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Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety

Marina Khandarkhaeva, Agniya Batoeva, Denis Aseev, Marina Sizykh, Oyuna Tsydenova
The oxidation of s-triazines (using atrazine (ATZ) as a model compound) by a solar-enhanced Fenton-like process involving persulfate and ferrous ion was studied. A flow-through tubular photoreactor was employed for the experiments. The solar-enhanced oxidative system involving ferrous ion and persulfate (Solar/S2O8(2-)/Fe(2+)) showed the highest ATZ degradation efficiency when compared with other treatments (unactivated S2O8(2-), Solar - sunlight only, S2O8(2-)/Fe(2+), Solar/S2O8(2-)). Complete degradation of ATZ and 20% reduction in total organic carbon (TOC) content were observed after 30min of the treatment...
November 28, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Wenying Yi, Kunliang Yang, Jinshao Ye, Yan Long, Jing Ke, Huase Ou
Although triphenyltin (TPT) degradation pathway has been determined, information about the enzyme and protein networks involved was severely limited. To this end, a cytochrome P450 hydroxylase (CYP450) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), namely E. coli pET32a-CYP450, whose dosage at 1gL(-1) could degrade 54.6% TPT at 1mgL(-1) within 6 d through attacking the carbon-tin bonds of TPT by CYP450. Sequence analysis verified that the CYP450 gene had a 1214bp open reading frame, encoding a protein with 404 amino acids...
November 28, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Petra Cvjetko, Anita Milošić, Ana-Marija Domijan, Ivana Vinković Vrček, Sonja Tolić, Petra Peharec Štefanić, Ilse Letofsky-Papst, Mirta Tkalec, Biljana Balen
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the dominating nanomaterial in consumer products due to their well-known antibacterial and antifungal properties. To enhance their properties, different surface coatings may be used, which affect physico-chemical properties of AgNPs. Due to their wide application, there has been concern about possible environmental and health consequences. Since plants play a significant role in accumulation and biodistribution of many environmentally released substances, they are also very likely to be influenced by AgNPs...
November 25, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yuh-Wen Chiu, Fang-Ling Yeh, Bao-Sen Shieh, Chien-Min Chen, Hong-Thih Lai, Shu-Yin Wang, Da-Ji Huang
The present study established a fast and convenient bioassay method for aqueous ecosystems using the prawn estradiol equivalent concentration (p-EEQ) of male Macrobrachium nipponense, which produce vitellogenin (VTG) after exposure to xeno-estrogens. This method was then used to determine the concentrations of xeno-estrogen pollutants in the rivers of Taiwan. To establish the calibration curve for the concentrations based on the p-EEQ, the induced VTG content was determined using the alkali-labile phosphate method after male M...
November 22, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Stephanie Schiffer, Karsten Liber
Vanadium (V) is an abundant trace metal present in bitumen from the Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) region in Alberta, Canada. The upgrading of bitumen can result in the production of large volumes of a carbonaceous material referred to as petroleum coke that contains V at elevated levels compared to the native bitumen. Previous studies have shown that coke has the capacity to leach ecotoxicologically relevant levels of V into water it contacts, yet limited data are available on the toxicity of aqueous V to planktonic organisms...
November 18, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Hortênsia S Gripp, Juliane S Freitas, Eduardo A Almeida, Márcia C Bisinoti, Altair B Moreira
Amphibians are very sensitive to environmental change and pollution because they have both aquatic and terrestrial life cycle stages and high skin permeability. Particularly during the larval stages, when these animals are restricted to small, transient ponds, exposure to high concentrations of pesticides is inevitable in agricultural areas. Given that pesticide application increases during the summer, which coincides with the reproductive season and the occurrence of most neotropical tadpoles in their natural environment, strong indications exist that tadpoles are developing in contaminated ponds...
November 18, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Negin Salamat, Abdolali Movahedinia, Parvin Kheradmand
The present investigation aimed to assess the possibility of using plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) hormone and tissue changes of hematopoietic organs as biomarkers of environmental pollution in abu mullet (Liza abu) and tiger tooth croaker (Otolithes ruber) collected from Musa Creek (northwest of the Persian Gulf). 120 L. abu and O. ruber were collected from five stations at the Musa Creek: Petrochemical, Ghanam, Doragh, Zangi and Patil stations. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal vein. Tissue samples were also taken from the spleen and head kidney, and tissue sections were prepared according to routine histological methods...
November 17, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ya Wang, Chunhua Zhang, Yanheng Zheng, Ying Ge
This study investigated the dynamic variations in thiol compounds, including cysteine (Cys), glutathione (GSH), and phytochelatins (PCs), in Dunaliella salina samples exposed to arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] under various phosphate (PO4(3-)) regimes. Our results showed that GSH was the major non-protein sulfhydryl compound in D. salina cells. As(III) and As(V) induced PC syntheses in D. salina. PC2, PC3, and PC4 were all found in algal cells; the PC concentrations decreased gradually while exposed to As for 3 d...
November 16, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Aleksandra Golob, Jan Kavčič, Vekoslava Stibilj, Alenka Gaberščik, Katarina Vogel-Mikuš, Mateja Germ
UV radiation as an evolutionarily important environmental factor, significantly affects plants traits and alters the effects of other environmental factors. Single and combined effects of ambient UV radiation, its exclusion, and Se foliar treatments on Si concentrations and production of Si phytoliths in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. 'Reska' were studied. The effects of these treatments on growth parameters of the plants, structural and biochemical traits of the leaves, and interactions of the leaves with light, as Si incrustation is the first barrier to light at the leaf surface were also examined...
November 16, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
He Yan-Bing, Huang Dao-You, Zhu Qi-Hong, Wang Shuai, Liu Shou-Long, He Hai-Bo, Zhu Han-Hua, Xu Chao
To mitigate the serious problem of Cd-contaminated paddy soil, we investigated the remediation potential of combining in-situ immobilization with a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar. A three-season field experiment compared the soil pH, available Cd and absorption of Cd by three rice cultivars with different Cd accumulation abilities grown in Cd-contaminated paddy soil amended with lime (L), slag (S), and bagasse (B) alone or in combination. The three amendments applied alone and in combination significantly increased soil pH, reduced available Cd and absorption of Cd by rice with no effect on grain yield...
November 15, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
D Parrinello, A Bellante, M G Parisi, M A Sanfratello, S Indelicato, D Piazzese, M Cammarata
Toxic metals, such as mercury, contribute substantially to anthropogenic pollution in many estuarine environments. Animals living in those environments, particularly invertebrate filter feeders like tunicates, can be used as bioindicators. In an attempt to identify cellular markers for revealing pollution, this study examined in vitro the effects of different concentrations of methyl mercury on Styela plicata hemocytes. The harvested hemocytes from S. plicata that were exposed to the metal had a significant mortality, cellular count and morphometric alterations...
November 11, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Michał Kołtowski, Barbara Charmas, Jadwiga Skubiszewska-Zięba, Patryk Oleszczuk
The objective of the study was to determine the effect of various methods of biochar activation on the ecotoxicity of soils with various properties and with various content and origin of contaminants. The biochar produced from willow (at 700°C) was activated by 1) microwaves (in a microwave reactor under an atmosphere of water vapour), 2) carbon dioxide (in the quartz fluidized bed reactor) and 3) superheated steam (in the quartz fluidized bed reactor). Three different soils were collected from industrial areas...
November 11, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Patrick O Welsh, Cynthia A Paszkowski, Keith B Tierney
In northern urban areas, wastewater treatment ponds (WWTPs) may provide a thermal refuge during winter (~10°C) that is used by normally migratory mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). On the ponds, mallards may experience stress due to crowding, or through the ingestion of WWTP water, be exposed to a diverse array of synthetic chemicals, which may have adverse health effects. Photographic sampling was used to assess mallard sex ratios and behavioural patterns throughout the late winter on wastewater ponds in Edmonton, Canada...
November 8, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Chen Fengxian, Hai Reti
The genotoxicity values of 21 quinolones were studied to establish a quantitative structure-activity relationship model and 3D Pharmacophore model separately for screening essential positions and substituents that contribute to genotoxicity of fluoroquinolones (FQs). A full factor experimental design was performed to analyze the specific main effect and second-order interaction effect of different positions and substituents on genotoxicity, forming a reasonable modification scheme which was validated on typical FQ with genotoxicity and efficacy data...
November 8, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Cátia S A Santos, Ricardo Brandão, Marta S Monteiro, Ana C Bastos, Amadeu M V M Soares, Susana Loureiro
Over the past decades, the presence of micronucleated blood cells has been used to detect genotoxic effects of xenobiotics in fish, amphibians and birds. This study assessed the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of individuals of Ardea cinerea and Ciconia ciconia retrieved for rehabilitation in order to evaluate the influence of age, temporal and spatial factors on the occurrence of DNA damage in Portuguese wild birds. Blood smears from 65 birds with different life-history backgrounds (e...
November 7, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sharareh Dehghani, Farid Moore, Behnam Keshavarzi, Beverley A Hale
In this study a total of 30 street dusts and 10 surface soils were collected in the central district of Tehran and analyzed for major potentially toxic metals. Street dust was found to be greatly enriched in Sb, Pb, Cu and Zn and moderately enriched in Cr, Mn, Mo and Ni. Contamination of Cu, Sb, Pb and Zn was clearly related to anthropogenic sources such as brake wear, tire dust, road abrasion and fossil fuel combustion. Spatial distribution of pollution load index in street dust suggested that industries located south-west of the city intensify street dust pollution...
November 5, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
E C López González, A Larriera, P A Siroski, G L Poletta
This study aimed to evaluate the embryotoxicity and genotoxicity of pesticide commercial formulations widely used in soybean crops through the Micronucleus (MN) test and other Nuclear Abnormalities (NAs) in erythrocytes of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), exposed by topical application through the eggshell. Embryos were exposed (during all incubation: 70 days approximately) to sub-lethal concentrations of two glyphosate formulations PanzerGold® (PANZ) and Roundup® Full II (RU) (500, 750, 1000µg/egg); to the endosulfan (END) formulation Galgofan® and the cypermethrin (CYP) formulation Atanor® (1, 10, 100, and 1000µg/ egg)...
November 4, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jun Wang, Wei Wang, Hua Tian, Xiaona Zhang, Shaoguo Ru
Vitellogenin (Vtg) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a recommended biomarker endpoint for detecting estrogenic activity of chemicals under the OECD test guidelines. The present paper reports the development of a sensitive and rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of zebrafish Vtg based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against lipovitellin (Lv), the major yolk protein derived from Vtg. The purified Lv was used to immunize mice and the spleen cells of mice were fused with myeloma cells...
November 4, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jessica R Holan, Catherine K King, Bianca J Sfiligoj, Andrew R Davis
Investigating the impacts of contamination on high latitude ecosystems includes determining the sensitivity of key taxa to contaminants. Unique characteristics, arising from adaption to cold and stable temperatures has likely resulted in marine biota at the poles being particularly sensitive to contamination in comparison to related species at lower latitudes. We aimed to determine the sensitivity of three species of common and ecologically important subantarctic gastropods to copper. This is the first study to investigate the sensitivity of subantarctic marine gastropods to contamination...
November 3, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Danieli Conte, Jussara Kasuko Palmeiro, Keite da Silva Nogueira, Thiago Marenda Rosa de Lima, Marco André Cardoso, Roberto Pontarolo, Flávia Lada Degaut Pontes, Libera Maria Dalla-Costa
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are widespread in hospitals and have been increasingly isolated from aquatic environments. The aim of the present study was to characterize extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and quinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from a hospital effluent, sanitary effluent, inflow sewage, aeration tank, and outflow sewage within a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), as well as river water upstream and downstream (URW and DRW, respectively), of the point where the WWTP treated effluent was discharged...
November 3, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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