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Annual Review of Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525301/mood-the-circadian-system-and-melanopsin-retinal-ganglion-cells
#1
Lorenzo Lazzerini Ospri, Glen Prusky, Samer Hattar
The discovery of a third type of photoreceptors in the mammalian retina, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), has had a revolutionary impact on chronobiology. We can now properly account for numerous nonvision-related functions of light, including its effect on the circadian system. Here, we give an overview of ipRGCs and their function as it relates specifically to mood and biological rhythms. Although circadian disruptions have been traditionally hypothesized to be the mediators of light's effects on mood, here we present an alternative model that dispenses with assumptions of causality between the two phenomena and explains mood regulation by light via another ipRGC-dependent mechanism...
May 17, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489490/the-role-of-variability-in-motor-learning
#2
Ashesh K Dhawale, Maurice A Smith, Bence P Ölveczky
Trial-to-trial variability in the execution of movements and motor skills is ubiquitous and widely considered to be the unwanted consequence of a noisy nervous system. However, recent studies have suggested that motor variability may also be a feature of how sensorimotor systems operate and learn. This view, rooted in reinforcement learning theory, equates motor variability with purposeful exploration of motor space that, when coupled with reinforcement, can drive motor learning. Here we review studies that explore the relationship between motor variability and motor learning in both humans and animal models...
May 10, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471714/circuits-and-mechanisms-for-surround-modulation-in-visual-cortex
#3
Alessandra Angelucci, Maryam Bijanzadeh, Lauri Nurminen, Frederick Federer, Sam Merlin, Paul C Bressloff
Surround modulation (SM) is a fundamental property of sensory neurons in many species and sensory modalities. SM is the ability of stimuli in the surround of a neuron's receptive field (RF) to modulate (typically suppress) the neuron's response to stimuli simultaneously presented inside the RF, a property thought to underlie optimal coding of sensory information and important perceptual functions. Understanding the circuit and mechanisms for SM can reveal fundamental principles of computations in sensory cortices, from mouse to human...
May 3, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460185/establishing-wiring-specificity-in-visual-system-circuits-from-the-retina-to-the-brain
#4
Chi Zhang, Alex L Kolodkin, Rachel O Wong, Rebecca E James
The retina is a tremendously complex image processor, containing numerous cell types that form microcircuits encoding different aspects of the visual scene. Each microcircuit exhibits a distinct pattern of synaptic connectivity. The developmental mechanisms responsible for this patterning are just beginning to be revealed. Furthermore, signals processed by different retinal circuits are relayed to specific, often distinct, brain regions. Thus, much work has focused on understanding the mechanisms that wire retinal axonal projections to their appropriate central targets...
April 26, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441118/mechanisms-of-hippocampal-aging-and-the-potential-for-rejuvenation
#5
Xuelai Fan, Elizabeth G Wheatley, Saul A Villeda
The past two decades have seen remarkable progress in our understanding of the multifactorial drivers of hippocampal aging and cognitive decline. Recent findings have also raised the possibility of functional rejuvenation in the aged hippocampus. In this review, we aim to synthesize the mechanisms that drive hippocampal aging and evaluate critically the potential for rejuvenation. We discuss the functional changes in synaptic plasticity and regenerative potential of the aged hippocampus, followed by mechanisms of microglia aging, and assess the cross talk between these proaging processes...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441117/sexual-dimorphism-of-parental-care-from-genes-to-behavior
#6
Noga Zilkha, Niv Scott, Tali Kimchi
Parental care is found in species across the animal kingdom, from small insects to large mammals, with a conserved purpose of increasing offspring survival. Yet enormous variability exists between different species and between the sexes in the pattern and level of parental investment. Here, we review the literature on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying maternal and paternal care, especially in rodents, and discuss the relationship between sex differences in behavior and sexual dimorphism in the brain...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441116/nerve-growth-factor-and-pain-mechanisms
#7
Franziska Denk, David L Bennett, Stephen B McMahon
Nerve growth factor (NGF) antagonism is on the verge of becoming a powerful analgesic treatment for numerous conditions, including osteoarthritis and lower back pain. This review summarizes the historical research, both fundamental and clinical, that led to our current understanding of NGF biology. We also discuss the surprising number of questions that remain about NGF expression patterns and NGF's various functions and interaction partners in relation to persistent pain and the potential side effects of anti-NGF therapy...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441115/neuromodulation-of-innate-behaviors-in-drosophila
#8
Susy M Kim, Chih-Ying Su, Jing W Wang
Animals are born with a rich repertoire of robust behaviors that are critical for their survival. However, innate behaviors are also highly adaptable to an animal's internal state and external environment. Neuromodulators, including biogenic amines, neuropeptides, and hormones, are released to signal changes in animals' circumstances and serve to reconfigure neural circuits. This circuit flexibility allows animals to modify their behavioral responses according to environmental cues, metabolic demands, and physiological states...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441114/neural-circuitry-of-reward-prediction-error
#9
Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida, Neir Eshel, Naoshige Uchida
Dopamine neurons facilitate learning by calculating reward prediction error, or the difference between expected and actual reward. Despite two decades of research, it remains unclear how dopamine neurons make this calculation. Here we review studies that tackle this problem from a diverse set of approaches, from anatomy to electrophysiology to computational modeling and behavior. Several patterns emerge from this synthesis: that dopamine neurons themselves calculate reward prediction error, rather than inherit it passively from upstream regions; that they combine multiple separate and redundant inputs, which are themselves interconnected in a dense recurrent network; and that despite the complexity of inputs, the output from dopamine neurons is remarkably homogeneous and robust...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418757/visual-circuits-for-direction-selectivity
#10
Alex S Mauss, Anna Vlasits, Alexander Borst, Marla Feller
Images projected onto the retina of an animal eye are rarely still. Instead, they usually contain motion signals originating either from moving objects or from retinal slip caused by self-motion. Accordingly, motion signals tell the animal in which direction a predator, prey, or the animal itself is moving. At the neural level, visual motion detection has been proposed to extract directional information by a delay-and-compare mechanism, representing a classic example of neural computation. Neurons responding selectively to motion in one but not in the other direction have been identified in many systems, most prominently in the mammalian retina and the fly optic lobe...
April 18, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399689/the-cognitive-neuroscience-of-placebo-effects-concepts-predictions-and-physiology
#11
Stephan Geuter, Leonie Koban, Tor D Wager
Placebos have been used ubiquitously throughout the history of medicine. Expectations and associative learning processes are important psychological determinants of placebo effects, but their underlying brain mechanisms are only beginning to be understood. We examine the brain systems underlying placebo effects on pain, autonomic, and immune responses. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), insula, amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray emerge as central brain structures underlying placebo effects...
April 7, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375767/zebrafish-behavior-opportunities-and-challenges
#12
Michael B Orger, Gonzalo G de Polavieja
A great challenge in neuroscience is understanding how activity in the brain gives rise to behavior. The zebrafish is an ideal vertebrate model to address this challenge, thanks to the capacity, at the larval stage, for precise behavioral measurements, genetic manipulations, and recording and manipulation of neural activity noninvasively and at single-neuron resolution throughout the whole brain. These techniques are being further developed for application in freely moving animals and juvenile stages to study more complex behaviors including learning, decision making, and social interactions...
April 3, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375769/toward-a-rational-and-mechanistic-account-of-mental-effort
#13
Amitai Shenhav, Sebastian Musslick, Falk Lieder, Wouter Kool, Thomas L Griffiths, Jonathan D Cohen, Matthew M Botvinick
In spite of its familiar phenomenology, the mechanistic basis for mental effort remains poorly understood. Although most researchers agree that mental effort is aversive and stems from limitations in our capacity to exercise cognitive control, it is unclear what gives rise to those limitations and why they result in an experience of control as costly. The presence of these control costs also raises further questions regarding how best to allocate mental effort to minimize those costs and maximize the attendant benefits...
March 31, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375768/learning-in-the-rodent-motor-cortex
#14
Andrew J Peters, Haixin Liu, Takaki Komiyama
The motor cortex is far from a stable conduit for motor commands and instead undergoes significant changes during learning. An understanding of motor cortex plasticity has been advanced greatly using rodents as experimental animals. Two major focuses of this research have been on the connectivity and activity of the motor cortex. The motor cortex exhibits structural changes in response to learning, and substantial evidence has implicated the local formation and maintenance of new synapses as crucial substrates of motor learning...
March 31, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375770/neuromodulation-and-strategic-action-choice-in-drosophila-aggression
#15
Kenta Asahina
In this review, I discuss current knowledge and outstanding questions on the neuromodulators that influence aggressive behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. I first present evidence that Drosophila exchange information during an agonistic interaction and choose appropriate actions based on this information. I then discuss the influence of several biogenic amines and neuropeptides on aggressive behavior. One striking characteristic of neuromodulation is that it can configure a neural circuit dynamically, enabling one circuit to generate multiple outcomes...
March 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301775/the-microbiome-and-host-behavior
#16
Helen E Vuong, Jessica M Yano, Thomas C Fung, Elaine Y Hsiao
The microbiota is increasingly recognized for its ability to influence the development and function of the nervous system and several complex host behaviors. In this review, we discuss emerging roles for the gut microbiota in modulating host social and communicative behavior, stressor-induced behavior, and performance in learning and memory tasks. We summarize effects of the microbiota on host neurophysiology, including brain microstructure, gene expression, and neurochemical metabolism across regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and hypothalamus...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301776/neurotransmitter-switching-in-the-developing-and-adult-brain
#17
Nicholas C Spitzer
Neurotransmitter switching is the gain of one neurotransmitter and the loss of another in the same neuron in response to chronic stimulation. Neurotransmitter receptors on postsynaptic cells change to match the identity of the newly expressed neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitter switching often appears to change the sign of the synapse from excitatory to inhibitory or from inhibitory to excitatory. In these cases, neurotransmitter switching and receptor matching thus change the polarity of the circuit in which they take place...
March 6, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442071/face-processing-systems-from-neurons-to-real-world-social-perception
#18
Winrich Freiwald, Bradley Duchaine, Galit Yovel
Primate face processing depends on a distributed network of interlinked face-selective areas composed of face-selective neurons. In both humans and macaques, the network is divided into a ventral stream and a dorsal stream, and the functional similarities of the areas in humans and macaques indicate they are homologous. Neural correlates for face detection, holistic processing, face space, and other key properties of human face processing have been identified at the single neuron level, and studies providing causal evidence have established firmly that face-selective brain areas are central to face processing...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442070/from-cajal-to-connectome-and-beyond
#19
Larry W Swanson, Jeff W Lichtman
One goal of systems neuroscience is a structure-function model of nervous system organization that would allow mechanistic linking of mind, brain, and behavior. A necessary but not sufficient foundation is a connectome, a complete matrix of structural connections between the nodes of a nervous system. Connections between two nodes can be described at four nested levels of analysis: macroconnections between gray matter regions, mesoconnections between neuron types, microconnections between individual neurons, and nanoconnections at synapses...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442069/3-d-maps-and-compasses-in-the-brain
#20
Arseny Finkelstein, Liora Las, Nachum Ulanovsky
The world has a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) spatial structure, but until recently the neural representation of space was studied primarily in planar horizontal environments. Here we review the emerging literature on allocentric spatial representations in 3-D and discuss the relations between 3-D spatial perception and the underlying neural codes. We suggest that the statistics of movements through space determine the topology and the dimensionality of the neural representation, across species and different behavioral modes...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
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