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Infant Behavior & Development

Ryan A Barry-Anwar, Jessica L Burris, Katharine Graf Estes, Susan M Rivera
This study examines how social cues facilitate learning by manipulating the familiarity of a social cue. Participants were forty-nine infants between 12-18 months. Infants were taught a novel label for a novel object under two pre-recorded gaze conditions-one in which the caregiver was seen gazing at a novel object while a verbal label was played, and one in which a stranger was seen gazing at a novel object while a verbal label was played. Learning was only evident in the caregiver condition and only in the infants most skilled at following their caregivers' gaze...
November 26, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Heidi L Marsh, Maria Legerstee
We review the literature surrounding the phylogenetic and developmental emergence of goal-oriented behavior, among human and non-human primates. We define goal-oriented awareness as the ability to perceive goals and perceptions in others. We examine empirical literature involving gaze-following, shared attention, distinguishing between actions and intentions, and the ability to generate and understand communicative cues. We conclude that at least a rudimentary awareness of goal-oriented behavior is present from birth in humans, and in adult great apes...
November 24, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Misato Hayashi, Tetsuro Matsuzawa
We review studies on mother-infant interactions in chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, in captive and wild environments. Infant cognitive development is formed through mother-infant interactions during the long dependent period, which is approximately 5 years. Patterns of interaction between mothers and infants are different from those observed in adult chimpanzees. Mother-infant interactions are relatively altruistic, although solicitation by infants is almost always required. Active teaching has rarely been reported in chimpanzees; instead, infants socially learn new skills through long-term observation...
November 22, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Elizabeth E Price, Lara A Wood, Andrew Whiten
Comparative and evolutionary developmental analyses seek to discover the similarities and differences between humans and non-human species that might illuminate both the evolutionary foundations of our nature that we share with other animals, and the distinctive characteristics that make human development unique. As our closest animal relatives, with whom we last shared common ancestry, non-human primates have been particularly important in this endeavour. Such studies have focused on social learning, traditions, and culture, and have discovered much about the 'how' of social learning, concerned with key underlying processes such as imitation and emulation...
November 21, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Harlene Hayne, Julien Gross
Recalling one memory often leads to the recollection of other memories that share overlapping features. This phenomenon, spreading activation, was originally documented in studies conducted with verbal adults, and more recently, it has been demonstrated with preverbal infants. Here, we examine the effect of spreading activation on long-term retention by 2-year-olds. Participants were tested in the Visual Recognition Memory (VRM) paradigm and the deferred imitation paradigm. Typically, infants of this age exhibit retention in the VRM paradigm for 24h, while they exhibit retention in the deferred imitation paradigm for at least 8 weeks...
November 18, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Emiko Kawai, Shu Takagai, Nori Takei, Hiroaki Itoh, Naohiro Kanayama, Kenji J Tsuchiya
We investigated the potential relationship between maternal depressive symptoms during the postpartum period and non-verbal communication skills of infants at 14 months of age in a birth cohort study of 951 infants and assessed what factors may influence this association. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and non-verbal communication skills were measured using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, which include Early Gestures and Later Gestures domains...
November 18, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Gary Mountain, Jane Cahill, Helen Thorpe
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) was conducted to determine whether early interventions are effective in improving attachment security and parental sensitivity. Electronic databases were searched 2002-2015 onwards, All RCTs delivered to mothers, fathers or carers, before their child's mean age was 36 months, via 1:1 support, group work or guided self-help were included. The search was restricted to English Language publications. Study Selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were independently undertaken by two authors...
November 18, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Sílvia Leticia Pavão, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sensory processing in children with CP using the Sensory Profile questionnaire and to compare results with the ones of children with typical development (TD). METHODS: We assessed sensory processing of 59 TD children and 43 CP children using the Sensory Profile, a standardized parent reporting measure that records children's responses to sensory events in daily life. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the results of sensory processing evaluation among the groups...
November 17, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Katie Hall, Sarah F Brosnan
Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates...
November 16, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Kim A Bard
From a developmental perspective, dyadic interactions with social partners and dyadic interactions with objects underpin early social cognition in humans and chimpanzees. In humans, dyadic social relationships form in the first three months of life, dyadic relations with objects form in the first 6 months of life, and triadic relations begin around 8-12 months. In chimpanzees, a similar developmental pattern is evident with dyadic social relationships forming in the first three months of life, dyadic relations with objects forming in the first 5 months of life, and triadic relations in the latter half of the first year of life...
November 14, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Dora Kampis, Dóra Fogd, Ágnes Melinda Kovács
To successfully navigate the human social world one needs to realize that behavior is guided by mental states such as goals and beliefs. Humans are highly proficient in using mental states to explain and predict their conspecific's behavior, which enables adjusting one's own behavior in online social interactions. Whereas according to recent studies even young infants seem to integrate others' beliefs into their own behavior, it is unclear what processes contribute to such competencies and how they may develop...
November 14, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Gabrielle Simcock, Michelle Heron-Delaney
We examined whether 15-month-olds could imitate a novel action sequence from a picture book, and whether or not pre-exposure to the objects before reading the book would facilitate imitation. We found that infants only imitated from a picture book above baseline when they had previously interacted with the objects.
November 13, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Claire Holvoet, Céline Scola, Thomas Arciszewski, Delphine Picard
In 2007, a study carried out by Hamlin, Wynn, and Bloom provided concrete evidence that infants as young as 6 months were capable of social evaluation, displaying an early preference for agents performing a prosocial behavior. Since then the development of early social abilities to judge other's behavior has been the topic of a growing body of research. The present paper reviews studies conducted between 2007 and 2015 that experimentally examined infants' social evaluation abilities by testing their preference for agents acting prosocially...
November 13, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Micah Perez, Jenny Ziviani, Andrea Guzzetta, Robert S Ware, Gessica Tealdi, Valentina Burzi, Roslyn N Boyd
INTRODUCTION: Infants with asymmetric brain injury (asymBI) are at high risk of Unilateral Cerebral Palsy (UCP). The Grasp and Reach Assessment of Brisbane (GRAB) was developed to detect asymmetries in unimanual/bimanual upper limb (UL) reach and grasp behaviours in infants with asymBI. This study reports the development of the GRAB and evaluates its construct validity and internal consistency. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study of twenty four infants with asymBI and twenty typically developing (TD) infants at 18 weeks corrected age (C...
October 27, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Johannes Lehtonen, Minna Valkonen-Korhonen, Stefanos Georgiadis, Mika P Tarvainen, Hanne Lappi, Juha-Pekka Niskanen, Ari Pääkkönen, Pasi A Karjalainen
Little is known how the brain of the newborn infant responds to the postnatal nutrition and care. No systematic studies exist in which the effects of nutritional and non-nutritional sucking on the brain activity of the infant were compared. We recorded the EEG activity of 40 infants at the ages of 0,6,12 and 24 weeks in four successive behavioral stages: while the infants were hungry and waiting for sucking, during non-nutritional and nutritional sucking, and during satiation after completed feeding. Quantitative EEG analysis was performed using occipital, parietal and central EEG channels...
October 25, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
O Kochukhova, A A Mikhailova, Ju O Dyagileva, S A Makhin, V B Pavlenko
The goal of this study was to compare the temperamental properties (i.e. Surgency/extraversion, Negative affectivity, Effortful control) of institution-reared (IR) and family-reared (FR) toddlers, aged between 17 and 37 months, living in Simferopol, Crimea. The results demonstrated significantly lower Surgency and higher Negative affectivity scores in the institution-reared toddlers. At the same time, in IR children Surgency scores depended on children's age, the older the children were, the higher scores they were assigned...
October 25, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Lisbeth Valla, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Lars Smith, Marianne Skogbrott Birkeland, Kari Slinning
Postnatal depression (PND) is associated with adverse effects on a broad range of child outcomes, including language problems. The current study aimed to investigate if the time of exposure to maternal PND symptoms measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 6 weeks, 4 months and 6 months postpartum were related to the infants' communication skills measured with the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) at 12 and 24 months. Secondly, to study to what extent the number of exposures to high level of PND symptoms (i...
October 12, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Rosario Montirosso, Livio Provenzi, Daniela Tavian, Sara Missaglia, Maria Elisabetta Raggi, Renato Borgatti
Individual variability exists in infants' socio-emotional stress regulation, in terms of behavioral response (i.e., negative emotionality) as well as magnitude and direction (i.e., increase or decrease) of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity (i.e., salivary cortisol post-stress concentration). The catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism at codon 158 (COMTval158met) associates with stress regulation, but no evidence exists for infants. This study aimed to assess the association between COMTval158met and both negative emotionality and salivary cortisol reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 4-month-old infants...
October 12, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Joan Christodoulou, Scott P Johnson, Dawn M Moore, David S Moore
Mental rotation (MR) involves the ability to predict how an object will look once it has been rotated into a new orientation in space. To date, studies of MR in infants have tested this ability using abstract stimuli presented using a single display. Evidence from existing studies suggests that using multiple displays may affect an infant's performance in some kinds of MR tasks. This study used Moore & Johnson's (2008) simplified Shepard-Metzler objects in a dual-monitor MR task presented to five-month-old infants...
October 12, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
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