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Behavior Modification

M Alice Shillingsburg, Bethany Hansen, Melinda Wright
Discrete trial instruction (DTI) is effective for teaching skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although effective, instructional settings can become aversive resulting in avoidant and escape-related behaviors. Given the significant social impairments associated with ASD, interventions that promote social approach and reduce avoidance are warranted. Rapport building or "pairing" the therapist and teaching setting with highly preferred activities prior to instruction can reduce problematic behaviors during subsequent instruction...
January 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Melissa Vazquez, Mitch J Fryling, Anthony Hernández
The present study evaluates the treatment acceptability and preference for behavioral interventions for feeding problems with parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and other developmental disabilities. The impact of behavioral severity on acceptability and preference was also evaluated by comparing results of parents who responded with respect to a vignette of a child with food refusal with those who responded to a vignette of a child with food selectivity. Overall, parents rated differential reinforcement of alternative behavior as the most preferred and most acceptable strategy across both food selectivity and food refusal groups...
January 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Chia-Jung Lin, Hsin-Ping Liu, Pei-Ya Wang, Mei-Hua Yu, Mei-Chun Lu, Ling-Yu Hsieh, Tzu-Chia Lin
Most children experience significant anxiety during the preoperative period. Greater preoperative anxiety may be related to a higher incidence of negative behaviors. This study aimed to develop a family-centered preoperative preparation program and to evaluate the effects of this program on children's preoperative emotional behaviors, postoperative behavior, and posthospital behavior, and on caregiver anxiety. A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted. The population consisted of children who underwent minor surgery and their caregivers...
January 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Yolanda E Murphy, Anna Luke, Elle Brennan, Sarah Francazio, Isabella Christopher, Christopher A Flessner
Although science's understanding (e.g., etiology, maintaining factors, etc.) of pediatric anxiety and related problems has grown substantially over recent years, several aspects to anxiety in youths remain elusive, particularly with relation to executive functioning. To this end, the current study sought to examine several facets to executive functioning (i.e., cognitive flexibility, inhibition, planning, working memory) within a transdiagnostic sample of youths exhibiting varying degrees of anxiety symptoms...
January 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Concepción Fernández-Rodríguez, Erica Villoria-Fernández, Paula Fernández-García, Sonia González-Fernández, Marino Pérez-Álvarez
Research suggests that the progressive abandonment of activities in cancer patients are related to depression and worse quality of life. Behavioral activation (BA) encourages subjects to activate their sources of reinforcement and modify the avoidance responses. This study assesses the effectiveness of BA in improving quality of life and preventing emotional disorders during chemotherapy treatment. One sample of lung cancer patients and another of breast cancer patients were randomized into a BA experimental group (E...
December 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Jennifer Krafft, Sarah Potts, Benjamin Schoendorff, Michael E Levin
Mobile apps may be useful in teaching psychological skills in a high-frequency, low-intensity intervention. The acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) matrix is a visual tool to help develop psychological flexibility by categorizing moment-to-moment experience and is well suited to a mobile app. This pilot study tested the effects of a simple and complex version of a novel app using the ACT matrix in two distinct samples: help-seeking individuals ( n = 35) and students receiving SONA credit ( n = 63). Findings indicated no differences between app conditions and a waitlist condition in the SONA credit sample...
December 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Isabelle Préfontaine, Marc J Lanovaz, Emeline McDuff, Catherine McHugh, Jennifer L Cook
We developed an iOS app, the iSTIM, designed to support parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in reducing common repetitive vocal and motor behavior (i.e., stereotypy). The purpose of our study was to preliminarily test the decision-making algorithms of the iSTIM using trained university students to implement the assessments and interventions. Specifically, we examined the effects of the iSTIM on stereotypy and functional engagement in 11 children with ASD within alternating treatment designs...
December 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Shirley Yen, Megan L Ranney, Katherine M Tezanos, Adam Chuong, Christopher W Kahler, Joel B Solomon, Anthony Spirito
"Skills to Enhance Positivity" (STEP) is a two-part positive affect program designed to decrease recurrent suicidal behavior in adolescents hospitalized due to suicide risk. Here, we describe the initial pilot phase in which the intervention was developed and modified based on a sample of 20 adolescent participants, aged 12 to 18 years old ( Mage = 15.9, SD = 1.5). STEP consisted of an in-person phase (four sessions) and a remote delivery phase (text messaging and phone calls). The inpatient sessions focused on psychoeducation of positive affect, mindfulness meditation, gratitude, and savoring...
December 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Elle Brennan, Anna Luke, Yolanda Murphy, Sarah Francazio, Christopher Flessner
Cognitive flexibility (CF), a subdomain of executive functioning (EF), involves abilities such as set shifting and reversal learning. Some variability in CF is normative across youth due to the gradual refinement of broader EF along with the prefrontal cortex. Prior research has suggested that a supportive parenting environment contributes to strong EF, whereas harsh/controlling parenting is associated with deficits. The current investigation explores whether certain parenting practices (e.g., parental accommodation, over-involvement, modeling) are associated with such deficits...
December 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Lia S Bishop, Victoria E Ameral, Kathleen M Palm Reed
Cognitive control strategies like rumination often increase posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, extant research has provided equivocal results when attempting to explain why this phenomenon occurs. The current study explored several mechanisms that may clarify such findings. For this study, 193 trauma-exposed community members completed measures of PTSD, rumination, experiential avoidance, and event centrality. Elevated reports of rumination were associated with greater PTSD symptomology, experiential avoidance, and event centrality...
December 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Adrienne Perry, Julie Koudys, Alice Prichard, Hilda Ho
Although early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) has been clearly shown to be evidence-based, there is very little information available regarding long-term outcomes, especially from community effectiveness studies. We present data on cognitive, adaptive, and autism severity measures from four time points (pre- and post-EIBI and two follow-up points) for a sample of 21 youth, currently aged 16 years on average (range = 13-20) who received EIBI as young children and who have been out of EIBI for a mean of 10 years (range = 8...
December 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Shaji S Haq, Wendy Machalicek, S Andrew Garbacz, Christine Drew
Despite its utility, there is limited applied research on employing fixed-lean (FL) schedules of reinforcement in treatment packages to address challenging behavior. One potential reason is that abrupt shifts to terminal schedules of reinforcement have been associated with immediate increases in challenging behavior before subsiding to clinically acceptable levels. The purpose of the present study was to (a) provide evidence demonstrating the utility of a FL multiple schedule (MS) in the treatment of challenging behavior in applied settings, (b) examine the potential effects of alternative stimuli on challenging behavior during a FL MS, and (c) assess the social validity of this treatment package with participants and caregivers...
December 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Stephanie Gerow, Shanna Hagan-Burke, Mandy Rispoli, Emily Gregori, Rose Mason, Jennifer Ninci
Supporting parents in reducing challenging behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires the identification of effective, feasible, and sustainable interventions. Functional communication training (FCT) is one of the most well-established interventions in the behavioral literature and is used increasingly by parents. However, there is a need for additional evaluation of the literature related to parent-implemented FCT. In the present review, we identified 26 peer-reviewed studies on parent-implemented FCT...
December 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Mandy Rispoli, Matthew Brodhead, Katie Wolfe, Emily Gregori
Research on trial-based functional analysis has primarily focused on socially maintained challenging behaviors. However, procedural modifications may be necessary to clarify ambiguous assessment results. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the utility of iterative modifications to trial-based functional analysis on the identification of putative reinforcement and subsequent treatment for vocal scripting. For all participants, modifications to the trial-based functional analysis identified a primary function of automatic reinforcement...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Adam M Briggs, Jessica S Akers, Brian D Greer, Wayne W Fisher, Billie J Retzlaff
We treated destructive behavior maintained by both social-positive (i.e., access to tangibles) and social-negative (i.e., escape from demands) reinforcement in an individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder using functional communication training (FCT). We then thinned the schedule of reinforcement for the tangible function using a multiple schedule (mult FCT) and later thinned the availability of escape using a chained schedule (chain FCT). Both treatments proved effective at maintaining functional communicative responses while decreasing destructive behavior to near-zero levels...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Buket Erturk, Wendy Machalicek, Christine Drew
We reviewed single-case research studies examining the effects of behavioral interventions for self-injurious behavior (SIB) in young children with autism and developmental disabilities. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 46 studies (66 participants younger than the age of 12) meeting inclusion criteria. Studies were examined based on (a) participant demographics, (b) topography and function of SIB, (c) type of functional behavior assessment (FBA), (d) intervention procedures and outcomes, and (e) experimental design and measurement...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Kristen M Brogan, John T Rapp, Lisa A Sennott, Jennifer L Cook, Erin Swinkels
We conducted five experiments to evaluate the predictive validity of a free-operant competing stimulus assessment (FOCSA). In Experiment 1, we showed that each participant's repetitive behavior persisted without social consequences. In Experiment 2, we used the FOCSA to identify high-preference, low-stereotypy (HP-LS) items for 11 participants and high-preference, high-stereotypy (HP-HS) items for nine participants. To validate the results of the FOCSAs (Experiment 3), we used a three-component multiple schedule to evaluate the immediate and subsequent effects of an HP-LS stimulus, an HP-HS stimulus, or both (in separate test sequences) on each participant's stereotypy...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Megan A Boyle, Ginny Keenan, Kara L Forck, Kaitlin S Curtis
Elopement is a dangerous behavior common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Relative to other forms of problematic behavior, elopement has received little attention in both assessment and treatment. The current study entailed a functional analysis of elopement of one child with ASD, results of which suggested a partially automatic function. We then evaluated a differential reinforcement procedure, along with a rule, which successfully decreased elopement without the use of blocking. A changing-criterion design embedded within a withdrawal design was used to gradually increase the criterion for maintaining a close proximity to a therapist prior to being allowed to run...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Terry S Falcomata, Colin S Muething, Bryant C Silbaugh, Summer Adami, Katherine Hoffman, Cayenne Shpall, Joel E Ringdahl
We evaluated the effects of lag schedules of reinforcement and functional communication training (FCT) on mand variability and problem behavior in two children with autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we implemented FCT with increasing lag schedules and compared its effects on problem behavior with baseline conditions. The results showed that both participants exhibited low rates of problem behavior during treatment relative to baseline during and following schedule thinning (up to a Lag 5 schedule arrangement)...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Regan Weston, Abby Hodges, Tonya N Davis
This review summarizes the literature regarding differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO) to treat challenging behavior among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and determines the quality of studies among the current literature according to the 2014 Council for Exceptional Children (CEC): Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education. Studies that focused on the use of DRO in the treatment of challenging behavior for individuals with ASD were included for systematic analysis...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
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