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Chinese Journal of Physiology

Hong-Nian Liu, Hiroaki Hirata, Yusuke Okuno, Motohito Okabe, Koichi Furukawa
The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin control the peristaltic movement of the gut that consists of propagating waves of rhythmic contraction and relaxation. While intestinal cells of Cajal (ICC) serve as a pacemaker in the gut, the effect of dopamine on the pacemaker activity of ICC remains unknown. Here, we report that together with serotonin receptors, the dopamine receptor D₂ contributes to maintaining [Ca²⁺]i oscillations in ileum ICC. When the antagonist for the D₂ receptor was applied to the cell cluster or the tissue culture prepared from muscle layers of the mouse small intestine, the amplitude of [Ca²⁺]i oscillations in ICC declined after a transient increase...
October 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Caiyan Yang, Yang Yu, Fan Wu, Yuhua Wu, Jun Feng, Lin Yan, Liangjuan Han, Jun Ren, Lihong Nie, Ru Zhou
The aim of this study was to investigate the vasodilatory effects of aloperine, one of main alkaloid was extracted from Sophora alopecuroides, on rat isolated thoracic aortic rings and its possible mechanisms. The isolated aortic arteries from normotensive Sprague Dawley rats were precontracted with phenylephrine (1 × 10⁻⁶ M) or KCl (60 mM). Then, aloperine (3.44 × 10⁻³ – 17.21 × 10⁻³ M) was added cumulatively and the tension curves was observed and recorded. The changes in tension in both endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings were also recorded...
October 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Esen Gumuslu, Oguz Mutlu, Sibel Kokturk, Guner Ulak, Fatma Ceyla Eraldemir, Ozan Can Tatar, Alisan Burak Yasar, Pelin Tanyeri, Furuzan Akar, Faruk Erden
Schizophrenia, an important brain neurodevelopmental disorder, is observed in 1% of the global population. New-generation antipsychotics have been developed as alternatives to typical antipsychotics for more effective and safe therapy. Chronic administration of asenapine and paliperidone compared to haloperidol on depression, anxiety and analgesy in the forced swimming test (FST), elevated plus maze (EPM) and hot plate tests were examined in mice. Moreover effects of drugs, on expression levels of brain neurotrophic factors [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB),nerve growth factor (NGF), synapsin and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)] in the hippocampus of mice, neurogenesis and neurodegeneration, and blood enzyme levels were also investigated...
October 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Hung-Che Chien, Pei-Chi Chan, Chuan-Chou Tu, Yuan-Ji Day, Li-Man Hung, Chi-Chang Juan, Yu-Feng Tian, Po-Shiuan Hsieh
Regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES), also known as chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), has been reported to facilitate macrophage migration, which plays a crucial role in tissue inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics and underlying mechanism of RANTES on macrophage chemotaxis under physiological and pathological conditions. The study was conducted on macrophage RAW264.7 cell and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) isolated from CCL receptor 5 (CCR5) knockout mice...
October 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Tso-Ching Lin, Sue-Hong Wang, Chuan-Chuan Huang, Yung-Cheng Lai, Tuzz-Ying Song, Ming-Shiun Tsai
Eucalyptus globulus possesses important pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the anti-fatigue, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptus essential oil after swimming exercise using an animal model. Male Sprague– Dawley rats were administered eucalyptus oil (200 μL/h) daily via inhalation (15 min), and anti-fatigue effects were assessed following eucalyptus essential oil administration for 2 or 4 weeks when forced to swim until exhaustion while carrying ~5% body weight-equivalent...
October 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Hsiao-Chun Lin, Chen-Tung Yen
Neuropathic pain is due to lesion or dysfunction of the somatosensory system. Treating patients with neuropathic pain is difficult because the underlying mechanisms are understood limitedly, especially at the supraspinal level. In this study, we used two kinds of molecular markers to investigate the neuronal activity changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex (IC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the neuropathic rats under tactile allodynia. We used spared nerve injury of the sciatic nerve (SNI) as the neuropathic pain model...
August 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Xiaoliang Dong, Bing Rui, Fangyuan Yin, Dan Chen, Ling Li, Zhimin Yin, Lan Luo
Glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTpi) is the most important subtribe of GSTs protein superfamily, and plays an important role in the process of detoxification, antioxidant and antiinflammation. Here we use a GSTpi inhibitor, 6-(7-nitro-2, 1, 3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio) hexanol (NBDHEX), to evaluate the effect of GSTpi on the growth of mice. Mice treated with NBDHEX have heavier weight and longer length. But there is no significant difference in ratios of the weights of brain, kidney, lung, spleen, liver and heart to the whole body weight and Lee’s index between NBDHEX and control mice...
August 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
I-Shu Chen, Chiang-Ting Chou, Wei-Zhe Liang, Yuan-Yuarn Liu, Chun-Chi Kuo, Jue-Long Wang, Lyh-Jyh Hao, Chung-Ren Jan
Captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, induced different Ca²⁺ signaling responses in various cell models. However, the effect of captopril on Ca²⁺ homeostasis and cell viability in hepatoma cells is unknown. This study examined whether captopril altered Ca²⁺ homeostasis and viability in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations in suspended cells were monitored by using the fluorescent Ca²⁺-sensitive dye fura-2. Cell viability was examined by using 4-[3-[4-lodophenyl]-2-4(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio-1,3-benzene disulfonate] water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1)...
August 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Ran Zhang, Liang Peng, Haihong Ran, Yongyan Fan, Yu Zhao, Feng Cao
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is expressed in the vasculature; our previous work showed that FXR regulated vascular reactivity through NO mechanism. The underlying mechanism for the regulation of vascular tension by FXR remains unclear. The present work was designed to investigate whether FXR regulates calcium homeostasis in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Protein abundances of angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors (AT₁R, AT₂R), bradykinin type 1 and 2 receptors (B₁R, B₂R), and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP₃R) were analyzed by western blotting...
August 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Yu-Ming Zhang, Yuan Guo, Cheng-Xue Du, Jin Zhang, Shu-Xuan Lv, Jian Liu
The role of serotonin₆ (5-HT₆) receptors in the regulation of anxiety is poorly understood, particularly in Parkinson’s disease-related anxiety. Here we examined whether 5-HT₆ receptors in the prelimbic cortex (PrL) involve in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors in sham-operated rats and rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. The lesion induced anxiogenic responses as measured by the open-field and elevated-plus maze tests compared to sham-operated rats. Intra-PrL injection of 5-HT₆ receptor agonist WAY208466 (0...
August 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Juan Liu, Meng Guo, Xusong Hu, Xuechun Weng, Ye Tian, Kaili Xu, Dai Heng, Wenbo Liu, Yu Ding, Yanzhou Yang, Cheng Zhang
Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in the development of ovarian cells. Although the effects of THs on female reproduction are of great interest, the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of TH dysregulation on reproductive hormones in rats. Propylthiouracil (PTU) and L-thyroxine were administered to rats to induce hypo- and hyperthyroidism, respectively, and the reproductive hormone profiles were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Ovarian histology was evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and gene protein level or mRNA content was analyzed by western blotting or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
June 30, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Jo-Ping Chin, Chien-Min Chen, Tsong-Hai Lee, Chii-Wen Chou, Cheng-You Lu
Eating of excessive raw or undercooked environmental snails produces angiostrongyliasis demyelination caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2-nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway and myelin basic protein (MBP) expression in RSC96 Schwann cells treated with A. cantonensis-conditioned culture medium, which was prepared by culturing the third-stage (L3) nematode larvae in DMEM for 72 h. The supernatants were collected and filtered before use...
June 30, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Hening Laswati, David Sugiarto, Dewi Poerwandari, Jahja Alex Pangkahila, Hiroaki Kimura
Strengthening exercise combined with blood flow restriction potentially increases muscle strength. This type of exercise does not require heavy weight liftings and is a feasible method to be performed by persons suffering illnesses. However, strengthening exercise may induce inflammatory responses due to muscle and vascular endothelial damage. This study aimed to investigate alterations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibrinogen levels in healthy subjects after five weeks of low intensity resistance training (LIRT) with blood flow restriction (BFR) on increasing strength in comparison with high intensity resistance training (HIRT) and LIRT alone, and to evaluate aspects related to the relative safety of LIRT + BFR...
June 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Chih-Hui Chiu, Tsung-Jen Yang, Hong Jen Liang, Cheng-Kang Chang, Ching-Lin Wu
High plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration in fasting state could cause hemorheological abnormality, thus increasing the incidence of metabolic diseases. Exercise has been reported to effectively reduce postprandial TG response. This study aimed to investigate whether a single bout of pre-prandial exercise can affect lipemia and hemorheological variables after a high-fat meal. Nine healthy young male subjects completed two experimental trials. The subjects walked for 1 h at 50% maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O₂max) (the exercise, EX trial), or rested (the control, CON trial)...
June 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Chien-Ying Lee, Shih-Pin Chen, Chun-Hung Su, Yung-Chyuan Ho, Ming-Ling Yang, Shiuan-Shinn Lee, Rosa Huang-Liu, Ching-Ping Yang, Chun-Jung Chen, Yu-Hsiang Kuan
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a clinical syndrome with high morbidity and mortality rates mainly caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Nevertheless, an effective treatment strategy for ALI is yet to be developed. Zerumbone, a sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, possesses several advantageous bioeffects such as antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and antiulcer. Pretreatment of zerumbone inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced arterial blood gas exchange, neutrophils infiltration, and increased pulmonary vascular permeability...
June 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Wen-Ching Huang, Yi-Ju Hsu, HuaShuai Li, Nai-Wen Kan, Yi-Ming Chen, Jin-Seng Lin, Tien-Ken Hsu, Tsung-Yu Tsai, Yen-Shuo Chiu, Chi-Chang Huang
Microbiota is currently an important issue in disease and health and many studies have revealed it to play an important role in physiological homeostasis and health promotion. Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum), isolated from Taiwan pickled vegetables, is a well-known probiotic microorganism. In a recent animal study, it was shown that supplementation of mice with L. plantarum TWK10 (TWK10) could increase muscle mass, improve exercise performance and exert anti-fatigue effects. In order to examine the ergogenic effect of TWK10 supplementation on endurance performance in humans, we conducted a human double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study...
June 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Aristidis S Veskoukis, Antonios Kyparos, Vassilis Paschalis, Michalis G Nikolaidis
Swimming is an advantageous exercise modality since it induces limited muscle damage. Performance is a crucial endpoint measurement of physiological relevance in exercise physiology and clinical settings alike. To our knowledge, the literature lacks a comprehensive and widely accepted swimming performance protocol without suffering from high variability in time to exhaustion. Thus, the present study presents an easily carried out, two-phased swimming performance incremental test exhibiting low variability in the time to exhaustion among rats...
June 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Amir Mahmoudi Aghdam, Parviz Shahabi, Elham Karimi-Sales, Rafigheh Ghiasi, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Javad Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza Alipour
Diabetes is a common metabolic disease which leads to diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Recently, the role of microRNA-96 (miR-96) in alleviating neuropathic pain by inhibiting the expression of NaV1.3, an isoform of voltage-gated sodium channels, has been shown. Peripheral nerve injuries result in NaV1.3 elevation. Exercise has beneficial role in diabetes management and peripheral neuropathy. However, the effects of exercise on miR-96 and its target gene NaV1.3 in diabetic rats are unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of exercise training on the expression of miR-96 and NaV1...
April 30, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Wen-Yu Tzeng, Chien-Chou Su, Li-Han Sun, Chianfang G. Cherng, Lung Yu
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment and stress may cause immune activation in the brain, an event which has been thought to play a role in mediating stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. However, the enduring impact of psychosocial stress on brain immune activation or cognitive deficits has not been well investigated. Likewise, it remains unexplored whether there exist synergistic effects of psychosocial stress and a weak systemic LPS treatment on brain immune activation and/or cognitive function. In this work, a 10-day social defeat regimen was used to model psychosocial stress and the number and density of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)-stained microglia was used to reveal brain immune activation in male Balb/C mice...
April 30, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Chi-Fen Chuang, Chen-Wei Wu, Ying Weng, Pei-San Hu, Shin-Rung Yeh, Yen-Chung Chang
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is widely used to treat advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, we investigated how DBS applied on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) influenced the neural activity in the motor cortex. Rats, which had the midbrain dopaminergic neurons partially depleted unilaterally, called the hemi-Parkinsonian rats, were used as a study model. c-Fos expression in the neurons was used as an indicator of neural activity. Application of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) upon the STN was used to mimic the DBS treatment...
April 30, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
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