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Journal of Toxicological Sciences

Yu Haranosono, Shingo Nemoto, Masaaki Kurata, Hideyuki Sakaki
Although phospholipidosis (PLD) often affects drug development, there is no convenient in vitro or in vivo test system for PLD detection. In this study, we developed an in silico PLD prediction method based on the PLD-inducing mechanism. We focused on phospholipid (PL)-compound complex formation, which inhibits PL degradation by phospholipase. Thus, we used some molecular interactions, such as electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and intermolecular forces, between PL and compounds as descriptors...
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Yui Nakajima, Hirotoshi Iguchi, Shinji Kamisuki, Fumio Sugawara, Teiichi Furuichi, Yo Shinoda
Citrinin, a natural mycotoxin that is found in fermented foods, is known as a cytotoxin and nephrotoxin. Exposure to high doses of citrinin result in apoptosis; however, the effects of low doses are not fully understood. Glutamate excitotoxicity is responsible for neuronal death in acute neurological disorders including stroke, trauma and other neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we show the neuroprotective effect of low doses of citrinin against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. We examined the effect of citrinin exposure on glutamate-induced cell death in cultured rat cortical neurons under two conditions: simultaneous treatment with citrinin 0...
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Ruili Dang, Yujin Guo, Hualin Cai, Ranyao Yang, Donglou Liang, Chuanfeng Lv, Pei Jiang
Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) are at higher risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and neuregulin-1 (NRG1)/ErbB signaling has been identified as a common susceptibility pathway for the comorbidity. Antipsychotic treatment can change NRG1/ErbB signaling in the brain, which has been implicated in their therapeutic actions, whereas the drug-induced alterations of NRG1/ErbB pathway in cardiovascular system might be associated with the prominent cardiac side-effects of antipsychotic medication. To test this hypothesis, we examined NRG1/ErbB system in rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) and myocardium following 4-week intraperitoneal administration of haloperidol, risperidone or clozapine...
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Yan Cai, Chao Zhang, Le Hao, Jun Chen, Ping Xie, Zhidong Chen
Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is one of the most toxic cyanotoxins produced in algal blooms. The toxic effects of MCLR on the expression of some organelles genes (mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum, and cytoskeleton etc) have been widely investigated, but little is known how it impacts on the expression of ribosomal genes. In this study we identified seven ribosomal protein genes RPS6, RPS12, RPS24, RPS27a, RPL12, RPL27 and RPL29 in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), whose expression was regulated by MCLR. The amino acid sequences of those 7 genes shared more than 90% identity with corresponding sequences from zebrafish, and were well conserved throughout evolution...
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Masayuki Kanki, Min Gi, Masaki Fujioka, Hideki Wanibuchi
Several studies have successfully detected hepatocarcinogenicity in rats based on gene expression data. However, prediction of hepatocarcinogens with certain mechanisms of action (MOAs), such as enzyme inducers and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonists, can prove difficult using a single model and requires a highly toxic dose. Here, we constructed a model for detecting non-genotoxic (NGTX) hepatocarcinogens and predicted their MOAs in rats. Gene expression data deposited in the Open Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System (TG-GATEs) was used to investigate gene marker sets...
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Kei-ichi Sugiyama, Masashi Muroi, Mawo Kinoshita, Osamu Hamada, Yuji Minai, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi, Yoichi Kamata, Ken-ichi Tanamoto
Macrophages induce the innate immunity by recognizing pathogens through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), which is an essential adaptor molecule for most TLRs, mediates the induction of inflammatory cytokines through nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) shows immunotoxic effects by interrupting inflammatory mediators produced by activated macrophages. The present study investigates the effect of DON on NF-κB in activated macrophages through MyD88-dependent pathways...
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Fusako Mitsunaga, Masakazu Umezawa, Ken Takeda, Shin Nakamura
To investigate the influence of nanomaterial exposure during fetal development, diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), carbon black (CB), or titanium dioxide (TiO2) was injected intradermally to pregnant rhesus macaques. The hippocampus and cerebellum of newborn infants were then examined. DNA microarray and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses were used to measure the expression of the hemoglobin genes, HBA, HBB, and HBG. Of the nanomaterials tested, DEP elicited the greatest increase in mRNA and protein levels of hemoglobin genes in the brain tissues...
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Kanae Umeda, Yaichiro Kotake, Masatsugu Miyara, Keishi Ishida, Seigo Sanoh, Shigeru Ohta
GluR2, an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit, plays important roles in neuronal survival. We previously showed that exposure of cultured rat cortical neurons to several chemicals decreases GluR2 protein expression, leading to neuronal toxicity. Methoxychlor, the bis-p-methoxy derivative of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid chemical, have been used commercially as agricultural pesticides in several countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term methoxychlor and fenvalerate exposure on neuronal glutamate receptors...
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Makoto Shirai, Shingo Arakawa, Munehiro Teranishi, Kiyonori Kai
We previously reported that thioacetamide (TA)-induced hepatocellular necrosis was attenuated in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD mice) compared with mice fed a normal rodent diet (ND mice). In this study, we investigated whether p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) was involved in this attenuation. Western blot analysis revealed that hepatic phosphorylated p38 MAPK protein decreased at 8 and 24 hours (hr) after TA dosing in the HFD mice, while it decreased only at 24 hr in the ND mice in comparison to the time- and diet-matched, vehicle-treated mice...
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Yasumitsu Ogra, Shu Nagasaki, Ayako Yawata, Yasumi Anan, Koichi Hamada, Akihiro Mizutani
We aimed to establish an element array analysis that involves the simultaneous detection of all elements in cells and the display of changes in element concentration before and after a cellular event. In this study, we demonstrated changes in element concentration during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 mouse fibroblasts into adipocytes. This metallomics approach yielded unique information of cellular response to physiological and toxicological events.
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Hiroki Kimoto, Yuko Ito, Satoshi Matsumoto, Eiji Hosoki
Evaluation of oral mucosal irritation is required by regulatory agencies when the intended clinical route of the drug candidate is intraoral administration. In this study, we investigated whether it was possible to evaluate oral mucosal irritation in rats by an intraoral instillation which was thought to mimic the clinical route of gargle products. Although no oral mucosal irritation was observed in the animals instilled with 0.5% and 4% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, an anionic detergent) solutions for 10 days, instillation of 15% SDS solution for 4 days induced oral mucosal irritation macro- and microscopically, and this was evaluated as moderate irritant...
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Tomoya Fujie, Yukino Segawa, Eiko Yoshida, Tomoki Kimura, Yasuyuki Fujiwara, Chika Yamamoto, Masahiko Satoh, Hiroshi Naka, Toshiyuki Kaji
Metallothionein (MT) plays a central role in cellular defense against heavy metals and oxidative stress. Since the induction of MT requires the activation of metal response element (MRE)-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) by binding of zinc ions, inorganic zinc is regarded as a typical MT inducer. However, in a previous report, we showed that inorganic zinc could not induce MT in vascular endothelial cells. While it is suggested that endothelial MT presents mechanisms different from those of other cell types, these remain unclear...
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Tomoya Fujie, Yukino Segawa, Akane Uehara, Takehiro Nakamura, Tomoki Kimura, Eiko Yoshida, Chika Yamamoto, Masanobu Uchiyama, Hiroshi Naka, Toshiyuki Kaji
Vascular endothelial cells are in direct contact with blood. Inorganic zinc is thought to be incapable of inducing metallothionein, which protects cells from heavy metal toxicity and oxidative stress, in vascular endothelial cells. Here, we aimed to further characterize the induction of metallothionein in vascular endothelial cells. Our results confirmed that inorganic zinc could not induce metallothionein in vascular endothelial cells. Moreover, ZnSO4 could not activate both the metal response element (MRE) transcription factor 1 (MTF-1)/MRE and Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathways and was incapable of inducing metallothionein...
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Miki Asanagi, Shigeru Yamada, Naoya Hirata, Hiroshi Itagaki, Yaichiro Kotake, Yuko Sekino, Yasunari Kanda
Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT), are well-known endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We have recently reported that TBT induces growth arrest in the human embryonic carcinoma cell line NT2/D1 at nanomolar levels by inhibiting NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH), which catalyzes the irreversible conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. However, the molecular mechanisms by which NAD-IDH mediates TBT toxicity remain unclear. In the present study, we examined whether TBT at nanomolar levels affects cell cycle progression in NT2/D1 cells...
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Masaya Motohashi, Michael F Wempe, Tomoko Mutou, Yuya Okayama, Norio Kansaku, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Masahiro Ikegami, Masao Asari, Shin Wakui
Female pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intragastrically (ig) administered di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) at four doses (0, 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) during gestation days (GD) 12-21 (n = 5 per group). The age-related morphological changes of Leydig cell mitochondrion (LC-Mt) and testosterone biosynthesis enzymes/associated genes/proteins expression levels were investigated. As compared to the control (no DBP), the 10 mg, and 50 mg DBP dose groups, the 100 mg DBP dose group at weeks 5 and 7 showed a significant amount of small LC-Mt...
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Hongzhi Liu, Wei Hao, Xin Wang, Hao Su
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been confirmed to be the main inhibitor in osteogenic differentiation, posing a clinical challenge to bone healing, particularly for trauma followed by endotoxinemia/sepsis. However, the molecular mechanism remains ambiguous. miR-23b, which regulates multiple signaling pathways in inflammation, has been shown to be deregulated by LPS. In this study, we examined the LPS-mediated regulation on the expression of miR-23b and Smad 3 in preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. Then we determined the regulation of miR-23b overexpression on the Smad 3 expression and on the LPS-mediated inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-induced osteogenic differentiation...
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Sergey Shityakov, Ramin Ekhteiari Salmas, Ellaine Salvador, Norbert Roewer, Jens Broscheit, Carola Förster
In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of unmodified α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and modified cyclodextrins, including trimethyl-β-cyclodextrin (TRIMEB) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), on immortalized murine microvascular endothelial (cEND) cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A CellTiter-Glo viability test, performed on the cEND cells showed significant differences among the different cyclodextrins. After 24 hr of incubation, TRIMEB was the most cytotoxic, and HPβCD was non-toxic...
April 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Junming Wang, Mingsan Miao, Lingbo Qu, Ying Cui, Yueyue Zhang
Tripterygium glycosides (TG) are commonly used for basic medicine in curing rheumatoid arthritis but with a high incidence of liver injury. Geniposide (GP) has broad and diverse bioactivities, but until now it is still unknown whether GP can protect against TG-induced liver injury. This study, for the first time, observed the possible protection of GP against TG-induced liver injury in mice and its mechanisms underlying. Oral administration of TG (270 mg/kg) induced significant elevation in the levels of serum alanine / aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST), hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (all P < 0...
February 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Masashi Takagi, Seigo Sanoh, Masataka Santoh, Yoko Ejiri, Yaichiro Kotake, Shigeru Ohta
Drug-induced phospholipidosis (PLD) is one of the adverse reactions to treatment with cationic amphiphilic drugs. Recently, simple and reliable evaluation methods for PLD have been reported. However, the predictive power of these methods for in vivo PLD induction is insufficient in some cases. To accurately predict PLD, we focused on drug metabolism and used three-dimensional cultures of hepatocytes known as spheroids. Here we used the fluorescent phospholipid dye N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (NBD-PE) to detect PLD induction...
February 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Takashi Kubo, Yukie Kuroda, Shinichiro Horiuchi, Su-Ryang Kim, Yuko Sekino, Seiichi Ishida
The VECELL 3-D insert is a new culture scaffold consisting of collagen-coated ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) mesh. We analyzed the effects of VECELL 3-D inserts on the functionality of HepG2, a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. HepG2 cells cultured on VECELL 3-D inserts maintained a round shape, while those cultured on a standard culture plate or collagen-coated cell culture plate showed a flattened and cubic epithelial-like shape. HepG2 cells cultured on VECELL 3-D inserts had showed upregulated expression of metallothionein genes and in turn a higher tolerance to toxicity induced by heavy metals...
February 2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
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