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Chinese Journal of Physiology

Ming-Shu Chen, Chen-Mao Liao, Ming-Hsun Wu, Chih-Ming Lin
An adequate and continuous monitoring of operational variations can effectively reduce the uncertainty and enhance the quality of laboratory reports. This study applied the evaluation rule of the measurement system analysis (MSA) method to estimate the quality of work conducted in a biochemistry laboratory. Using the gauge repeatability & reproducibility (GR&R) approach, variations in quality control (QC) data among medical technicians in conducting measurements of five biochemical items, namely, serum glucose (GLU), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), uric acid (UA), sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl), were evaluated...
October 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Shih-Hsing Yang, Jau-Chen Lin, Shih-Chi Peng, Fang Jung, Guoo-Shyng Wang Hsu, Guey-Mei Jow
Despite mechanical ventilation being a very important life-saving intervention, ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is related with inflammatory effects and causes high mortality. Our previous study demonstrated that the interleukin-33 (IL-33) cytokine pathway is a biomarker of VILI. The purpose of this study was to further explore the effects of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (HC) on pro-inflammatory IL-33 activation by VILI. The rats were intubated and received ventilation at 20 cmH₂O of inspiratory pressure (PC20) by a G5 ventilator for 4 h as a control group, and an intervention group received the same inspiratory pressure as well as treated with HC at 1 mg/kg at the third hour of ventilation (PC20+HC)...
October 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Michael Stiefel, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
The performance and sex differences of long-distance triathletes competing in 'Ironman Hawaii' are well investigated. However, less information is available with regards to triathlon races of the Ironman distance held under extreme environmental conditions (e.g. extreme cold) such as the 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' which started in 2003. In 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon', athletes swim at a water temperature of ~13-15°C, cycle at temperatures of ~5-20°C and run at temperatures of ~12-28°C in the valley and of ~2-12°C at Mt...
October 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
He-Hsiung Cheng, Chiang-Ting Chou, Wei-Zhe Liang, Jin-Shiung Cheng, Hong-Tai Chang, Chun-Chi Kuo, I-S Chen, Ti Lu, C-C Yu, Fu-An Chen, Daih-Huang Kuo, Pochuen Shieh, Chung-Ren Jan
NPC15199 is a synthesized compound that inhibits inflammation in some models. However, whether NPC15199 affects Ca²⁺ homeostasis in human gastric cancer is unclear. This study examined the effect of NPC15199 on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) and viability in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells. The Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was used to measure [Ca²⁺]i. NPC15199 evoked [Ca²⁺]i rises concentration-dependently. The response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca²⁺. NPC15199-evoked Ca²⁺ entry was not inhibited by store-operated channel inhibitors (nifedipine, econazole and SKF96365) and protein kinase C (PKC) activator (phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate, PMA), or PKC inhibitor (GF109203X)...
October 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Yen-Ting Lin, Chia-Hua Kuo, Yi-Ching Chen
There is little knowledge regarding the force production capacities of tug-of-war athletes, who undergo years of high-load strength training on handgrip muscles. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the force-grading strategies of tug-of-war athletes by examining force fluctuation properties at high exertion levels. Sixteen tug-of-war athletes and sixteen sedentary non-athletes performed sinusoidal handgrip grip at 50%-100% of maximal effort at 0.5 Hz under visual guidance. Force outputs of the designate task were recorded with a strain gauge...
October 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
Performance trends in breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level in pool competitions are well investigated for elite swimmers, but not for age group swimmers. This study investigated trends in participation, performance and sex difference in performance in a total of 35,143 (16,160 women and 18,983 men) age group breaststroke swimmers aged 25-29 to 95-99 years competing in the FINA World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analysed using linear regression analyses and trends in performance were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and calendar year as fixed variables...
October 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Pao-Hsuan Huang, Hsin-Yi Wang, Chen-Chuan Huang, Yueh-Tsung Lee, Chia-Herng Yue, Mei-Chih Chen, Ho Lin
Breast cancer is a hormone-related carcinoma and the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women. Although Her-2, estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR) are the major diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets to breast cancer, searching for additional molecular targets remains an important issue and one of the candidates is androgen receptor (AR). AR has been shown expressed in 70% breast cancer patients and connects to low recurrence and high survival rate. Our previous study demonstrates that Ser81 phosphorylation of AR in prostate cancer cells is critical for its protein stability modulated by human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her2)...
August 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Irina P Butkevich, Viktor A Mikhailenko, Elena A Vershinina, Anna Maria Aloisi
Neonatal pain and stress induce long-term changes in pain sensitivity. Therefore their interrelation is a topical subject of clinical and basic research. The present study investigated the effects of inflammatory peripheral pain and stress of maternal deprivation (MD)-isolation in 1-2- and 7-8-day-old Wistar rats (P1,2 and P7,8 respectively, ages comparable to preterm and full-term human babies) on basal pain and pain sensitivity in conditions of inflammatory pain (formalin test) during adolescence. The neonatal impacts were: pain (formalin injection, FOR in the paw), stress (a short 60-min MD), or pain+stress combination (FOR+MD), and appropriate controls...
August 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Yin-Pin Cheng, Chia-Ying Ke, Chih-Chieh Kuo, Yih-Jing Lee
Several retinal degenerative diseases cause vision loss and retinal cell death. Currently, people face prolonged exposure to digital screens, rendering vision protection from light exposure a critical topic. In this study, we designed a complex lutein formula (CLF) by combining several natural compounds: Calendula officinalis, Lycium barbarum, Vaccinium myrtillus, Cassia obtusifolia, and Rhodiola rosea. In addition, we evaluated the protective effects of the formula on retinal functions in an animal model for light-induced retinal degeneration...
August 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Peng Zhao, Hong-Xu Sun, Min Chu, Yi-Ping Hou
Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) selectively cleaves synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) and results in inhibition of the fusion of synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters with the presynaptic membrane to undergo exocytosis and release. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BTX-A inhibited the pyloric smooth muscle contractility induced by acetylcholine (ACh) after BTX-A-mediated cleavage of SNAP-25 antagonized by toosendanin (TSN). Three groups of rat pyloric muscle strips were studied in vitro...
August 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Chung-Hsuan Hu, Chun-Hsu Yao, Tzu-Min Chan, Teng-Le Huang, Yang Sen, Chih-Yang Huang, Chien-Yi Ho
The incidence of osteoporosis has increased among the elderly population. Establishing a model of bone remodeling for screening new drugs is critical to identify safe and effective treatments for osteoporosis. In this study, we established a platform to investigate the therapeutic effects of collagenous peptides extracted from scales of two kinds of fish, namely, sparidae and chanos. These peptides were prepared using seven concentrations of collagenous peptide: 100, 80, 60, 40, 20, 10 and 1 mg/ml. Experimental results indicated that collagenous peptides promoted the proliferation of osteoblasts and inhibited the proliferation of mature osteoclasts; the effective concentration of collagenous peptide-sparidae was 10 mg/ml and that of collagenous peptide-chanos was 40 mg/ml...
August 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Na Li, Yue Guan, Li Zhang, Yanming Tian, Yi Zhang, Sheng Wang
Baroreflex function plays a critical role in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis and is impaired in different types of hypertension in both human and animals. Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) facilitates baroreflex in anesthetized rats. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of CIHH on arterial blood pressure (ABP) and baroreflex function in renal vascular hypertension (RVH) rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham-operated (SHAM), RVH, CIHH treatment (CIHH), and RVH plus CIHH (RVH+CIHH) groups...
August 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Daniela Chlíbková, Thomas Rosemann, Lenka Posch, Radek Matoušek, Beat Knechtle
The monitoring of body mass (BM), plasma sodium concentration ([Na⁺]) and urinary specific gravity (Usg) are commonly used to help detect and prevent over- or dehydration in endurance athletes. We investigated pre-and post-race hydration status in 113 amateur 24-h ultra-runners, 100-km ultra-runners, multi-stage mountain bikers and 24-h mountain bikers, which drank ad libitum without any intervention and compared results of hyponatremic and non-hyponatremic finishers. On average, pre-race plasma [Na⁺] and both pre- and post-race levels of Usg and BM were not significantly different between both groups...
June 30, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Tsung-Lin Cheng, Yi-Yuan Lin, Chia-Ting Su, Chun-Che Hu, Ai-Lun Yang
Postmenopause is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension. However, limited information is available regarding effects of exercise on cardiovascular responses and its underlying mechanisms in the simultaneous postmenopausal and hypertensive status. We aimed to investigate whether acute exercise could enhance vasodilation mediated by acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in ovariectomized hypertensive rats. The fifteen-week-old female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were bilaterally ovariectomized, at the age of twenty-four weeks, and randomly divided into sedentary (SHR-O) and acute exercise (SHR-OE) groups...
June 30, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Shi-Bing Wong, Wei-Chen Hung, Ming-Yuan Min
Tian ma (Gastrodia elata, GE) is an ancient Chinese herbal medicine that has been suggested to be effective as an anticonvulsant and analgesic, and to have sedative effects against vertigo, general paralysis, epilepsy and tetanus. The primary active ingredient isolated from GE is termed gastrodin, which is the glucoside of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (4-HBA). Gastrodin can abolish hypoxia-, glutamate- and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-induced toxicity in primary culture of rat cortical neurons, and reduces seizure severity in seizure-sensitive gerbils...
June 30, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Hai-Hsiang Lee, Chiang-Ting Chou, Wei-Zhe Liang, Wei-Chuan Chen, Jue-Long Wang, Jeng-Hsien Yeh, Chun-Chi Kuo, Pochuen Shieh, Daih-Huang Kuo, Fu-An Chen, Chung-Ren Jan
This study explored the effect of deltamethrin, a pesticide, on intracellular free Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺]i) in PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Deltamethrin at concentrations between 5 μM and 20 μM evoked [Ca²⁺]i rises in a concentration-dependent manner. This Ca²⁺ signal was inhibited by 22% by removal of extracellular Ca²⁺. Nifedipine, econazole, and SKF96365 also inhibited the Ca²⁺ signal. Treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ pump inhibitor 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) in Ca²⁺-free medium nearly abolished deltamethrin-induced [Ca²⁺]i rises...
June 30, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Baschir Ahmadyar, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Beat Knechtle
Performance trends of elite marathoners are well investigated. However, performance of elderly marathoners (> 75 years) competing in the world's largest city marathons is not well-known. We examined marathon race data of 1,691 marathon finishes (i.e. 218 women and 1,473 men) competing between 1990 and 2014 in 5-year age groups 75-79, 80-84, 85-89, and 95-99 years in four races (Berlin, New York, Chicago and Boston) of the 'World Marathon Majors'. The number of female (r² = 0.50, P < 0.0001) and male (r² = 0...
June 30, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Jozef Török, Anna Zemančíková
Agmatine, a vasoactive metabolite of L-arginine, is widely distributed in mammalian tissues including blood vessels. Agmatine binding to imidazoline and α₂-adrenoceptors induces a variety of physiological and pharmacological effects. We investigated the effect of agmatine on contractile responses of the rat pulmonary artery and portal vein induced by electrical stimulation of perivascular nerves and by exogenous adrenergic substances. Experiments were performed on isolated segments of rat main pulmonary artery and its extralobular branches, and portal vein suspended in organ bath containing modified Krebs bicarbonate solution and connected to a force-displacement transducer for isometric tension recording...
June 30, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Hongmei Wang, Mei Feng, Yanli Liu, Chuanfei Wei, Mengjun Qian, Tao Li, Xupeng Yang, Shuang Cui, Chuanyong Liu, Fan Yi, Shuanglian Wang
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of several cell types including cancer cells. Whether GABA may be involved with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is unclear. Therefore, the goal of this report was to examine if GABAergic signaling expression is altered in bone marrow lymphocytes of ALL children. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to examine the expression of the GABA synthetizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) isoforms (GAD65 and GAD67), and type-A GABA receptor (GABAAR) subunits [α(1-6), β(1-3), γ(1-3), δ, ε, θ, π, and ρ(1-3)] in bone marrow lymphocytes of 19 ALL children before chemotherapy...
April 30, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Shiaw-Wen Chien, Dong-Yih Kuo, Jiuan-Miaw Liao, Paulus S Wang, Ching-Han Yu
Risk factors for prostate cancer (PCa) include age, hormones, race, family history and diet. Recently, epidemiologic evidence has indicated that history of diabetes mellitus (DM) is inversely associated with risk of PCa. However, epidemiological investigations have yielded inconsistent results. Hence, the exact mechanism of DM-induced reduction in the incidence of PCa has yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DM factors, including glucose, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), on the proliferation of PCa cell lines in vitro...
April 30, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
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