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Microbiological Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8987361/t-helper-cell-activation-and-human-retroviral-pathogenesis
#1
REVIEW
K F Copeland, J L Heeney
T helper (Th) cells are of central importance in regulating many critical immune effector mechanisms. The profile of cytokines produced by Th cells correlates with the type of effector cells induced during the immune response to foreign antigen. Th1 cells induce the cell-mediated immune response, while Th2 cells drive antibody production. Th cells are the preferential targets of human retroviruses. Infections with human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) result in the expansion of Th cells by the action of HTLV (adult T-cell leukemia) or the progressive loss of T cells by the action of HIV (AIDS)...
December 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8987360/the-secretory-pathway-of-protists-spatial-and-functional-organization-and-evolution
#2
REVIEW
B Becker, M Melkonian
All cells secrete a diversity of macromolecules to modify their environment or to protect themselves. Eukaryotic cells have evolved a complex secretory pathway consisting of several membrane-bound compartments which contain specific sets of proteins. Experimental work on the secretory pathway has focused mainly on mammalian cell lines or on yeasts. Now, some general principles of the secretory pathway have become clear, and most components of the secretory pathway are conserved between yeast cells and mammalian cells...
December 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8987359/flow-cytometry-and-cell-sorting-of-heterogeneous-microbial-populations-the-importance-of-single-cell-analyses
#3
REVIEW
H M Davey, D B Kell
The most fundamental questions such as whether a cell is alive, in the sense of being able to divide or to form a colony, may sometimes be very hard to answer, since even axenic microbial cultures are extremely heterogeneous. Analyses that seek to correlate such things as viability, which is a property of an individual cell, with macroscopic measurements of culture variables such as ATP content, respiratory activity, and so on, must inevitably fail. It is therefore necessary to make physiological measurements on individual cells...
December 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8987358/soil-microorganisms-as-controllers-of-atmospheric-trace-gases-h2-co-ch4-ocs-n2o-and-no
#4
REVIEW
R Conrad
Production and consumption processes in soils contribute to the global cycles of many trace gases (CH4, CO, OCS, H2, N2O, and NO) that are relevant for atmospheric chemistry and climate. Soil microbial processes contribute substantially to the budgets of atmospheric trace gases. The flux of trace gases between soil and atmosphere is usually the result of simultaneously operating production and consumption processes in soil: The relevant processes are not yet proven with absolute certainty, but the following are likely for trace gas consumption: H2 oxidation by abiontic soil enzymes; CO cooxidation by the ammonium monooxygenase of nitrifying bacteria; CH4 oxidation by unknown methanotrophic bacteria that utilize CH4 for growth; OCS hydrolysis by bacteria containing carbonic anhydrase; N2O reduction to N2 by denitrifying bacteria; NO consumption by either reduction to N2O in denitrifiers or oxidation to nitrate in heterotrophic bacteria...
December 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8987357/proton-dependent-multidrug-efflux-systems
#5
REVIEW
I T Paulsen, M H Brown, R A Skurray
Multidrug efflux systems display the ability to transport a variety of structurally unrelated drugs from a cell and consequently are capable of conferring resistance to a diverse range of chemotherapeutic agents. This review examines multidrug efflux systems which use the proton motive force to drive drug transport. These proteins are likely to operate as multidrug/proton antiporters and have been identified in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Such proton-dependent multidrug efflux proteins belong to three distinct families or superfamilies of transport proteins: the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), the small multidrug resistance (SMR) family, and the resistance/ nodulation/cell division (RND) family...
December 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8840786/microbial-pathogenesis-in-cystic-fibrosis-mucoid-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-burkholderia-cepacia
#6
REVIEW
J R Govan, V Deretic
Respiratory infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia play a major role in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF). This review summarizes the latest advances in understanding host-pathogen interactions in CF with an emphasis on the role and control of conversion to mucoidy in P. aeruginosa, a phenomenon epitomizing the adaptation of this opportunistic pathogen to the chronic chourse of infection in CF, and on the innate resistance to antibiotics of B. cepacia, person-to-person spread, and sometimes rapidly fatal disease caused by this organism...
September 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8840785/strategies-for-achieving-high-level-expression-of-genes-in-escherichia-coli
#7
REVIEW
S C Makrides
Progress in our understanding of several biological processes promises to broaden the usefulness of Escherichia coli as a tool for gene expression. There is an expanding choice of tightly regulated prokaryotic promoters suitable for achieving high-level gene expression. New host strains facilitate the formation of disulfide bonds in the reducing environment of the cytoplasm and offer higher protein yields by minimizing proteolytic degradation. Insights into the process of protein translocation across the bacterial membranes may eventually make it possible to achieve robust secretion of specific proteins into the culture medium...
September 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8840784/rna-protein-interactions-in-regulation-of-picornavirus-rna-translation
#8
REVIEW
G J Belsham, N Sonenberg
The translation of picornavirus RNA occurs by a cap-independent mechanism directed by a region of about 450 nucleotides from the 5' untranslated region, termed an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Internal initiation of protein synthesis occurs without any requirement for viral proteins. Furthermore, it is maintained when host cell protein synthesis is almost abolished. By using in vitro translation systems, two distinct families of IRES elements which have very different predicted RNA secondary structures have been defined...
September 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8840783/microbial-metabolism-of-pyridine-quinoline-acridine-and-their-derivatives-under-aerobic-and-anaerobic-conditions
#9
REVIEW
J P Kaiser, Y Feng, J M Bollag
Our review of the metabolic pathways of pyridines and aza-arenes showed that biodegradation of heterocyclic aromatic compounds occurs under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Depending upon the environmental conditions, different types of bacteria, fungi, and enzymes are involved in the degradation process of these compounds. Our review indicated that different organisms are using different pathways to biotransform a substrate. Our review also showed that the transformation rate of the pyridine derivatives is dependent on the substituents...
September 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8840782/virus-encoded-superantigens
#10
REVIEW
B T Huber, P N Hsu, N Sutkowski
Superantigens are microbial agents that have a strong effect on the immune response of the host. Their initial target is the T lymphocyte, but a whole cascade of immunological reactions ensues. It is thought that the microbe engages the immune system of the host to its own advantage, to facilitate persistent infection and/or transmission. In this review, we discuss in detail the structure and function of the superantigen encoded by the murine mammary tumor virus, a B-type retrovirus which is the causative agent of mammary carcinoma...
September 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8801441/methanotrophic-bacteria
#11
REVIEW
R S Hanson, T E Hanson
Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, whereas type II methanotrophs, which employ the serine pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, form a coherent cluster within the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria...
June 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8801440/polyphasic-taxonomy-a-consensus-approach-to-bacterial-systematics
#12
REVIEW
P Vandamme, B Pot, M Gillis, P de Vos, K Kersters, J Swings
Over the last 25 years, a much broader range of taxonomic studies of bacteria has gradually replaced the former reliance upon morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization. This polyphasic taxonomy takes into account all available phenotypic and genotypic data and integrates them in a consensus type of classification, framed in a general phylogeny derived from 16S rRNA sequence analysis. In some cases, the consensus classification is a compromise containing a minimum of contradictions. It is thought that the more parameters that will become available in the future, the more polyphasic classification will gain stability...
June 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8801439/envelope-glycoproteins-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-profound-influences-on-immune-functions
#13
REVIEW
N Chirmule, S Pahwa
Infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) leads to progressive destruction of the CD4+ T-cell subset, resulting in immune deficiency and AIDS. The specific binding of the viral external envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1, gp120, to the CD4 molecules initiates viral entry. In the past few years, several studies have indicated that the interaction of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein with cells and molecules of the immune system leads to pleiotropic biological effects on immune functions, which include effects on differentiation of CD34+ lymphoid progenitor cells and thymocytes, aberrant activation and cytokine secretion patterns of mature T cells, induction of apoptosis, B-cell hyperactivity, inhibition of T-cell dependent B-cell differentiation, modulation of macrophage functions, interactions with components of complement, and effects on neuronal cells...
June 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8801438/ribosome-regulation-by-the-nascent-peptide
#14
REVIEW
P S Lovett, E J Rogers
Studies of bacterial and eukaryotic systems have identified two-gene operons in which the translation product of the upstream gene influences translation of the downstream gene. The upstream gene, referred to as a leader (gene) in bacterial systems or an upstream open reading frame (uORF) in eukaryotes, encodes a peptide that interferes with a function(s) of its translating ribosome. The peptides are therefore cis-acting negative regulators of translation. The inhibitory peptides typically consist of fewer than 25 residues and function prior to emergence from the ribosome...
June 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8801437/field-evaluations-of-marine-oil-spill-bioremediation
#15
REVIEW
R P Swannell, K Lee, M McDonagh
Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure...
June 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8801436/bacterial-modulins-a-novel-class-of-virulence-factors-which-cause-host-tissue-pathology-by-inducing-cytokine-synthesis
#16
REVIEW
B Henderson, S Poole, M Wilson
Cytokines are a diverse group of proteins and glycoproteins which have potent and wide-ranging effects on eukaryotic cell function and are now recognized as important mediators of tissue pathology in infectious diseases. It is increasingly recognized that for many bacterial species, cytokine induction is a major virulence mechanism. Until recent years, the only bacterial component known to stimulate cytokine synthesis was lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It is only within the past decade that it has been clearly shown that many components associated with the bacterial cell wall, including proteins, glycoproteins, lipoproteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, have the capacity to stimulate mammalian cells to produce a diverse array of cytokines...
June 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8801435/artemisinin-and-the-antimalarial-endoperoxides-from-herbal-remedy-to-targeted-chemotherapy
#17
REVIEW
S R Meshnick, T E Taylor, S Kamchonwongpaisan
Artemisinin and its derivatives are endoperoxide-containing compounds which represent a promising new class of antimalarial drugs. In the presence of intraparasitic iron, these drugs are converted into free radicals and other electrophilic intermediates which then alkylate specific malaria target proteins. Combinations of available derivatives and other antimalarial agents show promise both as first-line agents and in the treatment of severe disease.
June 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8801434/molecular-and-industrial-aspects-of-glucose-isomerase
#18
REVIEW
S H Bhosale, M B Rao, V V Deshpande
Glucose isomerase (GI) (D-xylose ketol-isomerase; EC. 5.3.1.5) catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-glucose and D-xylose to D-fructose and D-xylulose, respectively. The enzyme has the largest market in the food industry because of its application in the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS, an equilibrium mixture of glucose and fructose, is 1.3 times sweeter than sucrose and serves as a sweetener for use by diabetics. Interconversion of xylose to xylulose by GI serves a nutritional requirement in saprophytic bacteria and has a potential application in the bioconversion of hemicellulose to ethanol...
June 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8801433/branhamella-catarrhalis-epidemiology-surface-antigenic-structure-and-immune-response
#19
REVIEW
T F Murphy
Over the past decade, Branhamella catarrhalis has emerged as an important human pathogen. The bacterium is a common cause of otitis media in children and of lower respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. B. catarrhalis is exclusively a human pathogen. It colonizes the respiratory tract of a small proportion of adults and a larger proportion of children. Studies involving restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA show that colonization is a dynamic process, with the human host eliminating and acquiring new strains frequently...
June 1996: Microbiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8852903/double-stranded-rna-viruses-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#20
REVIEW
R B Wickner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1996: Microbiological Reviews
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