance imaging findings and other cognitive-related biomarkers, but without clear effect on cognition in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)...
November 2, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391408/oral-anticoagulants-and-risk-of-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies-and-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
REVIEW
Pajaree Mongkhon, Abdallah Y Naser, Laura Fanning, Gary Tse, Wallis C Y Lau, Ian C K Wong, Chuenjid Kongkaew
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a documented risk factor for dementia. However, it is unclear whether oral anticoagulant (OAC) treatment can reduce the development of dementia or cognitive impairment. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between OAC use and subsequent dementia development in AF patients by searching databases from their inception to February 2018 without language restriction. Six studies (one randomized controlled trial and five observational studies) met the inclusion criteria...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391407/motor-output-neural-states-and-auditory-perception
#9
REVIEW
Daniel Reznik, Roy Mukamel
Behavior is a complex product of interactions between sensory influx arising from the environment and the neural state of the organism. Therefore, identical sensory input can elicit different behavioral responses in different contexts. Research in recent years has demonstrated that perception is modulated when an organism is engaged in active behavior - suggesting that neural activity in motor pathways is one factor governing the neural state of networks engaged in sensory processing. In the current manuscript, we focus on the auditory modality and propose a mechanism by which activity in motor cortex changes the neural state in auditory cortex through global inhibition...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391406/fatigue-and-its-management-in-the-workplace
#10
REVIEW
John A Caldwell, J Lynn Caldwell, Lauren A Thompson, Harris R Lieberman
Fatigue, or workplace sleepiness, is a consequence of modern industrial society. It is a complex biological phenomenon that occurs as a function of time awake, time-of-day, workload, health, and off-duty lifestyle. Fatigue is a function of two major biological factors - the homeostatic drive for sleep and circadian rhythm of sleepiness. The greatest cause of fatigue is insufficient or disrupted sleep. Excessive sleepiness in the workplace and on highways is a serious safety hazard, and insufficient or disrupted sleep results in numerous accidents and adverse mental and physical health outcomes...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391377/aetiology-of-eating-behaviours-a-possible-mechanism-to-understand-obesity-development-in-early-childhood
#11
Nikki Boswell, Rebecca Byrne, Peter S W Davies
Childhood obesity is an issue of public health concern that is understood to emerge due to disequilibrium in energy homeostasis. This commentary explores literature regarding neuro-biological mechanisms of energy homeostasis and the relationship between subjective measures of children's eating behaviours and objective measures of appetite, in order to better understand the aetiology of childhood obesity. Early life influences, such as in utero exposure, breastfeeding, and general disadvantage, appear to have an important influence on neuro-biological mechanisms of appetite and may contribute to inequitable distributions of obesity within the population...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30385251/neural-mechanisms-of-emotion-regulation-and-their-role-in-endocrine-and-immune-functioning-a-review-with-implications-for-treatment-of-affective-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Richard B Lopez, Bryan T Denny, Christopher P Fagundes
In the past century, medical progress has helped increase life expectancy and improve health outcomes more generally. Despite this progress, psychiatric disorders-especially affective disorders including depressive and anxiety disorders-are quite common and have been linked to dysfunction in endocrine and immune systems. In this review, we discuss neurobiological correlates of emotion regulation strategies and their effects on mental and physical health. Some of these correlates, namely sub-regions of prefrontal cortex, also play a key regulatory role in autonomic, endocrine, and immunological processes...
October 29, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30392879/a-review-of-psychiatric-conceptions-of-mental-and-behavioural-disorders-in-prader-willi-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Joyce Whittington, Anthony Holland
We present a review of psychiatric associations with comorbid mental and behavioural disorders affecting people with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). This literature review suggests that some assumptions about psychiatric associations of PWS behaviours are unjustified (eg skin picking as OCD) and that genetic aetiology should be considered when making associations between PWS mental and behavioural disorders and psychiatric disorders in the general populationThe literature review also demonstrates the limitations of the studies in terms of small numbers, non-representativeness, and lack of replication...
October 28, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30392878/fear-as-a-translational-mechanism-in-the-psychopathology-of-anorexia-nervosa
#14
REVIEW
Stuart B Murray, Michael Strober, Michelle G Craske, Scott Griffiths, Cheri A Levinson, Irina A Strigo
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an often chronic and potentially lethal psychiatric disorder, for which the precise etiology remains elusive. While current treatment outcomes are modest at best, it is thought that the identification of translational mechanisms driving the psychopathology of AN will assist in the development and optimization of novel treatments. AN is a disorder characterized by fear and avoidance, hypervigilant scrutiny of one's body, and an unnatural fear of weight gain. Moreover, a suite of anxious traits and regimentation of behavior are atypically common well in advance of the onset of restrictive eating in those with AN...
October 28, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30381252/biological-preparedness-and-resistance-to-extinction-of-skin-conductance-responses-conditioned-to-fear-relevant-animal-pictures-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Fredrik Åhs, Jörgen Rosén, Granit Kastrati, Mats Fredrikson, Thomas Agren, Johan N Lundström
Preparedness theory is one of the most influential ideas in explaining the origin of specific phobias. The theory proposes that fear conditioning is selective to animals that have posed a threat to survival throughout human evolution, and that acquired fear memories to such threats are resistant to extinction. We reviewed fear conditioning studies testing whether autonomic responses conditioned to pictures of snakes and spiders show greater resistance to extinction than neutral cues. We identified 32 fear conditioning experiments published in 23 studies including 1887 participants...
October 28, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30381251/carbachol-induced-theta-like-oscillations-in-the-rodent-brain-limbic-system-underlying-mechanisms-and-significance
#16
REVIEW
Maxime Lévesque, Massimo Avoli
Theta oscillations (4-12 Hz) represent one of the most prominent physiological oscillatory activity in the mammalian EEG. They are observed in several areas of the hippocampus and in parahippocampal structures. Theta oscillations play important roles in modulating synaptic plasticity during memory and learning; moreover, they are dependent on septal cholinergic inputs. Theta oscillations can be reproduced in vitro in several regions of the temporal lobe in the absence of the septum by employing the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh)...
October 28, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30392880/estrogenic-regulation-of-social-behavior-and-sexually-dimorphic-brain-formation
#17
REVIEW
Sonoko Ogawa, Shinji Tsukahara, Elena Choleris, Nandini Vasudevan
It has long been known that the estrogen, 17β-estradiol (17β-E), plays a central role for female reproductive physiology and behavior. Numerous studies have established the neurochemical and molecular basis of estrogenic induction of female sexual behavior, i.e., lordosis, in animal models. In addition, 17β-E also regulates male-type sexual and aggressive behavior. In males, testosterone secreted from the testes is irreversibly aromatized to 17β-E in the brain. We discuss the contribution of two nuclear receptor isoforms, estrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ to the estrogenic regulation of sexually dimorphic brain formation and sex-typical expression of these social behaviors...
October 27, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367918/overlaps-and-distinctions-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-young-adulthood-systematic-review-and-guiding-framework-for-eeg-research
#18
REVIEW
Alex Lau-Zhu, Anne Fritz, Gráinne McLoughlin
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently co-occur. However, we know little about the neural basis of the overlaps and distinctions between these disorders, particularly in young adulthood - a critical time window for brain plasticity across executive and socioemotional domains. Here, we systematically review 75 articles investigating ADHD and ASD in young adult samples (mean ages 16 to 26) using cognitive tasks, with neural activity concurrently measured via electroencephalography (EEG) - the most accessible neuroimaging technology...
October 24, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30366609/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-autonomic-nervous-system-reactivity-in-children-prenatally-exposed-to-maternal-depression-a-systematic-review-of-prospective-studies
#19
REVIEW
Laura S Bleker, Lotte van Dammen, Mariska M G Leeflang, Jacqueline Limpens, Tessa J Roseboom, Susanne R de Rooij
Depression is a common condition affecting up to 20% of all pregnant women, and is associated with subsequent developmental and behavioral problems in children, such as conduct disorder and ADHD. One proposed mechanism underlying these associations is modification of the fetal hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), resulting in altered responses to stress. This review examined the evidence regarding altered HPA-axis and ANS reactivity in children prenatally exposed to high maternal depressive symptoms...
October 23, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30365972/the-hidden-side-of-parkinson-s-disease-studying-pain-anxiety-and-depression-in-animal-models
#20
REVIEW
Fanny Faivre, Anil Joshi, Erwan Bezard, Michel Barrot
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease leading to the loss of midbrain dopamine neurons. It is well known and characterized by motor symptoms that are secondary to the loss of dopamine innervation, but it is also accompanied by a range of various non-motor symptoms, including pain and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. These non-motor symptoms usually appear at early stages of the disease, sometimes even before the first motor symptoms, and have a dramatic impact on the quality of life of the patients...
October 23, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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