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Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety

Julia Corá Segat, Dilmar Baretta, Luís Carlos Iuñes Oliveira Filho, José Paulo Sousa, Osmar Klauberg Filho
Inadequate application of liquid pig manure (LPM) may pose risks to the soil due to the potential contaminants that exists, as well as by the large water input that can originate excessive moisture. By using Terrestrial Model Ecosystems, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of application of LPM (82% moisture) using the application rates of 20, 50 and 150 m3 ha-1 and also of the corresponding amount of water to understand the origin of effects on the soil fauna of two sub-tropical soils. In general, the results obtained for the two soil types indicated that LPM (150 m3 ha-1 ) changed the composition of soil fauna, with an increase in the abundance of insect larvae and dipterans, but a decrease in the number of earthworms and enchytraeids...
November 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jay Prakash Singh, Eleanor U Ojinnaka, Jennifer Adams Krumins, Nina M Goodey
Whole community microbial inoculation can improve soil function in contaminated environments. Here we conducted a case study to investigate whether biotic factors (inoculum) or abiotic factors (soil base) have more impact on the extracellular enzymatic activities in a whole community microbial inoculation. To this end, we cross-inoculated microbial communities between two heavy metal-contaminated soils, with high and low extracellular enzyme activities, respectively. We measured extracellular phosphatase activity, a proxy for soil function, after self- and cross-inoculation of microbial communities into sterilized soils, and all activities were normalized to non-inoculated controls...
November 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Junliang Yin, Jianhua Jia, Zhaoyuan Lian, Yanhong Hu, Jia Guo, Heqiang Huo, Yongxing Zhu, Haijun Gong
Silicon can increase salt tolerance, but the underlying mechanism has remained unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of silicon on polyamine metabolism and the role of polyamine accumulation in silicon-mediated salt tolerance in cucumber. Seedlings of cucumber 'JinYou 1' were subjected to salt stress (75 mM NaCl) in the presence or absence of added 0.3 mM silicon. Plant growth, polyamine metabolism and effects of exogenous polyamines and polyamine synthesis inhibitor dicyclohexylammonium sulphate on oxidative damage were investigated...
November 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Lulu Zhang, Victoria Belloc da Silva Muccillo, Cornelis A M Van Gestel
In a previous study, Pb toxicity was found to be delayed compared to Pb bioaccumulation in Enchytraeus crypticus. This study aimed at further investigating the acute and delayed onset of Pb toxicity in E. crypticus by using a combination of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics approaches. Enchytraeids were exposed to different Pb concentrations (uptake phase) in natural LUFA 2.2 soil for different short-term exposure periods, followed by a 7-d elimination phase in clean soils. Body Pb concentrations and enchytraeid mortality were determined at different time intervals during both the exposure and the elimination phase...
November 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xiaoyu Li, Jing Li, Fanxiao Meng, Lan Yao
Microcystins produced by some cyanobacteria can cause damages to the liver and kidneys of aquatic animals. In the natural water with cyanobacterial blooms, silver carp may suffer from the most serious affect of the bloom due to their filtering these cyanobacteria and ingesting them as food. In the present study, silver carp was exposed to microcystin-LR by using the method of intraperitoneal injection first to determine the acute toxicity of microcystin-LR on silver carp and then to determine the activity of inflammatory protein and content of inflammatory factors from the serum of silver carp following a subacute exposure of microcystin-LR at doses of 104...
November 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yu-Shun Lin, Shui-Yuan Lu, Hai-Ping Wu, Chi-Fen Chang, Yung-Tsung Chiu, Hui-Ting Yang, Pei-Min Chao
The objective was to investigate endocrine-disrupting effects of polar compounds from oxidized frying oil. Estrogenicity of polar compounds was tested with a rat uterotrophic bioassay. Dietary oxidized frying oil (containing 51% polar compounds) or polar compounds isolated from it were incorporated into feed (in lieu of fresh soybean oil) and fed to ovariectomized rats, with or without treatment with exogenous ethynyl estradiol. Exogenous estrogen restored uterine weight, and caused histological abnormalities (stratified epithelia and conglomerate glands) as well as proliferation of uterine epithelial cells...
November 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Li Zhao, Shuangshuang Dong, Yunli Zhao, Huimin Shao, Natalia Krasteva, Qiuli Wu, Dayong Wang
In nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, epidermal RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of bli-1 encoding a cuticular collagen caused the toxicity induction of GO-PEG (PEG surface modified graphene oxide). In this study, we further found that epidermal RNAi knockdown of bli-1 increased expression of a microRNA let-7, and let-7 mutation suppressed the susceptibility of bli-1(RNAi) nematodes to GO-PEG toxicity. let-7 regulated the toxicity induction of GO-PEG by suppressing expression and function of its direct targets (HBL-1 and LIN-41)...
November 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Weiyan Duan, Fanping Meng, Xiaoling Peng, Yufei Lin, Guoshan Wang, Jiangyue Wu
Microcosm experiments were conducted to examine the attenuation of selected chemicals, i.e. m-xylene (MX), o-xylene (OX) and p-xylene (PX), under simulated marine conditions. Natural attenuation and the contribution of oxidation, photodegradation, biodegradation and volatilization to total attenuation were evaluated. The development of attenuation was in agreement with pseudo-first-order kinetics for all xylenes. The half-lives of MX, OX, and PX under optimal conditions were 0.76, 0.74 and 0.88 days, respectively...
November 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
R Juncos, M Arcagni, S Squadrone, A Rizzo, M Arribére, J P Barriga, M A Battini, L M Campbell, P Brizio, M C Abete, S Ribeiro Guevara
Interspecific differences in arsenic bioaccumulation and organ distribution (muscle, liver, kidney and gills) in three predator fish (creole perch, rainbow trout and brown trout) from a Patagonian lake impacted by volcanic eruptions were studied. Arsenic in fish organs were compared analyzing: 1) temporal (before and after volcanic eruption) and spatial (near and far from the volcano) influence of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex activity on arsenic concentrations; 2) the influence of growth (as total length), organ type and their interactions over arsenic accumulation; and 3) arsenic speciation and total arsenic relationship with carbon to nitrogen ratios (C:N), as a proxy of lipid presence, in fish muscle...
November 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Hassiba Kebibeche, Omar Khelil, Mourad Kacem, Meriem Kaid Harche
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of addition of sawdust co-composted with sewage sludge and wheat straw on seeds germination. Two mixtures were piled and composted over 90 days. The first mixture (C1) was composed of sewage sludge and wheat straw, while the second mixture (C2) was composed of sewage sludge, wheat straw and wood sawdust. The results showed that the physicochemical parameters of both composts, i.e., temperature (> 55 °C in the thermophilic phase), moisture content (~ 30%)...
November 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xue Zhang, Yugang Gao, Pu Zang, Yan Zhao, Zhongmei He, Hongyan Zhu, Shengnan Song, Lianxue Zhang
The quality and safety of ginseng products were seriously affected due to the slow metabolism and long-term residual pesticides in ginseng. Microbial degradation is an effective method to degrade pesticide residues. In this study, ginseng endophytic Paenibacillus polymyxa was used to degrade pesticide residues. A method of simultaneous determination of fluazinam, BHC, PCNB, chlorpyrifos and DDT in ginseng roots and ginseng stems and leaves by GC was established. The sample was extracted with n-hexane and purified by Florisil solid phase extraction column...
November 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Recep Liman, Yaser Acikbas, İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci
Cerium oxide (CeO2 ) is extensively used in a range of applications like in television tubes, glass/ceramic polishing agent, fuel cells, solar cells, gas sensor andultraviolet absorbents. In current study, Allium ana-telophase and comet assays were employed to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of CeO2 microparticles (CMPs, <5 µm, bulk) and CeO2 nanoparticles (CNPs, < 25 nm) on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa by using mitotic phases, mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and DNA damage...
November 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yan-Ping Qian, Xiao-Ting Li, Ru-Nan Tian
Single and co-culture systems of Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus obliquus were prepared with different initial algal densities and treated with different concentrations of aqueous extracts from the rhizome of Pontederia cordata to study its inhibitory effect on algal growth and the competitive relationship between these two algal species. The results showed that aqueous extracts could inhibit the growth of M. aeruginosa and S. obliquus, and the inhibition rate of aqueous extracts on the growth of M. aeruginosa was always higher than that of S...
November 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Huibin Guo, Wenlan Yang, Li Jiang, Yan Lyu, Tiantao Cheng, Beilan Gao, Xiang Li
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that exposure to ambient air pollutants may adversely affect human health. However, few studies have examined the health effects of exposure to ambient air pollutants in hospitalized patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants and exhaled nitric oxide fraction (FeNO) in a large cohort of hospitalized patients. METHODS: FeNO was detected for 2986 hospitalized patients (ages 18-88 years)...
November 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sun-Hwa Nam, Youn-Joo An
Silver nanomaterials (AgNMs) of different shapes and sizes are potentially toxic to aquatic organisms. However, studies on the toxicity of AgNMs and on their shape-dependent effects on algae are scarce. The present study evaluated the effects of three AgNMs (silver nanospheres, AgNPs; silver nanowires, AgNWs; silver nanoplates, AgPLs) with different shapes coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone on the growth and photosynthetic performance of an alga, Chlorococcum infusionum. We used growth measurements and determined the photosynthetic parameters based on chlorophyll fluorescence transients in the algal cells exposed to different concentrations of the three AgNMs...
November 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Zenghua Qi, Yuanyuan Song, Qianqian Ding, Xiaoliang Liao, Ruijin Li, Guoguang Liu, SukYing Tsang, Zongwei Cai
A growing number of epidemiological surveys show that PM2.5 is an important promoter for the cardiovascular dysfunction induced by atmospheric pollution. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of solid and liquid airborne particles and its components determine the health risk of PM2.5 to a great extent. However, the individual cardiotoxicities of different PM2.5 fractions are still unclear, especially in the cellular level. Here we used the neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) to evaluate the cardiac toxicity of PM2.5 exposure...
November 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Liang Peng, Xiaozhou Deng, Huijuan Song, Xiaoke Tan, Ji-Dong Gu, Si Luo, Ming Lei
The effect of biological soil crust (BSC) in paddy field on the immobilization and removal of heavy metal from irrigation water is an important issue. BSC was cultured in solutions with different concentrations of manganese (Mn) salt and cadmium (Cd) sulfate for 15 days. We analyzed the Mn, Cd and Fe contents in the BSC and investigated the effects of Mn salt on the Cd distribution in different binding-forms in BSC as well. The results show that Mn salt was effective at enabling BSC to immobilize the Cd, and its removal efficiency from irrigation water improved with an increase in the Mn concentration used...
November 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Songwei Wu, Kaili Shi, Chengxiao Hu, Jilin Guo, Qiling Tan, Xuecheng Sun
Zinc (Zn) possesses similar properties to cadmium (Cd) and inhibits Cd uptake in plants. To get more detailed mechanisms of Zn-inhibited Cd uptake in pakchoi, a hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various Zn levels on Cd concentrations, real time flux of Cd, expressions of genes related to Cd uptake under Cd exposure. The results showed that the Cd concentrations and Cd accumulations in pakchoi root decreased with increasing Zn levels, which were coincident with that real time Cd influx and net Cd influx of pakchoi root decreased with increasing Zn levels by non-invasive micro-test technology (NMT)...
November 1, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yifeng Xu, Yanhua Hou, Yatong Wang, Yifan Wang, Tong Li, Chi Song, Nana Wei, Quanfu Wang
In this study, using a natural and green protein R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) extracted from marine Porphyra yezoensis as the stabilizer and reducer, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized. Based on this, a highly sensitive and selective method for the detection of Cu2+ ions was developed using R-PE-AgNPs as fluorescent probe. The interactions between R-PE-AgNPs and Cu2+ ions were systematically characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), elemental mapping and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)...
November 1, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Zhiming Shi, Zhiwen Tang, Congying Wang
Earthworms have been widely studied as bioindicators of soil health for their important role in sustaining soil structure and functions. Many soil contaminants such as phenanthrene have been confirmed to exert adverse effects on earthworms' growth, reproduction, behaviors and biochemical conditions. However, their effects on the properties of earthworm casts have been little studied. In the present study, the effect of different doses of phenanthrene (PHE) (0, 2, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) on the six physicochemical properties and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra characteristics of earthworm casts was assessed in artificial soil in a laboratory...
November 1, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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