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Behavior Modification

Kissel J Goldman, Iser G DeLeon
Tic disorders are characterized by a class of responses assumed to be neurobiological in origin. Still, several studies have shown that tic frequency can be influenced by antecedent environmental events and social consequences. Prior reviews have summarized the effects of environmental events but have not examined relations between tic diagnosis, behavioral deficits (e.g., intellectual disability), tic topography, and the consequences observed to maintain tics. These variables might be important when attempting to predict or identify relevant consequences...
October 29, 2018: Behavior Modification
Mariola Moeyaert, Rumen Manolov, Emily Rodabaugh
Multilevel modeling is an approach that can be used to summarize single-case experimental design (SCED) data. Multilevel models were developed to analyze hierarchical structured data with units at a lower level nested within higher level units. SCEDs use time series data collected from multiple cases (or subjects) within a study that allow researchers to investigate intervention effectiveness at the individual level and also to investigate how these individual intervention effects change over time. There is an increased interest in the field regarding how SCEDs can be used to establish an evidence base for interventions by synthesizing data from a series of intervention studies...
October 26, 2018: Behavior Modification
Chloe C Hudson, Brad A Mac Neil
We explored whether a single-item self-report measure (i.e., the Readiness Ruler) was an appropriate measure of treatment engagement in adult outpatients with eating disorders. In total, 108 women diagnosed with an eating disorder completed the Readiness Ruler and measures of symptom severity at intake to a hospital-based outpatient treatment program. Treatment engagement was operationalized as attendance to a minimum of one session of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment group, the number of CBT group sessions attended, and whether the participants dropped out of the CBT group prematurely...
October 19, 2018: Behavior Modification
Gabriela A Nagy, Paul Cernasov, Angela Pisoni, Erin Walsh, Gabriel S Dichter, Moria J Smoski
Behavioral Activation (BA) is a contemporary third-wave psychosocial treatment approach that emphasizes helping individuals become more active in ways that are meaningful to them as a means of improving mood and quality of life. BA has been designated as a well-established, validated treatment for depression by the American Psychological Association following several decades of accumulated empirical support demonstrating that BA techniques successfully reduce depression symptoms and produce other desirable outcomes across a variety of populations and contexts...
October 13, 2018: Behavior Modification
W Andrew Rothenberg, Margaret T Anton, Michelle Gonzalez, Nicole Lafko Breslend, Rex Forehand, Olga Khavjou, Deborah J Jones
Behavioral Parent Training (BPT) is the standard of care for early-onset Behavior Disorders (BDs). Preliminary evidence suggests that BPT may also lead to improvement in comorbid symptomatology, particularly internalizing problems, in children with BDs, yet less is currently known about how BPT produces such cascading effects. To begin to address this gap in the literature, trajectory analyses were used to examine the link between treatment components of one mastery-based BPT program, Helping the Noncompliant Child ( HNC), and child internalizing symptoms over the course of treatment...
September 22, 2018: Behavior Modification
Paula Viefhaus, Marion Feldhausen, Anja Görtz-Dorten, Helene Volk, Manfred Döpfner, Katrin Woitecki
The aim of this study is to evaluate a cognitive-behavioral treatment for children and adolescents with tic disorder including habit reversal training (HRT) in a sample of children and adolescents ( n = 27). Multiple outcome measures were used to assess the effects of the treatment on tic symptoms. In addition, impairment/subjective burden ratings and the self-efficacy to control tics were assessed. A within-subject design with two phases (8 weeks diagnostic; 16 sessions treatment) was analyzed using multilevel modeling (MLM)...
August 27, 2018: Behavior Modification
James F Boswell, Carly M Schwartzman
Recent work has highlighted that process-outcome relationships are likely to vary depending on the client, yet much work remains to be done in the area of tailoring interventions to a given client. This naturalistic single-case analysis provides an example of augmenting a treatment protocol with "off protocol" relaxation methods, based on routinely collected outcome information to guide shared decision making. Intensive case study analyses were applied to one client with principal generalized anxiety disorder and comorbid major depressive disorder receiving transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral therapy...
August 23, 2018: Behavior Modification
Amin D Lotfizadeh, Ellie Kazemi, Paula Pompa-Craven, Sigmund Eldevik
We compared clinical outcomes in a treatment group of 98 individuals who received between 8 and 15 weekly hours ( M = 10.6; SD = 1.7) of applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention with a comparison group of 73 individuals who received another provision, including some ABA, (between 1.4-8 weekly hours, M = 5.7; SD = 1.6). After 2 years, the treatment group made greater gains than the comparison group on language and social skills, and other areas assessed by the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP)...
August 23, 2018: Behavior Modification
Abby Hodges, Tonya N Davis, Marie Kirkpatrick
A functional analysis is a well-established and widely used assessment in the treatment of challenging behavior. Given the fact that functional analysis results can inform treatment selection and procedures, a review of the current literature regarding functional analysis of inappropriate mealtime behavior (IMB) is warranted as it may guide researchers in conducting a functional analysis prior to treating IMB. This review summarizes the literature regarding functional analysis of IMB. Fourteen studies that implemented a functional analysis of IMB were identified and summarized based on procedural components of the functional analysis, results, and treatment selection...
August 22, 2018: Behavior Modification
Eric B Lee, Kendra J Homan, Kate L Morrison, Clarissa W Ong, Michael E Levin, Michael P Twohig
The purpose of this study was to examine acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) as a standalone treatment for trichotillomania in a randomized controlled trial of adults and adolescents. Participants consisted of a community sample of treatment seeking adults and adolescents with trichotillomania. Of the eligible 39 participants randomized into treatment and waitlist groups, 25 completed treatment and were included in the final analysis. Treatment consisted of a 10-session ACT protocol. Multiple mixed models repeated measures analyses were utilized to evaluate changes in trichotillomania symptom severity, daily number of hairs pulled and urges experienced, and experiential avoidance from pretreatment to posttreatment...
August 17, 2018: Behavior Modification
Victoria Markham, Aimee Giles, Richard May
The components of discrete-trial teaching (DTT) may be individualized to each learner during instruction (e.g., the type of prompts used). However, there is limited research on the relative efficiency and effectiveness of these different prompt types. In addition, the learner's preference for how they are taught is not always considered. The present study compared relative effectiveness of three prompt types (i.e., a gesture, modeling, physical guidance) to a no-prompt control condition during a receptive identification task with three boys with autism...
August 16, 2018: Behavior Modification
Christina L Boisseau, Sarah L Garnaat
Converging lines of research highlight the significance of cognitive and behavioral flexibility in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of fear and anxiety disorders. We have developed a Special Issue to highlight recent empirical investigations, contemporary theory, and novel directions for future study. It is hoped that this special issue will (a) underscore the centrality of cognitive and behavioral flexibility to fear- and anxiety-related psychopathology, (b) call attention to cognitive science approaches investigating related neuropsychological correlates, and (c) highlight novel experimental and theoretical research on germane contextual factors...
November 2018: Behavior Modification
(no author information available yet)
Keuthen, N.J., Tung, E.S., Woods, D.W., Franklin, M.E., Altenburger, E.M., Pauls, D.L., & Flessner, C.A. (2015). Replication study of the Milwaukee inventory for subtypes of trichotillomania-adult version in a clinically-characterized sample. Behavior Modification. 39(4):580-599. DOI: 10.1177/0145445515580533 The authors regret that there is an error in the first paragraph of page 595. It should read as follows and the changes are shown in bold. "Thus, strategies likely to enhance awareness (e.g., stimulus control and habit reversal) would now be primarily appropriate for those with low scores on the Intention scale...
September 2018: Behavior Modification
Kate H Bentley, Hannah Boettcher, Jacqueline R Bullis, Jenna R Carl, Laren R Conklin, Shannon Sauer-Zavala, Catherine Pierre-Louis, Todd J Farchione, David H Barlow
Cognitive-behavioral prevention programs have demonstrated efficacy in reducing subclinical symptoms of anxiety and depression, and there is some evidence to suggest that they can lower the risk of future disorder onset. However, existing interventions tend to be relatively lengthy and target specific disorders or problem areas, both of which limit their potential for widespread dissemination. To address these limitations, we aimed to develop a single-session, transdiagnostic preventive intervention based on the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders for young adults at risk for developing anxiety and/or depressive disorders within a college setting...
September 2018: Behavior Modification
Scott A Jensen, Sean Blumberg, Megan Browning
Although time-out has been demonstrated to be effective across multiple settings, little research exists on effective methods for training others to implement time-out. The present set of studies is an exploratory analysis of a structured feedback method for training time-out using repeated role-plays. The three studies examined (a) a between-subjects comparison to more a traditional didactic/video modeling method of time-out training, (b) a within-subjects comparison to traditional didactic/video modeling training for another skill, and (c) the impact of structured feedback training on in-home time-out implementation...
September 2018: Behavior Modification
Andrew C Bonner, John C Borrero
Differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedules are reinforcement contingencies designed to reduce response rates. A common variation of the DRL arrangement is known as full-session DRL ( f-DRL), in which a reinforcer is presented at the end of an interval if the response rate during that interval is below a predetermined criterion. Prior human operant research involving arbitrary mouse clicks has shown that the f-DRL is likely to reduce target responding to near zero rates. Similarly, applied research has shown that the f-DRL is likely to reduce minimally disruptive classroom behavior...
September 2018: Behavior Modification
Stephen P H Whiteside, Julie E Dammann, Michael S Tiede, Bridget K Biggs, Andrea Hillson Jensen
Archival data were used to examine the feasibility of a 5-day, clinic-based, intensive exposure-based cognitive-behavioral group therapy for childhood anxiety disorders (CADs) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Participants were 143 children (82 girls) aged 6 to 19 years ( M = 13.93 years, SD = 2.9 years) with CADs or OCD (or both) in 28 consecutive groups. Repeated-measures ANOVA in the subsample ( n = 57) with complete treatment data indicated positive change on all variables from pretreatment to posttreatment with few differences between CADs and OCD patients...
September 2018: Behavior Modification
Katie Wolfe, S Shanun Kunnavatana, Adrianna M Shoemaker
We examined the use of a paired-stimulus, video-based preference assessment (VPA) to identify high- and low-preference social interactions for three children with autism spectrum disorder. We conducted two VPAs with each participant: one with access to the interaction contingent on each selection and one without access. We also conducted a concurrent-operant reinforcer assessment to evaluate the accuracy of the VPAs in identifying reinforcers. For two participants, the VPAs corresponded strongly and the results of the reinforcer assessment suggest that the high-preference interaction produced more of the target response than the low-preference interaction...
September 2018: Behavior Modification
Kelly B Kearney, Michael P Brady, Kalynn Hall, Toby Honsberger
Many adolescents with developmental disabilities do not learn the safety skills needed to maintain physical well-being in domestic and community environments. Literacy-based behavioral interventions (LBBIs) that combine print, pictures, and behavioral rehearsal are effective for promoting acquisition and maintenance of self-care skills, but have not been investigated as safety skill intervention. Also, LBBIs have primarily been implemented by teachers and other professionals. In this study, a peer partner was taught to deliver an LBBI story to students so they would learn to perform a basic first aid routine: cleaning and dressing a wound...
September 2018: Behavior Modification
Daniel J Paulus, Brooke Y Kauffman, Lorra Garey, Charles Jardin, Kara Manning, Jafar Bakhshaie, Monica Garza, Melissa Ochoa-Perez, Chad Lemaire, Michael J Zvolensky
Latinos are one of the fastest growing racial/ethnic population in the United States yet they experience a substantial amount of mental health disparities, such as anxiety and depression, compared with non-Hispanic Whites. The current study examined the interactive effects of rumination and mindful attention on anxiety and depression symptoms among economically disadvantaged Latinos. Participants consisted of 391 Latinos (86.7% female; Mage = 38.8 years [ SD = 11.4]; 95.3% first language Spanish) who attended a community-based primary health care clinic...
September 2018: Behavior Modification
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