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Behavior Modification

Rachel Scalzo, Tonya N Davis
Providing noncontingent access to a stimulus until an individual displays behavioral indicators of satiation has been used to determine when an abolishing operation is in effect, but there has been variation in its application in the literature. Four males diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with tangibly maintained challenging behavior participated in this study. Individualized behavioral indicators were identified and verified to determine when each participant was finished playing with his/her preferred item...
October 18, 2016: Behavior Modification
Daniel Drevon, Sophie R Fursa, Allura L Malcolm
Quantitative synthesis of data from single-case designs (SCDs) is becoming increasingly common in psychology and education journals. Because researchers do not ordinarily report numerical data in addition to graphical displays, reliance on plot digitizing tools is often a necessary component of this research. Intercoder reliability of data extraction is a commonly overlooked, but potentially important, step of this process. The purpose of this study was to examine the intercoder reliability and validity of WebPlotDigitizer (Rohatgi, 2015), a web-based plot digitizing tool for extracting data from a variety of plots, including XY coordinates of interrupted time-series data...
October 18, 2016: Behavior Modification
Claudia Campos, Yanerys Leon, Andressa Sleiman, Beatriz Urcuyo
One potential limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that after the functional communication response (FCR) is taught, the response may be emitted at high rates or inappropriate times. Thus, schedule thinning is often necessary. Previous research has demonstrated that multiple schedules can facilitate schedule thinning by establishing discriminative control of the communication response while maintaining low rates of problem behavior. To date, most applied research evaluating the clinical utility of multiple schedules has done so in the context of behavior maintained by positive reinforcement (e...
September 27, 2016: Behavior Modification
Erik Linstead, Dennis R Dixon, Ryan French, Doreen Granpeesheh, Hilary Adams, Rene German, Alva Powell, Elizabeth Stevens, Jonathan Tarbox, Julie Kornack
Ample research has shown that intensive applied behavior analysis (ABA) treatment produces robust outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, little is known about the relationship between treatment intensity and treatment outcomes. The current study was designed to evaluate this relationship. Participants included 726 children, ages 1.5 to 12 years old, receiving community-based behavioral intervention services. Results indicated a strong relationship between treatment intensity and mastery of learning objectives, where higher treatment intensity predicted greater progress...
September 20, 2016: Behavior Modification
Judith M Laposa, Enza Mancuso, Gaby Abraham, Laura Loli-Dano
Barlow et al. published the unified protocol (UP) for transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders, focusing on common pathological factors across a variety of diagnoses. The limited UP research to date suggests that this treatment may be particularly useful for anxiety disorders. However, it has largely been evaluated only in individual treatment format. The current study examined the effectiveness of the UP treatment in a group format, with individuals with comorbid anxiety disorder symptoms. Twenty-six individuals with clinically significant anxiety symptoms in at least two of the following areas, social anxiety, worry, or panic, participated in a 14-week manualized group treatment using the UP...
September 2, 2016: Behavior Modification
Laura Seiverling, Helen M Hendy, Stella Yusupova
The present study examined changes in child and family mealtime patterns before and after intensive behavioral feeding intervention at a multidisciplinary hospital-based program for 50 children. At preintervention and postintervention, caregivers completed surveys to report child feeding goals and the About Your Child's Eating scale (AYCE). In addition, at postintervention, each caregiver rated intervention effectiveness for his or her child's feeding goals identified at preintervention and provided intervention satisfaction ratings...
August 31, 2016: Behavior Modification
Rumen Manolov, Mariola Moeyaert
The present article aims to present a series of software developments in the quantitative analysis of data obtained via single-case experimental designs (SCEDs), as well as the tutorial describing these developments. The tutorial focuses on software implementations based on freely available platforms such as R and aims to bring statistical advances closer to applied researchers and help them become autonomous agents in the data analysis stage of a study. The range of analyses dealt with in the tutorial is illustrated on a typical single-case dataset, relying heavily on graphical data representations...
August 22, 2016: Behavior Modification
Catalina Schmitz, Katja Schnicker, Tanja Legenbauer
In terms of the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders, Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN), and Binge Eating Disorder (BED) share the same distinctive psychopathology. However, empirical evidence showing similarities between these eating disorder diagnoses for core symptoms is scarce, and the role of weight status is unclear. Data from a total of 168 female participants were collected between April 2004 and April 2008, at an outpatient unit specialized in eating disorder treatment. Core symptoms of eating disorders were measured via self-report questionnaires...
September 2016: Behavior Modification
Lisa H Glassman, Evan M Forman, James D Herbert, Lauren E Bradley, Elizabeth E Foster, Meltem Izzetoglu, Anthony C Ruocco
Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for PSA emphasize anxiety reduction rather than enhancing behavioral performance. We compared the efficacy of two brief cognitive-behavioral interventions, a traditional cognitive-behavior treatment (tCBT) and an acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABBT), on public speaking performance and anxiety in a clinical sample of persons with PSA...
September 2016: Behavior Modification
Carol Chu, Matthew C Podlogar, Megan L Rogers, Jennifer M Buchman-Schmitt, Jacob H Negley, Thomas E Joiner
Individuals at risk for suicide experience periods of emotional, enduring, and vivid thoughts about their death by suicide and frequently report violent daydreams about death. Daydreaming is associated with forgetfulness and memory impairments. However, no studies have examined whether suicidal ideation is associated with deficits in everyday memory capabilities and whether violent daydreaming may influence these relationships. This study tested these hypotheses in a sample of 512 young adults. Self-report measures of subjective everyday memory capabilities, violent daydreaming, and suicidal ideation were administered...
September 2016: Behavior Modification
Jolene R Sy, Leonard Green, Olivia Gratz, Thea Ervin
Different combinations of immediate and delayed consequences differentially affect choice. Basic research has found that nonhuman animals are more likely to choose an alternative that produces an immediate reinforcer that is followed by a delayed punisher as the delay to punishment increases. The purpose of the current effort was to examine the choices of three individuals with autism when they were given the choice between receiving a larger amount of preferred food followed by a mild, delayed verbal punisher and a smaller amount of the preferred food...
September 2016: Behavior Modification
John William McKenna, Andrea Flower, Reesha Adamson
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders and students considered at risk often have social deficits. Although social skills interventions are often provided to this student population, there are some concerns regarding how these interventions are conceived and provided. One possible way to improve the effectiveness of social skills interventions is to use functional behavior assessment data to tailor the interventions to a student's individual needs and the contexts in which social skills deficits and problem behaviors occur...
September 2016: Behavior Modification
Julia D Buckner, Emily R Jeffries, Meredith A Terlecki, Anthony H Ecker
Students referred to treatment after violating campus drug policies represent a high-risk group. Identification of factors related to these students' cannabis use could inform prevention and treatment efforts. Distress tolerance (DT) is negatively related to substance-related behaviors and may be related to high-risk cannabis use vulnerability factors that can impact treatment outcome. Thus, the current study tested whether DT was related to cannabis use frequency, cannabis-related problems, and motivation to change cannabis use among 88 students referred for treatment after violating campus cannabis policies...
September 2016: Behavior Modification
Michael E Levin, Jack A Haeger, Benjamin G Pierce, Michael P Twohig
There are significant challenges in addressing the mental health needs of college students. The current study tested an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), web-based self-help program to treat a broad range of psychological problems students struggle with. A sample of 79 college students was randomized to web-based ACT or a waitlist condition, with assessments at baseline and posttreatment. Results indicated adequate acceptability and program engagement for the ACT website. Relative to waitlist, participants receiving ACT improved on overall distress, general anxiety, social anxiety, depression, academic concerns, and positive mental health...
July 20, 2016: Behavior Modification
Claude Bélanger, Catherine Courchesne, Andrea G Leduc, Caroline Dugal, Ghassan El-Baalbaki, André Marchand, Natacha Godbout, Roger Marcaurelle, Michel Perreault
Panic disorder and agoraphobia are both characterized by avoidance behaviors, which are known correlates of treatment discontinuation. The aim of this exploratory study is to distinguish the profile of participants suffering from panic disorder with agoraphobia that complete treatment from those who discontinue therapy by assessing four categories of predictor variables: the severity of the disorder, sociodemographic variables, participants' expectations, and dyadic adjustment. The sample included 77 individuals diagnosed with panic disorder with agoraphobia who completed a series of questionnaires and participated in a cognitive-behavioral group therapy consisting of 14 weekly sessions...
July 5, 2016: Behavior Modification
Keith C Radley, Evan H Dart, James W Moore, Allison A Battaglia, Zachary C LaBrot
Restricted and repetitive behavior is a central feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with such behaviors often resulting in lack of reinforcement in social contexts. The present study investigated training multiple exemplars of target behaviors and the utilization of lag schedules of reinforcement in the context of social skills training to promote appropriate and varied social behavior in children with ASD. Five participants with ASD between the ages of 7 and 9 attended a twice-weekly social skills group for 8 weeks...
July 5, 2016: Behavior Modification
Stephen S Leff, Tracy Evian Waasdorp, Brooke S Paskewich
Girls often harm others' social standing by starting rumors about peers or by excluding others from peer group activities, which is called relational aggression. Although relational aggression is not a new phenomenon, there have been relatively few interventions designed to address this, especially for urban ethnic minority girls. The Friend to Friend (F2F) program, developed through an iterative participatory action research process, has proven to be effective in improving targeted relationally aggressive urban girls' social problem-solving knowledge and decreasing levels of relational aggression, with effects being maintained 1 year after treatment...
July 2016: Behavior Modification
Tai A Collins, Renee O Hawkins, Laura A Nabors
Identification of evidence-based practices for promotion of social and emotional functioning of children at school is important for their academic and social development. This introduction reviews information from this special issue focusing on evidence-based research to improve the social and emotional functioning of children in their classrooms and schools. An emphasis on reduction of negative behaviors and promotion of positive, prosocial behaviors is presented in manuscripts for this special issue. The articles in this issue may be grouped in terms of the tiered system or School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports Framework into articles at the Tier I, II, and III levels...
July 2016: Behavior Modification
Elaine Wahl, Renee O Hawkins, Todd Haydon, Richard Marsicano, Julie Q Morrison
Disruptions can prevent the classroom from being an effective learning environment. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a group contingency that has been proven to effectively prevent disruptions and increase engagement. However, the traditional methods of the GBG include teacher scanning for negative student behaviors, and may not align with Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS), which is becoming widely adopted in many schools. Extending the findings of Wright and McCurdy, the current study compared the effects of the GBG and a positive version of the GBG, called the Caught Being Good Game (CBGG), on student behavior, including engagement and off-task behaviors, as well as teachers' use of positive and negative statements...
July 2016: Behavior Modification
Tai A Collins, Frank M Gresham, Evan H Dart
Check-In/Check-Out (CICO) is a moderately effective Tier 2 intervention often used to address attention-maintained problem behaviors in schools. Recent studies on CICO have demonstrated the effectiveness of the intervention when combined with social skills training and when utilizing students' peers as interventionists. Using a concurrent multiple baseline across participants design, the present study evaluated the effectiveness of peer-mediated CICO to target social skills in elementary school students identified as socially neglected using a sociometric classification system...
July 2016: Behavior Modification
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