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Infant Behavior & Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222332/acquisition-of-vowel-articulation-in-childhood-investigated-by-acoustic-to-articulatory-inversion
#1
Hiroki Oohashi, Hama Watanabe, Gentaro Taga
While the acoustical features of speech sounds in children have been extensively studied, limited information is available as to their articulation during speech production. Instead of directly measuring articulatory movements, this study used an acoustic-to-articulatory inversion model with scalable vocal tract size to estimate developmental changes in articulatory state during vowel production. Using a pseudo-inverse Jacobian matrix of a model mapping seven articulatory parameters to acoustic ones, the formant frequencies of each vowel produced by three Japanese children over time at ages between 6 and 60 months were transformed into articulatory parameters...
February 18, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222331/the-moro-reaction-more-than-a-reflex-a-ritualized-behavior-of-nonverbal-communication
#2
Pierre V Rousseau, Florence Matton, Renaud Lecuyer, Willy Lahaye
OBJECTIVE: To propose a phylogenetic significance to the Moro reflex which remains unexplained since its publication in 1918 because both hands are free at the end of the gesture. METHOD: Among the 75 videos of healthy term newborns we have filmed in a research project on antenatal education to parenthood, we describe a sequence that clearly showed the successive movements of the Moro reflex and we report the occurrence of this reflex in the videos that were recorded from Time 0 of birth defined as the moment that lies between the birth of the thorax and the pelvis of the infant...
February 18, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171802/links-between-early-baseline-cortisol-attachment-classification-and-problem-behaviors-a-test-of-differential-susceptibility-versus-diathesis-stress
#3
Michelle C Fong, Jeffrey Measelle, Elisabeth Conradt, Jennifer C Ablow
The purpose of the current study was to predict concurrent levels of problem behaviors from young children's baseline cortisol and attachment classification, a proxy for the quality of caregiving experienced. In a sample of 58 children living at or below the federal poverty threshold, children's baseline cortisol levels, attachment classification, and problem behaviors were assessed at 17 months of age. We hypothesized that an interaction between baseline cortisol and attachment classification would predict problem behaviors above and beyond any main effects of baseline cortisol and attachment...
February 4, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142062/in-any-way-shape-or-form-toddlers-understanding-of-shapes
#4
Joanna Zambrzycka, Donna Kotsopoulos, Joanne Lee, Samantha Makosz
Using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm, two-year-old children's ability to discriminate valid (typical and atypical) squares, rectangles, triangles, and circles from invalid distractors was examined. The cognitive and environmental factors that might predict this ability were also investigated. Two-year-old children (N=33) were able to discriminate squares, triangles, and circles, but not rectangles. No significant cognitive or environmental predictors of this ability were found. The results suggest that the ability to shape discriminate at age two is under considerable development and that other factors may be responsible for children's ability to discriminate shapes...
January 28, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142061/establishment-of-a-schizophrenic-animal-model-through-chronic-administration-of-mk-801-in-infancy-and-social-isolation-in-childhood
#5
Weiqing Liu, Xiuyan Wang, Wenjuan Hong, Dong Wang, Xiaogang Chen
BACKGROUND: Although an increasing amount of evidence supports a "two-hit" hypothesis for the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, there has been no development in animal models to test this hypothesis. METHODS: An animal model was established by chronic administration of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5mg/kg MK-801 in P7-P21 rats followed by four weeks of social isolation in childhood and then five days of social housing. Animal behaviors were measured by the open field (OF) test, the novel object recognition (NOR) test, the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test, and the elevated plus maze (EPM) test...
January 28, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131053/the-differential-role-of-parenting-peers-and-temperament-for-explaining-interindividual-differences-in-18-months-olds-comforting-and-helping
#6
Nils Schuhmacher, Jenny Collard, Joscha Kärtner
This study analyzes temperamental and social correlates of 18-month-olds' (N=58) instrumental helping (i.e., handing over out-of-reach objects) and comforting (i.e., alleviating experimenter's distress). While out-of-reach helping as a basic type of prosocial behavior was not associated with any of the social and temperamental variables, comforting was associated with maternal responsible parenting, day care attendance, and temperamental fear, accounting for 34% of the total variance in a corresponding regression model...
January 25, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119171/let-s-play-an-observational-study-of-primary-care-physical-therapy-with-preterm-infants-aged-3-14-months
#7
Ragnhild B Håkstad, Aud Obstfelder, Gunn Kristin Øberg
INTRODUCTION: Sensory-motor play is at the core of child development and an important element in physical therapist(PT)s' work to improve infants' motor skills. In this study, we investigate how PTs scaffold and use play in physical therapy intervention with preterm infants at corrected age (CA) 3-14 months. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We collected data by observing 20 physical therapy sessions. In the analysis, we connected to enactive theory on cooperation. RESULTS: Successful use of sensory-motor play in physical therapy requires cooperation toward common goals...
January 21, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068525/differences-in-early-cognitive-and-receptive-expressive-neurodevelopment-by-ancestry-and-underlying-pathways-in-brazil-and-argentina
#8
George L Wehby, Antonio J Trujillo
We examine disparities in early child cognitive and receptive-expressive skills by ethnic ancestry among infants aged 3-24 months from Brazil and Argentina. We employ unique data on the neurodevelopment of children who were seeking routine well-child care at a set of pediatric clinics in these countries. The sample included children who had normal birth outcomes and no major health complications, allowing us to focus on variation in neurodevelopment among children without major physical health limitations. The physicians attending the pediatric clinics were trained in administering the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener, a standardized instrument used to screen an infant's risk of neurodevelopmental problems on various domains of abilities...
January 6, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061376/visual-orienting-and-attention-deficits-in-5-and-10-month-old-preterm-infants
#9
Shannon Ross-Sheehy, Sammy Perone, Kelsi L Macek, Bret Eschman
Cognitive outcomes for children born prematurely are well characterized, including increased risk for deficits in memory, attention, processing speed, and executive function. However, little is known about deficits that appear within the first 12 months, and how these early deficits contribute to later outcomes. To probe for functional deficits in visual attention, preterm and full-term infants were tested at 5 and 10 months with the Infant Orienting With Attention task (IOWA; Ross-Sheehy, Schneegans and Spencer, 2015)...
January 3, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056378/maternal-gaze-to-the-infant-face-effects-of-infant-age-and-facial-configuration-during-mother-infant-engagement-in-the-first-nine-weeks
#10
Leonardo De Pascalis, Natalie Kkeli, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Louise Dalton, Kyla Vaillancourt, Holly Rayson, Sarah Bicknell, Tim Goodacre, Peter Cooper, Alan Stein, Lynne Murray
BACKGROUND: Adult gaze plays an important role in early infant development, and infants are highly sensitive to its presence and direction. Little is known, however, about how adults look at infants while interacting with them. Using eye-tracking technology, this study investigated maternal gaze during naturalistic interactions, and how it was influenced by infant age, focusing on the transition from the first to the second month when social expressiveness emerges, and by infant facial configuration, focusing on the effect of cleft lip...
January 2, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940087/does-contingency-in-adults-responding-influence-12-month-old-infants-social-referencing
#11
Gunilla Stenberg
In two experiments we examined the influence of contingent versus non-contingent responding on infant social referencing behavior. EXPERIMENT 1: Forty 12-month-old infants were exposed to an ambiguous toy in a social referencing situation. In one condition an unfamiliar adult who in a previous play situation had responded contingently to the infant's looks gave the infant positive information about the toy. In the other condition an unfamiliar adult who previously had not responded contingently delivered the positive information...
December 7, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914263/positive-effects-of-low-intensity-recorded-maternal-voice-on-physiologic-reactions-in-premature-infants
#12
Negar Sajjadian, Mahboobeh Mohammadzadeh, Peymaneh Alizadeh Taheri, Mamak Shariat
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of low intensity recorded maternal voice on the physiologic reactions of healthy premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: Physiologic responses of 20 healthy preterm infants in the NICU of Shariati Hospital, Tehran, were obtained during a 15min intervention including three 5min periods (no-sound control, audio recorded playback of mother's voice, no-sound post-voice). The intervention was presented three times a day for three consecutive days...
November 30, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898343/caregivers-and-strangers-the-influence-of-familiarity-on-gaze-following-and-learning
#13
Ryan A Barry-Anwar, Jessica L Burris, Katharine Graf Estes, Susan M Rivera
This study examines how social cues facilitate learning by manipulating the familiarity of a social cue. Participants were forty-nine infants between 12-18 months. Infants were taught a novel label for a novel object under two pre-recorded gaze conditions-one in which the caregiver was seen gazing at a novel object while a verbal label was played, and one in which a stranger was seen gazing at a novel object while a verbal label was played. Learning was only evident in the caregiver condition and only in the infants most skilled at following their caregivers' gaze...
November 26, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890304/awareness-of-goal-oriented-behavior-during-infancy-and-early-childhood-in-human-and-non-human-primates
#14
Heidi L Marsh, Maria Legerstee
We review the literature surrounding the phylogenetic and developmental emergence of goal-oriented behavior, among human and non-human primates. We define goal-oriented awareness as the ability to perceive goals and perceptions in others. We examine empirical literature involving gaze-following, shared attention, distinguishing between actions and intentions, and the ability to generate and understand communicative cues. We conclude that at least a rudimentary awareness of goal-oriented behavior is present from birth in humans, and in adult great apes...
November 24, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887738/mother-infant-interactions-in-captive-and-wild-chimpanzees
#15
Misato Hayashi, Tetsuro Matsuzawa
We review studies on mother-infant interactions in chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, in captive and wild environments. Infant cognitive development is formed through mother-infant interactions during the long dependent period, which is approximately 5 years. Patterns of interaction between mothers and infants are different from those observed in adult chimpanzees. Mother-infant interactions are relatively altruistic, although solicitation by infants is almost always required. Active teaching has rarely been reported in chimpanzees; instead, infants socially learn new skills through long-term observation...
November 22, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884395/adaptive-cultural-transmission-biases-in-children-and-nonhuman-primates
#16
Elizabeth E Price, Lara A Wood, Andrew Whiten
Comparative and evolutionary developmental analyses seek to discover the similarities and differences between humans and non-human species that might illuminate both the evolutionary foundations of our nature that we share with other animals, and the distinctive characteristics that make human development unique. As our closest animal relatives, with whom we last shared common ancestry, non-human primates have been particularly important in this endeavour. Such studies have focused on social learning, traditions, and culture, and have discovered much about the 'how' of social learning, concerned with key underlying processes such as imitation and emulation...
November 21, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870990/memory-by-association-integrating-memories-prolongs-retention-by-two-year-olds
#17
Harlene Hayne, Julien Gross
Recalling one memory often leads to the recollection of other memories that share overlapping features. This phenomenon, spreading activation, was originally documented in studies conducted with verbal adults, and more recently, it has been demonstrated with preverbal infants. Here, we examine the effect of spreading activation on long-term retention by 2-year-olds. Participants were tested in the Visual Recognition Memory (VRM) paradigm and the deferred imitation paradigm. Typically, infants of this age exhibit retention in the VRM paradigm for 24h, while they exhibit retention in the deferred imitation paradigm for at least 8 weeks...
November 18, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870989/maternal-postpartum-depressive-symptoms-predict-delay-in-non-verbal-communication-in-14-month-old-infants
#18
Emiko Kawai, Shu Takagai, Nori Takei, Hiroaki Itoh, Naohiro Kanayama, Kenji J Tsuchiya
We investigated the potential relationship between maternal depressive symptoms during the postpartum period and non-verbal communication skills of infants at 14 months of age in a birth cohort study of 951 infants and assessed what factors may influence this association. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and non-verbal communication skills were measured using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, which include Early Gestures and Later Gestures domains...
November 18, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870988/sensitivity-and-attachment-interventions-in-early-childhood-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Gary Mountain, Jane Cahill, Helen Thorpe
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) was conducted to determine whether early interventions are effective in improving attachment security and parental sensitivity. Electronic databases were searched 2002-2015 onwards, All RCTs delivered to mothers, fathers or carers, before their child's mean age was 36 months, via 1:1 support, group work or guided self-help were included. The search was restricted to English Language publications. Study Selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were independently undertaken by two authors...
November 18, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866043/sensory-processing-disorders-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#20
Sílvia Leticia Pavão, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sensory processing in children with CP using the Sensory Profile questionnaire and to compare results with the ones of children with typical development (TD). METHODS: We assessed sensory processing of 59 TD children and 43 CP children using the Sensory Profile, a standardized parent reporting measure that records children's responses to sensory events in daily life. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the results of sensory processing evaluation among the groups...
November 17, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
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