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Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety

Gabor Maasz, Zita Zrinyi, Peter Takacs, Sandor Lovas, Istvan Fodor, Tibor Kiss, Zsolt Pirger
In our previous study, we measured 0.23-13.67ng/L progestogens (progesterone, drospirenone, levonorgestrel) in natural waters in the catchment area of the largest shallow lake of Central Europe, Lake Balaton. Progestogen contaminations act as potent steroids with mixed progestagenic, androgenic and mild estrogenic effects that is why our aim was to investigate the morphological and molecular effects of mixture of progesterone, drospirenone, and levonorgestrel in environmentally relevant (10ng/L) and higher (50 and 500ng/L) exposure concentrations in common roach, Rutilus rutilus...
January 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Shuang-Shuang Yuan, Zhen-Ming Lv, Ai-Yi Zhu, Jia-Lang Zheng, Chang-Wen Wu
The present study explored the possible preventive effects of blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in zebrafish. To this end, zebrafish were exposed to a white fluorescent bulb or blue LEDs (LDB, peak at 450nm, at an irradiance of 0.9W/m(2)), and 0 or 30µgL(-1) waterborne Cd for 5 weeks. Growth performance, survival rate, and hepatic histology, ultrastructure, antioxidant and innate immune responses were determined in zebrafish. Cd exposure alone reduced growth and survival rate, and induced oxidative damage and changes in histology and ultrastructure...
January 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Cláudia Hitomi Watanabe, Adnivia Santos Costa Monteiro, Erik Sartori Jeunon Gontijo, Vivian Silva Lira, Carolina de Castro Bueno, Nirmal Tej Kumar, Renata Fracácio, André Henrique Rosa
The release of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems can be influenced by humic acids. In this study, toxicity tests using environmentally relevant concentrations of arsenic and cobalt were conducted both in the presence and absence of aquatic humic substances (AHS) and the fractions of different molecular sizes in the range of (<5, 5-10;10-30; 30-100 and >100kDa) using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. AHS together with arsenic reduced the toxicity, and the toxicity decreased in fractions of larger molecular size AHS...
January 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Susanna Sforzini, Michael N Moore, Zhuofan Mou, Marta Boeri, Mohamed Banni, Aldo Viarengo
Chromium (Cr) is one of the major and most detrimental pollutant, widely present in the environment as a result of several anthropogenic activities. In mammalian cells, Cr(VI) is known to enhance reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and to cause toxic and genotoxic effects. Less commonly investigated are the effects and mode of action of this contaminant in invertebrates, particularly in soil organisms. In this work, earthworms of the species Eisenia andrei were exposed for 1 and 3 days to various sublethal concentrations of Cr(VI) (2, 15, 30µgmL(-1)) using the paper contact toxicity test...
January 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
S Nethaji, A Sivasamy
Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared from commercially available graphite powder. Porous iron oxide ribbons were grown on the surface of GO by solvothermal process. The prepared GO-Fe3O4 nanocomposites are characterized by FT-IR, XRD, VSM, SEM, TEM, Raman spectroscopy, surface functionality and zero point charge studies. The morphology of the iron oxide ribbons grown on GO is demonstrated with TEM at various magnifications. The presence of magnetite nanoparticles is evident from XRD peaks and the magnetization value is found to be 37...
January 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yao Yu, Yanan Wan, Qi Wang, Huafen Li
The smoke of tobacco is a major source of exposure to Cd in humans and therefore it is urgent to find a way to a method to reduce Cd accumulation in tobacco. A four-month tobacco pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of two base treatments (humic acid-based amendments) and two foliar treatments (Zn and Se) on Cd uptake by tobacco. The results showed that Cd in tobacco was mainly transferred into leaves, which could be significantly reduced by both applied amendments. The Cd contents in leaves were reduced by up to 67%...
January 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Md Azharul Islam, M J Ahmed, W A Khanday, M Asif, B H Hameed
Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass wastes presents a promising step in the production of cost-effective activated carbon. In the present work, mesoporous activated carbon (HAC) was prepared by the hydrothermal carbonization of rattan furniture wastes followed by NaOH activation. The textural and morphological characteristics, along with adsorption performance of prepared HAC toward methylene blue (MB) dye, were evaluated. The effects of common adsorption variables on performance resulted in a removal efficiency of 96% for the MB sample at initial concentration of 25mg/L, solution pH of 7, 30°C, and 8h...
January 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Haiying Zong, Song Liu, Ronge Xing, Xiaolin Chen, Pengcheng Li
Chitosan (CTS) induces plant tolerance against several abiotic stresses, including salinity and drought exposure. However, the role of CTS in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. In the present study, a hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the roles of CTS with different molecular weight (Mw) (10kDa,5kDa and 1kDa) in alleviating Cd toxicity in edible rape (Brassica rapa L .). The results showed that Cd stress significantly decreased plant growth, leaf chlorophyll contents and increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in rape leaves...
January 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jessica Unda-Calvo, Miren Martínez-Santos, Estilita Ruiz-Romera
In the present study, the physiologically based extraction test PBET (gastric and intestinal phases) and two chemical based extraction methods, the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the sequential extraction procedure BCR 701 (Community Bureau of Reference of the European Commission) have been used to estimate and evaluate the bioaccessibility of metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr and Pb) in sediments from the Deba River urban catchment. The statistical analysis of data and comparison among physiological and chemical methods have highlighted the relevance of simulate the gastrointestinal tract environment since metal bioaccessibility seems to depend on water and sediment properties such as pH, redox potential and organic matter content, and, primordially, on the form in which metals are present in the sediment...
January 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Paula Sánchez-Marín, Ricardo Beiras
The edible clam Dosinia exoleta has been reported to accumulate high contents of lead (Pb) in soft tissues disregarding the levels of Pb in the environment. This is due to the retention of Pb in the form of metal rich granules (MRG) in their kidneys throughout the mollusc lifespan. The potential for trophic transfer of Pb in this form to predators is expected to be low, since metals in the form of MRG are generally supposed to be trophically unavailable, but this assumption is based on studies with other metals (Ag, Cd, Cu or Zn) and has not been demonstrated with Pb until now...
January 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sandra R Ruiz, Silvia Espín, Pablo Sánchez-Virosta, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Thomas M Lilley, Tapio Eeva
Vitamin and carotenoid deficiency may impair development in free-living vertebrates, because of the importance of these micronutrients to growth, antioxidant defense and calcium regulation. Micronutrient and calcium insufficiency can be intensified by metal pollution which can interfere with nutrient homeostasis or indirectly reduce food availability. Furthermore, absorption of dietary heavy metals is dependent on food calcium and vitamin levels. We investigated the effect of calcium on plasma vitamin and carotenoid profiles and how these affected growth and survival in two passerine birds with different calcium turnover living along a metal pollution gradient...
January 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Manash Gope, Reginald Ebhin Masto, Joshy George, Raza Rafiqul Hoque, Srinivasan Balachandran
Street dust samples were collected from five different types of land use patterns (busy traffic zone, urban residential area, national highways, industrial area and sensitive area) in a medium sized industrial city Asansol, India. The samples were fractionated into ≤53µm and analyzed for potential toxic elements (PTEs) viz. Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu. The mean total concentration of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in the urban street dust samples were 192, 0.75, 110 and 132mgkg(-1) respectively. Chemical speciation was performed for PTEs to evaluate the bio-available fractions...
January 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Danuta Kowalczyk-Pecka, Stanisław Pecka, Edyta Kowalczuk-Vasilev
We analyzed the changes in the profile of fatty acids (FA) in the foot tissues and hepatopancreas (HP) of snails Helix pomatia exposed to five microdoses of zinc (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1mg/l) administered in the form of a pure salt solution and in the form of EDTA and lysine chelates. Selection from a pool of 56 fatty acids analyzed in snail tissues yielded a set of 12 biomarker acids undergoing significant changes in contact with toxic substances. The selection criteria included the greatest percentage among the FA profile and their significant role in physiological processes...
January 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Azucena Bermejo-Nogales, Mona Connolly, Philipp Rosenkranz, María-Luisa Fernández-Cruz, José M Navas
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) have a wide number of applications in cosmetic, solar and paint industries due to their photocatalyst and ultraviolet blocking properties. The continuous increase in the production of TiO2-NPs enhances the risk for this manufactured nanomaterial to enter water bodies through treated effluents or agricultural amendments. TiO2-NPs have shown very low toxicity in a number of aquatic organisms. However, there are no conclusive data about their deleterious effects and on their possible mechanisms of toxic action...
January 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Aiqian Zhang, Yunsong Mu, Fengchang Wu
Chiral organophosphates (OPs) have been used widely around the world, very little is known about binding mechanisms with biological macromolecules. An in-depth understanding of the stereo selectivity of human AChE and discovering bioactive enantiomers of OPs can decrease health risks of these chiral chemicals. In the present study, a flexible molecular docking approach was conducted to investigate different binding modes of twelve phosphorus enantiomers. A pharmacophore model was then developed on basis of the bioactive conformations of these compounds...
January 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xiaomin Li, Weihua Peng, Yanyan Jiang, Yong Duan, Jinqian Ren, Yingying Liu, Wenhong Fan
To evaluate Daphnia magna role to predict the Cd toxicity in contaminated sediment, the Cd accumulation, metallothionein (MT), and mortality of D. magna exposed to overlying water system or water-sediment coexistence system were measured. The mortality, Cd accumulation, and MT in D. magna increased with the increasing Cd content in sediment. The Cd accumulation and MT in D. magna exposed to the coexistence system were significantly higher than those exposed to the overlying water system because of the ingestion of Cd-containing sediments by D...
January 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xuemei Zhang, Xiaoyan Yang, Hongbin Wang, Qinchun Li, Haijuan Wang, Yanyan Li
A pot experiment was conducted to compare the content of endogenous trans-zeatin (Z), plant arsenic (As) uptake and physiological indices in the fronds of As-hyperaccumulator (Pteris cretica var. nervosa) and non-hyperaccumulator (Pteris ensiformis). Furthermore, a stepwise regression method was used to study the relationship among determined indices, and the time-course effect of main indices was also investigated under 100mg/kg As stress with time extension. In the 100-200mg/kg As treatments, plant height showed no significant difference and endogenous Z content significantly increased in P...
January 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sonia Labidi, Stéphane Firmin, Anthony Verdin, Géraldine Bidar, Frédéric Laruelle, Francis Douay, Pirouz Shirali, Joël Fontaine, Anissa Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui
Aided phytostabilization using coal fly ashes (CFAs) is an interesting technique to clean-up polluted soils and valorizing industrial wastes. In this context, our work aims to study the effect of two CFAs: silico-aluminous (CFA1) and sulfo-calcic (CFA2) ones, 10 years after their addition, on the phytostabilization of a highly Cd (cadmium), Pb (lead) and Zn (zinc) contaminated agricultural soil, with four forest tree species: Robinia pseudoacacia, Alnus glutinosa, Acer pseudoplatanus and Salix alba. To assess the effect of CFAs on trees, leaf fatty acid composition, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized and reduced glutathione contents ratio (GSSG: GSH), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), Peroxidase (PO) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were examined...
January 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Piotr Kaczyński, Bożena Łozowicka, Maciej Perkowski, Julia Szabuńko
The analysis of pesticide residues in fish samples is challenging due to the low concentrations and large number of analytes that need to be monitored and quantified in a complex matrix. This is the first report providing a novel one-step extraction-cleanup strategy for simultaneous analysis of over 340 pesticides in a fatty fish and liver matrix, coupled with liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The samples of fish muscle and liver were prepared according to the modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) procedure, wherein the extraction and cleanup protocol were integrated into one step...
January 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Binxin Xia, Zhaoguo Sun, Lihong Wang, Qing Zhou, Xiaohua Huang
Rare earth element (REE) pollution and acid rain are major global environmental concerns, and their spatial distributions overlap. Thus, both forms of pollution combine to act on plants. Nitrogen is important for plant growth, and nitrate reductase (NR) is a key plant enzyme that catalyzes nitrogen assimilation. Studying the combined effects of REEs and acid rain on plant nitrogen-based nutrients has important environmental significance. Here, soybean (Glycine max) plants, commonly used for toxicological studies, were exposed to lanthanum (La), a REE, and acid rain to study the NR activities and NR transcriptional levels in the roots...
January 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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