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Annual Review of Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772104/the-role-of-the-lateral-intraparietal-area-in-the-study-of-decision-making
#1
Alexander C Huk, Leor N Katz, Jacob L Yates
Over the past two decades, neurophysiological responses in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) have received extensive study for insight into decision making. In a parallel manner, inferred cognitive processes have enriched interpretations of LIP activity. Because of this bidirectional interplay between physiology and cognition, LIP has served as fertile ground for developing quantitative models that link neural activity with decision making. These models stand as some of the most important frameworks for linking brain and mind, and they are now mature enough to be evaluated in finer detail and integrated with other lines of investigation of LIP function...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772103/architecture-function-and-assembly-of-the-mouse-visual-system
#2
Tania A Seabrook, Timothy J Burbridge, Michael C Crair, Andrew D Huberman
Vision is the sense humans rely on most to navigate the world, make decisions, and perform complex tasks. Understanding how humans see thus represents one of the most fundamental and important goals of neuroscience. The use of the mouse as a model for parsing how vision works at a fundamental level started approximately a decade ago, ushered in by the mouse's convenient size, relatively low cost, and, above all, amenability to genetic perturbations. In the course of that effort, a large cadre of new and powerful tools for in vivo labeling, monitoring, and manipulation of neurons were applied to this species...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772102/mechanisms-of-persistent-activity-in-cortical-circuits-possible-neural-substrates-for-working-memory
#3
Joel Zylberberg, Ben W Strowbridge
A commonly observed neural correlate of working memory is firing that persists after the triggering stimulus disappears. Substantial effort has been devoted to understanding the many potential mechanisms that may underlie memory-associated persistent activity. These rely either on the intrinsic properties of individual neurons or on the connectivity within neural circuits to maintain the persistent activity. Nevertheless, it remains unclear which mechanisms are at play in the many brain areas involved in working memory...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772101/propagation-of-tau-aggregates-and-neurodegeneration
#4
Michel Goedert, David S Eisenberg, R Anthony Crowther
A pathway from the natively unfolded microtubule-associated protein Tau to a highly structured amyloid fibril underlies human Tauopathies. This ordered assembly causes disease and represents the gain of toxic function. In recent years, evidence has accumulated to suggest that Tau inclusions form first in a small number of brain cells, from where they propagate to other regions, resulting in neurodegeneration and disease. Propagation of pathology is often called prion-like, which refers to the capacity of an assembled protein to induce the same abnormal conformation in a protein of the same kind, initiating a self-amplifying cascade...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772100/catastrophic-epilepsies-of-childhood
#5
MacKenzie A Howard, Scott C Baraban
The tragedy of epilepsy emerges from the combination of its high prevalence, impact upon sufferers and their families, and unpredictability. Childhood epilepsies are frequently severe, presenting in infancy with pharmaco-resistant seizures; are often accompanied by debilitating neuropsychiatric and systemic comorbidities; and carry a grave risk of mortality. Here, we review the most current basic science and translational research findings on several of the most catastrophic forms of pediatric epilepsy. We focus largely on genetic epilepsies and the research that is discovering the mechanisms linking disease genes to epilepsy syndromes...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772099/identifying-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-for-magnetosensation
#6
Benjamin L Clites, Jonathan T Pierce
Diverse animals ranging from worms and insects to birds and turtles perform impressive journeys using the magnetic field of the earth as a cue. Although major cellular and molecular mechanisms for sensing mechanical and chemical cues have been elucidated over the past three decades, the mechanisms that animals use to sense magnetic fields remain largely mysterious. Here we survey progress on the search for magnetosensory neurons and magnetosensitive molecules important for animal behaviors. Emphasis is placed on magnetosensation in insects and birds, as well as on the magnetosensitive neuron pair AFD in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772098/replay-comes-of-age
#7
David J Foster
Hippocampal place cells take part in sequenced patterns of reactivation after behavioral experience, known as replay. Since replay was first reported, nearly 20 years ago, many new results have been found, necessitating revision of the original interpretations. We review some of these results with a focus on the phenomenology of replay.
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772097/what-have-we-learned-about-movement-disorders-from-functional-neurosurgery
#8
Andres M Lozano, William D Hutchison, Suneil K Kalia
Modern functional neurosurgery for movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, tremor, and dystonia involves the placement of focal lesions or the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) within circuits that modulate motor function. Precise targeting of these motor structures can be further refined by the use of electrophysiological approaches. In particular, microelectrode recordings enable the delineation of neuroanatomic structures. In the course of these operations, there is an opportunity not only to map basal ganglia structures but also to gain insights into how disturbances in neural activity produce movement disorders...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661727/transcriptomic-perspectives-on-neocortical-structure-development-evolution-and-disease
#9
Ed S Lein, T Grant Belgard, Michael Hawrylycz, Zoltán Molnár
The cerebral cortex is the source of our most complex cognitive capabilities and a vulnerable target of many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Transcriptomics offers a new approach to understanding the cortex at the level of its underlying genetic code, and rapid technological advances have propelled this field to the high-throughput study of the complete set of transcribed genes at increasingly fine resolution to the level of individual cells. These tools have revealed features of the genetic architecture of adult cortical areas, layers, and cell types, as well as spatiotemporal patterning during development...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598717/inhibitory-plasticity-balance-control-and-codependence
#10
Guillaume Hennequin, Everton J Agnes, Tim P Vogels
Inhibitory neurons, although relatively few in number, exert powerful control over brain circuits. They stabilize network activity in the face of strong feedback excitation and actively engage in computations. Recent studies reveal the importance of a precise balance of excitation and inhibition in neural circuits, which often requires exquisite fine-tuning of inhibitory connections. We review inhibitory synaptic plasticity and its roles in shaping both feedforward and feedback control. We discuss the necessity of complex, codependent plasticity mechanisms to build nontrivial, functioning networks, and we end by summarizing experimental evidence of such interactions...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525301/mood-the-circadian-system-and-melanopsin-retinal-ganglion-cells
#11
Lorenzo Lazzerini Ospri, Glen Prusky, Samer Hattar
The discovery of a third type of photoreceptors in the mammalian retina, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), has had a revolutionary impact on chronobiology. We can now properly account for numerous non-vision-related functions of light, including its effect on the circadian system. Here, we give an overview of ipRGCs and their function as it relates specifically to mood and biological rhythms. Although circadian disruptions have been traditionally hypothesized to be the mediators of light's effects on mood, here we present an alternative model that dispenses with assumptions of causality between the two phenomena and explains mood regulation by light via another ipRGC-dependent mechanism...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489490/the-role-of-variability-in-motor-learning
#12
Ashesh K Dhawale, Maurice A Smith, Bence P Ölveczky
Trial-to-trial variability in the execution of movements and motor skills is ubiquitous and widely considered to be the unwanted consequence of a noisy nervous system. However, recent studies have suggested that motor variability may also be a feature of how sensorimotor systems operate and learn. This view, rooted in reinforcement learning theory, equates motor variability with purposeful exploration of motor space that, when coupled with reinforcement, can drive motor learning. Here we review studies that explore the relationship between motor variability and motor learning in both humans and animal models...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471714/circuits-and-mechanisms-for-surround-modulation-in-visual-cortex
#13
Alessandra Angelucci, Maryam Bijanzadeh, Lauri Nurminen, Frederick Federer, Sam Merlin, Paul C Bressloff
Surround modulation (SM) is a fundamental property of sensory neurons in many species and sensory modalities. SM is the ability of stimuli in the surround of a neuron's receptive field (RF) to modulate (typically suppress) the neuron's response to stimuli simultaneously presented inside the RF, a property thought to underlie optimal coding of sensory information and important perceptual functions. Understanding the circuit and mechanisms for SM can reveal fundamental principles of computations in sensory cortices, from mouse to human...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460185/establishing-wiring-specificity-in-visual-system-circuits-from-the-retina-to-the-brain
#14
Chi Zhang, Alex L Kolodkin, Rachel O Wong, Rebecca E James
The retina is a tremendously complex image processor, containing numerous cell types that form microcircuits encoding different aspects of the visual scene. Each microcircuit exhibits a distinct pattern of synaptic connectivity. The developmental mechanisms responsible for this patterning are just beginning to be revealed. Furthermore, signals processed by different retinal circuits are relayed to specific, often distinct, brain regions. Thus, much work has focused on understanding the mechanisms that wire retinal axonal projections to their appropriate central targets...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441118/mechanisms-of-hippocampal-aging-and-the-potential-for-rejuvenation
#15
Xuelai Fan, Elizabeth G Wheatley, Saul A Villeda
The past two decades have seen remarkable progress in our understanding of the multifactorial drivers of hippocampal aging and cognitive decline. Recent findings have also raised the possibility of functional rejuvenation in the aged hippocampus. In this review, we aim to synthesize the mechanisms that drive hippocampal aging and evaluate critically the potential for rejuvenation. We discuss the functional changes in synaptic plasticity and regenerative potential of the aged hippocampus, followed by mechanisms of microglia aging, and assess the cross talk between these proaging processes...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441117/sexual-dimorphism-of-parental-care-from-genes-to-behavior
#16
Noga Zilkha, Niv Scott, Tali Kimchi
Parental care is found in species across the animal kingdom, from small insects to large mammals, with a conserved purpose of increasing offspring survival. Yet enormous variability exists between different species and between the sexes in the pattern and level of parental investment. Here, we review the literature on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying maternal and paternal care, especially in rodents, and discuss the relationship between sex differences in behavior and sexual dimorphism in the brain...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441116/nerve-growth-factor-and-pain-mechanisms
#17
Franziska Denk, David L Bennett, Stephen B McMahon
Nerve growth factor (NGF) antagonism is on the verge of becoming a powerful analgesic treatment for numerous conditions, including osteoarthritis and lower back pain. This review summarizes the historical research, both fundamental and clinical, that led to our current understanding of NGF biology. We also discuss the surprising number of questions that remain about NGF expression patterns and NGF's various functions and interaction partners in relation to persistent pain and the potential side effects of anti-NGF therapy...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441115/neuromodulation-of-innate-behaviors-in-drosophila
#18
Susy M Kim, Chih-Ying Su, Jing W Wang
Animals are born with a rich repertoire of robust behaviors that are critical for their survival. However, innate behaviors are also highly adaptable to an animal's internal state and external environment. Neuromodulators, including biogenic amines, neuropeptides, and hormones, are released to signal changes in animals' circumstances and serve to reconfigure neural circuits. This circuit flexibility allows animals to modify their behavioral responses according to environmental cues, metabolic demands, and physiological states...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441114/neural-circuitry-of-reward-prediction-error
#19
Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida, Neir Eshel, Naoshige Uchida
Dopamine neurons facilitate learning by calculating reward prediction error, or the difference between expected and actual reward. Despite two decades of research, it remains unclear how dopamine neurons make this calculation. Here we review studies that tackle this problem from a diverse set of approaches, from anatomy to electrophysiology to computational modeling and behavior. Several patterns emerge from this synthesis: that dopamine neurons themselves calculate reward prediction error, rather than inherit it passively from upstream regions; that they combine multiple separate and redundant inputs, which are themselves interconnected in a dense recurrent network; and that despite the complexity of inputs, the output from dopamine neurons is remarkably homogeneous and robust...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418757/visual-circuits-for-direction-selectivity
#20
Alex S Mauss, Anna Vlasits, Alexander Borst, Marla Feller
Images projected onto the retina of an animal eye are rarely still. Instead, they usually contain motion signals originating either from moving objects or from retinal slip caused by self-motion. Accordingly, motion signals tell the animal in which direction a predator, prey, or the animal itself is moving. At the neural level, visual motion detection has been proposed to extract directional information by a delay-and-compare mechanism, representing a classic example of neural computation. Neurons responding selectively to motion in one but not in the other direction have been identified in many systems, most prominently in the mammalian retina and the fly optic lobe...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
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