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Infant Behavior & Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414970/understanding-deceptive-intentions-behind-pointing-gestures-in-12-15-month-old-infants
#1
Diána Á Varró-Horváth, Krisztina Dorn, Beatrix Lábadi
We examined the comprehension of deceptive intentions revealed in searching task in infancy, on the theoretical basis of natural pedagogy and epistemic trust. The main findings showed that 12-15-month-old infants are able to discriminate the reliable and the deceptive actions of adults, but they do not generalize their previous experience in connection with a novel person, who is treated as a new reliable source of information.
April 14, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411446/a-study-of-reaching-actions-in-walking-infants
#2
Jill A Dosso, Sandra V Herrera, J Paul Boudreau
Acquiring motor skills transforms the perceptual and cognitive world of infants and expands their exploratory engagement with objects. This study investigated how reaching is integrated with walking among infant walkers (n=23, 14.5-15.5 months). In a walk-to-reach paradigm, diverse object retrieval strategies were observed. All infants were willing to use their upper and lower bodies in concert, and the timing of this coordination reflected features of their environment. Infants with an older walking age (months since walking onset) retrieved items more rapidly and exploited their non-reaching hand more effectively during object retrieval than did same-age infants with a younger walking age...
April 12, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391125/infants-and-adults-looking-behavior-does-not-indicate-perceptual-distraction-for-constrained-modelled-actions-an-eye-tracking-study
#3
David Buttelmann, Andy Schieler, Nicole Wetzel, Andreas Widmann
When observing a novel action, infants pay attention to the model's constraints when deciding whether to imitate this action or not. Gergely et al. (2002) found that more 14-month-olds copied a model's use of her head to operate a lamp when she used her head while her hands were free than when she had to use this means because it was the only means available to her (i.e., her hands were occupied). The perceptional distraction account (Beisert et al., 2012) claims that differences between conditions in terms of the amount of attention infants paid to the modeled action caused the differences in infants' performance between conditions...
April 6, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391126/chronic-stress-in-the-mother-infant-dyad-maternal-hair-cortisol-infant-salivary-cortisol-and-interactional-synchrony
#4
Amanda R Tarullo, Ashley Moore St John, Jerrold S Meyer
Stress physiology is shaped by early experience, with enduring effects on health. The relation of chronic maternal physiological stress, as indexed by hair cortisol, to infants' stress systems and to mother-infant interaction quality has not been established. We examined maternal hair and salivary cortisol, six-month-old infants' salivary cortisol, and mother-infant interaction in 121 mother-infant dyads. High maternal hair cortisol was related to higher infant average salivary cortisol concentration. Maternal hair cortisol and bedtime salivary cortisol were both uniquely related to infant bedtime salivary cortisol...
April 5, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371722/fetal-behavioral-responses-to-the-touch-of-the-mother-s-abdomen-a-frame-by-frame-analysis
#5
Viola Marx, Emese Nagy
The aim of the present study was to examine whether fetuses respond to the touching of the mother's abdomen, and if they do, whether they differentiate based on familiarity and the source of the touch, utilizing 3D real-time (4D) sonography. Behavioral responses of 28 fetuses (20th to 33rd week of gestation; N=15 in the 2nd and N=13 in the 3rd trimester) were frame-by-frame coded using a coding system comprising 20 codes and were analyzed in four conditions, during the touch of the (1) mother, (2) the father, (3) the stranger and in a (4) no-touch, control condition...
March 31, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347908/decreased-attention-to-object-size-information-in-scale-errors-performers
#6
Beata J Grzyb, Angelo Cangelosi, Allegra Cattani, Caroline Floccia
Young children sometimes make serious attempts to perform impossible actions on miniature objects as if they were full-size objects. The existing explanations of these curious action errors assume (but never explicitly tested) children's decreased attention to object size information. This study investigated the attention to object size information in scale errors performers. Two groups of children aged 18-25 months (N=52) and 48-60 months (N=23) were tested in two consecutive tasks: an action task that replicated the original scale errors elicitation situation, and a looking task that involved watching on a computer screen actions performed with adequate to inadequate size object...
March 24, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347907/through-babies-eyes-practical-and-theoretical-considerations-of-using-wearable-technology-to-measure-parent-infant-behaviour-from-the-mothers-and-infants-view-points
#7
R Lee, A Skinner, M H Bornstein, A N Radford, A Campbell, K Graham, R M Pearson
AIMS: To explore the utility of first-person viewpoint cameras at home, for recording mother and infant behaviour, and for reducing problems associated with participant reactivity, which represent a fundamental bias in observational research. METHODS: We compared footage recording the same play interactions from a traditional third-person point of view (3rd PC) and using cameras worn on headbands (first-person cameras [1st PCs]) to record first-person points of view of mother and infant simultaneously...
March 24, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343117/power-assertion-in-everyday-mother-infant-interactions
#8
Audun Dahl, Sherina S I Chan
Mothers' power assertion was assessed following everyday infant transgressions. Power assertiveness showed limited stability, increased with age, and was higher when infants were harming others and when the physical danger was more severe. Naturalistic research is key to understanding how power assertion influences social development.
March 23, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340383/infant-helping-in-the-first-year-of-life-parents-recollection-of-infants-earliest-prosocial-behaviors
#9
Stuart I Hammond, Elizabeth Al-Jbouri, Victoria Edwards, Laura E Feltham
Prosocial behavior is widely thought to emerge early in the second year of life. This paper presents evidence that helping emerges early in the first year of life. Parents of 80 children asked to recollect the earliest instance of their child helping recalled help in two contexts: chores (e.g., cleaning up) and care and self-care (e.g., feeding and dressing). A subset of parents recalled helping even before eight months of age, most often in the context of self-care tasks. The presence of helping this early in the lifespan is situated in recent research, and its implications for current theories of early prosocial behavior are discussed...
March 21, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340382/the-bdnfval66met-polymorphism-and-individual-differences-in-temperament-in-4-month-old-infants-a-pilot-study
#10
Lorenzo Giusti, Livio Provenzi, Daniela Tavian, Sara Missaglia, Niccolò Butti, Rosario Montirosso
Individual differences in infants' temperament are under genetic control. We investigated the association between brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor (BDNFval66met) polymorphism and temperament in 63 full-term infants. Met-carriers (N=25) had lower Regulatory capacities compared to val-homozygotes (N=38). These findings suggest that the BDNF polymorphism affects early temperament individual differences.
March 21, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334578/infant-sleep-problems-and-interventions-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Tiffany Field
Infant sleep problems have been the focus of a growing literature over the last few years. The current review is based on literature searches of Pubmed and PsycInfo for studies published over the last few years including randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses on infant sleep problems and resulting developmental effected, risk factors and interventions. Several risk/protective factors for sleep problems have been identified including health literacy, TV in the room, feeding, close contact and arousing activities at bedtime, intolerance for infant crying, co-sleeping, maternal depression and infant temperament...
March 20, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324848/is-level-of-prematurity-a-risk-plasticity-factor-at-three-years-of-age
#12
Kristin Hadfield, Fearghal O'Brien, Aaron Gerow
Children born preterm have poorer outcomes than children born full-term, but the caregiving environment can ameliorate some of these differences. Recent research has proposed that preterm birth may be a plasticity factor, leading to better outcomes for preterm than full-term infants in higher quality environments. This analysis uses data from two waves of an Irish study of children (at 9 months and 3 years of age, n=11,134 children) and their caregivers (n=11,132 mothers, n=9998 fathers) to investigate differences in how caregiving affects social, cognitive, and motor skills between full-term, late preterm, and very preterm children...
March 18, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292592/individual-differences-in-non-clinical-maternal-depression-impact-infant-affect-and-behavior-during-the-still-face-paradigm-across-the-first-year
#13
Vanessa Vieites, Bethany C Reeb-Sutherland
Maternal depression can significantly impact mothers' sensitivity to their infants' needs as well as infants' social and emotional development. The still-face paradigm (SFP) is widely used to assess infants' understanding of the contingency between their own behavior and that of their caregivers, as well as infants' ability to self-regulate arousal levels during sudden changes in maternal responsiveness. Infants of clinically depressed mothers display blunted levels of negative affect compared to infants of non-depressed mothers during the still-face (SF) phase...
March 11, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285033/listening-to-a-baby-crying-induces-higher-electroencephalographic-synchronization-among-prefrontal-temporal-and-parietal-cortices-in-adoptive-mothers
#14
M Pérez-Hernández, M Hernández-González, R M Hidalgo-Aguirre, C Amezcua-Gutiérrez, M A Guevara
Women who adopt babies show caring behaviors and respond to stimuli from their infants just as biological mothers do, but several studies have shown that the cerebral functionality of biological mothers (BM) and adoptive mothers (AM) changes in relation to the type and emotional mean of the stimuli they receive from their babies. The complex perception and processing of different stimuli with emotional content (such as those emitted by babies) require functional synchronization among different cortical and subcortical brain areas...
March 9, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259394/the-relationship-between-attention-and-deferred-imitation-in-12-month-old-infants
#15
Norbert Zmyj, Axel Schölmerich, Moritz M Daum
Imitation is a frequent behavior in the first years of life, and serves both a social function (e.g., to interact with others) and a cognitive function (e.g., to learn a new skill). Infants differ in their temperament, and temperament might be related to the dominance of one function of imitation. In this study, we investigated whether temperament and deferred imitation are related in 12-month-old infants. Temperament was measured via the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised (IBQ-R) and parts of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB)...
March 1, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222332/acquisition-of-vowel-articulation-in-childhood-investigated-by-acoustic-to-articulatory-inversion
#16
Hiroki Oohashi, Hama Watanabe, Gentaro Taga
While the acoustical features of speech sounds in children have been extensively studied, limited information is available as to their articulation during speech production. Instead of directly measuring articulatory movements, this study used an acoustic-to-articulatory inversion model with scalable vocal tract size to estimate developmental changes in articulatory state during vowel production. Using a pseudo-inverse Jacobian matrix of a model mapping seven articulatory parameters to acoustic ones, the formant frequencies of each vowel produced by three Japanese children over time at ages between 6 and 60 months were transformed into articulatory parameters...
February 18, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222331/the-moro-reaction-more-than-a-reflex-a-ritualized-behavior-of-nonverbal-communication
#17
Pierre V Rousseau, Florence Matton, Renaud Lecuyer, Willy Lahaye
OBJECTIVE: To propose a phylogenetic significance to the Moro reflex which remains unexplained since its publication in 1918 because both hands are free at the end of the gesture. METHOD: Among the 75 videos of healthy term newborns we have filmed in a research project on antenatal education to parenthood, we describe a sequence that clearly showed the successive movements of the Moro reflex and we report the occurrence of this reflex in the videos that were recorded from Time 0 of birth defined as the moment that lies between the birth of the thorax and the pelvis of the infant...
February 18, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171802/links-between-early-baseline-cortisol-attachment-classification-and-problem-behaviors-a-test-of-differential-susceptibility-versus-diathesis-stress
#18
Michelle C Fong, Jeffrey Measelle, Elisabeth Conradt, Jennifer C Ablow
The purpose of the current study was to predict concurrent levels of problem behaviors from young children's baseline cortisol and attachment classification, a proxy for the quality of caregiving experienced. In a sample of 58 children living at or below the federal poverty threshold, children's baseline cortisol levels, attachment classification, and problem behaviors were assessed at 17 months of age. We hypothesized that an interaction between baseline cortisol and attachment classification would predict problem behaviors above and beyond any main effects of baseline cortisol and attachment...
February 4, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142062/in-any-way-shape-or-form-toddlers-understanding-of-shapes
#19
Joanna Zambrzycka, Donna Kotsopoulos, Joanne Lee, Samantha Makosz
Using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm, two-year-old children's ability to discriminate valid (typical and atypical) squares, rectangles, triangles, and circles from invalid distractors was examined. The cognitive and environmental factors that might predict this ability were also investigated. Two-year-old children (N=33) were able to discriminate squares, triangles, and circles, but not rectangles. No significant cognitive or environmental predictors of this ability were found. The results suggest that the ability to shape discriminate at age two is under considerable development and that other factors may be responsible for children's ability to discriminate shapes...
January 28, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142061/establishment-of-a-schizophrenic-animal-model-through-chronic-administration-of-mk-801-in-infancy-and-social-isolation-in-childhood
#20
Weiqing Liu, Xiuyan Wang, Wenjuan Hong, Dong Wang, Xiaogang Chen
BACKGROUND: Although an increasing amount of evidence supports a "two-hit" hypothesis for the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, there has been no development in animal models to test this hypothesis. METHODS: An animal model was established by chronic administration of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5mg/kg MK-801 in P7-P21 rats followed by four weeks of social isolation in childhood and then five days of social housing. Animal behaviors were measured by the open field (OF) test, the novel object recognition (NOR) test, the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test, and the elevated plus maze (EPM) test...
January 28, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
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