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Infant Behavior & Development

Sophie von Stumm, Rachel M Latham
Previous research has focused on differences in early life experiences that occur between families and their impact on children's development. However, less is known about the variations in early life experiences that occur within families. Here, 53 British mothers (mean age = 34.46 years; SD = 4.35) of newborn infants (mean age = 1.68 months, SD = 0.96) used a smartphone application (app) to repeatedly rate their wellbeing and support and to report their baby's and their own dietary and sleeping patterns (4 app alerts per week for 3 weeks; 12 assessments in total)...
September 10, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Patrick Ip, Tim M H Li, Ko Ling Chan, Annie Yan Yan Ting, Chui Yi Chan, Yee Woen Koh, Frederick Ka Wing Ho, Antoinette Lee
Although fathers actively provide infant care and support to their partners in modern societies, data on fathers' difficulties and mental health problems is still limited. This study examined paternal postpartum depression and its adverse impact on infants, and the possible mediating role of father-infant attachment in the link between fathers' depressive symptoms and infants' outcomes. Pregnant women and their partners were recruited from the antenatal clinics of two public hospitals in Hong Kong. Information about paternal and maternal depression, paternal-infant attachment, and infant development were collected at antenatal period, 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum...
September 10, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Mayra L Almanza-Sepúlveda, Aya Dudin, Kathleen E Wonch, Meir Steiner, David R Feinberg, Alison S Fleming, Geoffrey B Hall
Ethologists have observed that "baby schema" or infant cuteness is an adaptive protective mechanism ensuring the young's survival. Past efforts to quantify cuteness have been restricted to line measurement techniques. We developed a novel data-driven approach to quantify infant cuteness into a single metric. Using the Psychomorph program, we delineated facial elements of 72 infant pictures using 206 facial points and identified the facial components that were significantly related to subjective cuteness perceptions of the faces...
August 20, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Evin Aktar, Dorothy J Mandell, Wieke de Vente, Mirjana Majdandžić, Frans J Oort, Daan R van Renswoude, Maartje E J Raijmakers, Susan M Bögels
Previous evidence revealed links between maternal negative emotions and infants' attention to facial expressions of emotion in clinical and community samples. This study investigated the associations between infants' attention to emotional faces and infants' and parents' negative emotions in a community sample. Infants' (N = 57, Mage = 14.26 months) fixations and pupil responses to fearful, sad, angry versus happy and neutral faces were measured with an eye-tracker. Mothers' and fathers' negative emotions (negative affect, depression, and anxiety), and infants' negative temperament were measured with questionnaires...
August 20, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Stephanie Braun, Michael Kavšek
Previous studies observed that responsiveness to horizontal disparity as such emerges at approximately 2 months of age. Moreover, 3- to 4-month-old infants utilize stereoscopic information to perceive object variations in depth. The present study investigated infants' ability to respond to crossed horizontal disparity information that defines two-dimensional shape. Infants 4 and 5 months of age were habituated to either a cross or the outline of a square. During the posthabituation period, they were presented with both shapes...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Laura E Hahn, Titia Benders, Tineke M Snijders, Paula Fikkert
Children's songs often contain rhyming words at phrase endings. In this study, we investigated whether infants can already recognize this phonological pattern in songs. Earlier studies using lists of spoken words were equivocal on infants' spontaneous processing of rhymes (Hayes et al., 2000; Jusczyk et al., 1999). Songs, however, constitute an ecologically valid rhyming stimulus, which could allow for spontaneous processing of this phonological pattern in infants. Novel children's songs with rhyming and non-rhyming lyrics using pseudo-words were presented to 35 9-month-old Dutch infants using the Headturn Preference Procedure...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Katharina Dorn, Sabine Weinert, Terje Falck-Ytter
Investigating infants' ability to match visual and auditory speech segments presented sequentially allows us to understand more about the type of information they encode in each domain, as well as their ability to relate the information. One previous study found that 4.5- month-old infants' preference for visual French or German speech depended on whether they had previously heard the respective language, suggesting a remarkable ability to encode and relate audio-visual speech cues and to use these to guide their looking behavior...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Vivian Lee, M D Rutherford
Observational learning is important to development, but not all adult models are equally informative and accurate. Selectivity is important in observational learning. Past research studies have not always differentiated competence and confidence, so the current study investigated infants' selective imitation after observing third-party interactions, when confidence and competence were varied independently. Forty-eight 16-month-olds watched a model demonstrate the function of tools while displaying high or low levels of confidence and competence...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Marijn van Dijk, Brenda van Voorthuizen, Ralf F A Cox
In the weaning period, infants are introduced to solid food after being fed solely on milk, which involves a deliberate reorganization of the infant-caregiver feeding interaction. This multiple case study, involving 5 dyads with 10 repeated observations, analyzed its dynamical structure using Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis. The results showed that an optimal interaction occurs when the caregiver is leading by roughly 1-2 seconds. During the weaning period, all dyads showed signs of increased synchronization, although there are interesting differences between dyads...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Dorthe Bleses, Peter Jensen, Anders Højen, Philip S Dale
An increasing number of infants and toddlers in many countries are enrolled in early childhood education (ECE) programs, and educators thus play a central role in stimulating language development in these young children. A valid, brief educator-completed measure of language development in young children has important uses both for the identification and monitoring of language development and for the guidance and evaluation of intentional instruction and targeted interventions for children who need it. We present such a measure here for Danish, the CDI: Educator (CDI-Edu) version, which is based on well-developed and validated parent report measures, adapted for the early childhood education setting...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Simone Sulpizio, Hirokazu Doi, Marc H Bornstein, Joy Cui, Gianluca Esposito, Kazuyuki Shinohara
We hypothesized an association between auditory stimulus structure and activity in the brain that underlies infant auditory preference. In a within-infant design, we assessed brain activity to female and male infant directed relative to adult directed speech in 4-month-old infants using fNIRS. Results are compatible with the hypothesis that enhanced frontal brain activation, specifically in prefrontal cortex that is involved in emotion and reward, is evoked selectively by infant directed speech produced by female voices and may serve as a neuronal substrate for attention to and preference for "motherese" displayed by infants...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Matte-Gagné Célia, Dale M Stack, Lisa A Serbin
In this four-wave longitudinal study, we examined intraindividual developmental patterns of change in mother-child emotional availability (EA) during infancy and the preschool years, the factors that promote or hinder it, and the longitudinal within-dyad association between maternal and child EA. Mother-infant dyads (N = 56) were observed at home when children were 6,12, 18 and 55-months-old. Multilevel growth modeling revealed that mother and child EA follow distinct trajectories across time. While maternal EA was found to be stable, a significant increase in child EA was found across the infancy years and into preschool...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Edna Orr
This study prospectively explored the role of declarative and imperative gestures in the development of language and symbolic play milestones using a multi-measure micro-analytic approach. Nine infants were observed in their natural home environments once a month for a one hour session between the ages of 8-16 months by recording their spontaneous pre-lingual and lingual form usages and symbolic play acts. This framework enabled the coding of object- and human-directed vocalization, babbling, speech, declarative and imperative gestures, and four types of symbolic play acts: single-object play, single-object sequences, multi-object play, and multi-object sequences...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Maya Yaari, Natalie Lisette Rotzak, David Mankuta, Ayelet Harel-Gadassi, Edwa Friedlander, Smadar Eventov-Friedman, Benjamin Bar-Oz, David Zucker, Oren Shinar, Nurit Yirmiya
Very-preterm (VPT), moderately-preterm (MPT), and full-term (FT) infants' emotion-regulation behaviors were assessed via the Still-Face procedure at a corrected age of four months. As a developmental task during the first year of life, emotion regulation is important for social and cognitive development. Although substantial evidence indicates that VPT infants exhibit emotion-regulation difficulties, little is known about MPT infants' emotion regulation capabilities, this group also possibly being at risk. The participants included 135 parent-infant dyads: 46 VPT (gestational age 24-32 weeks), 51 MPT (gestational age 32-34 weeks), and 38 FT (gestational age 37-41 weeks)...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Fleur Lejeune, Cristina Borradori Tolsa, Edouard Gentaz, Koviljka Barisnikov
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have established that newborns can memorize tactile information about the specific features of an object with their hands and detect differences with another object. However, the robustness of haptic memory abilities has already been examined in preterm newborns and in full-term infants, but not yet in full-term newborns. This research is aimed to better understand the robustness of haptic memory abilities at birth by examining the effects of a change in the objects' temperature and haptic interference...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Mohammad Rashbari Dibavar
Two-system theory as the dominant approach in the field of infant numerical representation is characterized by three features: precise representation of small sets of objects, approximate representation of large magnitudes and failure to compare small and large sets. Comparison of single- and multimodal numerical abilities suggests that infants' performance in multimodal conditions is consistent with these three features. Nevertheless, the influence of multimodal stimulation on infants' numerical representation is characterized by preventing the formation of perceptual overlaps across different sensory modalities which can lead to an understanding of numerical values of small sets and also by creating a conceptual overlap about numbers that increases infants' accuracy for discriminating quantities when numerical information is presented bimodally and synchronously...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Amrisha Vaish, Robert Hepach, Tobias Grossmann
'Much research has investigated children's understanding of others' mental states in terms of beliefs, but far less is known about their understanding of others' desires. To fill this gap, we used an eye-tracking paradigm to test 2-year-old children's desire understanding by measuring their anticipatory looking behavior as well as changes in their internal arousal (i.e., changes in pupil dilation). Children showed increased pupil dilation when an adult reached for an object she had previously emoted negatively towards (the object incongruent with her desire)...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Shuma Tsurumi, So Kanazawa, Masami K Yamaguchi
We examined whether infants aged 6-8 months show object-based attention using the preferential looking method. In object-based attention, which is a prerequisite function for efficient real-world processing of various stimuli, a target that appears at a cued object is detected and processed faster than a target appearing at an uncued object. We presented 6- to 8-month-old infants with the visual stimuli consisting of two white vertical rectangles side by side, in which a target appearing at 1) the cued location, 2) the end opposite to the cued location, and 3) another rectangle's end following the cue, using an established paradigm, and measured each infant's first saccade to the target...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Ying Wang, Annette M E Henderson
Research has demonstrated that an understanding of and engagement in cooperative activities emerges early in life. However, little is known about the expectations infants hold about the consequences of cooperative action. We demonstrate that 14-month-old infants expect that cooperative partners will share the recently attained cooperative goal instead of keeping it for themselves. Interestingly, this prediction does not hold if infants saw the two individuals work towards individual goals. These findings contribute to the growing body of literature suggesting that infants possess at least a basic understanding of cooperation well before their second birthday...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Pablo Vasquez, Hector Alfonso Romero Diaz, Maria Juanita Gomez Gomez, Lida Leal, Lorena Margarita Yejas Navarro
INTRODUCTION: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is common in premature babies. It is difficult to predict the risk of developing this disease and its definition is not well characterized in high altitude cities. OBJECTIVE: To determine the operating characteristics of a BPD predictive scale for in preterm infants based on a classical BPD definition and one adjusted for altitude. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Observational, analytical, longitudinal study with infants gestational age ≤32 weeks admitted at two University Hospital's in the city of Bogotá, Colombia between June 2010 and December 2016...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
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