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Behavior Modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922936/the-effects-of-worry-and-relaxation-on-flexibility-during-cognitive-restructuring
#1
Elizabeth S Stevens, Alexander A Jendrusina, Alison C Legrand, Erica R Nahin, Michelle Goldwin Kaufman, Thomas D Borkovec, Evelyn Behar
Worry is associated with inflexibility in cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. In addition, worry's negative valence and abstract level of construal are rigid characteristics that contribute to its nonadaptive consequences. Relaxation and cognitive therapy aim to increase flexibility in chronic worriers, and may have greater efficacy when administered in combination. We examined the extent to which relaxation enhances and/or worry inhibits cognitive flexibility during a cognitive restructuring exercise in which participants generated alternative predictions for their worries...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922928/differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-schedules-reduce-severe-problem-behavior
#2
Andrew C Bonner, John C Borrero
Differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedules are reinforcement contingencies designed to reduce response rates. A common variation of the DRL arrangement is known as full-session DRL ( f-DRL), in which a reinforcer is presented at the end of an interval if the response rate during that interval is below a predetermined criterion. Prior human operant research involving arbitrary mouse clicks has shown that the f-DRL is likely to reduce target responding to near zero rates. Similarly, applied research has shown that the f-DRL is likely to reduce minimally disruptive classroom behavior...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918645/increasing-availability-of-exposure-therapy-through-intensive-group-treatment-for-childhood-anxiety-and-ocd
#3
Stephen P H Whiteside, Julie E Dammann, Michael S Tiede, Bridget K Biggs, Andrea Hillson Jensen
Archival data were used to examine the feasibility of a 5-day, clinic-based, intensive exposure-based cognitive-behavioral group therapy for childhood anxiety disorders (CADs) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Participants were 143 children (82 girls) aged 6 to 19 years ( M = 13.93 years, SD = 2.9 years) with CADs or OCD (or both) in 28 consecutive groups. Repeated-measures ANOVA in the subsample ( n = 57) with complete treatment data indicated positive change on all variables from pretreatment to posttreatment with few differences between CADs and OCD patients...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911243/an-investigation-of-a-video-based-preference-assessment-of-social-interactions
#4
Katie Wolfe, S Shanun Kunnavatana, Adrianna M Shoemaker
We examined the use of a paired-stimulus, video-based preference assessment (VPA) to identify high- and low-preference social interactions for three children with autism spectrum disorder. We conducted two VPAs with each participant: one with access to the interaction contingent on each selection and one without access. We also conducted a concurrent-operant reinforcer assessment to evaluate the accuracy of the VPAs in identifying reinforcers. For two participants, the VPAs corresponded strongly and the results of the reinforcer assessment suggest that the high-preference interaction produced more of the target response than the low-preference interaction...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905650/a-contextual-behavior-science-framework-for-understanding-how-behavioral-flexibility-relates-to-anxiety
#5
Kathleen M Palm Reed, Amy Y Cameron, Victoria E Ameral
There is a growing literature focusing on the emerging idea that behavioral flexibility, rather than particular emotion regulation strategies per se, provides greater promise in predicting and influencing anxiety-related psychopathology. Yet this line of research and theoretical analysis appear to be plagued by its own challenges. For example, middle-level constructs, such as behavioral flexibility, are difficult to define, difficult to measure, and difficult to interpret in relation to clinical interventions...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845694/self-regulation-of-weight-after-sleeve-gastrectomy
#6
Teresa Madeira, Isabel do Carmo, Henrique Bicha Castelo, Osvaldo Santos
Bariatric surgery is recognized as the most effective method for achieving relevant weight loss in subjects with severe obesity. However, there is insufficient knowledge about weight self-regulation and quality of motivation in these patients. The main goal of this study was to characterize the association between the percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) and the motivation to manage weight, at least 1 year after sleeve gastrectomy (SG). This is an observational longitudinal retrospective study. All patients corresponding to predefined inclusion criteria who underwent SG from January 2008 to July 2010 at a main general hospital were invited...
August 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845680/effectiveness-of-the-unified-protocol-for-transdiagnostic-treatment-of-emotional-disorders-among-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-pilot-study
#7
Ruth L Varkovitzky, Andrew M Sherrill, Greg M Reger
Effective treatment options are needed for veterans who do not participate in trauma-focused psychotherapy. Research has yet to examine the effectiveness of transdiagnostic psychotherapy in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and co-occurring psychological disorders. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP) delivered in a 16-week group format. We examined treatment outcomes in male and female veterans ( n = 52) in an outpatient specialty PTSD clinic at a large Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center...
August 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836452/using-peer-mediated-literacy-based-behavioral-interventions-to-increase-first-aid-safety-skills-in-students-with-developmental-disabilities
#8
Kelly B Kearney, Michael P Brady, Kalynn Hall, Toby Honsberger
Many adolescents with developmental disabilities do not learn the safety skills needed to maintain physical well-being in domestic and community environments. Literacy-based behavioral interventions (LBBIs) that combine print, pictures, and behavioral rehearsal are effective for promoting acquisition and maintenance of self-care skills, but have not been investigated as safety skill intervention. Also, LBBIs have primarily been implemented by teachers and other professionals. In this study, a peer partner was taught to deliver an LBBI story to students so they would learn to perform a basic first aid routine: cleaning and dressing a wound...
August 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836443/examining-the-synergistic-effects-of-two-transdiagnostic-vulnerability-factors-in-relation-to-anxiety-and-depressive-symptoms-and-disorders-among-latinos-in-a-community-health-care-setting
#9
Daniel J Paulus, Brooke Y Kauffman, Lorra Garey, Charles Jardin, Kara Manning, Jafar Bakhshaie, Monica Garza, Melissa Ochoa-Perez, Chad Lemaire, Michael J Zvolensky
Latinos are one of the fastest growing racial/ethnic population in the United States yet they experience a substantial amount of mental health disparities, such as anxiety and depression, compared with non-Hispanic Whites. The current study examined the interactive effects of rumination and mindful attention on anxiety and depression symptoms among economically disadvantaged Latinos. Participants consisted of 391 Latinos (86.7% female; Mage = 38.8 years [ SD = 11.4]; 95.3% first language Spanish) who attended a community-based primary health care clinic...
August 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831838/synthesis-of-applied-behavior-analytic-interventions-for-packing-in-pediatric-feeding-disorders
#10
Bryant C Silbaugh, Samantha Swinnea, Becky Penrod
Packing, which consists of holding food in the mouth for an extended time during meals, is a form of disordered feeding associated with pediatric feeding disorders. The behavior can disrupt the pace and completion of a meal and lead to increased risk of choking, inadequate food and liquid intake, and elevated caregiver stress associated with mealtimes. Applied behavior analysis research has developed and evaluated behavioral interventions to improve feeding by reducing packing. This systematic review extends prior research by synthesizing characteristics of the packing intervention literature, evaluating the certainty of the evidence provided by studies, identifying potential directions for future research, and discussing the results in the context of evidence-based practice...
August 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823180/within-your-control-when-problem-solving-may-be-most-helpful
#11
Laurel D Sarfan, Peter Gooch, Elise M Clerkin
Emotion regulation strategies have been conceptualized as adaptive or maladaptive, but recent evidence suggests emotion regulation outcomes may be context-dependent. The present study tested whether the adaptiveness of a putatively adaptive emotion regulation strategy-problem solving-varied across contexts of high and low controllability. The present study also tested rumination, suggested to be one of the most putatively maladaptive strategies, which was expected to be associated with negative outcomes regardless of context...
August 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817953/the-evidence-base-for-interventions-targeting-individuals-with-work-related-ptsd-a-systematic-review-and-recommendations
#12
Iris Torchalla, Verena Strehlau
The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence base for interventions targeting individuals with work-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to make recommendations for clinicians and administrative decision makers involved in their rehabilitation, and to guide future research in this area. Particular attention was given to studies that were conducted in naturalistic clinical settings or in a workers' compensation claim context. Electronic searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, PILOTS, and EMBASE identified 11 articles...
August 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817949/linear-trend-in-single-case-visual-and-quantitative-analyses
#13
Rumen Manolov
The frequently used visual analysis of single-case data focuses on data aspects such as level, trend, variability, overlap, immediacy of effect, and consistency of data patterns; most of these aspects are also commonly quantified besides inspecting them visually. The present text focuses on trend, because even linear trend can be operatively defined in several different ways, while there are also different approaches for controlling for baseline trend. We recommend using a quantitative criterion for choosing a trend line fitting technique and comparing baseline and intervention slopes, instead of detrending...
August 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799413/an-initial-open-trial-of-a-brief-behavioral-activation-treatment-for-depression-and-medication-adherence-in-hiv-infected-patients
#14
Matthew T Tull, Christopher R Berghoff, Joseph R Bardeen, Michelle Schoenleber, Deborah J Konkle-Parker
Advances in HIV treatment through highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have led to a steady decline in HIV-related mortality rates. However, HAART requires adherence to strict and often complicated medication regimens, and nonadherence to HAART can significantly decrease its effectiveness. Depression has consistently shown a robust association with medication nonadherence; consequently, numerous psychological interventions have been developed to target depression and increase medication adherence among HIV-infected individuals...
August 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745062/social-cost-bias-probability-bias-and-self-efficacy-as-correlates-of-behavioral-action-in-social-anxiety
#15
Carol S Lee, Sarah A Hayes-Skelton
The present study investigated the role of social cost bias, probability bias, and self-efficacy as correlates of behavioral action in a nonclinical sample of 197 individuals, using a series of vignettes and self-report measures. The findings indicated that, as hypothesized, social cost bias, probability bias, and self-efficacy were associated with social anxiety. While social anxiety was associated with behavioral action, the three cognitive factors were associated with behavioral action above and beyond the contribution of social anxiety...
July 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691542/cross-cultural-validation-of-the-york-measure-of-quality-of-intensive-behavioral-intervention
#16
Ulrika Långh, Elodie Cauvet, Martin Hammar, Sven Bölte
Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is widely applied in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Little research has addressed the significance of adherence to EIBI practices for treatment outcomes. The York Measure of Quality of Intensive Behavioral Intervention (YMQI) was designed to assess EIBI quality delivery in Ontario, Canada. The objective of this study was to examine the cross-cultural validity of the YMQI in a clinical Swedish community sample of 30 boys and four girls with autism aged 2...
July 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689469/a-mindfulness-program-manual-for-people-with-dementia
#17
Joanne Chan, Anna Churcher Clarke, Lindsay Royan, Joshua Stott, Aimee Spector
This article describes a 10-session group-based Mindfulness Program for people with mild to moderate dementia. It aims to equip people with dementia with skills to manage psychological distress, with support from carers. The Mindfulness Program was developed through reviews of existing literature, consultation with experts, and a focus group with people with dementia. In a randomized controlled feasibility and pilot trial with people with mild to moderate dementia in care homes, it was found to significantly increase quality of life...
July 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689449/evaluating-an-adjunctive-mobile-app-to-enhance-psychological-flexibility-in-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy
#18
Michael E Levin, Jack Haeger, Benjamin Pierce, Rick A Cruz
The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility and potential efficacy of a novel adjunctive mobile app designed to enhance the acquisition, strengthening, and generalization of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) skills being taught in therapy. A sample of 14 depressed/anxious clients receiving ACT used the ACT Daily app for 2 weeks in a pre-post, open trial design. Participants reported a high degree of program satisfaction. Clients significantly improved over the 2-week period on depression and anxiety symptoms as well as a range of psychological inflexibility measures...
July 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685603/the-role-of-emotion-reactivity-in-health-anxiety
#19
Emily M O'Bryan, Alison C McLeish, Adrienne L Johnson
Emotion reactivity, defined as heightened sensitivity, intensity, and persistence of emotional states, has been shown to contribute to the exacerbation of anxiety. However, the association between emotion reactivity and health anxiety has yet to be examined. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the unique predictive ability of emotion reactivity in terms of health anxiety in a sample of medically healthy undergraduates ( n = 194; 59.3% female, Mage = 19.42, SD = 1.51, range = 18-26 years; 84...
July 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675941/implementing-a-manualized-classroom-transition-intervention-for-students-with-asd-in-underresourced-schools
#20
Suzannah Iadarola, Wendy Shih, Michelle Dean, Erica Blanch, Robin Harwood, Susan Hetherington, David Mandell, Connie Kasari, Tristram Smith
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in public education settings experience difficulties with transitions during classroom routines, which can result in challenging behavior. Single-subject research supports techniques for transitions, but school-based approaches often require resources and training unavailable in low-resource districts, limiting implementation. We developed and evaluated the Schedules, Tools, and Activities for Transitions (STAT) program, a short-term, manualized intervention of behavioral supports to support daily routine transitions for students with ASD (K-5) in underresourced districts...
July 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
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