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Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531765/toxicokinetics-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-and-zinc-ions-in-the-earthworm-eisenia-andrei
#1
Zuzanna M Świątek, Cornelis A M van Gestel, Agnieszka J Bednarska
The toxicokinetics of zinc in the earthworm Eisenia andrei was investigated following exposure for 21 days to ionic zinc (ZnCl2) or zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in Lufa 2.2 soil, followed by 21 days elimination in clean soil. Two concentrations were tested for both ZnCl2 (250 and 500μg Zn g(-1)) and ZnO-NPs (500 and 1000μg Zn g(-1)), corresponding to EC25 and EC50 for effects on reproduction. Based on the measured internal Zn concentrations in the earthworms over time of exposure, the kinetics parameters ka - assimilation rate constant (gsoil g(-1)body weight day(-1)) and ke - elimination rate constant (day(-1)) were estimated using a one-compartment model for either total Zn concentrations in the soil or porewater Zn concentrations...
May 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528317/levels-of-blood-lead-in-griffon-vultures-from-a-wildlife-rehabilitation-center-in-spain
#2
Fernando González, Irene López, Laura Suarez, Virginia Moraleda, Casilda Rodríguez
Lead is considered a highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to bird wildlife. Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) are a sensitive indicator of the level of environmental contamination due to their position at the top of the food chain and their dependence on human activities. The aim of this study was to assess susceptibility to lead intoxication in Griffon vultures admitted to Wildlife Rehabilitation Centers (WRC), measuring blood lead levels and determining if blood lead concentrations are related to clinical signs, hematological, biochemical or radiographic findings...
May 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528316/bioindication-of-pbdes-and-pcbs-by-native-and-transplanted-moss-pleurozium-schreberi
#3
Grzegorz Kosior, Petra Přibylová, Lenka Vaňková, Petr Kukučka, Ondřej Audy, Jana Klánová, Aleksandra Samecka-Cymerman, Lucyna Mróz, Alexander J Kempers
PBDEs and PCBs are toxic, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and the use of PCBs is forbidden, but they are still present in many environments and biota. 90-day assays were conducted with the moss Pleurozium schreberi transplanted from an uncontaminated control site to ten sites (rural and urban) selected in one of the most polluted regions of Upper Silesia in Poland. Native P. schreberi mosses were collected from the same ten polluted sites. Concentrations of PBDEs (28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) and PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) were determined in all native and transplanted P...
May 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526170/body-mass-change-in-flying-homing-pigeons-externally-exposed-to-deepwater-horizon-crude-oil
#4
Cristina R Perez, John K Moye, Dave Cacela, Karen M Dean, Chris A Pritsos
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill contaminated thousands of miles of habitat valuable to hundreds of species of migratory and resident birds of the Gulf of Mexico. Many birds died as a direct result of the oil spill; however, the indirect effects of oil exposure on the flight ability and body condition of birds are difficult to assess in situ. This study utilizes the homing pigeon as a surrogate species for migratory birds to investigate the effect of multiple external oil exposures on the flight performance and body mass change of birds over a series of repeated flights from 136...
May 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525817/comparative-analysis-of-element-concentrations-and-translocation-in-three-wetland-congener-plants-typha-domingensis-typha-latifolia-and-typha-angustifolia
#5
Giuseppe Bonanno, Giuseppe Luigi Cirelli
This study analyzed the concentrations and distributions of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in three different cattail species growing spontaneously in a natural wetland subject to municipal wastewater and metal contamination. The cattail species included Typha domingensis, T. latifolia and T. angustifolia. Results showed that all Typha species have similar element concentrations in roots, rhizomes and leaves, and similar element mobility from sediments to roots and from roots to leaves. This study corroborated three patterns of Typha species growing in metal contaminated environments: high tolerance to toxic conditions, bulk element concentrations in roots, and restricted element translocation from roots to leaves...
May 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525816/evaluation-of-the-toxicity-of-herbicide-topramezone-to-chlorella-vulgaris-oxidative-stress-cell-morphology-and-photosynthetic-activity
#6
Fangfang Zhao, Qingqing Xiang, Ying Zhou, Xiao Xu, Xinyi Qiu, Yi Yu, Farooq Ahmad
Topramezone is a new, highly selective herbicide of pyrazole structure for the post-emergence control of broadleaf and grass weeds in corn. In this study, the effects of topramezone on C. vulgaris, especially in relation to the cell growth, oxidative stress, cell morphology and photosynthetic activity were assessed. Results showed that topramezone treatment was detrimental to C. vulgaris growth during the 24-96h of exposure. The changes in cells pigments content and relative transcript of photosynthesis-related genes, which implies that topramezone disrupted the photosynthetic system...
May 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525815/an-integrated-approach-to-study-the-risk-from-landfill-soil-of-delhi-chemical-analyses-in-vitro-assays-and-human-risk-assessment
#7
Swati, Pooja Ghosh, Indu Shekhar Thakur
In the present study, landfill soil of three municipal solid waste landfill sites of Delhi, India were toxico-chemically analyzed for human risk assessment as inadequate information is available on the possible health effects of the contaminants present in landfill soil. The landfill soil samples were prepared for analyzing heavy metal concentration, organic contaminants and toxicity analysis separately. Composite soil sample collected from three landfill sites were analyzed for heavy metal by ICP-AES. Metal concentration so obtained was below the permissible limit of soil but higher than the set limits for effluent...
May 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525814/risk-assessment-of-triclosan-in-the-global-environment-using-a-probabilistic-approach
#8
Jiahua Guo, Hisato Iwata
The occurrence of antimicrobial agent triclosan (TCS) in the global aquatic and terrestrial environment is an emerging concern. While risk assessment for TCS is available in certain countries, no studies have attempted to assess the risk of TCS worldwide. This could be due to lack of method to characterize the global exposure. The present study therefore proposed a probabilistic-based approach to approximate the percent-ranked measured environmental concentrations (MECs) by estimating exposure concentration distribution (ECD) for different environmental compartments on a global scale, incorporating approximate 1200 single MECs...
May 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525813/ammonia-stress-on-nitrogen-metabolism-in-tolerant-aquatic-plant-myriophyllum-aquaticum
#9
Qingyang Zhou, Jingqing Gao, Ruimin Zhang, Ruiqin Zhang
Ammonia has been a major reason of macrophyte decline in the water environment, and ammonium ion toxicity should be seen as universal, even in species frequently labeled as "NH4(+) specialists". To study the effects of high NH4(+)-N stress of ammonium ion nitrogen on tolerant submerged macrophytes and investigate the pathways of nitrogen assimilation in different organisms, Myriophyllum aquaticum was selected and treated with various concentrations of ammonium ions at different times. Increasing of ammonium concentration leads to an overall increase in incipient ammonia content in leaves and stems of plants...
May 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505484/arsenic-speciation-in-the-phloem-exudates-of-rice-and-its-role-in-arsenic-accumulation-in-rice-grains
#10
Wenling Ye, Jingjing Zhang, Ting Fan, Hongjuan Lu, Haiyan Chen, Xuede Li, Rimao Hua
Arsenic (As) speciation in the phloem sap of rice plants and its role in As accumulation in rice grains remain largely uncharacterized. In the present study, we tested As chemical species in the phloem exudates of rice treated with arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)], or dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)]. As(V) was the main species (58%) in the phloem exudates of As(V)-exposed rice, whereas As(III) predominated (69%) in As(III)-exposed rice. A large proportion of As(V) (41-45%) was observed in the phloem exudates when rice was treated with methylated As species...
May 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505483/the-effects-of-ingested-aqueous-aluminum-on-floral-fidelity-and-foraging-strategy-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#11
Ana M Chicas-Mosier, Bree A Cooper, Alexander M Melendez, Melina Pérez, Devrim Oskay, Charles I Abramson
Pollinator decline is of international concern because of the economic services these organisms provide. Commonly cited sources of decline are toxicants, habitat fragmentation, and parasites. Toxicant exposure can occur through uptake and distribution from plant tissues and resources such as pollen and nectar. Metals such as aluminum can be distributed to pollinators and other herbivores through this route especially in acidified or mined areas. A free-flying artificial flower patch apparatus was used to understand how two concentrations of aluminum (2mg/L and 20mg/L) may affect the learning, orientation, and foraging behaviors of honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Turkey...
May 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505482/conservation-efforts-of-captive-golden-takin-budorcas-taxicolor-bedfordi-are-potentially-compromised-by-the-elevated-chemical-elements-exposure
#12
Qiang Liu, Yi-Ping Chen, Lorraine Maltby, Qing-Yi Ma
Chemical elements exposure of endangered golden takins (Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi) living in the Qinling Mountains and in a captive breeding center was assessed by analyzing fecal samples. Concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Se were significantly higher in the feces of captive golden takins than the wild. There was no significant difference in the fecal concentrations of Cd, Mn, Hg, Pb or Zn for wild and captive animals. The element concentration of fecal samples collected from captive animals varied seasonally, with concentrations being lowest in spring and highest in winter and/or autumn...
May 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505481/altered-development-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-leptodactylus-chaquensis-anura-leptodactylidae-larvae-exposed-to-poultry-litter
#13
L M Curi, P M Peltzer, C Martinuzzi, M A Attademo, S Seib, M F Simoniello, R C Lajmanovich
Poultry litter (PL), which is usually used as organic fertilizer, is a source of nutrients, metals, veterinary pharmaceuticals and bacterial pathogens, which, through runoff, may end up in the nearest aquatic ecosystems. In this study, Leptodactylus chaquensis at different development stages (eggs, larval stages 28 and 31 here referred to as stages I, II and III respectively) were exposed to PL test sediments as follows: 6.25% (T1), 12.5% (T2); 25% (T3); 50% (T4); 75% (T5); 100% PL (T6) and to dechlorinated water as control...
May 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501730/larvicidal-activity-of-vegetable-oils-and-esterified-compounds-against-culex-quinquefasciatus-diptera-culicidae
#14
José A Ribeiro-Neto, Maria Eduarda A Pinto, Vanessa V Ferreira, Jacqueline D Tibúrcio, Fernando P Varotti, Dihego O Azevedo, Ezequias P Siqueira-Filho, José E Serrão, Luciana A Santos Lima, Stenio Nunes Alves
Control of Culex quinquefasciatus using chemical insecticides may result in the selection of resistant mosquito strains. Thus, the use of plant-derived products has been studied as alternative for the mosquito control. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils may result in compounds with larvicidal potential against C. quinquefasciatus. However, little is known about the morphological, physiological or biochemical effects that these FAMEs may have on mosquito larvae...
May 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500894/mercury-induced-oxidative-stress-dna-damage-and-activation-of-antioxidative-system-and-hsp70-induction-in-duckweed-lemna-minor
#15
Tingting Zhang, Qianqian Lu, Chunlei Su, Yaru Yang, Dan Hu, Qinsong Xu
Mercury uptake and its effects on physiology, biochemistry and genomic stability were investigated in Lemna minor after 2 and 6d of exposure to 0-30μM Hg. The accumulation of Hg increased in a concentration- and duration-dependent manner, and was positively correlated with the leaf damage. Oxidative stress after Hg exposure was evidenced in L. minor by a significant decrease in photosynthetic pigments, an increase in malondialdehyde and lipoxygenase activities (total enzyme activity and isoenzymes activity)...
May 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499129/occurrence-of-antimicrobial-resistance-bacteria-in-the-yodo-river-basin-japan-and-determination-of-beta-lactamases-producing-bacteria
#16
Naoyuki Yamashita, Yohei Katakawa, Hiroaki Tanaka
Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are widespread in aquatic environments. The aim of the present study was to obtain information on the occurrence of bacteria with antimicrobial resistance and their multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) patterns in a river basin in Japan. In addition, the occurrence of fecal bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) in the aquatic environment was determined. Among the Escherichia coli isolates recovered from river samples upstream, 55% isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial and 18% were MAR...
May 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499128/stress-induced-by-heavy-metals-on-breeding-of-magpie-pica-pica-from-central-iran
#17
Mohammad Zarrintab, Rouhollah Mirzaei
The aim of this study was to address the impacts of some heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu) contamination on laying behavior, egg quality and breeding performance of Pica pica in north of Isfahan Province, Iran. During the breeding season of 2013, magpie's egg content and eggshell as well as nestling excrements and feathers were collected and total concentrations of heavy metals were measured by ICP-OES. Except for Zn in nestling feathers, the significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals were observed in nestling excrements than other samples...
May 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494313/heavy-metals-translocation-and-accumulation-from-the-rhizosphere-soils-to-the-edible-parts-of-the-medicinal-plant-fengdan-paeonia-ostii-grown-on-a-metal-mining-area-china
#18
Zhang Jun Shen, De Cong Xu, Yan Song Chen, Zhen Zhang
Fengdan (Paeonia ostii) is one of Chinese 34 famous medicinal materials. This study investigated the concentrations of Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), and Zinc (Zn) in rhizosphere soils, cortex mouton and seeds of Fengdan planted in a metal mining area, China. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, and Zn in the rhizosphere soils were above the limits set by the Chinese Soil Environmental Quality Standard (GB 15618-1995). The contamination factor (CF) of Cd was >5, while it was >2for As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in all the soils...
May 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486145/effects-of-florfenicol-on-the-antioxidant-status-detoxification-system-and-biomolecule-damage-in-the-swimming-crab-portunus-trituberculatus
#19
Xianyun Ren, Zhuqing Wang, Baoquan Gao, Ping Liu, Jian Li
Florfenicol (FLR) is the most commonly used antibacterial agent in aquaculture because of its wide spectrum of activity and few side-effects. We characterized the toxicokinetics of FLR in the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) after intravenous (IV) dosing (20, 40 and 80mg/kg). The results showed that FLR significantly suppressed the antioxidant system of the hepatopancreas. FLR induced transcriptional expression of phase I and phase II detoxification genes (CYP3 and GST, respectively) in a dose- and clearance time-dependent manner and altered the expression of their corresponding enzymes (erythromycin N-demethylase and glutathione S-transferase, respectively)...
May 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486144/impacts-of-uvb-radiation-on-food-consumption-of-forest-specialist-tadpoles
#20
James Eduardo Lago Londero, Caroline Peripolli Dos Santos, Ana Lúcia Anversa Segatto, André Passaglia Schuch
Solar ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) is an important environmental stressor for amphibian populations due to its genotoxicity, especially in early developmental stages. Nonetheless, there is an absence of works focused on the UVB effects on tadpoles' food consumption efficiency. In this work, we investigated the effects of the exposure to a low environmental-simulated dose of UVB radiation on food consumption of tadpoles of the forest specialist Hypsiboas curupi [Hylidae, Anura] species. After UVB treatment tadpoles were divided and exposed to a visible light source or kept in the dark, in order to indirectly evaluate the efficiency of DNA repair performed by photolyases and nucleotide excision repair (NER), respectively...
May 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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