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Journal of Parasitology

Alfred Chikweto, Ravindra N Sharma, Keshaw P Tiwari, Shiv K Verma, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Tiantian Jiang, Chunlei Su, Oliver C Kwok, Jitender P Dubey
The objectives of the present cross sectional study were to isolate and genotype Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens from Grenada, West Indies. Using the modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 39 (26.9%) of 145 free-range chickens with titers of 25 in 7chickens; 50 in 6 chickens; 100 in 2 chickens; 200 or higher in 24 chickens. The hearts of the 39 seropositive chickens were bioassayed in mice; viable T. gondii was isolated from 20 and further propagated in cell culture. Genotyping of T...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Hudson Alves Pinto, Vitor Luis Tenà Rio Mati, Diego Florencio Pujoni, Alan Lane de Melo
The trematodes belonging to the genus Platynosomum are biliary parasites of birds and mammals (domestic and wildlife) in tropical and subtropical areas of the globe. Despite several reports on platynosomosis in captive nonhuman primates, mainly in South America, the taxonomy of species of Platynosomum that infect these hosts remains confused, and it is not clear whether the species found in cats is the same that infects nonhuman primates. Because a detailed morphological study of Platynosomum from nonhuman primates is lacking, in this study we analyzed specimens of Platynosomum recovered from the biliary system of Callithrix penicillata kept in captivity in an animal facility...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Alain de Chambrier, Carlos Daniel Pinacho-Pinacho, Jesus Servando Hernà Ndez-Orts, Tomà ŠScholz
Cichlidocestus n. gen. is proposed to accommodate 2 new species of proteocephalidean cestodes, Cichlidocestus gillesi n. sp. from Cichlasoma amazonarum in Peru Amazonia (type species) and Cichlidocestus janikae n. sp. from Hypsophrys nicaraguensis (all Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Costa Rica. The new genus is unique among all but 1 proteocephalidean genera in the position of the ovary that occupies the middle and posterior thirds of proglottids (versus the ovary in the posterior third of proglottids near their posterior margin in all but 1 remaining taxa)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Leah Marie Sloan, Sarah Mincks Hardy
Rhizocephalan barnacles in the genus Briarosaccus parasitize and castrate king crab hosts, thereby preventing host reproduction and potentially altering host abundance. To better understand how environmental factors in Alaska may influence Briarosaccus prevalence, we studied the effects of temperature and salinity on the larvae of Briarosaccus regalis (previously B. callosus). Nauplius larvae were reared at 7 temperatures (2 to 16 C) and 8 salinities (19 to 40) to determine larval survival and development rates...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Chris T McAllister, Donald W Duszynski, Christopher C Austin, Robert N Fisher
Between September and November 1991, 54 adult skinks from 15 species including 5 seaside skinks (Emoia atrocostata), 1 Pacific blue-tailed skink (Emoia caeroleocauda), 2 Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor), 15 white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), 1 Bulolo River forest skink (Emoia guttata), 6 dark-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia impar), 5 Papua five-striped skinks (Emoia jakati), 2 Papua slender treeskinks (Emoia kordoana), 3 Papua robust treeskinks (Emoia longicauda), 1 brown-backed forest skink (Emoia loveridgei), 3 Papua black-sided skinks (Emoia pallidiceps), 2 Papua white- spotted skinks (Emoia physicae), 2 Papua yellow-head skinks (Emoia popei), 1 Papua brown forest skink (Emoia submetallica), and 5 Fiji barred treeskinks (Emoia trossula) were collected by hand or blowpipe from several localities on Rarotonga, Cook Islands, Ovalau Island, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and their feces examined for coccidians...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Junpei Yamashita, Takuya Sato, Katsutoshi Watanabe
For parasites with complex life cycles, the ecological traits determining host competence and seasonal changes in infection in natural habitats are often unclear, which makes it difficult to predict infection dynamics, including disease outbreaks. Hairworms (Phylum: Nematomorpha) require both aquatic and terrestrial hosts to complete their life cycle. Although hairworm host competencies have been tested in laboratory experiments, knowledge of the paratenic hosts (aquatic insect larvae) in their natural habitats is limited...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Emma R Cold, Gerardo R Vasta, Josà A Fernà Ndez-Robledo
Perkinsus marinus is a protozoan parasite of molluscs that can be propagated in vitro in a defined culture medium, in the absence of host cells. We previously reported that P. marinus trophozoites can be transfected with high efficiency by electroporation using a plasmid based on MOE, a highly expressed gene, and proposed its potential use as a "pseudoparasite". This is a novel gene expression platform for parasites of medical relevance for which the choice of the surrogate organism is based on phylogenetic affinity to the parasite of interest, while taking advantage of the whole engineered surrogate organism as a vaccination adjuvant...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Rita Lynn Grunberg, Michael V K Sukhdeo
This study surveyed gregarine parasites that infect the amphipod, Gammarus fasciatus, to investigate temporal dynamics in infracommunity structure. We sampled a population of hosts for two years from the north branch of the Raritan River in New Jersey. These hosts were infected with 2 direct life cycle gregarine parasites, Rotundula gammari and Heliospora longissimi. Infections were separated temporally, with the prevalence of R. gammari peaking within the amphipod population in the fall (prevalence = 78% yr 1and 97% yr 2) and H...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Shane L Griffin, Nichole Carpenter, Autumn Smith-Herron, Kristin K Herrmann
A variety of trematode species infect the eyes of fish as second intermediate hosts. In most cases the definitive host is a piscivorous bird. Studies of a few species have shown an increase in transmission due to decreased visual acuity of the fish host. However, this may vary depending on trematode microhabitat choice within the eye. Some trematode species are found in the lens, some in the vitreous humor and others have been reported from the retina. Here we report 3 genera of eyeflukes in 3 locations of the eye in the intermediate fish host, Gambusia affinis...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Angela Perri, Susann Heinrich, Shira Gur-Arieh, Jeffrey J Saunders
The study of fossil parasites can provide insight into the antiquity of host-parasite relationships and the origins and evolution of these paleoparasites. Here, a coprolite (fossilized feces) from the 1.2-million-year-old paleontological site of Haro River Quarry in northwestern Pakistan was analyzed for paleoparasites. Micromorphological thin sectioning and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) analysis confirms the coprolite belonged to a bone-eating carnivore, likely the extinct giant short-faced hyena (Pachycrocuta brevirostris)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Veryl Woody Walstrom, Diana Cumings Outlaw
Avian haemosporidian parasites provide a model system for understanding ecological and evolutionary host-parasite interactions. The diversity and distribution of these parasites remains incomplete, and, here, we provide the first range-wide assessment of avian haemosporidians in a continentally distributed host, the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Based on molecular techniques, we show geographical differences in prevalence and lineage diversity between host subspecies and identify several novel lineages...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Susan L Perkins, Timothy Ruhnke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Simon Jones, Hanna Ahonen, Lars Granlund, Tiina Arsiola, Jouni Taskinen
Two new species of Microsporidia were recognized in skeletal muscle of freshwater fishes from Finland. Myosporidium spraguei n. sp. from pike-perch Sander lucioperca occurred as mature spores within sporophorous vesicles (SPVs) within a xenoma. The ovoid spores were 3.8 µm long and 2.4 µm wide, based on transmission electron micrographs (TEM). The exospore and endospore were equally thick, the nucleus was monokaryotic and the polar filament was isofilar with 12 coils in a single rank, entirely adjacent to the prominent posterior vacuole...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Wilmer Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Kirsten Jensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
William C Campbell
It seems inevitable that chemotherapy will continue, at least in the near-term, to be a significant factor in the control of infectious diseases. The effectiveness of new drugs has invariably been reduced by the emergence of drug resistance. Efforts to thwart resistance should continue, but there are also other areas that might profitably be re-examined. They include (a) methods of new-drug discovery; (b) selection of parasite life-cycle targets;
September 14, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Mark E Siddall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Sara V Brant, Eric S Loker, Laura Casalins, Veronica R Flores
In the blood fluke family Schistosomatidae, marine snails are well known as intermediate hosts. Eight families of marine snails have thus far been reported to host schistosomes across the world, most of which have been implicated in human cercarial dermatitis (HCD) outbreaks. As part of our larger effort to define the species diversity and biology of schistosomes in Argentina, in particular their role in causing HCD, we searched in the marine pulmonate snail (Siphonaria lessoni) for a schistosome species described previously from S...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Geoffrey Weny, James Okwee-Acai, Samuel George Okech, Gabriel Tumwine, Susan Ndyanabo, Salvatory Abigaba, Tony Goldberg
Livestock production is a major sector of the Ugandan economy. Ugandan ruminant livestock (principally cattle and goats) are susceptible to hemoparasites that can cause serious clinical disease and production losses. Kibale National park, in western Uganda is a protected forest ecosystem surrounded by small-scale farms where cattle and goats are raised.. We conducted a cross-sectional study of cattle and goats in this area and diagnosed hemoparasite infections by microscopy. We collected data on animal characteristics and management practices to assess risk factors associated with infection...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Kayla Fast, Veryl Woody Walstrom, Diana Cumings Outlaw
Haemosporidians are a diverse group of blood parasites that infect terrestrial vertebrates worldwide, but there is variability in parasite prevalence and parasitemia with infections ranging from virtually inconsequential to lethal. In this study, we determined prevalence and parasitemia of avian haemosporidians in the Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor; n = 81). Plasmodium and Parahaemoproteus were detected and quantified from blood samples using microscopy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
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