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Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775696/tph2-polymorphisms-across-the-spectrum-of-psychiatric-morbidity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Koen Willem Ottenhof, Mari Sild, Mélissa Luce Lévesque, Henricus Gerardus Ruhé, Linda Booij
Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) is the rate-limiting enzyme in brain serotonin synthesis. The TPH2 gene has frequently been investigated in relation to psychiatric morbidity. The aim of the present review is to integrate results from association studies between TPH2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and various psychiatric disorders, which we furthermore quantified with meta-analysis. We reviewed 166 studies investigating 69 TPH2 SNPs in a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including over 30,000 patients...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772309/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obesity-a-review-and-model-of-current-hypotheses-explaining-their-comorbidity
#2
REVIEW
Tomasz Hanć, Samuele Cortese
Available meta-analyses point to a significant association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. The possible mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. Here, we overview the studies aimed at identifying the factors contributing to the comorbidity between ADHD and obesity, including genetic factors, fetal programming, executive dysfunctions, psychosocial stress, factors directly related to energy balance, and sleep patterns alterations. The bulk of current research has focused on reduced physical activity and abnormal eating patterns as possible causes of weight gain in individuals with ADHD...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772308/prostheses-as-extensions-of-the-body-progress-and-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Maria Niedernhuber, Damiano G Barone, Bigna Lenggenhager
Recent years have seen a surge of interest in the incorporation of artificial limbs. This research promises to provide individuals with sensorimotor disorders such as amputations with prostheses which feel like their own body part. While neuroscience made a leap towards uncovering the basic neurocognitive mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness, the development of incorporated prosthetic limbs still faces substantial challenges in basic neuroscience and in clinical reality. Here we critically examine recent findings on prosthesis incorporation to aid patient rehabilitation in the context of advances in cognitive and applied neuroscience as well as technology...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763711/efficacy-and-acceptability-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-adult-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-sham-controlled-trials
#4
REVIEW
Julian Mutz, Daniel R Edgcumbe, Andre R BrunoniMD, Cynthia H Y FuMD
We examined the efficacy and acceptability of non-invasive brain stimulation in adult unipolar and bipolar depression. Randomised sham-controlled trials of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and theta-burst stimulation (TBS), without co-initiation of another treatment, were included. We analysed effects on response, remission, all-cause discontinuation rates and continuous depression severity measures. Fifty-six studies met our criteria for inclusion (N  = 3,058, mean age = 44...
May 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758232/a-review-of-brain-insulin-signaling-in-mood-disorders-from-biomarker-to-clinical-target
#5
REVIEW
Thanh Thanh L Nguyen, Lily C Chan, Kristin Borreginne, Rajas P Kale, Chunling Hu, Susannah J Tye
Patients with mood disorders are at increased risk for metabolic dysfunction. Co-occurrence of the two conditions is typically associated with a more severe disease course and poorer treatment outcomes. The specific pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this bidirectional relationship between mood and metabolic dysfunction remains poorly understood. However, it is likely that impairment of metabolic processes within the brain play a critical role. The insulin signaling pathway mediates metabolic homeostasis and is important in the regulation of neurotrophic and synaptic plasticity processes, including those involved in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's...
May 11, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753753/dietary-polyphenols-and-neurogenesis-molecular-interactions-and-implication-for-brain-ageing-and-cognition
#6
REVIEW
F Sarubbo, D Moranta, G Pani
The increased number of elderly people worldwide poses a major medical and socio-economic challenge: the search of strategies to combat the consequences of the aging process. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been pointed out as the leading causes of brain aging, which in turn alters the functionality of brain. In this context, decline in adult neurogenesis (AN), due to modifications in the neural progenitor stem cells (NSCs) and their microenvironment, is among the aging alterations contributing to cognitive decline...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753752/the-cingulum-bundle-anatomy-function-and-dysfunction
#7
REVIEW
Emma J Bubb, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, John P Aggleton
The cingulum bundle is a prominent white matter tract that interconnects frontal, parietal, and medial temporal sites, while also linking subcortical nuclei to the cingulate gyrus. Despite its apparent continuity, the cingulum's composition continually changes as fibres join and leave the bundle. To help understand its complex structure, this review begins with detailed, comparative descriptions of the multiple connections comprising the cingulum bundle. Next, the impact of cingulum bundle damage in rats, monkeys, and humans is analysed...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752958/an-update-on-contextual-fear-memory-mechanisms-transition-between-amygdala-and-hippocampus
#8
REVIEW
Nicholas Chaaya, Andrew R Battle, Luke R Johnson
Context is an ever-present combination of discrete environmental elements capable of influencing many psychological processes. When context is associated with an aversive stimulus, a permanent contextual fear memory is formed. Context is hypothesized to greatly influence the treatability of various fear-based pathologies, in particular, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In order to understand how contextual fear memories are encoded and impact underlying fear pathology, delineation of the underlying neural circuitry of contextual fear memory consolidation and maintenance is essential...
May 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752957/early-human-motor-development-from-variation-to-the-ability-to-vary-and-adapt
#9
REVIEW
Mijna Hadders-Algra
This review summarizes early human motor development. From early fetal age motor behavior is based on spontaneous neural activity: activity of networks in the brainstem and spinal cord that is modulated by supraspinal activity. The supraspinal activity, first primarily brought about by the cortical subplate, later by the cortical plate, induces movement variation. Initially, movement variation especially serves exploration; its associated afferent information is primarily used to sculpt the developing nervous system, and less to adapt motor behavior...
May 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751052/adra2b-deletion-variant-and-enhanced-cognitive-processing-of-emotional-information-a-meta-analytical-review
#10
REVIEW
Weizhen Xie, Marcus Cappiello, Ming Meng, Robert Rosenthal, Weiwei Zhang
This meta-analytical review examines whether a deletion variant in ADRA2B, a gene that encodes α2B adrenoceptor in the regulation of norepinephrine availability, influences cognitive processing of emotional information in human observers. Using a multilevel modeling approach, this meta-analysis of 16 published studies with a total of 2,752 participants showed that ADRA2B deletion variant was significantly associated with enhanced perceptual and cognitive task performance for emotional stimuli. In contrast, this genetic effect did not manifest in overall task performance when non-emotional content was used...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751051/neurocognitive-effects-of-methylphenidate-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Michelle A Pievsky, Robert E McGrath
PIEVSKY, M. A., and R. E. McGrath. Neurocognitive effects of methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis…NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 81(1) XXX-XXX, 2017.- This meta-analysis summarized 21 double-blind randomized controlled trials with a mean study duration of 18 days comparing the neurocognitive functioning of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on methylphenidate vs placebo. Effect sizes were weighted using a random-effects model. Scores on neurocognitive measures and tests of driving ability were on average higher on methylphenidate than on placebo, g = ...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747866/understanding-taurine-cns-activity-using-alternative-zebrafish-models
#12
Nathana J Mezzomo, Barbara D Fontana, Allan V Kalueff, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Denis B Rosemberg
Taurine is a highly abundant "amino acid" in the brain. Although the potential neuroactive role of taurine in vertebrates has long been recognized, the underlying molecular mechanisms related to its pleiotropic effects in the brain remain poorly understood. Due to the genetic tractability, rich behavioral repertoire, neurochemical conservation, and small size, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful candidate for neuropsychopharmacology investigation and in vivo drug screening. Here, we summarize the main physiological roles of taurine in mammals, including neuromodulation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, and antioxidant action...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747865/deep-temporal-models-and-active-inference
#13
Karl J Friston, Richard Rosch, Thomas Parr, Cathy Price, Howard Bowman
How do we navigate a deeply structured world? Why are you reading this sentence first - and did you actually look at the fifth word? This review offers some answers by appealing to active inference based on deep temporal models. It builds on previous formulations of active inference to simulate behavioural and electrophysiological responses under hierarchical generative models of state transitions. Inverting these models corresponds to sequential inference, such that the state at any hierarchical level entails a sequence of transitions in the level below...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746876/the-spatial-representation-of-number-time-and-serial-order-following-sensory-deprivation-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Luca Rinaldi, Lotfi B Merabet, Tomaso Vecchi, Zaira Cattaneo
The spatial representation of numerical and temporal information is thought to be rooted in our multisensory experiences. Accordingly, we may expect visual or auditory deprivation to affect the way we represent numerical magnitude and time spatially. Here, we systematically review recent findings on how blind and deaf individuals represent abstract concepts such as magnitude and time (e.g., past/future, serial order of events) in a spatial format. Interestingly, available evidence suggests that sensory deprivation does not prevent the spatial "re-mapping" of abstract information, but differences compared to normally sighted and hearing individuals may emerge depending on the specific dimension considered (i...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738796/how-do-hypothalamic-nonapeptides-shape-youth-s-sociality-a-systematic-review-on-oxytocin-vasopressin-and-human-socio-emotional-development
#15
REVIEW
Nuno Torres, Daniel Martins, António J Santos, Diana Prata, Maria Veríssimo
The hypothalamic nonapeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are important modulators of socio-affective behaviours in a wide variety of animal species, including humans. Nevertheless, there is little research addressing their possible roles on socio-affective dimensions of human behaviour across development, during which considerable behavioural and physiological change occurs. Questions still remain about the extent to which findings from adults may directly apply to earlier phases of human development. In this article, we systematically summarize and discuss all existing studies investigating the developmental association of endogenous levels of hypothalamic neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin with human social behaviour or on its disruption in paediatric populations...
May 5, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738795/animal-models-of-binge-drinking-current-challenges-to-improve-face-validity
#16
REVIEW
Jérôme Jeanblanc, Benjamin Rolland, Fabien Gierski, Margaret P Martinetti, Mickael Naassila
Binge drinking (BD), i.e., consuming a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time, is an increasing public health issue. Though no clear definition has been adopted worldwide the speed of drinking seems to be a keystone of this behavior. Developing relevant animal models of BD is a priority for gaining a better characterization of the neurobiological and psychobiological mechanisms underlying this dangerous and harmful behavior. Until recently, preclinical research on BD has been conducted mostly using forced administration of alcohol, but more recent studies used scheduled access to alcohol, to model more voluntary excessive intakes, and to achieve signs of intoxications that mimic the human behavior...
May 5, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733882/basal-ganglia-and-beyond-the-interplay-between-motor-and-cognitive-aspects-in-parkinson-s-disease-rehabilitation
#17
REVIEW
Davide Ferrazzoli, Paola Ortelli, Graziella Madeo, Nir Giladi, Giselle M Petzinger, Giuseppe Frazzitta
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor and cognitive dysfunctions, affecting the motor behaviour. We summarize evidence that the interplay between motor and cognitive approaches is crucial in PD rehabilitation. Rehabilitation is complementary to pharmacological therapy and effective in reducing the PD disturbances, probably acting by inducing neuroplastic effects. The motor behaviour results from a complex integration between cortical and subcortical areas, underlying the motor, cognitive and motivational aspects of movement...
May 4, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733881/cognitive-benefits-of-angiotensin-iv-and-angiotensin-1-7-a-systematic-review-of-experimental-studies
#18
REVIEW
Jean K Ho, Daniel A Nation
OBJECTIVES: To explore effects of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on cognition. DESIGN: Systematic review of experimental (non-human) studies assessing cognitive effects of RAS peptides angiotensin-(3-8) [Ang IV] and angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] and their receptors, the Ang IV receptor (AT4R) and the Mas receptor. RESULTS: Of 450 articles identified, 32 met inclusion criteria. Seven of 11 studies of normal animals found Ang IV had beneficial effects on tests of passive or conditioned avoidance and object recognition...
May 4, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730485/towards-a-human-self-regulation-system-common-and-distinct-neural-signatures-of-emotional-and-behavioural-control
#19
REVIEW
Robert Langner, Susanne Leiberg, Felix Hoffstaedter, Simon B Eickhoff
Self-regulation refers to controlling our emotions and actions in the pursuit of higher-order goals. Although research suggests commonalities in the cognitive control of emotion and action, evidence for a shared neural substrate is scant and largely circumstantial. Here we report on two large-scale meta-analyses of human neuroimaging studies on emotion or action control, yielding two fronto-parieto-insular networks. The networks' overlap, however, was restricted to four brain regions: posteromedial prefrontal cortex, bilateral anterior insula, and right temporo-parietal junction...
May 3, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730484/current-perspectives-on-the-cerebellum-and-reading-development
#20
REVIEW
Travis A Alvarez, Julie A Fiez
The dominant neural models of typical and atypical reading focus on the cerebral cortex. However, Nicolson et al. (2001) proposed a model, the cerebellar deficit hypothesis, in which the cerebellum plays an important role in reading. To evaluate the evidence in support of this model, we qualitatively review the current literature and employ meta-analytic tools examining patterns of functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the cerebral reading network. We find evidence for a phonological circuit with connectivity between the cerebellum and a dorsal fronto-parietal pathway, and a semantic circuit with cerebellar connectivity to a ventral fronto-temporal pathway...
May 3, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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