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Infant Behavior & Development

Katharina Dorn, Sabine Weinert, Terje Falck-Ytter
Investigating infants' ability to match visual and auditory speech segments presented sequentially allows us to understand more about the type of information they encode in each domain, as well as their ability to relate the information. One previous study found that 4.5- month-old infants' preference for visual French or German speech depended on whether they had previously heard the respective language, suggesting a remarkable ability to encode and relate audio-visual speech cues and to use these to guide their looking behavior...
July 11, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Vivian Lee, M D Rutherford
Observational learning is important to development, but not all adult models are equally informative and accurate. Selectivity is important in observational learning. Past research studies have not always differentiated competence and confidence, so the current study investigated infants' selective imitation after observing third-party interactions, when confidence and competence were varied independently. Forty-eight 16-month-olds watched a model demonstrate the function of tools while displaying high or low levels of confidence and competence...
July 11, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Dorthe Bleses, Peter Jensen, Anders Højen, Philip S Dale
An increasing number of infants and toddlers in many countries are enrolled in early childhood education (ECE) programs, and educators thus play a central role in stimulating language development in these young children. A valid, brief educator-completed measure of language development in young children has important uses both for the identification and monitoring of language development and for the guidance and evaluation of intentional instruction and targeted interventions for children who need it. We present such a measure here for Danish, the CDI: Educator (CDI-Edu) version, which is based on well-developed and validated parent report measures, adapted for the early childhood education setting...
July 7, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Marijn van Dijk, Brenda van Voorthuizen, Ralf F A Cox
In the weaning period, infants are introduced to solid food after being fed solely on milk, which involves a deliberate reorganization of the infant-caregiver feeding interaction. This multiple case study, involving 5 dyads with 10 repeated observations, analyzed its dynamical structure using Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis. The results showed that an optimal interaction occurs when the caregiver is leading by roughly 1-2 seconds. During the weaning period, all dyads showed signs of increased synchronization, although there are interesting differences between dyads...
July 6, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Simone Sulpizio, Hirokazu Doi, Marc H Bornstein, Joy Cui, Gianluca Esposito, Kazuyuki Shinohara
We hypothesized an association between auditory stimulus structure and activity in the brain that underlies infant auditory preference. In a within-infant design, we assessed brain activity to female and male infant directed relative to adult directed speech in 4-month-old infants using fNIRS. Results are compatible with the hypothesis that enhanced frontal brain activation, specifically in prefrontal cortex that is involved in emotion and reward, is evoked selectively by infant directed speech produced by female voices and may serve as a neuronal substrate for attention to and preference for "motherese" displayed by infants...
June 14, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Kirsten Bechtel, Ambika Bhatnagar, Marc Auerbach
Simulation is a technique that creates a situation or environment to allow persons to experience a representation of a real event for the purpose of practice, learning, evaluation, testing, or to gain understanding of systems or human actions. We will first provide an introduction to simulation in healthcare and describe the two types of simulation-based research (SBR) in the pediatric population. We will then provide an overview of the use of SBR to improve health outcomes for infants in health care settings and to improve parent-child interactions using the infant simulator...
June 11, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Matte-Gagné Célia, Dale M Stack, Lisa A Serbin
In this four-wave longitudinal study, we examined intraindividual developmental patterns of change in mother-child emotional availability (EA) during infancy and the preschool years, the factors that promote or hinder it, and the longitudinal within-dyad association between maternal and child EA. Mother-infant dyads (N = 56) were observed at home when children were 6,12, 18 and 55-months-old. Multilevel growth modeling revealed that mother and child EA follow distinct trajectories across time. While maternal EA was found to be stable, a significant increase in child EA was found across the infancy years and into preschool...
June 2, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Edna Orr
This study prospectively explored the role of declarative and imperative gestures in the development of language and symbolic play milestones using a multi-measure micro-analytic approach. Nine infants were observed in their natural home environments once a month for a one hour session between the ages of 8-16 months by recording their spontaneous pre-lingual and lingual form usages and symbolic play acts. This framework enabled the coding of object- and human-directed vocalization, babbling, speech, declarative and imperative gestures, and four types of symbolic play acts: single-object play, single-object sequences, multi-object play, and multi-object sequences...
June 1, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Maya Yaari, Natalie Lisette Rotzak, David Mankuta, Ayelet Harel-Gadassi, Edwa Friedlander, Smadar Eventov-Friedman, Benjamin Bar-Oz, David Zucker, Oren Shinar, Nurit Yirmiya
Very-preterm (VPT), moderately-preterm (MPT), and full-term (FT) infants' emotion-regulation behaviors were assessed via the Still-Face procedure at a corrected age of four months. As a developmental task during the first year of life, emotion regulation is important for social and cognitive development. Although substantial evidence indicates that VPT infants exhibit emotion-regulation difficulties, little is known about MPT infants' emotion regulation capabilities, this group also possibly being at risk. The participants included 135 parent-infant dyads: 46 VPT (gestational age 24-32 weeks), 51 MPT (gestational age 32-34 weeks), and 38 FT (gestational age 37-41 weeks)...
June 1, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Fleur Lejeune, Cristina Borradori Tolsa, Edouard Gentaz, Koviljka Barisnikov
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have established that newborns can memorize tactile information about the specific features of an object with their hands and detect differences with another object. However, the robustness of haptic memory abilities has already been examined in preterm newborns and in full-term infants, but not yet in full-term newborns. This research is aimed to better understand the robustness of haptic memory abilities at birth by examining the effects of a change in the objects' temperature and haptic interference...
May 31, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Dana Shai
Studies have demonstrated that coparenting can be assessed prenatally through playful observational conditions, including simulated baby enactments. Regrettably, there is a lack of empirical research examining how prenatal coparenting under the emotional stress elicited by the distress of a simulated infant predicts children's cognitive development. The current longitudinal study introduces a novel procedure-the Inconsolable Doll Task-to assess prenatal coparenting behavioral dynamics under the stress of a non-responsive doll simulator, and examines the extent to which prenatal interaction patterns predict the child's cognitive development at 18 months...
May 28, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Mohammad Rashbari Dibavar
Two-system theory as the dominant approach in the field of infant numerical representation is characterized by three features: precise representation of small sets of objects, approximate representation of large magnitudes and failure to compare small and large sets. Comparison of single- and multimodal numerical abilities suggests that infants' performance in multimodal conditions is consistent with these three features. Nevertheless, the influence of multimodal stimulation on infants' numerical representation is characterized by preventing the formation of perceptual overlaps across different sensory modalities which can lead to an understanding of numerical values of small sets and also by creating a conceptual overlap about numbers that increases infants' accuracy for discriminating quantities when numerical information is presented bimodally and synchronously...
May 25, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Amrisha Vaish, Robert Hepach, Tobias Grossmann
'Much research has investigated children's understanding of others' mental states in terms of beliefs, but far less is known about their understanding of others' desires. To fill this gap, we used an eye-tracking paradigm to test 2-year-old children's desire understanding by measuring their anticipatory looking behavior as well as changes in their internal arousal (i.e., changes in pupil dilation). Children showed increased pupil dilation when an adult reached for an object she had previously emoted negatively towards (the object incongruent with her desire)...
May 21, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Shuma Tsurumi, So Kanazawa, Masami K Yamaguchi
We examined whether infants aged 6-8 months show object-based attention using the preferential looking method. In object-based attention, which is a prerequisite function for efficient real-world processing of various stimuli, a target that appears at a cued object is detected and processed faster than a target appearing at an uncued object. We presented 6- to 8-month-old infants with the visual stimuli consisting of two white vertical rectangles side by side, in which a target appearing at 1) the cued location, 2) the end opposite to the cued location, and 3) another rectangle's end following the cue, using an established paradigm, and measured each infant's first saccade to the target...
May 11, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Hannah F Rasmussen, Geoffrey W Corner, Gayla Margolin
This exploratory application of the infant simulator with two couples is designed to illustrate individual reactivity and coparenting behaviors in young couples in serious relationships who do not yet have children. A 35-min protocol with standardized onsets and offsets of inconsolable baby cries was used to capture partner's individual behavioral and physiological responses as well as the couple's joint efforts to soothe the crying baby. Task feasibility was demonstrated by couples' persistent and wide-ranging efforts to calm the baby including rocking, feeding, changing, talking to the baby, and singing...
May 1, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Ying Wang, Annette M E Henderson
Research has demonstrated that an understanding of and engagement in cooperative activities emerges early in life. However, little is known about the expectations infants hold about the consequences of cooperative action. We demonstrate that 14-month-old infants expect that cooperative partners will share the recently attained cooperative goal instead of keeping it for themselves. Interestingly, this prediction does not hold if infants saw the two individuals work towards individual goals. These findings contribute to the growing body of literature suggesting that infants possess at least a basic understanding of cooperation well before their second birthday...
April 30, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Pablo Vasquez, Hector Alfonso Romero Diaz, Maria Juanita Gomez Gomez, Lida Leal, Lorena Margarita Yejas Navarro
INTRODUCTION: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is common in premature babies. It is difficult to predict the risk of developing this disease and its definition is not well characterized in high altitude cities. OBJECTIVE: To determine the operating characteristics of a BPD predictive scale for in preterm infants based on a classical BPD definition and one adjusted for altitude. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Observational, analytical, longitudinal study with infants gestational age ≤32 weeks admitted at two University Hospital's in the city of Bogotá, Colombia between June 2010 and December 2016...
April 30, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Christiane Patzwald, Charlotte A Curley, Petra Hauf, Birgit Elsner
Infants use others' emotional signals to regulate their own object-directed behavior and action reproduction, and they typically produce more actions after having observed positive as compared to negative emotional cues. This study explored infants' understanding of the referential specificity of others' emotional cues when being confronted with two actions that are accompanied by different emotional displays. Selective action reproduction was measured after 18-month-olds (N = 42) had observed two actions directed at the same object, one of which was modeled with a positive emotional expression and the other with a negative emotional expression...
May 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Andrea Baraldi Cunha, Audrei Fortunato Miquelote, Denise Castilho Cabrera Santos
PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility of completing a randomized clinical trial of motor affordance program at home for infants living in poverty. METHODS: Fourteen infants living in poverty were randomized assigned to groups: intervention at 1st month (G-1), and at 2nd month (G-2). They were assessed into 3 visits: Visit 1 (baseline), Visit 2 (after 4 weeks), and Visit 3 (after 8 weeks). The motor affordance program was provided at home by parents/caregivers. To determine feasibility of the program, descriptive data was used...
May 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Jamile Benite Palma Lopes, Renata Calhes Franco de Moura, Roberta Delasta Lazzari, Natalia de Almeida Carvalho Duarte, Arislander Jonathan Lopes Dumont, Claudia Santos Oliveira
The aim of the present study was to perform a review of the literature on current quantitative clinical methods for the evaluation of upper limb movements in children and adolescents with Down syndrome, with a focus on describing the variables, protocols, motor function and motor control. METHODS: A survey of PubMed, Scielo, BVS Bireme and PEDro databases using the following key words: upper limb and EMG and Down syndrome; upper limb and kinematics and Down syndrome; upper limb and motion analysis and Down syndrome; movement and upper limb and Down syndrome; upper limb and Down syndrome; reach and Down syndrome...
May 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
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