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Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety

Xiuduan Chen, Xinwei Lu
As soil-extractable elements potentially pose ecological and health risks, identifying their contamination characteristics and sources is crucial. Therefore, to understand topsoil trace elements in the urban ring zone from the Second Ring Road to the Third Ring of Xi'an city in China, we determined the concentrations of Zn, Co, V, As, Cu, Mn, Ba, Ni and Pb, and analyzed the sources of the contamination. The results showed that the individual pollution indices of Pb, Co, Cu, Zn, Ba, Ni, Mn, As, and V were 1...
January 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Mohamed E M Ali, Azza M Abd El-Aty, Mohamed I Badawy, Rizka K Ali
Pharmaceutical compounds are considered emerging environmental pollutants that have a potential harmful impact on environment and human health. In this study, the biomass of alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) was modified using alkaline solution, and used for the biosorption of tramadol (TRAM) and other pharmaceuticals. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were investigated. The obtained results reveal high adsorption capacity of tramadol over modified algal biomass (MAB) after 45min with removal percentage of 91%...
January 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Subhodeep Sarker, Deepti Vashistha, Munmun Saha Sarker, A Sarkar
Molecular biomarkers are used world wide for quick assessment of the immediate effect of environmental pollution on marine ecosystems. Recently, we evaluated oxidative stress responses of marine rock oyster, Saccostrea cucullata impacted due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in their tissues at a few sampling sites along the coast of Goa around the region of the Arabian sea coast, India (Sarkar et al., 2017). Using a combination of partial alkaline unwinding and comet assays, we now report a comprehensive study on the impairment of DNA integrity (DI) in S...
January 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Klaiani B Fontana, Giane G Lenzi, Eriton C R Seára, Eduardo S Chaves
The oxidation of As(III) to As(V) in aqueous solution was evaluated using heterogeneous photocatalysis and photolysis. The influence of TiO2 as catalyst in different crystalline (rutile, anatase) and commercial forms was evaluated in a batch reactor and an insignificant difference was observed between them. The process by photocatalysis reached up to 97% As(III) oxidation and no significant difference was observed comparing to results obtained by photolysis. The photolysis experiments (UV radiation only), also carried out in a batch system, showed a high oxidation rate of As(III) (90% in 20min)...
January 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Brindha Appavu, Sivakumar Thiripuranthagan, Sudhakar Ranganathan, Elangovan Erusappan, Kathiravan Kannan
Herein, we report the synthesis of novel nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide/ BiVO4 photo catalyst by single step hydrothermal method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized using XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, Raman, XPS, SEM TEM, DRS-UV and EIS techniques. The synthesized catalysts were tested for their catalytic activity in the photo degradation of some harmful textile dyes (methylene blue & congo red) and antibiotics (metronidazole and chloramphenicol) under visible light irradiation...
January 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ruma Ranjan, Navin Kumar, Arvind Kumar Dubey, Ambedkar Gautam, Shyam Narain Pandey, Shekhar Mallick
The present study was intended to investigate the role of algae, Anabaena sp. in the amelioration of As toxicity, when co-cultured with rice seedlings. The reduction of growth in rice seedlings against As(III) and As(V) was recovered with Anabaena sp. The Anabaena sp. also reduced the accumulation of As, where it was more efficient against 60µM As(III) (49%) than As(V) (23%) in rice shoot. Similarly, with reduction of As accumulation, lower silicon transporters (Lsi-1 and Lsi-2) was found to be suppressed against As treatments...
January 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ruichen Zhou, Ruiqiang Yang, Chuanyong Jing
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is a huge area and rarely affected by human activity, and is regarded as one of the most remote regions on the earth. Many studies about the long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were conducted in southern and central TP. However, there are very limited studies focused on PAHs in the western TP and the concentrations profiles, distribution and its controlling factors in this area remains unclear. Thus, to explore this knowledge gap, 37 surface soil samples and 23 lichen samples were collected and analyzed for PAHs...
January 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Emmanuel Temiotan Ogbomida, Shouta M M Nakayama, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Balazs Oroszlany, Isioma Tongo, Alex Ajeh Enuneku, Ogbeide Ozekeke, Martins Oshioriamhe Ainerua, Iriagbonse Priscillia Fasipe, Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Mayumi Ishizuka
The use of free range animals for monitoring environmental health offers opportunities to detect exposure and assess the toxicological effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems. Potential human health risk of dietary intake of metals and metalloid via consumption of offal and muscle of free range chicken, cattle and goats by the urban population in Benin City was evaluated. Muscle, gizzard, liver and kidney samples were analyzed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) while Hg was determined using Hg analyzer...
January 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Saliha Shamshad, Muhammad Shahid, Marina Rafiq, Sana Khalid, Camille Dumat, Muhammad Sabir, Behzad Murtaza, Abu Bakr Umer Farooq, Noor S Shah
Despite significant recent advancement in research, biogeochemical behavior of heavy metals with respect to their applied form is still topical. Moreover, metal toxicity to plants may vary with their stage of development/maturity. Therefore, this study for the first time evaluated the influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) on cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity to germinating and young pea seedlings as well as in younger and older leaves. The experimental setup of current study consisted of two separate studies...
January 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Gagan Preet Singh Sidhu, Aditi Shreeya Bali, Renu Bhardwaj, Harminder Pal Singh, Daizy R Batish, Ravinder Kumar Kohli
Identification and screening of wild, wasteland plants for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils is a crucial phytotechnological approach. In a pot experiment, Chenopodium murale was tested for the phytoextraction of lead (Pb) from the contaminated soils. The experiment was conducted for 8 weeks to appraise the effect of varied Pb regimes (300, 400, 500mgkg-1) on the bioaccumulation and physiological responses of C. murale plants. At 500mgkg-1 Pb regime, the concentration of Pb in roots and shoots reached a maximum of 2513 and 2301mgkg-1 DW, respectively...
January 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Marina Peluffo, Janina A Rosso, Irma S Morelli, Verónica C Mora
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are neutral, nonpolar and hydrophobic molecules that tend to sorb onto soil organic matter. Chemical oxidation is a good choice to avoid the limitations of bioremediation. To evaluate the efficiency of different types of oxidation (permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, and persulfate) and activation (heat, alkaline, and iron), batch reactors were prepared. The soil was contaminated with phenanthrene and pyrene (1200 ± 200 and 2800 ± 100mg per kg of dry soil, respectively) and aged for fifteen months...
January 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Chih-Ming Ma, Chih-Lun Cheng, Shang-Chieh Lee, Gui-Bing Hong
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of process factors such as ethanol concentration, extraction time and temperature on the extraction yield and the bioactive contents of Tagetes lemmonii leaf extracts using response surface methodology (RSM). ANOVA results showed that the response variables were affected by the ethanol concentration to a very significant degree and by extraction temperature to a lesser degree. GC/MS characterization showed that the extract is rich in bioactive compounds and those present exhibited important biological activities such as antioxidant, insect repellence and insecticidal activities...
January 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xiaoxue Xu, Ya-Nan Zhang, Shuixiu Peng, Jianxun Wu, Daogui Deng, Zhongze Zhou
Nuclear receptor (NR) genes form a conserved superfamily, which is involved in organism metabolism, reproduction, development, homeostasis, and resource allocation. Microcystis aeruginosa can inhibit the growth and reproduction of Daphnia. However, whether M. aeruginosa can affect the expression of Daphnia NR genes is unknown. In total, 18 NRs were identified in this study based on previous Daphnia similoides sinensis transcriptome data. In treatments containing M. aeruginosa, the gene expression of the NR1 subfamily (E75a, E75b, HR3, HR96, NHR-1, HR97a, HR97g, and NHR97) and the NR2 subfamily (RXR, TLL, PNR, and SVP) were down-regulated 59% and 79%, respectively...
January 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
W Tyler Mehler, Jing You, Michael J Keough, Michael J Lydy, Vincent Pettigrove
The push to make bioassays more sensitive has meant an increased duration of testing to look at more chronic endpoints. To conduct these longer bioassays through the use of traditional bioassay methods can be difficult, as many traditional bioassays have employed manual water changes, which take considerable time and effort. To that end, static-renewal systems were designed to provide researchers a technique to ease the manual water change burden. One of the most well-known static-renewal designs, the static intermittent renewal system (STIR) was produced by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1993...
January 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Gabrijel Ondrasek, Zed Rengel, Davor Romic
Naturally-occurring highly-complexed and polymerised organics such as humic acids (HA), due to their large negative charge, play a crucial role in biogeochemistry of trace metals (TM). Toxic (Cd) as well as essential (Zn, Cu, Mn) TM bind strongly to HA, but how these organo-metalic forms influence metal uptake by plants is poorly understood. A solution culture study was conducted to characterize the effects of different concentrations of HA (0-225mg/L) on the growth and element uptake/distribution in roots, shoots and hypocotyls of radish (Raphanus sativus L...
January 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
M Enis Yonar
The aim of this study was to determine protective effects of curcumin on some haematological values and oxidant/antioxidant status in Cyprinus carpio exposed to chlorpyrifos. The fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos (0.040 and 0.080mgL), and curcumin (100mg per kg of fish weight) was simultaneously administered for 14 days. Blood and tissue (liver, kidney, and gill) samples were collected at the end of the experiment and analysed to determine the haematological profile (red blood cell count, white blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, and haematocrit level) and oxidant/antioxidant status (malondialdehyde level and superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase activities) of the fish...
January 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xiangrui Wang, Jianyu Liu, Qiaoguo Tan, Jinqian Ren, Dingyuan Liang, Wenhong Fan
Despite the great progress made in metal-induced toxicity mechanisms, a critical knowledge gap still exists in predicting adverse effects of heavy metals on living organisms in the natural environment, particularly during exposure to multi-metals. In this study, a multi-metal interaction model of Daphnia manga was developed in an effort to provide reasonable explanations regarding the joint effects resulting from exposure to multi-metals. Metallothionein (MT), a widely used biomarker, was selected. In this model, MT was supposed to play the role of a crucial transfer protein rather than detoxifying protein...
January 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
M Azizur Rahman, A Rahman, M Zaved Kaiser Khan, Andre M N Renzaho
Arsenic contamination of drinking water, which can occur naturally or because of human activities such as mining, is the single most important public health issue in Bangladesh. Fifty out of the 64 districts in the country have arsenic concentration of groundwater exceeding 50µgL-1, the Bangladeshi threshold, affecting 35-77 million people or 21-48% of the total population. Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water and other dietary sources is an important public health issue worldwide affecting hundreds of millions of people...
January 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Cheng-Bin Liu, Xiu-Bing Hua, Hong-Wei Liu, Ben Yu, Yu-Xiang Mao, Ding-Yong Wang, Yong-Guang Yin, Li-Gang Hu, Jian-Bo Shi, Gui-Bin Jiang
To trace the most concerned bioavailable mercury (Hg) in aquatic environment, fish samples were collected from three typical regions in China, including 3 rivers and 1 lake in the Tibetan Plateau (TP, a high altitude background region with strong solar radiation), the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, the largest artificial freshwater reservoir in China), and the Chinese Bohai Sea (CBS, a heavily human-impacted semi-enclosed sea). The Hg isotopic compositions in fish muscles were analyzed. The results showed that anthropogenic emissions were the main sources of Hg in fish from TGR and CBS because of the observed negative δ202Hg and positive Δ199Hg in these two regions (TGR, δ202Hg: - 0...
January 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Haifeng Qian, Guangfu Liu, Tao Lu, Liwei Sun
Accumulating evidence suggests that cyanotoxins can exert neurotoxic effects on exposed aquatic organisms but most studies have focused on purified toxins rather than on the more complex effects of cyanobacterial blooms. To evaluate this issue in an environmentally relevant model, we assessed the developmental neurotoxicity induced by Microcystis aeruginosa on newly hatched zebrafish. After four days of exposure, the locomotor activity of zebrafish larvae was significantly decreased with increasing algae concentration...
January 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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