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Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety

Robert Biczak, Martyna Śnioszek, Arkadiusz Telesiński, Barbara Pawłowska
Ionic liquids (ILs) constitute a huge group of substances that are increasingly common in the commercial use. This situation may lead to the contamination of the soil environment which being the basic of plants vegetation. This paper presents the effect of four ILs with I(-) anion on the growth and development of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) and common radish (Raphanus sativus L. subvar. radicula Pers) and changes in metabolism of the plants. Seedlings of spring barley and common radish cultivated on soil with increasing ILs concentration exhibited typical phytotoxicity symptoms...
February 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
J M Marín-Benito, E Herrero-Hernández, M S Rodríguez-Cruz, M Arienzo, M J Sánchez-Martín
Lignocellulosic wastes and by-products containing lignin are now available in large amounts from forestry and industrial activities, and could be promising organic materials for the biosorption of pesticides by soils in order to reduce point-source pollution. Adding these materials to soil requires understanding the process of pesticide sorption-desorption by wood-soils, as sorption capacity could increase, with changes in pesticide bioavailability and final fate. The objective of this work was to study the effect that pine and oak wood added to soils had on the sorption/desorption of the pesticides linuron, alachlor, and metalaxyl...
February 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xiaojing Li, Mengyuan Xing, Menghao Chen, Jinxin Zhao, Ruifeng Fan, Xia Zhao, Changyu Cao, Jie Yang, Ziwei Zhang, Shiwen Xu
Lead (Pb) is one of the most highly toxic metal pollutant that can cause damage to the immune system. It is known that selenium (Se) can antagonize heavy metals. To explore the toxic effects of Pb poisoning on bird immune cells, as well as the alleviating effects of Se on Pb, Se supplement and/or Pb poisoning chicken models were established. One hundred and eighty Hyline 7-day-old male chickens received either Se (1mg Se per kg of diet), Pb (350mg Pb per liter water) or Se+Pb in their diet and water for 90 days...
February 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Athirstam Ponsankar, Annamalai Thanigaivel, Edward-Sam Edwin, Selvaraj Selin-Rani, Muthiah Chellappandian, Venkatraman Pradeepa, Jalasteen Lija-Escaline, Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Wayne B Hunter, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi
Resistance to treatments with Temephos or plant derived oil, Pb-CVO, between a field collected Wild Strain (WS) and a susceptible Laboratory Strain (LS) of Ae. aegypti were measured. The Temephos (0.1mg/L) showed the greatest percentage of mosquito mortality compared to Pb-CVO (1.5mg/L) in LS Ae. aegypti. However, WS Ae. aegypti was not significantly affected by Temephos (0.1mg/L) treatment compare to the Pb-CVO (1.5mg/L). However, both strains (LS and WS) when treated with Pb-CVO (1.5mg/L) displayed steady larval mortality rate across all instars...
February 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Peng Xu, Ledan Huang
Populations of many amphibian species are declining worldwide in part because of pesticide contamination. As a surface water contaminant, α-cypermethrin may have severe ecological impacts on amphibians. Here, we examined the acute toxicity of α-cypermethrin enantiomers to dark-spotted frog Rana nigromaculata tadpoles at 24, 48, 72 and 96h, finding that the tadpoles were indeed sensitive to α-cypermethrin. The (S)-(1R, 3R)-enantiomer was approximately 29 times more toxic than the (R)-(1S, 3S)-enantiomer at 96h...
February 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Chunyan Li, Tongyang Lv, Wanjun Liu, Hailian Zang, Yi Cheng, Dapeng Li
Excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to soil contamination and limited crop rotation; therefore, tactics to decrease and eliminate residual chlorimuron-ethyl in the environment have attracted increasing attention. In this study, two chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterial strains (Rhodococcus sp. D310-1; Enterobacter sp. D310-5) were used to ferment and prepare a chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterial consortium. To improve the degradation efficiency of the bacterial consortium, the cultivation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM)...
February 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
An Liu, Yukun Ma, Kaveh Deilami, Prasanna Egodawatta, Ashantha Goonetilleke
An in-depth understanding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) build-up on urban roads is essential for effective stormwater treatment design. Past research studies have pointed out the relationship between influential factors and PAHs build-up individually. However, these studies do not provide a comprehensive analysis of the relationships and the hierarchy of factors in terms of their importance in influencing PAHs build-up. This paper presents the outcomes of an in-depth investigation into the range of influential factors, including traffic volume, land use, distance to highway and roughness of road surfaces by ranking them in terms of their influence on PAHs build-up...
February 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Melanie A Trenfield, Joost W van Dam, Andrew J Harford, David Parry, Claire Streten, Karen Gibb, Rick A van Dam
The world's most productive bauxite mines and alumina refineries are located in tropical or sub-tropical regions. The discharge water from alumina refineries can contain elevated aluminium (Al, <0.45µm fraction), from 30 to 1000μg/L. There is a need for additional information on the toxicity of Al to aquatic organisms to improve the environmental regulation and management of alumina refinery operations in tropical coastal regions. A 14-d chronic toxicity test was developed for the tropical sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida...
February 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Alla P Toropova, Andrey A Toropov, Danuta Leszczynska, Jerzy Leszczynski
Quantitative feature - activity relationships (QFAR) approach was applied to prediction of bioavailability of metal oxide nanoparticles. ZnO, CuO, Co3O4, and TiO2 nanoxides were considered. The computational model for bioavailability of investigated species is asserted. The model was calculated using the Monte Carlo method. The CORAL free software ( was used in this study. The developed model was tested by application of three different splits of data into the training and validation sets...
February 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Nadine Weyhing-Zerrer, Tobias Gundolf, Roland Kalb, Rolf Oßmer, Peter Rossmanith, Patrick Mester
Ionic liquids (ILs), a new class of solvents with unique and tunable physicochemical properties, were initially envisioned as working alternatives to traditional organic solvents. However, they have now proven to have a wide range of alternative chemical and biochemical applications. Due to their increasing use, environmental and toxicity concerns are growing, but resolutions are hindered by the sheer number of possible variants. In order to assess and possibly predict IL-toxicity, a structure-activity relationship (SAR) approach was adopted using defined structural motifs...
February 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Qingxu Ma, Xiaochuang Cao, Jinzhao Ma, Xiaoli Tan, Yinan Xie, Han Xiao, Lianghuan Wu
Chromium (Cr) pollution affects plant growth and biochemical processes, so, the relative uptake of glycine, nitrate, and ammonium by pak choi (Brassica chinensis) seedlings in treatments with 0mgL(-1) and 10mgL(-1) Cr (VI) were detected by substrate-specific (15)N-labelling in a sterile environment. The short-term uptake of (15)N-labelled sources and (15)N-enriched amino acids were detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to explore the mechanism by which Cr stress affects glycine uptake and metabolism, which showing that Cr stress hindered the uptake of ammonium and glycine but increased significantly the uptake of nitrate...
February 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Fengxiang Pan, Yongyue Lu, Lei Wang
To understand whether sulfoxaflor, a novel neonicotinoid, poses unacceptable risks to the environment, it is important to assess its effects on nontarget insects. Therefore, the effects of short-term exposure (28 days) of free-feeding sublethal concentrations (1-2μg/ml) of sulfoxaflor to the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, were investigated. The following parameters were evaluated to determine the impact of exposure: colony growth, food consumption (sugar water and locusts), and interspecific interactions...
February 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Eric M Torres, Derek Hess, Brian T McNeil, Tessa Guy, Jason C Quinn
As underdeveloped nations continue to industrialize and world population continues to increase, the need for energy, natural resources, and goods will lead to ever increasing inorganic contaminants, such as heavy metals, in various waste streams that can have damaging effects on plant life, wildlife, and human health. This work is focused on the evaluation of the potential of Nannochloropsis salina to be integrated with contaminated water sources for the concurrent production of a biofuel feedstock while providing an environmental service through bioremediation...
February 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
P Boisseaux, P Noury, H Thomas, J Garric
This is a pioneering study in the ecotoxicological assessment of immunotoxic effects of the three selected drugs of concern to a freshwater gastropod species. Lymnaea stagnalis was exposed in the laboratory for 3 days to three drugs used for immune systems: diclofenac (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), cyclophosphamide (anti-cancer immunosuppressive drug) or cyclosporine A (anti-xenograft immunosuppressive drug). Exposure ranges included environmental realistic (1-10μgL(-1)) and therapeutic concentrations (100-1000μgL(-1))...
February 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Konstantinos Grintzalis, Wenkui Dai, Konstantinos Panagiotidis, Alexia Belavgeni, Mark R Viant
Phenotypic markers of animal health form an essential component of regulatory toxicology. Immobilisation of neonate water fleas - Daphnia magna - as a surrogate measure of their mortality following exposure to a chemical for 24-48h forms the basis of the internationally utilised OECD acute toxicity test 202. A second important marker of animal physiology and health is feeding rate, which in Daphnia is determined by measuring the algae feeding rate. Given the widespread use of OECD test 202 for acute toxicity as well as the quantification of feeding rate in toxicological studies of daphniids, significant benefits could result from miniaturising this assay...
February 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Delphine Vromman, Juan-Pablo Martínez, Stanley Lutts
Most arsenic in surface soil and water exists primarily in its oxidized form, as arsenate (As(V); AsO4(3-)), which is an analog of phosphate (PO4(3-)). Arsenate can be taken up by phosphate transporters. Atriplex atacamensis Phil. is native to northern Chile (Atacama Desert), and this species can cope with high As concentrations and low P availability in its natural environment. To determine the impact of P on As accumulation and tolerance in A. atacamensis, the plants were cultivated in a hydroponic system under four treatments: no As(V) addition with 323µM phosphate (control); 1000µM As(V) addition with 323µM phosphate; no As(V) and no phosphate; 1000µM As(V) addition and no phosphate...
February 7, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sharon P Lawler
Some pesticides are applied directly to aquatic systems to reduce numbers of mosquito larvae (larvicides) and thereby reduce transmission of pathogens that mosquitoes vector to humans and wildlife. Sustained, environmentally-safe control of larval mosquitoes is particularly needed for highly productive waters (e.g., catchment basins, water treatment facilities, septic systems), but also for other habitats to maintain control and reduce inspection costs. Common biorational pesticides include the insect juvenile hormone mimic methoprene and pesticides derived from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus and Saccharopolyspora spinosa (spinosad)...
February 7, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Angela Maria Palacio-Cortés, Isadora de Lourdes Signorini-Souza, Emerson Luis Yoshio Hara, Rodrigo Geonildo Disner, Debora Rebechi, Marco Tadeu Grassi, Marta Margarete Cestari, Mario Antônio Navarro-Silva
In-vivo effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) containing 3, 4 and 5 bromine atoms were tested on fourth-instar larvae of Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera: Chironomidae) after 48h of exposure, by measuring the activity of the acetyl cholinesterase, alpha and beta esterases and glutathione S-transferase. The PBDE congeners 2,2',4-triBDE (BDE-17), 2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentaBDE (BDE-99) were evaluated at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0ngmL(-1). Acetyl cholinesterase activity decreased significantly (p≤0...
February 7, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Bing Li, Hao Chen, Hongwen Sun, Zhonghui Lan
In this study, earthworms Eisenia fetida (E. fetida) were exposed to a soil artificially contaminated with individual hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereoisomers (α-, β- and γ-HBCDs) to investigate the distribution, isomerization and enantiomer selectivity of HBCDs at tissue and subcellular levels. At the tissue level, the concentrations of HBCDs all followed the order of gut>bodyfluid>body wall, which suggested that earthworms accumulated HBCDs mainly via ingesting soil particles. At the subcellular level, the concentrations of HBCDs in an extracellular fraction consisting of granules, tissue fragment, cell membrane and intact cells (fraction A) were higher than those in an intracellular fractions consisting of the microsomal and cytosol (fraction B+C)...
February 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Catherine Landry, Magali Houde, Philippe Brodeur, Philip Spear, Monique Boily
In Lake Saint-Pierre (LSP), the last great widening of the St. Lawrence River (province of Québec, Canada), the yellow perch has been experiencing a significant decline since the mid-1990s. The combined effect of several stressors (deterioration of habitats appropriate for reproduction and growth, invasive species and poor water quality) seems to exert considerable influence on the yellow perch population in LSP, characterized by low recruitment. To better understand possible stressor effects at the biochemical level, LSP yellow perch were compared with other sites along a gradient of increasing human influences from upstream to downstream along the St...
February 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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