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Infant Behavior & Development

Jennifer LaBounty, Margaret Oliver, Kaitlyn True, Hannah Cooper, Sheena Friesen, Gabrielle Castro
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between temperament style and understanding of goal-directed action in 10-11-month-old infants. Infant social understanding was assessed using a looking-time measure similar to Woodward (1998). This method yielded two measures of infant social understanding; 'decrement of attention' (a measure of infant attention during habituation) and 'novelty preference' (an index of infants' understanding of goal-directed behavior). Temperament style was provided by online parent report (IBQ; Rothbart, 1981)...
October 31, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Janet L Hauck, Gabriela R Zott, Isabella T Felzer-Kim, Chelsea M Adkins
This study examined low-intensity physical activity (PA), sleep behavior (24-hour accelerometry), and growth in 22 6-month old infants. Relationships were assessed using bivariate correlations. Infants accumulating less 'total' sleep spent more time in low-intensity PA (r = -.524, p = .012). Those with less 'nighttime' sleep had greater nap frequency (r = -.460, p = .031), nap duration (r =  -.529, p = .011) and weight-for-length z-scores (r = -.481, p = .024), but still accumulated less total sleep (r = ...
October 30, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Penina M Backer, Kelsey M Quigley, Cynthia A Stifter
Mother-infant dyadic emotion regulation - the joint modulation of affective rhythms as interactive partners dynamically respond to each other across time - has been shown to promote social-emotional wellbeing both during and beyond infancy. Although contributions of dyadic regulation to self-regulatory development may particularly apparent during infant distress, studies have traditionally examined dyadic regulation in low-stress contexts. The present study addresses this gap by identifying distinct patterns of mother-infant dyadic emotion regulation following a highly distressing immunization procedure and then examining how these groups differed in mother and infant personality and temperament characteristics...
October 19, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Sarah C Kucker, Larissa K Samuelson, Lynn K Perry, Hanako Yoshida, Eliana Colunga, Megan G Lorenz, Linda B Smith
The goal of science is to advance our understanding of particular phenomena. However, in the field of development, the phenomena of interest are complex, multifaceted, and change over time. Here, we use three decades of research on the shape bias to argue that while replication is clearly an important part of the scientific process, integration across the findings of many studies that include variations in procedure is also critical to create a coherent understanding of the thoughts and behaviors of young children...
October 19, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Jennifer L Miller, Ellen Hurdish, Julie Gros-Louis
We exposed infants to different types of sensitive behavior to examine effects on infants' attention. Results revealed infants changed their patterns of visual attention; infants had longer durations of sustained attention to toys, shorter durations to the social partner, and fewer attention shifts when interacting with a nonvocal social partner than when interacting with a vocal social partner.
October 16, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Helena J V Rutherford, Michael J Crowley, Lucy Gao, Brianna Francis, Alysse Schultheis, Linda C Mayes
Pregnancy is shaped by unfolding psychological and biological changes in preparation for parenthood. A growing literature has examined the postpartum maternal brain. However, few studies examine the maternal brain during pregnancy, and whether brain function in pregnancy may have implications for postpartum caregiving. Using event-related potentials, we examined the late positive potential (LPP) elicited by infant distress and neutral faces in 35 women during their third trimester of pregnancy. Then, at 3 months postpartum, mothers completed a measure of parental reflective functioning to capture how they regarded their capacity to consider their child's thoughts and feelings...
October 9, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Christina C Schonberg, Natsuki Atagi, Catherine M Sandhofer
Although many executive function (EF) tasks require only nonverbal responses, the language used by experimenters to explain the task may be important for young children's EF task performance. This study investigated how the vocabulary used in explaining an EF task affects 2-year-olds' performance. Experiment 1 used the standard instructions for the Reverse Categorization Task, in which children are asked to sort different-sized blocks into different-sized buckets according to one rule and then switch to a new rule...
September 26, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Christina Schonberg, Gary F Marcus, Scott P Johnson
We asked whether 11- and 14- month-old infants' abstract rule learning, an early form of analogical reasoning, is susceptible to processing constraints imposed by limits in attention and memory for sequence position. We examined 11- and 14- month-old infants' learning and generalization of abstract repetition rules ("repetition anywhere," Experiment 1 or "medial repetition," Experiment 2) and ordering of specific items (edge positions, Experiment 3) in 4-item sequences. Infants were habituated to sequences containing repetition- and/or position-based structure and then tested with "familiar" vs...
September 24, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Maurits Adam, Birgit Elsner
Action effects have been stated to be important for infants' processing of goal-directed actions. In this study, 11-month-olds showed equally fast predictive gaze shifts to a claw's action goal when the grasping action was presented either with three agency cues (self-propelled movement, equifinality of goal achievement and a salient action effect) or with only a salient action effect, but infants showed tracking gaze when the claw showed only self-propelled movement and equifinality of goal achievement. The results suggest that action effects, compared to purely kinematic cues, seem to be especially important for infants' online processing of goal-directed actions...
September 24, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Sophie von Stumm, Rachel M Latham
Previous research has focused on differences in early life experiences that occur between families and their impact on children's development. However, less is known about the variations in early life experiences that occur within families. Here, 53 British mothers (mean age = 34.46 years; SD = 4.35) of newborn infants (mean age = 1.68 months, SD = 0.96) used a smartphone application (app) to repeatedly rate their wellbeing and support and to report their baby's and their own dietary and sleeping patterns (4 app alerts per week for 3 weeks; 12 assessments in total)...
September 10, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Patrick Ip, Tim M H Li, Ko Ling Chan, Annie Yan Yan Ting, Chui Yi Chan, Yee Woen Koh, Frederick Ka Wing Ho, Antoinette Lee
Although fathers actively provide infant care and support to their partners in modern societies, data on fathers' difficulties and mental health problems is still limited. This study examined paternal postpartum depression and its adverse impact on infants, and the possible mediating role of father-infant attachment in the link between fathers' depressive symptoms and infants' outcomes. Pregnant women and their partners were recruited from the antenatal clinics of two public hospitals in Hong Kong. Information about paternal and maternal depression, paternal-infant attachment, and infant development were collected at antenatal period, 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum...
September 10, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Mayra L Almanza-Sepúlveda, Aya Dudin, Kathleen E Wonch, Meir Steiner, David R Feinberg, Alison S Fleming, Geoffrey B Hall
Ethologists have observed that "baby schema" or infant cuteness is an adaptive protective mechanism ensuring the young's survival. Past efforts to quantify cuteness have been restricted to line measurement techniques. We developed a novel data-driven approach to quantify infant cuteness into a single metric. Using the Psychomorph program, we delineated facial elements of 72 infant pictures using 206 facial points and identified the facial components that were significantly related to subjective cuteness perceptions of the faces...
August 20, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Evin Aktar, Dorothy J Mandell, Wieke de Vente, Mirjana Majdandžić, Frans J Oort, Daan R van Renswoude, Maartje E J Raijmakers, Susan M Bögels
Previous evidence revealed links between maternal negative emotions and infants' attention to facial expressions of emotion in clinical and community samples. This study investigated the associations between infants' attention to emotional faces and infants' and parents' negative emotions in a community sample. Infants' (N = 57, Mage = 14.26 months) fixations and pupil responses to fearful, sad, angry versus happy and neutral faces were measured with an eye-tracker. Mothers' and fathers' negative emotions (negative affect, depression, and anxiety), and infants' negative temperament were measured with questionnaires...
August 20, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Stephanie Braun, Michael Kavšek
Previous studies observed that responsiveness to horizontal disparity as such emerges at approximately 2 months of age. Moreover, 3- to 4-month-old infants utilize stereoscopic information to perceive object variations in depth. The present study investigated infants' ability to respond to crossed horizontal disparity information that defines two-dimensional shape. Infants 4 and 5 months of age were habituated to either a cross or the outline of a square. During the posthabituation period, they were presented with both shapes...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Laura E Hahn, Titia Benders, Tineke M Snijders, Paula Fikkert
Children's songs often contain rhyming words at phrase endings. In this study, we investigated whether infants can already recognize this phonological pattern in songs. Earlier studies using lists of spoken words were equivocal on infants' spontaneous processing of rhymes (Hayes et al., 2000; Jusczyk et al., 1999). Songs, however, constitute an ecologically valid rhyming stimulus, which could allow for spontaneous processing of this phonological pattern in infants. Novel children's songs with rhyming and non-rhyming lyrics using pseudo-words were presented to 35 9-month-old Dutch infants using the Headturn Preference Procedure...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Katharina Dorn, Sabine Weinert, Terje Falck-Ytter
Investigating infants' ability to match visual and auditory speech segments presented sequentially allows us to understand more about the type of information they encode in each domain, as well as their ability to relate the information. One previous study found that 4.5- month-old infants' preference for visual French or German speech depended on whether they had previously heard the respective language, suggesting a remarkable ability to encode and relate audio-visual speech cues and to use these to guide their looking behavior...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Vivian Lee, M D Rutherford
Observational learning is important to development, but not all adult models are equally informative and accurate. Selectivity is important in observational learning. Past research studies have not always differentiated competence and confidence, so the current study investigated infants' selective imitation after observing third-party interactions, when confidence and competence were varied independently. Forty-eight 16-month-olds watched a model demonstrate the function of tools while displaying high or low levels of confidence and competence...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Marijn van Dijk, Brenda van Voorthuizen, Ralf F A Cox
In the weaning period, infants are introduced to solid food after being fed solely on milk, which involves a deliberate reorganization of the infant-caregiver feeding interaction. This multiple case study, involving 5 dyads with 10 repeated observations, analyzed its dynamical structure using Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis. The results showed that an optimal interaction occurs when the caregiver is leading by roughly 1-2 seconds. During the weaning period, all dyads showed signs of increased synchronization, although there are interesting differences between dyads...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Dorthe Bleses, Peter Jensen, Anders Højen, Philip S Dale
An increasing number of infants and toddlers in many countries are enrolled in early childhood education (ECE) programs, and educators thus play a central role in stimulating language development in these young children. A valid, brief educator-completed measure of language development in young children has important uses both for the identification and monitoring of language development and for the guidance and evaluation of intentional instruction and targeted interventions for children who need it. We present such a measure here for Danish, the CDI: Educator (CDI-Edu) version, which is based on well-developed and validated parent report measures, adapted for the early childhood education setting...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Simone Sulpizio, Hirokazu Doi, Marc H Bornstein, Joy Cui, Gianluca Esposito, Kazuyuki Shinohara
We hypothesized an association between auditory stimulus structure and activity in the brain that underlies infant auditory preference. In a within-infant design, we assessed brain activity to female and male infant directed relative to adult directed speech in 4-month-old infants using fNIRS. Results are compatible with the hypothesis that enhanced frontal brain activation, specifically in prefrontal cortex that is involved in emotion and reward, is evoked selectively by infant directed speech produced by female voices and may serve as a neuronal substrate for attention to and preference for "motherese" displayed by infants...
August 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
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