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Evaluation & the Health Professions

Mark R Raymond, Yu Ling, Irina Grabovsky
This study evaluated the extent to which medical students with limited English-language experience are differentially impacted by the additional reading load of test items consisting of long clinical vignettes. Participants included 25,012 examinees who completed Step 2 of the U.S. Medical Licensing Examination®. Test items were categorized into five levels based on the number of words per item, and examinee scores at each level were evaluated as a function of English-language experience (English as a second language [ESL] status and scores on a test of English-speaking proficiency)...
October 19, 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Jenna M Evans, Agnes Grudniewicz, G Ross Baker, Walter P Wodchis
The success of integrated care interventions is highly dependent on the internal and collective capabilities of the organizations in which they are implemented. Yet, organizational capabilities are rarely described, understood, or measured with sufficient depth and breadth in empirical studies or in practice. Assessing these capabilities can contribute to understanding why some integrated care interventions are more effective than others. We identified, organized, and assessed survey instruments that measure the internal and collective organizational capabilities required for integrated care delivery...
September 22, 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Susanne Schmidt, Martin Goros, Helen M Parsons, Can Saygin, Hung-Da Wan, Paula K Shireman, Jonathan A L Gelfond
Research service cores at academic health centers are important in driving translational advancements. Specifically, biostatistics and research design units provide services and training in data analytics, biostatistics, and study design. However, the increasing demand and complexity of assigning appropriate personnel to time-sensitive projects strains existing resources, potentially decreasing productivity and increasing costs. Improving processes for project initiation, assigning appropriate personnel, and tracking time-sensitive projects can eliminate bottlenecks and utilize resources more efficiently...
September 20, 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Li Cheng, Doris Y P Leung, Yu-Ning Wu, Janet W H Sit, Miao-Yan Yang, Xiao-Mei Li
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Personal Diabetes Questionnaire (C-PDQ). The PDQ was translated into Chinese using a forward and backward translation approach. After being reviewed by an expert panel, the C-PDQ was administered to a convenience sample of 346 adults with Type 2 diabetes. The Chinese version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (C-SDSCA) was also administered. The results of the exploratory factor analysis revealed a one-factor structure for the Diet Knowledge, Decision-Making, and Eating Problems subscales and a two-factor structure for the barriers-related subscales...
September 20, 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Stéphanie Baggio, Joseph Studer, Katia Iglesias, Jean-Bernard Daeppen, Gerhard Gmel
The principal aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial well-being of emerging adults using psychological states associated with this transitional phase and classic measures of emerging adulthood. We expected psychological states to be more closely associated with psychological well-being than classic markers of achieved adulthood. Data were collected in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors from 4,991 Swiss men aged 18-25 years. The assessment included the Short Form of the Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA-8), classic markers of achieved adulthood (e...
August 29, 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Elizabeth A Fradgley, Christine L Paul, Jamie Bryant, Nicolas Collins, Stephen P Ackland, Douglas Bellamy, Christopher R Levi
Identification of patients' and health professionals' quality improvement preferences is an essential first step in collaborative improvement models. This includes experience-based codesign (EBCD), where service change is strategically introduced following stakeholder consultation. This study compared the number and types of improvement initiatives selected by outpatients and health professionals. Using electronic surveys designed to inform EBCD studies, 541 outpatients (71.1% consent) and 124 professionals (47...
August 1, 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Jon-Patrick Allem, Steve Sussman, Jennifer B Unger
Transition-to-adulthood themes, or thoughts and feelings about emerging adulthood, have been measured by the Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA) and found to be associated with substance use among emerging adults. It has been suggested, however, that the IDEA is lengthy and may not include the most unique and theoretically relevant constructs of emerging adulthood. The Revised Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA-R) was developed as an alternative instrument, but research has yet to determine the relationship between the IDEA-R and substance use among emerging adults (ages 18-25 years)...
July 27, 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Mona Eklund, Martin Bäckström
A self-report instrument assessing work-related factors among people with psychiatric disabilities would be useful when trying to match possible employment or prevocational opportunities with people's desires and capacities. The aim of this study was to explore the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct and criterion validity of the Worker Role Self-Assessment (WRS) in this group as well as possible floor and ceiling effects. The participants were 283 clients from day centers for people with psychiatric disabilities and from outpatient units for people with psychosis...
September 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
William M Spinelli, Karl M Fernstrom, Dylan L Galos, Heather R Britt
Burnout has been identified as an occupational hazard in the helping professions for many years and is often overlooked, as health-care systems strive to improve cost and quality. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Areas of Worklife Survey (AWS) are tools for assessing burnout prevalence and its associated factors. We describe how we used them in outpatient clinics to assess burnout for multiple job types. Traditional statistical techniques and seemingly unrelated regression were used to describe the sample and evaluate the association between work life domains and burnout...
September 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Fang-Pei Chen, Sharon Samet, Prakash Gorroochurn, Kathleen M O'Hara
Employment is fundamental to mental health recovery. The aim of this study is to construct a parsimonious profile indicating employment potential of people with major depressive disorder (MDD) to facilitate clinical assessment on employment participation. Data were drawn from Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. We included participants who had MDD at Wave 1 and were interviewed in both waves (N = 2,864). We conducted Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis to identify key characterizing factors of Wave 2 employment among 32 Wave 1 risk and protective factors...
September 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Pin-Chieh Wu, Kuang-Chieh Hsueh, Guang-Yuan Mar, Shu-Chun Hsueh, Ming-Shium Tu, Hayden McRobbie, Peter Hajek
Studies that have examined gender differences in smoking cessation have produced mixed results. The purpose of the study was to examine whether there are gender differences in long-term smoking abstinence rates in smokers treated with nicotine patches at a smoking cessation clinic in Taiwan, where 39% of men and 5% of women smoke. This study included 1,065 smokers, comprising of 940 men and 125 women. Smokers were invited to attend the clinic every 1-2 weeks for a maximum of eight visits over 90 days, where they received prescriptions for nicotine patches, counseling, and educational materials...
September 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Brooke J Arterberry, Ting-Huei Chen, Alvaro Vergés, Kenneth A Bollen, Matthew P Martens
Alcohol-related problems have traditionally been conceptualized and measured by an effect indicator model. That is, it is generally assumed that observed indicators of alcohol problems are caused by a latent variable. However, there are reasons to think that this construct is more accurately conceptualized as including at least some causal indicators, in which observed indicators cause the latent variable. The present study examined the measurement model of a well-known alcohol consequences questionnaire, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index...
September 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Omar El-Shahawy, Deirdre A Shires, Jennifer Elston Lafata
Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence advocate for using counseling targeted at tobacco users' motivation to quit during each office visit. We evaluate tobacco use screening and counseling interventions delivered during routine periodic health examinations by 44 adult primary care physicians practicing in 22 clinics of a large health system in southeast Michigan. 484 office visits were audio-recorded and transcribed. For this study, current tobacco users (N = 91) were identified using pre-visit surveys and audio-recordings...
September 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Karin Maruska, Julia Hansen, Reiner Hanewinkel, Barbara Isensee
"Eigenständig werden 5+6" (Becoming independent 5+6) is a German school-based smoking prevention program that draws on social competence and social influence approaches. It was investigated whether the program's effect on smoking onset is mediated by substance-specific skills and cognitions such as knowledge, attitudes/risk perception, normative expectations, resistance skills, and refusal self-efficacy. Multiple mediation analyses revealed a statistically significant total indirect effect that accounted for 30...
September 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Steve Sussman, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Robert Garcia, Dianne C Barker, Jonathan M Samet, Adam Leventhal, Jennifer B Unger
At least three factors may be driving the evolution of the vape shop industry, a rapidly growing market sector that specializes in the sales of electronic cigarettes: (1) the tobacco industry, (2) the public health sector and its diverse stakeholders, and (3) consumer demand. These influences and the responses of the vape shop sector have resulted in a rapidly changing landscape. This commentary briefly discusses these three factors and the implications for the health professions, as they address the vape shop industry and its consequences for public health...
September 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Paul F Cook, Saman Manzouri, Laurra Aagaard, Lindsay O'Connell, Marla Corwin, Bonnie Gance-Cleveland
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a popular evidence-based method to support health behavior change. We examined evaluations from 10 years of interprofessional workshops on MI to identify trends in trainees' MI-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. From 2006 to 2015, 394 trainees participated in continuing education MI workshops with our team and completed a validated posttraining questionnaire. Participants were 90% female and 66% White, with M = 12 years in practice. They worked in pediatric and adult care; urban and rural locations; and inpatient, outpatient, and nonhealth settings...
June 29, 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Marion Herens, Annemarie Wagemakers, Lenneke Vaandrager, Johan van Ophem, Maria Koelen
This article presents a practitioner-based approach to identify key combinations of contextual factors (C) and mechanisms (M) that trigger outcomes (O) in Dutch community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programs targeting socially vulnerable groups. Data were collected in six programs using semi-structured interviews and focus groups using a timeline technique. Sessions were recorded, anonymized, and transcribed. A realist synthesis protocol was used for data-driven and thematic analysis of CMO configurations...
June 19, 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Jose P Espada, Silvia Escribano, Alexandra Morales, Mireia Orgilés
The aim is to evaluate the effects of the Competencias para adolescentes con una sexualidad saludable (COMPAS) program and compare them with an evidence-based program (¡Cuídate!) and a control group (CG). Eighteen public high schools were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions. Initially, 1,563 Spanish adolescents between 14 and 16 years of age participated, and 24 months after their implementation, 635 of them completed a survey. Self-report measures collected data on sexual behavior, knowledge, attitudes, intention, sexual risk perception, and perceived norm...
June 15, 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Yan Lu, Jiayun Xu, Weigang Zhao, Hae-Ra Han
This systematic review examines the characteristics and psychometric properties of the instruments used to assess self-care behaviors among persons with type 2 diabetes. Electronic databases were searched for relevant studies published in English within the past 20 years. Thirty different instruments were identified in 75 articles: 18 original instruments on type 2 diabetes mellitus self-care, 8 translated or revised version, and 4 not specific but relevant to diabetes. Twenty-one instruments were multidimensional and addressed multiple dimensions of self-care behavior...
June 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Anthony C Waddimba, Melissa Scribani, Melinda A Nieves, Nicole Krupa, John J May, Paul Jenkins
We validated three single-item measures for emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP) among rural physician/nonphysician practitioners. We linked cross-sectional survey data (on provider demographics, satisfaction, resilience, and burnout) with administrative information from an integrated health care network (1 academic medical center, 6 community hospitals, 31 clinics, and 19 school-based health centers) in an eight-county underserved area of upstate New York. In total, 308 physicians and advanced-practice clinicians completed a self-administered, multi-instrument questionnaire (65...
June 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
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