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Behavior Modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117712/systematic-review-of-differential-reinforcement-of-alternative-behavior-without-extinction-for-individuals-with-autism
#1
Hannah L MacNaul, Leslie C Neely
The purpose of this article is to review the literature on differential reinforcement of alternative behavior procedures without extinction for individuals with autism. Using predetermined inclusion criteria, a total of 10 studies were included and summarized in terms of the following: (a) participant characteristics (e.g., sex, age, and diagnosis), (b) treatment setting, (c) problem behavior, (d) function, (e) alternative behavior, (f) intervention, (g) outcomes, and (h) conclusiveness of evidence. Of the 10 studies, nine demonstrated positive effects and one mixed effects...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115163/further-evaluation-of-presentation-format-of-competing-stimuli-for-treatment-of-automatically-maintained-challenging-behavior
#2
Casey J Clay, Annie M Clohisy, Alexandra M Ball, Aqdas F Haider, Brittany A Schmitz, SungWoo Kahng
Behavioral interventions have been effective in reducing automatically maintained skin picking for individuals with disabilities including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A competing stimulus assessment (CSA) is typically utilized in behavioral intervention and assessment to identify potential stimuli which compete with the reinforcer for various forms of challenging behavior (CB). Treatment evaluations have validated the results of these assessments by demonstrating competing stimuli may reduce levels of CB...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094610/using-a-visual-structured-criterion-for-the-analysis-of-alternating-treatment-designs
#3
Marc J Lanovaz, Patrick Cardinal, Mary Francis
Although visual inspection remains common in the analysis of single-case designs, the lack of agreement between raters is an issue that may seriously compromise its validity. Thus, the purpose of our study was to develop and examine the properties of a simple structured criterion to supplement the visual analysis of alternating-treatment designs. To this end, we generated simulated data sets with varying number of points, number of conditions, effect sizes, and autocorrelations, and then measured Type I error rates and power produced by the visual structured criterion (VSC) and permutation analyses...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090595/increasing-object-substitution-symbolic-play-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Gabrielle T Lee, Hua Feng, Sheng Xu, Shao-Ju Jin
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may not develop symbolic play skills, so such skills need to be taught specifically. We report an experiment regarding a procedure targeting "object-substitution" symbolic play skills. The "object-substitution" symbolic play behavior occurred when the child labeled a common object with the name of a substitute and used the object to perform a play action (e.g., As she put a bowl on her head, she called it a hat). A multiple probe across behaviors design was employed with five children (four boys and one girl, aged 3 to 6 years) with ASD...
October 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090593/development-of-a-storytelling-video-self-help-intervention-based-on-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-for-major-depression-open-trial-results
#5
Brandon A Gaudiano, Carter H Davis, Ivan W Miller, Lisa A Uebelacker
This study involved the initial development and testing of a video self-help intervention called LifeStories, which features real patients describing their use of coping strategies for depression based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. We conducted a baseline-controlled open trial (AB design) of 11 individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Participants reported high levels of satisfaction and transportation (i.e., engagement) after watching LifeStories. No significant changes were observed during the 4-week baseline period in terms of interviewer-rated depression severity (primary outcome), but a significant and large effect size improvement was observed at Week 8 postintervention...
October 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047288/upregulating-positive-affectivity-in-the-transdiagnostic-treatment-of-emotional-disorders-a-randomized-pilot-study
#6
Alberto González-Robles, Azucena García-Palacios, Rosa Baños, Soledad Quero, Cristina Botella
Transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral therapy for emotional disorders (ED) has proven to be effective. However, current transdiagnostic treatment protocols address only the regulation of negative affectivity, and they do not include treatment components to more directly target the regulation of positive affectivity. In this study, we propose to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and acceptability of a transdiagnostic treatment protocol for ED that includes, as an innovative feature, a specific treatment component to directly upregulate positive affectivity based on positive psychology interventions...
October 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029563/development-of-a-single-session-transdiagnostic-preventive-intervention-for-young-adults-at-risk-for-emotional-disorders
#7
Kate H Bentley, Hannah Boettcher, Jacqueline R Bullis, Jenna R Carl, Laren R Conklin, Shannon Sauer-Zavala, Catherine Pierre-Louis, Todd J Farchione, David H Barlow
Cognitive-behavioral prevention programs have demonstrated efficacy in reducing subclinical symptoms of anxiety and depression, and there is some evidence to suggest that they can lower the risk of future disorder onset. However, existing interventions tend to be relatively lengthy and target specific disorders or problem areas, both of which limit their potential for widespread dissemination. To address these limitations, we aimed to develop a single-session, transdiagnostic preventive intervention based on the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders for young adults at risk for developing anxiety and/or depressive disorders within a college setting...
October 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029562/the-role-of-emotion-regulation-and-socialization-in-behavioral-parent-training-a-proof-of-concept-study
#8
Chloe Zachary, Deborah J Jones, Laura G McKee, Donald H Baucom, Rex L Forehand
Low-income families are less likely to effectively engage in Behavioral Parent Training (BPT), the standard of care for early-onset (3-8 years old) disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs); however, relatively little is known about predictors of treatment process and outcome within this vulnerable group. Given literature to suggest compromises associated with both low-income status and DBDs, this study examined the role of caregiver emotion regulation and socialization practices in 15 low-income families who participated in one evidence-based BPT program, Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC)...
October 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962539/structured-feedback-training-for-time-out-efficacy-and-efficiency-in-comparison-to-a-didactic-method
#9
Scott A Jensen, Sean Blumberg, Megan Browning
Although time-out has been demonstrated to be effective across multiple settings, little research exists on effective methods for training others to implement time-out. The present set of studies is an exploratory analysis of a structured feedback method for training time-out using repeated role-plays. The three studies examined (a) a between-subjects comparison to more a traditional didactic/video modeling method of time-out training, (b) a within-subjects comparison to traditional didactic/video modeling training for another skill, and (c) the impact of structured feedback training on in-home time-out implementation...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934869/teacher-implemented-response-interruption-and-redirection-training-evaluation-and-descriptive-analysis-of-treatment-integrity
#10
Aimee Giles, Shelley Swain, Louise Quinn, Brittany Weifenbach
Response interruption and redirection (RIRD) is an effective intervention for decreasing stereotypy. During RIRD, contingent on occurrences of stereotypy, therapists interrupt the behavior and prompt the participant to complete an alternative response. Although RIRD has been implemented by teachers in classrooms, it requires continuous monitoring of participants to be implemented with fidelity and may be difficult for teachers to manage. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of RIRD when implemented in classrooms...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922936/the-effects-of-worry-and-relaxation-on-flexibility-during-cognitive-restructuring
#11
Elizabeth S Stevens, Alexander A Jendrusina, Alison C Legrand, Erica R Nahin, Michelle Goldwin Kaufman, Thomas D Borkovec, Evelyn Behar
Worry is associated with inflexibility in cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. In addition, worry's negative valence and abstract level of construal are rigid characteristics that contribute to its nonadaptive consequences. Relaxation and cognitive therapy aim to increase flexibility in chronic worriers, and may have greater efficacy when administered in combination. We examined the extent to which relaxation enhances and/or worry inhibits cognitive flexibility during a cognitive restructuring exercise in which participants generated alternative predictions for their worries...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922928/differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-schedules-reduce-severe-problem-behavior
#12
Andrew C Bonner, John C Borrero
Differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedules are reinforcement contingencies designed to reduce response rates. A common variation of the DRL arrangement is known as full-session DRL ( f-DRL), in which a reinforcer is presented at the end of an interval if the response rate during that interval is below a predetermined criterion. Prior human operant research involving arbitrary mouse clicks has shown that the f-DRL is likely to reduce target responding to near zero rates. Similarly, applied research has shown that the f-DRL is likely to reduce minimally disruptive classroom behavior...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918645/increasing-availability-of-exposure-therapy-through-intensive-group-treatment-for-childhood-anxiety-and-ocd
#13
Stephen P H Whiteside, Julie E Dammann, Michael S Tiede, Bridget K Biggs, Andrea Hillson Jensen
Archival data were used to examine the feasibility of a 5-day, clinic-based, intensive exposure-based cognitive-behavioral group therapy for childhood anxiety disorders (CADs) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Participants were 143 children (82 girls) aged 6 to 19 years ( M = 13.93 years, SD = 2.9 years) with CADs or OCD (or both) in 28 consecutive groups. Repeated-measures ANOVA in the subsample ( n = 57) with complete treatment data indicated positive change on all variables from pretreatment to posttreatment with few differences between CADs and OCD patients...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911243/an-investigation-of-a-video-based-preference-assessment-of-social-interactions
#14
Katie Wolfe, S Shanun Kunnavatana, Adrianna M Shoemaker
We examined the use of a paired-stimulus, video-based preference assessment (VPA) to identify high- and low-preference social interactions for three children with autism spectrum disorder. We conducted two VPAs with each participant: one with access to the interaction contingent on each selection and one without access. We also conducted a concurrent-operant reinforcer assessment to evaluate the accuracy of the VPAs in identifying reinforcers. For two participants, the VPAs corresponded strongly and the results of the reinforcer assessment suggest that the high-preference interaction produced more of the target response than the low-preference interaction...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905650/a-contextual-behavior-science-framework-for-understanding-how-behavioral-flexibility-relates-to-anxiety
#15
Kathleen M Palm Reed, Amy Y Cameron, Victoria E Ameral
There is a growing literature focusing on the emerging idea that behavioral flexibility, rather than particular emotion regulation strategies per se, provides greater promise in predicting and influencing anxiety-related psychopathology. Yet this line of research and theoretical analysis appear to be plagued by its own challenges. For example, middle-level constructs, such as behavioral flexibility, are difficult to define, difficult to measure, and difficult to interpret in relation to clinical interventions...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776432/managing-student-behavior-in-dual-immersion-classrooms-a-study-of-class-wide-function-related-intervention-teams
#16
Blake D Hansen, Paul Caldarella, Leslie Williams, Howard P Wills
Classroom management in dual immersion classrooms includes unique challenges. The teacher must instruct and correct in the L2 language, in which students are beginning learners, and effective classroom management strategies appropriate to the L2 context. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a positive classroom management program that teaches social skills and uses group contingencies to improve behavior. The present study examined the ability of French immersion teachers to implement CW-FIT in the L2, including the effects of CW-FIT on teacher praise and reprimand rates and as well as on students' classroom behavior...
September 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776431/internet-delivered-acceptance-based-cognitive-behavioral-intervention-for-social-anxiety-disorder-with-and-without-therapist-support-a-randomized-trial
#17
Marina Gershkovich, James D Herbert, Evan M Forman, Leah M Schumacher, Laura E Fischer
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the United States. Although evidenced-based behavioral treatments are available, less than 20% of those with SAD receive treatment. Internet-based interventions can address barriers to treatment access, and guided Internet-based treatments have been demonstrated to be effective for SAD. However, the optimal role (if any) of the therapist in such programs remains unclear. We examined the acceptability and efficacy of a novel Internet-based cognitive-behavior therapy for SAD that utilizes traditional behavioral interventions (e...
September 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776430/the-effects-of-conducting-a-functional-analysis-on-problem-behavior-in-other-settings-a-descriptive-study-on-potential-interaction-effects
#18
Nathan A Call, Andrea R Reavis, Seth B Clark, Natalie A Parks, Tom Cariveau, Colin S Muething
It has been suggested that reinforcing problem behavior during functional analyses (FAs) may raise ethical questions, such as resulting in an increase in problem behavior outside of FA sessions. The current translational study assessed whether conducting an FA resulted in increases in problem behavior outside of the FA setting for six participants using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. The rate of problem behavior was measured outside the FA setting prior to and during an FA. Idiosyncratic results suggest that problem behavior outside of the FA setting may increase, decrease, or be unaffected by conducting an FA...
September 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776429/a-systematic-review-of-pliance-tracking-and-augmenting
#19
Ama Kissi, Sean Hughes, Gaëtan Mertens, Dermot Barnes-Holmes, Jan De Houwer, Geert Crombez
Within relational frame theory, a distinction has been made between three types of rule-governed behavior known as pliance, tracking, and augmenting. This review examined whether there is support for the concepts of pliance, tracking, and augmenting in the experimental analysis of behavior; whether these concepts refer to distinct functional classes of behavior; and how these concepts have been operationalized in experimental (behavioral-analytic) research. Given that the concepts of pliance, tracking, and augmenting were first defined by Zettle and Hayes, we confined our review to studies published in or after 1982...
September 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670907/recovery-of-percent-vital-capacity-by-breathing-training-in-patients-with-panic-disorder-and-impaired-diaphragmatic-breathing
#20
Tatsuji Yamada, Akiomi Inoue, Kosuke Mafune, Hisanori Hiro, Shoji Nagata
Slow diaphragmatic breathing is one of the therapeutic methods used in behavioral therapy for panic disorder. In practice, we have noticed that some of these patients could not perform diaphragmatic breathing and their percent vital capacity was initially reduced but could be recovered through breathing training. We conducted a comparative study with healthy controls to investigate the relationship between diaphragmatic breathing ability and percent vital capacity in patients with panic disorder. Our findings suggest that percent vital capacity in patients with impaired diaphragmatic breathing was significantly reduced compared with those with normal diaphragmatic breathing and that diaphragmatic breathing could be restored by breathing training...
September 2017: Behavior Modification
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