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Behavior Modification

Chanti F Waters, Mila Amerine Dickens, Sally W Thurston, Xiang Lu, Tristram Smith
This study examined whether outcomes in early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) during a university-led multisite project could be replicated by the same community agency independently of the project. Participants, age 18 to 75 months at onset of intervention, were 48 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) enrolled in 35 hr per week of publicly funded, community-based EIBI for 3 years and 46 children who were matched on baseline characteristics and received early childhood services as usual (SAU) through local early childhood special education providers...
July 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Bryant C Silbaugh, Samantha Swinnea
Behavioral intervention has positive effects on feeding problems of children with autism and food selectivity (FS), and researchers have evaluated a variety of specific behavioral interventions. Confidence in the effects of some specific interventions on feeding such as the high-probability instructional sequence (HPS) is limited by a lack of replication. Therefore, we assessed the generality of the HPS by replicating the intervention in children with autism and FS. Contrary to prior research, the HPS did not improve feeding responses for three consecutive children enrolled in the study...
June 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Leslie Neely, Mandy Rispoli, Margot Boles, Kristi Morin, Emily Gregori, Jennifer Ninci, Shanna Hagan-Burke
We investigated the effects of a telehealth pyramidal training package on participants' implementation of incidental teaching. A total of eight adults worked with eight children with autism. Coaches were first taught to implement incidental teaching and then taught subsequent interventionists. The training package consisted of an online module and delayed video-based feedback provided via videoconferencing. Following the telehealth training program, coaches and interventionists reached the preset performance criteria and implemented incidental teaching with high fidelity...
June 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Brooke M Smith, Jennifer L Villatte, Clarissa W Ong, Grayson M Butcher, Michael P Twohig, Michael E Levin, Steven C Hayes
Research has demonstrated that values and acceptance interventions can increase distress tolerance, but the individual contribution of each remains unclear. The current study examined the isolated effect of a values intervention on immersion time in a cold pressor. Participants randomized to Values ( n = 18) and Control ( n = 14) conditions completed two cold pressor tasks, separated by a 30-min values or control intervention. Immersion time increased 51.06 s for participants in the Values condition and decreased by 10...
June 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Laura C Chezan, Erik Drasgow, Gabriela Z McWhorter, Kristine I P Starkey, Brooke M Hurdle
In this study, we extended the literature on the generalization of negatively-reinforced mands in three young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). First, we used example and nonexample stimuli embedded in mand training to teach a new, socially appropriate, negatively-reinforced mand to reject unpreferred food items while continuously assessing mand discrimination. Second, we evaluated the discriminated generalization of the newly acquired mand by using untrained example and nonexample stimuli. Finally, we conducted maintenance probes to examine if the new, discriminated mand occurred over time in the absence of training...
June 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Cassidy B McDougale, Jodi C Coon, Sarah M Richling, Soracha O'Rourke, John T Rapp, Kelli R Thompson, Barry R Burkhart
As one component of providing treatment in a residential facility, Brogan, Falligant, and Rapp decreased problem behavior by two groups of detained adolescents using group contingency procedures. The current series of studies evaluated the extent to which group procedures could be extended to other contexts within a residential facility. In Study 1, fixed-time delivery of attention by dormitory staff decreased problem behavior displayed by a group of five to 11 detained adolescents during free periods. In Study 2, rules from a therapist plus contingencies for following those rules increased appropriate line walking during specific transition periods...
June 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Hallie Ertel, David A Wilder, Ansley Hodges, LeAnn Hurtado
The high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence, which involves the delivery of a series of high-p instructions immediately before delivery of a low-probability (low-p) instruction, is a commonly used procedure to increase compliance among children and individuals with intellectual disabilities. Although the modal ratio of high-p instructions to low-p instructions is 3:1, other ratios may be more effective. In the current study, we compared three ratios of high-p with low-p instructions (i.e., 1:1, 3:1, and 5:1) during use of the high-p instructional sequence to increase compliance among three children with autism...
June 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Christina Bergmark Hall, Lars-Gunnar Lundh
A three-session therapist-guided exposure treatment was tested in a consecutive series of eight primary health care patients suffering from panic attacks who specifically used distraction techniques as their primary safety behavior. The Panic Disorder Severity Scale Self-Report (PDSS-SR) was administered at baseline (1-3 weeks before the first session), and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after treatment. Weekly ratings on the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ) during treatment were undertaken to explore when reliable change took place on these measures...
June 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Rumen Manolov
Alternating treatments designs (ATDs) are single-case experimental designs entailing the rapid alternation of conditions, and the specific sequence of conditions is usually determined at random. The visual analysis of ATD data entails comparing the data paths formed by connecting the measurements from the same condition. Apart from visual analyses, there are at least two quantitative analytical options also comparing data paths. On option is a visual structured criterion (VSC) regarding the number of comparisons for which one conditions has to be superior to the other to consider that the difference is not only due to random fluctuations...
May 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Shannon Sauer-Zavala, Clair Cassiello-Robbins, Amantia A Ametaj, Julianne G Wilner, Danyelle Pagan
Most patients in community practice attend significantly fewer sessions than are recommended by treatment protocols that have demonstrated efficacy in addressing emotional disorders. Personalized interventions that target the core processes thought to maintain a wide range of disorders may serve to increase treatment efficiency, addressing this gap. This study sought to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the personalized delivery of a mechanistically transdiagnostic intervention, the Unified Protocol (UP) for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders...
May 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Mélina Rivard, Marjorie Morin, Catherine Mello, Amélie Terroux, Céline Mercier
The effectiveness of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been demonstrated by many studies and meta-analyses. Although it is considered an exemplary practice in several countries, few studies have investigated the maintenance of gains made in EIBI over time. Thirty-two children were assessed at posttreatment and 1-year follow-up after they attended a low-to-moderate-intensity (10 to 20 hr per week) EIBI program delivered by a public rehabilitation center...
May 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Tonya N Davis, Mandy Rispoli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Behavior Modification
Shaji S Haq, Wendy Machalicek, S Andrew Garbacz, Christine Drew
Despite its utility, there is limited applied research on employing fixed-lean (FL) schedules of reinforcement in treatment packages to address challenging behavior. One potential reason is that abrupt shifts to terminal schedules of reinforcement have been associated with immediate increases in challenging behavior before subsiding to clinically acceptable levels. The purpose of the present study was to (a) provide evidence demonstrating the utility of a FL multiple schedule (MS) in the treatment of challenging behavior in applied settings, (b) examine the potential effects of alternative stimuli on challenging behavior during a FL MS, and (c) assess the social validity of this treatment package with participants and caregivers...
July 2018: Behavior Modification
Adam M Briggs, Jessica S Akers, Brian D Greer, Wayne W Fisher, Billie J Retzlaff
We treated destructive behavior maintained by both social-positive (i.e., access to tangibles) and social-negative (i.e., escape from demands) reinforcement in an individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder using functional communication training (FCT). We then thinned the schedule of reinforcement for the tangible function using a multiple schedule (mult FCT) and later thinned the availability of escape using a chained schedule (chain FCT). Both treatments proved effective at maintaining functional communicative responses while decreasing destructive behavior to near-zero levels...
July 2018: Behavior Modification
Buket Erturk, Wendy Machalicek, Christine Drew
We reviewed single-case research studies examining the effects of behavioral interventions for self-injurious behavior (SIB) in young children with autism and developmental disabilities. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 46 studies (66 participants younger than the age of 12) meeting inclusion criteria. Studies were examined based on (a) participant demographics, (b) topography and function of SIB, (c) type of functional behavior assessment (FBA), (d) intervention procedures and outcomes, and (e) experimental design and measurement...
July 2018: Behavior Modification
Kristen M Brogan, John T Rapp, Lisa A Sennott, Jennifer L Cook, Erin Swinkels
We conducted five experiments to evaluate the predictive validity of a free-operant competing stimulus assessment (FOCSA). In Experiment 1, we showed that each participant's repetitive behavior persisted without social consequences. In Experiment 2, we used the FOCSA to identify high-preference, low-stereotypy (HP-LS) items for 11 participants and high-preference, high-stereotypy (HP-HS) items for nine participants. To validate the results of the FOCSAs (Experiment 3), we used a three-component multiple schedule to evaluate the immediate and subsequent effects of an HP-LS stimulus, an HP-HS stimulus, or both (in separate test sequences) on each participant's stereotypy...
July 2018: Behavior Modification
Regan Weston, Abby Hodges, Tonya N Davis
This review summarizes the literature regarding differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO) to treat challenging behavior among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and determines the quality of studies among the current literature according to the 2014 Council for Exceptional Children (CEC): Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education. Studies that focused on the use of DRO in the treatment of challenging behavior for individuals with ASD were included for systematic analysis...
July 2018: Behavior Modification
Tonya N Davis, Mandy Rispoli
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is on the rise. In addition to the social communication skill deficits and restrictive repetitive behaviors and interests, many individuals with ASD engage in challenging behavior. Challenging behavior is associated with a multitude of negative outcomes. Challenging behavior may cause harm to the individual with ASD as well as limit opportunities for educational, vocational, and social participation and development. In addition, caregivers experience high stress and low quality of mental health...
May 2018: Behavior Modification
S Shanun Kunnavatana, Katie Wolfe, Alexandra N Aguilar
Functional communication training (FCT) is a common function-based behavioral intervention used to decrease problem behavior by teaching an alternative communication response. Therapists often arbitrarily select the topography of the alternative response, which may influence long-term effectiveness of the intervention. Assessing individual mand topography preference may increase treatment effectiveness and promote self-determination in the development of interventions. This study sought to reduce arbitrary selection of FCT mand topography by determining preference during response training and acquisition for two adults with autism who had no functional communication skills...
May 2018: Behavior Modification
Stephanie Gerow, Shanna Hagan-Burke, Mandy Rispoli, Emily Gregori, Rose Mason, Jennifer Ninci
Supporting parents in reducing challenging behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires the identification of effective, feasible, and sustainable interventions. Functional communication training (FCT) is one of the most well-established interventions in the behavioral literature and is used increasingly by parents. However, there is a need for additional evaluation of the literature related to parent-implemented FCT. In the present review, we identified 26 peer-reviewed studies on parent-implemented FCT...
May 2018: Behavior Modification
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