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Infant Behavior & Development

Lisbeth Valla, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Lars Smith, Marianne Skogbrott Birkeland, Kari Slinning
Postnatal depression (PND) is associated with adverse effects on a broad range of child outcomes, including language problems. The current study aimed to investigate if the time of exposure to maternal PND symptoms measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 6 weeks, 4 months and 6 months postpartum were related to the infants' communication skills measured with the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) at 12 and 24 months. Secondly, to study to what extent the number of exposures to high level of PND symptoms (i...
October 12, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Rosario Montirosso, Livio Provenzi, Daniela Tavian, Sara Missaglia, Maria Elisabetta Raggi, Renato Borgatti
Individual variability exists in infants' socio-emotional stress regulation, in terms of behavioral response (i.e., negative emotionality) as well as magnitude and direction (i.e., increase or decrease) of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity (i.e., salivary cortisol post-stress concentration). The catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism at codon 158 (COMTval158met) associates with stress regulation, but no evidence exists for infants. This study aimed to assess the association between COMTval158met and both negative emotionality and salivary cortisol reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 4-month-old infants...
October 12, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Joan Christodoulou, Scott P Johnson, Dawn M Moore, David S Moore
Mental rotation (MR) involves the ability to predict how an object will look once it has been rotated into a new orientation in space. To date, studies of MR in infants have tested this ability using abstract stimuli presented using a single display. Evidence from existing studies suggests that using multiple displays may affect an infant's performance in some kinds of MR tasks. This study used Moore & Johnson's (2008) simplified Shepard-Metzler objects in a dual-monitor MR task presented to five-month-old infants...
October 12, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Maria A Gartstein, Wolayte Bogale, Courtney L Meehan
Cross-cultural differences in temperament were evaluated for Ethiopian (N=109) and U.S. (N=109) samples of infants. We anticipated that the Sidama version of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R; Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003) developed for use in Ethiopia would demonstrate satisfactory psychometric properties, and hypothesized significant cross-cultural differences in levels of fine-grained temperament characteristics. Interactions between culture, infant age, and sex were also considered. Internal consistency was satisfactory for 13 of the 14 IBQ-R scales (with a somewhat low estimate observed for Duration of Orienting), and an examination of the structure indicated patterns similar to those observed in the US, and elsewhere...
October 6, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Rebecca P Newland, Stephanie H Parade, Susan Dickstein, Ronald Seifer
The current study prospectively explored infant behaviors as a moderator of the association between maternal depression and parenting sensitivity in a sample of 167 families. Maternal depression was only associated with later sensitivity for infants who displayed more negativity during mother-infant interactions.
October 3, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Raquel Saccani, Nadia Cristina Valentini, Keila R G Pereira
INTRODUCTION: The lack of Brazilian norms restrains the use of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) to precisely categorize infant motor development and discriminate infants with motor difficulties from typically developing infants. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated reference values for the AIMS for Brazilian infants. METHODS: Descriptive, cross-sectional study of infants from birth-to-18 months old. Trained professionals assessed infants in daycares, homes, and governmental health centers...
September 13, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Tiffany Field, Gladys Gonzalez, Miguel Diego, Jodi Mindell
Sleep is frequently interrupted in newborns and their mothers. Massage therapy is noted to facilitate sleep in adults and infants. Infant massage has also been more effective with oil versus no oil. In this study 76 mothers of newborns were randomly assigned to a massage with lotion versus a massage without lotion group and a non-massage control group. The mothers were then taught a simple newborn massage and were asked to massage their newborns daily for 15min at bedtime for one month. The Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire was adapted for newborns and for mothers, and the mothers completed the questionnaires on their newborns' and their own sleep behaviors (the same behaviors for both mothers and newborns)...
September 3, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Alexis R Lauricella, Rachel Barr, Sandra L Calvert
Toddlers learn about their social world by following visual and verbal cues from adults, but they have difficulty transferring what they see in one context to another (e.g., from a screen to real life). Therefore, it is important to understand how the use of matched pedagogical cues, specifically adult eye gaze and language, influence toddlers' imitation from live and digital presentations. Fifteen- and 18-month-old toddlers (N=123) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions or a baseline control condition...
September 1, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Joseph G Grzywacz, Esther M Leerkes, Beth A Reboussin, Cynthia K Suerken, Chris C Payne, Stephanie S Daniel
Guided by a bioecological model, this study examines variability in infant mental health by maternal work schedule in the context of poverty. More time in irregular work schedules, but not fixed night/evening schedules, predicts maternal depression and subsequent behavior problems in infants.
August 30, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Gemma Taylor, Hao Liu, Jane S Herbert
The provision of verbal labels enhances 12-month-old infants' memory flexibility across a form change in a puppet imitation task (Herbert, 2011), although the mechanisms for this effect remain unclear. Here we investigate whether verbal labels can scaffold flexible memory retrieval when task difficulty increases and consider the mechanism responsible for the effect of language cues on early memory flexibility. Twelve-month-old infants were provided with English, Chinese, or empty language cues during a difficult imitation task, a combined change in the puppet's colour and form at the test (Hayne et al...
August 23, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Shannon Shisler, Rina D Eiden, Danielle S Molnar, Pamela Schuetze, Claire D Coles, Marilyn Huestis, Craig R Colder
This study examined the association between fetal tobacco exposure (FTE) and focused attention at 9 months of child age, and the role of child sex and infant behavioral reactivity as potential moderators of this association. Data were obtained from 203 mothers and their infants (105 fetally exposed and 98 non-exposed) on infant focused attention and behavioral reactivity to a frustration task. FTE was ascertained via nicotine metabolites in infant meconium, reflecting primarily third trimester fetal exposure...
August 17, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
H J A Smaling, S C J Huijbregts, K B van der Heijden, S H M van Goozen, H Swaab
Maternal reflective functioning (RF) has been associated with children's behavioral development. This study examined maternal prenatal and postnatal RF, as measured by the Pregnancy Interview and Parent Development Interview, as multidimensional constructs. It was also examined whether the RF-dimensions were associated with children's temperament and externalizing behavior, as assessed by several questionnaires. The sample consisted of 123 first-time mothers (M age=22.85years, SD=2.21) and their children (M age=19...
August 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Dean D'Souza, Hana D'Souza, Mark H Johnson, Annette Karmiloff-Smith
Typically-developing (TD) infants can construct unified cross-modal percepts, such as a speaking face, by integrating auditory-visual (AV) information. This skill is a key building block upon which higher-level skills, such as word learning, are built. Because word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we assessed the hypothesis that this delay partly results from a deficit in integrating AV speech cues. AV speech integration has rarely been investigated in neurodevelopmental disorders, and never previously in infants...
August 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
J Gavin Bremner, Alan M Slater, Uschi C Mason, Jo Spring, Scott P Johnson
Four-month-old infants perceive continuity of an object's trajectory through occlusion, even when the occluder is illusory, and several cues are apparently needed for young infants to perceive a veridical occlusion event. In this paper we investigated the effects of dislocating the spatial relation between the occlusion events and the visible edges of the occluder. In two experiments testing 60 participants, we demonstrated that 4-month-olds do not perceive continuity of an object's trajectory across an occlusion if the deletion and accretion events are spatially displaced relative to the occluder edges (Experiment 1) or if deletion and accretion occur along a linear boundary that is incorrectly oriented relative to the occluder's edges (Experiment 2)...
August 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Saori Miyagishima, Tadayoshi Asaka, Kaori Kamatsuka, Naoki Kozuka, Masaki Kobayashi, Risa Igarashi, Tsukasa Hori, Yuko Yoto, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi
AIMS: We investigated whether spontaneous antigravity limbs movements in very low birth weight preterm infants were insufficient compared to those in term infants. The relationship between the quality of general movements (GMs) and antigravity limbs movements was also examined. METHODS: Preterm infants with very low birth weight without central nervous system disorders nor severe respiration disorders, and healthy term infants were recruited. The infants were set in a supine position...
August 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Michael Kavšek, Stephanie K Braun
This research explored the onset of stereopsis, the ability to perceive depth from the different views provided by the two eyes. In a longitudinal study, infants were tested weekly from 6 to 20 weeks of age. The primary goal of the study was to establish the onset and the early development of sensitivity to uncrossed horizontal disparity. The infant participants were shown dynamic random dot stereograms displaying two squares, one with uncrossed horizontal disparity (0.5°) and one with vertical disparity (0...
August 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Chamarrita Farkas, Claire Vallotton
Temperament refers to individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation and is influenced by genetic and experiential variation and maturation. Temperament reflects biologically based individual differences that emerge in early life and remain relatively stable thereafter. Given the growing interest in cultural variation in infant temperament, this study examined the temperament of 12-month-old children in Chile and the US. The aims were to validate a version of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire - Revised - Very Short Form in Spanish for Chile and to compare Chilean and US infants' temperament...
August 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Chiara Ionio, Elisa Riboni, Emanuela Confalonieri, Chiara Dallatomasina, Eleonora Mascheroni, Andrea Bonanomi, Maria Grazia Natali Sora, Monica Falautano, Antonella Poloniato, Graziano Barera, Giancarlo Comi
OBJECTIVE: Despite the presence of many studies on difficulties related to premature birth, findings on developmental outcomes are heterogeneous. This could be explained from a biological and environmental point of view, but also from a methodological one. The aims of this study were as follows: assess cognitive and linguistic performance using the BSID-III in a population of healthy preterm infants at 24 and 36 months (corrected age); analyze whether the correction for prematurity should be applied, decide when to stop using corrected age and evaluate possible improvements between 24 and 36 months...
August 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Hélène Cochet, Richard W Byrne
We aimed to investigate developmental continuities between a range of early social and communicative abilities (including gestural communication) and language acquisition in children aged between 11 and 41 months. Initiation of joint attention and imitation were strongly correlated to language comprehension and production. Moreover, the analysis of different communicative gestures revealed significant relationships between language development and the production of symbolic gestures, declarative pointing (declarative informative pointing in particular), and head nodding...
August 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Rebecca P Newland, Stephanie H Parade, Susan Dickstein, Ronald Seifer
The current study prospectively examined the ways in which goodness of fit between maternal and infant sleep contributes to maternal depressive symptoms and the mother-child relationship across the first years of life. In a sample of 173 mother-child dyads, maternal prenatal sleep, infant sleep, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-child attachment security were assessed via self-report, actigraphy, and observational measures. Results suggested that a poor fit between mothers' prenatal sleep and infants' sleep at 8 months (measured by sleep diary and actigraphy) was associated with maternal depressive symptoms at 15 months...
August 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
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