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Chinese Journal of Physiology

Zheng Xu, Zengxun Liu, Xiaoguang Dong, Tao Hu, Lingling Wang, Junwei Li, Xiaoyu Liu, Jinhao Sun
Alcohol addiction can cause brain dysfunction and threatens both individuals and society. Recently, emerging studies have suggested the dysbiosis of gut microbiota induced by alcohol exposure contributed to the reward-seeking behaviors as well as anxiety, depression. In the current study, animal model of chronic alcohol exposure was established by providing mice with gradient concentrations of alcohol from 2%, 4%, and 6% to 8% for 21 days. Moreover, three fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) plans were innovatively designed to explore the potential effects of FMT from 3 healthy donors on alcohol-induced neuropsychic behaviors...
December 24, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Jinxin Wang, Ruilin Li, Zhiyuan Deng, Zuoyan Sun, Lijuan Chai, Hong Guo, Hong Wang, Lu Chen, Limin Hu, Shaoxia Wang
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major complication of diabetes and becomes the chief cause of end-stage renal disease. Our study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effect and underlying mechanism of Xueshuantong for Injection (XST) on DN in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rats. Effect of XST treatment (XST, 50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) lasting 60 days after STZ-induced (60 mg/kg, i.p.) diabetes was investigated. Blood sugar levels and body weight were recorded every week of the experiment. At the 28th and 56th days after injection urine glucose and 24 h urine protein excretion were determined...
December 24, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Wei-Chuan Liao, Chiang-Ting Chou, Wei-Zhe Liang, Lyh-Jyh Hao, Chun-Chi Kuo, Ko-Long Lin, Jue-Long Wang, Chung-Ren Jan
Niflumic acid, a drug used for joint and muscular pain, affected Ca²⁺ signaling in different models. However, the effect of niflumic acid on Ca²⁺ homeostasis and Ca²⁺-related physiology in human osteosarcoma cells is unknown. This study examined the effect of niflumic acid on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells. Intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations in suspended cells were monitored by using the fluorescent Ca²⁺-sensitive dye fura- 2. Cell viability was examined by using 4-[3-[4-lodophenyl]-2-4(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio- 1,3-benzene disulfonate] water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1)...
December 24, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Yen-Ju Huang, Yu-Chen Pai, Linda Chia-Hui Yu
Commensal microbes are involved in intestinal homeostasis, and the dysregulation of host-microbe interactions may lead to the development of local and systemic disorders. Recent evidence indicated that microbiota dysbiosis plays a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and metabolism-related disorders. The circadian clock system originally identified in the brain was later found in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the light-controlled central clock in the brain is responsible for the synchronization of peripheral clocks, the timing of meal consumption serves as another cue for the rhythmic setting of gastrointestinal digestion, absorption, and epithelial renewal and barrier functions...
December 24, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Chia-Heng Lin, Chen-Chun Lin
Obesity is a chronic inflammatory state associated with increased postoperative morbidity in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In this study, we sought to determine whether the white blood cell (WBC) response may be an additional predictor for postoperative morbidities in obese patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A total of 1,171 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups based on their body mass index (BMI): non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m²), obese (BMI 30-34...
December 19, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Hong-Nian Liu, Hiroaki Hirata, Yusuke Okuno, Motohito Okabe, Koichi Furukawa
The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin control the peristaltic movement of the gut that consists of propagating waves of rhythmic contraction and relaxation. While intestinal cells of Cajal (ICC) serve as a pacemaker in the gut, the effect of dopamine on the pacemaker activity of ICC remains unknown. Here, we report that together with serotonin receptors, the dopamine receptor D₂ contributes to maintaining [Ca²⁺]i oscillations in ileum ICC. When the antagonist for the D₂ receptor was applied to the cell cluster or the tissue culture prepared from muscle layers of the mouse small intestine, the amplitude of [Ca²⁺]i oscillations in ICC declined after a transient increase...
October 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Caiyan Yang, Yang Yu, Fan Wu, Yuhua Wu, Jun Feng, Lin Yan, Liangjuan Han, Jun Ren, Lihong Nie, Ru Zhou
The aim of this study was to investigate the vasodilatory effects of aloperine, one of main alkaloid was extracted from Sophora alopecuroides, on rat isolated thoracic aortic rings and its possible mechanisms. The isolated aortic arteries from normotensive Sprague Dawley rats were precontracted with phenylephrine (1 × 10⁻⁶ M) or KCl (60 mM). Then, aloperine (3.44 × 10⁻³ – 17.21 × 10⁻³ M) was added cumulatively and the tension curves was observed and recorded. The changes in tension in both endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings were also recorded...
October 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Esen Gumuslu, Oguz Mutlu, Sibel Kokturk, Guner Ulak, Fatma Ceyla Eraldemir, Ozan Can Tatar, Alisan Burak Yasar, Pelin Tanyeri, Furuzan Akar, Faruk Erden
Schizophrenia, an important brain neurodevelopmental disorder, is observed in 1% of the global population. New-generation antipsychotics have been developed as alternatives to typical antipsychotics for more effective and safe therapy. Chronic administration of asenapine and paliperidone compared to haloperidol on depression, anxiety and analgesy in the forced swimming test (FST), elevated plus maze (EPM) and hot plate tests were examined in mice. Moreover effects of drugs, on expression levels of brain neurotrophic factors [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB),nerve growth factor (NGF), synapsin and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)] in the hippocampus of mice, neurogenesis and neurodegeneration, and blood enzyme levels were also investigated...
October 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Hung-Che Chien, Pei-Chi Chan, Chuan-Chou Tu, Yuan-Ji Day, Li-Man Hung, Chi-Chang Juan, Yu-Feng Tian, Po-Shiuan Hsieh
Regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES), also known as chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), has been reported to facilitate macrophage migration, which plays a crucial role in tissue inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics and underlying mechanism of RANTES on macrophage chemotaxis under physiological and pathological conditions. The study was conducted on macrophage RAW264.7 cell and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) isolated from CCL receptor 5 (CCR5) knockout mice...
October 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
HuaShuai Li, Ying-Ju Chen, Yi-Ju Hsu, Ming-Fang Wu, Chien-Chao Chiu, Yu-Tang Tung, Wei-Jern Tsai, Wen-Ching Huang, Chi-Chang Huang
A fast-paced lifestyle, pressure from the environment and a heavy work load often cause extreme tiredness in modern life. Different kinds of nutritional supplements in the form of functional foods or traditional Chinese medicine, such as ‘essence of chicken’ and Ganoderma lucidum have been claimed to benefit physical performance and promote health. Previous studies have revealed that ‘essence of chicken’ or G. lucidum have a wide spectrum of biological activities. In this study, we combined these two ingredients together (designated as CEG) to evaluate their synergistic effects on physiological adaption on exercise fatigue and physical activities...
December 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Tso-Ching Lin, Sue-Hong Wang, Chuan-Chuan Huang, Yung-Cheng Lai, Tuzz-Ying Song, Ming-Shiun Tsai
Eucalyptus globulus possesses important pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the anti-fatigue, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptus essential oil after swimming exercise using an animal model. Male Sprague– Dawley rats were administered eucalyptus oil (200 μL/h) daily via inhalation (15 min), and anti-fatigue effects were assessed following eucalyptus essential oil administration for 2 or 4 weeks when forced to swim until exhaustion while carrying ~5% body weight-equivalent...
October 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Hsiao-Chun Lin, Chen-Tung Yen
Neuropathic pain is due to lesion or dysfunction of the somatosensory system. Treating patients with neuropathic pain is difficult because the underlying mechanisms are understood limitedly, especially at the supraspinal level. In this study, we used two kinds of molecular markers to investigate the neuronal activity changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex (IC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the neuropathic rats under tactile allodynia. We used spared nerve injury of the sciatic nerve (SNI) as the neuropathic pain model...
August 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Xiaoliang Dong, Bing Rui, Fangyuan Yin, Dan Chen, Ling Li, Zhimin Yin, Lan Luo
Glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTpi) is the most important subtribe of GSTs protein superfamily, and plays an important role in the process of detoxification, antioxidant and antiinflammation. Here we use a GSTpi inhibitor, 6-(7-nitro-2, 1, 3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio) hexanol (NBDHEX), to evaluate the effect of GSTpi on the growth of mice. Mice treated with NBDHEX have heavier weight and longer length. But there is no significant difference in ratios of the weights of brain, kidney, lung, spleen, liver and heart to the whole body weight and Lee’s index between NBDHEX and control mice...
August 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
I-Shu Chen, Chiang-Ting Chou, Wei-Zhe Liang, Yuan-Yuarn Liu, Chun-Chi Kuo, Jue-Long Wang, Lyh-Jyh Hao, Chung-Ren Jan
Captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, induced different Ca²⁺ signaling responses in various cell models. However, the effect of captopril on Ca²⁺ homeostasis and cell viability in hepatoma cells is unknown. This study examined whether captopril altered Ca²⁺ homeostasis and viability in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations in suspended cells were monitored by using the fluorescent Ca²⁺-sensitive dye fura-2. Cell viability was examined by using 4-[3-[4-lodophenyl]-2-4(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio-1,3-benzene disulfonate] water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1)...
August 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Ran Zhang, Liang Peng, Haihong Ran, Yongyan Fan, Yu Zhao, Feng Cao
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is expressed in the vasculature; our previous work showed that FXR regulated vascular reactivity through NO mechanism. The underlying mechanism for the regulation of vascular tension by FXR remains unclear. The present work was designed to investigate whether FXR regulates calcium homeostasis in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Protein abundances of angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors (AT₁R, AT₂R), bradykinin type 1 and 2 receptors (B₁R, B₂R), and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP₃R) were analyzed by western blotting...
August 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Yu-Ming Zhang, Yuan Guo, Cheng-Xue Du, Jin Zhang, Shu-Xuan Lv, Jian Liu
The role of serotonin₆ (5-HT₆) receptors in the regulation of anxiety is poorly understood, particularly in Parkinson’s disease-related anxiety. Here we examined whether 5-HT₆ receptors in the prelimbic cortex (PrL) involve in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors in sham-operated rats and rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. The lesion induced anxiogenic responses as measured by the open-field and elevated-plus maze tests compared to sham-operated rats. Intra-PrL injection of 5-HT₆ receptor agonist WAY208466 (0...
August 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Juan Liu, Meng Guo, Xusong Hu, Xuechun Weng, Ye Tian, Kaili Xu, Dai Heng, Wenbo Liu, Yu Ding, Yanzhou Yang, Cheng Zhang
Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in the development of ovarian cells. Although the effects of THs on female reproduction are of great interest, the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of TH dysregulation on reproductive hormones in rats. Propylthiouracil (PTU) and L-thyroxine were administered to rats to induce hypo- and hyperthyroidism, respectively, and the reproductive hormone profiles were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Ovarian histology was evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and gene protein level or mRNA content was analyzed by western blotting or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
June 30, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Jo-Ping Chin, Chien-Min Chen, Tsong-Hai Lee, Chii-Wen Chou, Cheng-You Lu
Eating of excessive raw or undercooked environmental snails produces angiostrongyliasis demyelination caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2-nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway and myelin basic protein (MBP) expression in RSC96 Schwann cells treated with A. cantonensis-conditioned culture medium, which was prepared by culturing the third-stage (L3) nematode larvae in DMEM for 72 h. The supernatants were collected and filtered before use...
June 30, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Hening Laswati, David Sugiarto, Dewi Poerwandari, Jahja Alex Pangkahila, Hiroaki Kimura
Strengthening exercise combined with blood flow restriction potentially increases muscle strength. This type of exercise does not require heavy weight liftings and is a feasible method to be performed by persons suffering illnesses. However, strengthening exercise may induce inflammatory responses due to muscle and vascular endothelial damage. This study aimed to investigate alterations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibrinogen levels in healthy subjects after five weeks of low intensity resistance training (LIRT) with blood flow restriction (BFR) on increasing strength in comparison with high intensity resistance training (HIRT) and LIRT alone, and to evaluate aspects related to the relative safety of LIRT + BFR...
June 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Chih-Hui Chiu, Tsung-Jen Yang, Hong Jen Liang, Cheng-Kang Chang, Ching-Lin Wu
High plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration in fasting state could cause hemorheological abnormality, thus increasing the incidence of metabolic diseases. Exercise has been reported to effectively reduce postprandial TG response. This study aimed to investigate whether a single bout of pre-prandial exercise can affect lipemia and hemorheological variables after a high-fat meal. Nine healthy young male subjects completed two experimental trials. The subjects walked for 1 h at 50% maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O₂max) (the exercise, EX trial), or rested (the control, CON trial)...
June 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
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