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Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety

Chengjiao Duan, Linchuan Fang, Congli Yang, Weibin Chen, Yongxing Cui, Shiqing Li
Enzymes in the soil are vital for assessing heavy metal soil pollution. Although the presence of heavy metals is thought to change the soil enzyme system, the distribution of enzyme activities in heavy metal polluted-soil is still unknown. For the first time, using soil zymography, we analyzed the distribution of enzyme activities of alfalfa rhizosphere and soil surface in the metal-contaminated soil. The results showed that the growth of alfalfa was significantly inhibited, and an impact that was most pronounced in seedling biomass and chlorophyll content...
March 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Juliana M Saez, Ana L Bigliardo, Enzo E Raimondo, Gabriela E Briceño, Marta A Polti, Claudia S Benimeli
The biomixture is the major constituent of a biopurification system and one of the most important factors in its efficiency; hence the selection of the components is crucial to ensure the efficient pesticides removal. Besides, bioaugmentation is an interesting approach for the optimization of these systems. A mixed culture of the fungus Trametes versicolor SGNG1 and the actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. A2, A5, A11, and M7, was designed to inoculate the biomixtures, based on previously demonstrated ligninolytic and pesticide-degrading activities and the absence of antagonism among the strains...
March 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Rim Mtibaà, Dario Rafael Olicón-Hernández, Clementina Pozo, Moncef Nasri, Tahar Mechichi, Jesus González, Elisabet Aranda
Four different laccase-producing strains were isolated from arid soils and used for bisphenol A (BPA) degradation. These strains were identified as Chaetomium strumarium G5I, Thielavia arenaria CH9, Thielavia arenaria HJ22 and Thielavia arenaria SM1(III) by internal transcribed spacer 5.8 S rDNA analysis. Residual BPA was evaluated by HPLC analysis during 48 h of incubation. A complete removal of BPA was observed by the whole cell fungal cultures within different times, depending on each strain. C. strumarium G5I was the most efficient degrader, showing 100% of removal within 8 h of incubation...
March 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Zhen Yu, Rui Hao, Liang Zhang, Yi Zhu
Nanoparticles (NPs) are inevitably released into the aquatic environment for being widely used and may affect the toxicity of other contaminants already present in the environment, such as trace metals. However, the effects of NPs on the ecotoxicity of cadmium (Cd), a common environmental trace metal pollutant, are not well explored. In this study, effects of four widely used NPs TiO2 (n-TiO2 ), SiO2 (n-SiO2 ), Ag (n-Ag) and CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QD) on the toxicity of Cd to the freshwater algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were assessed respectively...
March 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yanan Wan, Aboubacar Younoussa Camara, Qingqing Huang, Yao Yu, Qi Wang, Huafen Li
The accumulation of arsenic (As) in rice grain is a potential threat to human health. Our study investigated the possible mediatory role of selenite fertilization on As uptake and accumulation by rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different water management regimes (aerobic or flooded) in a pot experiment. Soil solutions were also extracted during the growing season to monitor As dynamics. Results showed that As contents in the soil solutions, seedlings, and mature rice were higher under flooded than under aerobic water management...
March 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Matthew Osse, Jean-François Hamel, Annie Mercier
In spite of increasing naval activities and petroleum exploration in cold environments, there is currently a paucity of tools available to monitor oil contamination in boreal marine life, especially in sedentary (non-fish) species that dominate benthic communities. This research aimed to identify biotic sources of variation in biomarkers using subarctic echinoderms, and to identify suitable biomarkers of their exposure to hydrocarbons. The focal species included the sea star Asterias rubens, the brittle star Ophiopholis aculeata, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa, which are among the most abundant echinoderms in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans...
March 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jing Lu, Haipu Li, Yi Tu, Zhaoguang Yang
Parabens are preservatives widely used in foodstuffs, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, which have led to elevated paraben concentrations in wastewater and receiving waters. Laboratory-scale batch experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption and degradation of parabens in an aerobic activated sludge system. Results show that biodegradation plays a key role in removing parabens from the aerobic system of wastewater treatment plants, while adsorption on the sludge is not significant. The effects of parent paraben concentration, concentration of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), initial pH and temperature on degradation were investigated using kinetic models...
March 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Nuran Cikcikoglu Yildirim, Mehtap Tanyol, Numan Yildirim, Osman Serdar, Sule Tatar
The current study was aimed to investigate the detoxifying and antioxidant enzyme response of Gammarus pulex exposed to malachite green (MG) after decolorization by Coriolus versicolor. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize the decolorization conditions of MG synthetic solutions by C. versicolor. Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPX ), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) activities in G...
March 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Mengjuan Shi, Cunli Zhang, Ivan Fan Xia, Siu To Cheung, Kwong Sen Wong, Ka-Hing Wong, Doris W T Au, David E Hinton, Kevin W H Kwok
Selenium (Se) is an essential element and its biological activity is related to its speciation. It is also well-known that in excess it can cause teratogenesis in fish and birds. In this study we compared dietary toxicity of elemental selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with selenite and selenomethionine (Se-Met). Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) was used as a laboratory model to determine Se effects on adults and their offspring. Adult females were individually exposed using a dry diet fortified with 0, 10 or 20 µg/g of the three Se species for 7 days and then allowed to breed for 3 days...
March 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Valentina Filimonova, Marleen De Troch, Fernando Gonçalves, João C Marques, Sérgio M Marques, Ana M M Gonçalves, Frederik De Laender
Pesticides and metals are often used in agriculture and are therefore often simultaneously discharged to nearby estuarine and marine areas. The effects of this organic-inorganic chemical mixture on food quality of aquatic organisms are currently unknown. In this study we test if a mixture of copper (inorganic) and the herbicide Primextra® Gold TZ (organic) affects the quality of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii and the copepod Acartia tonsa - two key species that fuel the local food-web. We quantified quality (i...
March 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Célia Fernandes, Etelvina Figueira, Romà Tauler, Carmen Bedia
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a worldwide used pesticide that raises concerns from the environmental and human health perspectives. The presence of pesticides such as CPF in edible vegetables has been already reported, but little is known about the effects induced by this pesticide stress on the morphology, oxidative response and lipid composition of treated plants. In this work, green bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were exposed to increasing concentrations of CPF and the different plant parts (roots, stem bases, stem, leaves, pods and beans) were subjected to different analyses...
March 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ji-Liang Zhang, Min Liu, Chun-Nuan Zhang, Er-Chao Li, Ming-Zhen Fan, Mao-Xian Huang
The brain of fish displays sexual dimorphisms and exhibits remarkable sexual plasticity throughout their life span. Although reproductive toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) in fish is well documented in fish, it remains unknown whether TBT interrupts sexual dimorphisms of fish brains. In this work, brain transcriptomic profiles of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was characterized and sex-biased genes were identified using RNA sequencing. Functional annotation and enrichment analysis were performed to reveal differences of gene products and pathways between the brains of male and female fish...
March 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Muhammad Fiaz, Luis Carlos Martínez, Marilza da Silva Costa, Jamile Fernanda Silva Cossolin, Angelica Plata-Rueda, Wagner Gonzaga Gonçalves, Antônio Euzébio Goulart Sant'Ana, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
Annonaceous acetogenins (Annona squamosa Linnaeus) comprises of a series of natural products which are extracted from Annonaceae species, squamocin proved to be highly efficient among those agents. Squamocin is mostly referred as a lethal agent for midgut cells of different insects, with toxic effects when tested against larva of some insects. In present study, LC50 and LC90 of squamocin for A. gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were calculated using probit analysis. Morphological changes in midgut cells were analyzed under light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopes when larvae were treated with LC50 and LC90 of squamocin for 24, 48 and 72 h...
March 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Thaís Maylin Sobjak, Silvia Romão, Luisa Helena Cazarolli, Silvio César Sampaio, Marcelo Bevilacqua Remor, Ana Tereza Bittencourt Guimarães
The use of multiple biomarkers has been shown to be an efficient method for evaluating environmental contamination. In this work, we evaluate neurotoxic effects and the antioxidant system responses of the R. branneri collected in two streams of lower Iguazu River basin, relating them with different percentage of vegetation coverture, presence of pesticides and fall and winter seasons. The biological samples were collected in March and August of 2015, from two streams that belong to the lower Iguazu River basin (Brazil): the Manoel Gomes River and the Arquimedes Stream...
March 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jiho Lee, Eunhye Kim, Yongho Shin, Junghak Lee, Jonghwa Lee, Joon-Kwan Moon, Hoon Choi, Wolfgang Maasfeld, Jeong-Han Kim
This study examined dermal and inhalation exposure of agricultural operators to kresoxim-methyl during pesticide mixing/loading and speed sprayer application (10 replicates, each of 3000 L of spray suspension) in an apple orchard and performed risk assessment. For the whole body dosimetry (WBD) exposure protocol, outer clothing, inner clothing, gauze, and nitrile gloves were examined to measure dermal exposure. In contrast, an IOM (institute of occupational medicine) sampler with a glass fiber filter was used to measure inhalation exposure...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Clement O Ogunkunle, Mahboob A Jimoh, Nnaemeka T Asogwa, K Viswanathan, Vinita Vishwakarma, Paul O Fatoba
Increased use of nanoparticles-based products in agriculture portends important implications for agriculture. Therefore, the impact of nano-copper particles (<25 nm and 60-80 nm) on Cu uptake, bioaccumulation (roots, leaves and seeds), activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots of Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) was studied. Plants were exposed to four levels (0, 125, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) of 25 nm or 60-80 nm nano-Cu for 65 days...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Nader R Abdelsalam, Ahmed Abdel-Megeed, Hayssam M Ali, Mohamed Z M Salem, Muwafaq F A Al-Hayali, Mohamed S Elshikh
The distribution and use of nanoparticles have rapidly increased over recent years, but the available knowledge regarding their mode of action, ecological tolerance and biodegradability remains insufficient. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important crop worldwide. In the current study, the effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) obtained from two different sources, namely, green and chemical syntheses, on chromosomal aberrations and cell division were investigated. Wheat root tips were treated with four different AgNP concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 50 ppm) for three different exposure durations (8, 16 and 24 h), and the different concentrations of the nanoparticles were added to the tested grains until the root lengths reached 1...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ceyda Ozfidan-Konakci, Evren Yildiztugay, Mustafa Bahtiyar, Mustafa Kucukoduk
The using of bio-stimulant in plants grown under stress conditions for enhancing nutrition efficiency and crop quality traits is an effective approach. One of the bio-stimulants, humus material, is defined as humic acid (HA). HA application as a promotion of plant growth to plants grown in the heavy metals-contaminated soils has promised hope in terms of effects on plants but the its limiting effect is the application dose. Therefore, the wheat seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture for 21 d and the various concentrations of humic acid (HA; 750 or 1500 mg L-1 ) were treated alone or in combination with cadmium (Cd) stress (100 or 200 μM) for 7 d...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
M D Ruiz, A Iriel, M S Yusseppone, N Ortiz, P Di Salvatore, A Fernández Cirelli, M C Ríos de Molina, J A Calcagno, S E Sabatini
This study investigated metal accumulation and oxidative effects in mantle, gill and digestive gland of the ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra from the Argentinean North Patagonian coastline. Mussels were transplanted over an 18-month period from a site with low anthropogenic impact to a harbor site with higher seawater concentration of aluminum, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel and zinc. Total trace metal concentration in seawater did not change throughout the 18-month transplant in either site. A. atra bioaccumulated metals in digestive gland, gills and mantle at different levels...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Alexandra S Maia, Maria Elizabeth Tiritan, Paula M L Castro
Fluoroquinolones are a class of antibiotics widely prescribed in both human and veterinary medicine of high environmental concern and characterized as environmental micropollutants due to their ecotoxicity and persistence and antibacterial resistance potential. Ofloxacin and levofloxacin are chiral fluoroquinolones commercialized as racemate and in enantiomerically pure form, respectively. Since the pharmacological properties and toxicity of the enantiomers may be very different, understanding the stereochemistry of these compounds should be a priority in environmental monitoring...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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