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International Journal of Epidemiology

Glen E Duncan, Ally Avery, Philip M Hurvitz, Anne Vernez Moudon, Siny Tsang, Eric Turkheimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Nikkil Sudharsanan
Background: There are few estimates of the potential gains in adult mortality from population-level improvements in systolic blood pressure (SBP) in a major low-and-middle income country (LMIC). Using nationally representative cohort data from Indonesia-the third most populous LMIC- I estimated the gains in adult life expectancy from improving SBP control among adults ages 40 and above and assessed the benefits among richer and poorer subpopulations. Methods: I used longitudinal data from 10 085 adults ages 40 and above (75 288 person-age observations) enrolled in the 2007 and 2014/15 waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey...
November 13, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Jean-Baptiste Müller, Matthieu Hanf, Cyril Flamant, Marion Olivier, Valérie Rouger, Géraldine Gascoin, Hélène Basset, Jean-Christophe Rozé, Simon Nusinovici
Background: To investigate the relative contributions of prenatal complications, perinatal characteristics, neonatal morbidities and socio-economic conditions on the occurrence of motor, sensory, cognitive, language and psychological disorders in a large longitudinal preterm infant population during the first 7 years after birth. Methods: The study population comprised 4122 infants born at <35 weeks of gestation who were followed for an average of 74.0 months after birth...
November 13, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Dong D Wang, Yan Zheng, Estefanía Toledo, Cristina Razquin, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Edward Yu, Dolores Corella, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, Miquel Fiol, Ramón Estruch, Emilio Ros, José Lapetra, Montserrat Fito, Fernando Aros, Lluis Serra-Majem, Clary B Clish, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Liming Liang, Miguel A Martínez-González, Frank B Hu
Background: Perturbed lipid metabolic pathways may play important roles in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, existing epidemiological studies have focused more on discovering individual lipid metabolites for CVD risk prediction rather than assessing metabolic pathways. Methods: This study included a subcohort of 787 participants and all 230 incident CVD cases from the PREDIMED trial. Applying a network-based analytical method, we identified lipid subnetworks and clusters from a global network of 200 lipid metabolites and linked these subnetworks/clusters to CVD risk...
November 13, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Jessica Tyrrell, Anwar Mulugeta, Andrew R Wood, Ang Zhou, Robin N Beaumont, Marcus A Tuke, Samuel E Jones, Katherine S Ruth, Hanieh Yaghootkar, Seth Sharp, William D Thompson, Yingjie Ji, Jamie Harrison, Rachel M Freathy, Anna Murray, Michael N Weedon, Cathryn Lewis, Timothy M Frayling, Elina Hyppönen
Background: Depression is more common in obese than non-obese individuals, especially in women, but the causal relationship between obesity and depression is complex and uncertain. Previous studies have used genetic variants associated with BMI to provide evidence that higher body mass index (BMI) causes depression, but have not tested whether this relationship is driven by the metabolic consequences of BMI nor for differences between men and women. Methods: We performed a Mendelian randomization study using 48 791 individuals with depression and 291 995 controls in the UK Biobank, to test for causal effects of higher BMI on depression (defined using self-report and Hospital Episode data)...
November 13, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Jack Bowden, Wesley Spiller, Fabiola Del Greco M, Nuala Sheehan, John Thompson, Cosetta Minelli, George Davey Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Clémence Leyrat, Agnès Caille, Sandra Eldridge, Sally Kerry, Agnès Dechartres, Bruno Giraudeau
Background: Cluster (CRTs) and individually randomized trials (IRTs) are often pooled together in meta-analyses (MAs) of randomized trials. However, the potential systematic differences in intervention effect estimates between these two trial types has never been investigated. Therefore, we conducted a meta-epidemiological study comparing intervention effect estimates between CRTs and IRTs. Methods: All Cochrane MAs including at least one CRT and one IRT, published between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014, were included...
November 9, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Timothy J Key, Balkwill Angela, Kathryn E Bradbury, Gillian K Reeves, Ai Seon Kuan, Rachel F Simpson, Jane Green, Valerie Beral
Background: The role of diet in breast cancer aetiology is unclear; recent studies have suggested associations may differ by estrogen receptor status. Methods: Baseline diet was assessed in 2000-04 using a validated questionnaire in 691 571 postmenopausal UK women without previous cancer, who had not changed their diet recently. They were followed by record linkage to national cancer and death databases. Cox regression yielded adjusted relative risks for breast cancer for 10 food items and eight macronutrients, subdivided mostly into five categories of baseline intake...
November 8, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Morten Wahrendorf, Hanno Hoven, Marcel Goldberg, Marie Zins, Johannes Siegrist
Background: With changing employment histories in European labour markets, occupational health research needs to be supplemented by an approach that integrates adverse characteristics of entire employment histories, in terms of precarious, discontinued and disadvantaged employment careers. We analyse associations of adverse employment histories and six measures of health functioning, including affective, physical and cognitive functioning. Methods: We use baseline data from the CONSTANCES study with detailed retrospective data on previous employment histories that are linked to current health functioning among people aged 45-60 years (men = 15 134; women = 16 584)...
November 6, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Marie-Odile Bernier, Hélène Baysson, Mark S Pearce, Monika Moissonnier, Elisabeth Cardis, Michael Hauptmann, Lara Struelens, Jeremie Dabin, Christoffer Johansen, Neige Journy, Dominique Laurier, Maria Blettner, Lucian Le Cornet, Roman Pokora, Patrycja Gradowska, Johanna M Meulepas, Kristina Kjaerheim, Tore Istad, Hilde Olerud, Aste Sovik, Magda Bosch de Basea, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Magnus Kaijser, Arvid Nordenskjöld, Amy Berrington de Gonzalez, Richard W Harbron, Ausrele Kesminiene
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Fuqiang Cui, Fujie Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Songxu Peng, Yukai Du
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Robert S McCann, Henk van den Berg, Willem Takken, Amanda G Chetwynd, Emanuele Giorgi, Dianne J Terlouw, Peter J Diggle
Background: Infectious disease interventions are increasingly tested using cluster-randomized trials (CRTs). These trial settings tend to involve a set of sampling units, such as villages, whose geographic arrangement may present a contamination risk in treatment exposure. The most widely used approach for reducing contamination in these settings is the so-called fried-egg design, which excludes the outer portion of all available clusters from the primary trial analysis. However, the fried-egg design ignores potential intra-cluster spatial heterogeneity and makes the outcome measure inherently less precise...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Clémence Palazzo, Renata T C Yokota, John Ferguson, Jean Tafforeau, Jean-François Ravaud, Herman Van Oyen, Wilma J Nusselder
Background: This study aims to illustrate the differences between approaches proposed for apportioning disability to different diseases in a multicausal situation, i.e. the unadjusted attributable fraction (AF), the adjusted AF, the average AF and the attribution method (AM). This information is useful to better interpret results obtained from cross-sectional data and help policy makers decide on public health strategies. Methods: Data for 29 931 individuals, representative of the French household population, who participated in the 2008-09 cross-sectional Disability-Health Survey, were included...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
B Sartorius, K Sartorius, M Taylor, J Aagaard-Hansen, N Dukhi, C Day, N Ndlovu, R Slotow, K Hofman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Scott P Kelly, Hannah Lennon, Matthew Sperrin, Charles Matthews, Neal D Freedman, Demetrius Albanes, Michael F Leitzmann, Andrew G Renehan, Michael B Cook
Background: Previously we showed that adulthood body mass index (BMI) trajectories that result in obesity were associated with elevated risks of fatal prostate cancer (PCA). To further explore this relationship, we conducted a study within the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Methods: Among 153 730 eligible men enrolled in the NIH-AARP cohort from 1995 to 1996 (median follow-up = 15.1 years), we identified 630 fatal PCA cases and 16 896 incident cases. BMI was assessed for ages 18, 35 and 50 and at study entry, enabling examination of latent class-identified BMI trajectories...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Tianyi Huang, Oana A Zeleznik, Elizabeth M Poole, Clary B Clish, Amy A Deik, Justin M Scott, Céline Vetter, Eva S Schernhammer, Robert Brunner, Lauren Hale, JoAnn E Manson, Frank B Hu, Susan Redline, Shelley S Tworoger, Kathryn M Rexrode
Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest a strong link between poor habitual sleep quality and increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. Metabolomic profiling may elucidate systemic differences associated with sleep quality that influence cardiometabolic health. Methods: We explored cross-sectional associations between sleep quality and plasma metabolites in a nested case-control study of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI; n = 1956) and attempted to replicate the results in an independent sample from the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII; n = 209)...
October 26, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Philip J Clare, Timothy A Dobbins, Richard P Mattick
Background: Obtaining unbiased causal estimates from longitudinal observational data can be difficult due to exposure-affected time-varying confounding. The past decade has seen considerable development in methods for analysing such complex longitudinal data. However, the extent to which those methods have been implemented is unclear. This study describes and characterizes the state of the field in methods adjusting for exposure-affected time-varying confounding, and examines their use in the literature...
October 24, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Kristin M Wall, Mubiana Inambao, William Kilembe, Etienne Karita, Bellington Vwalika, Joseph Mulenga, Rachel Parker, Tyronza Sharkey, Divya Sonti, Amanda Tichacek, Eric Hunter, Robert Yohnka, Joseph F Abdallah, Ibou Thior, Julie Pulerwitz, Susan Allen
Background: The impact and cost-effectiveness of couples' voluntary HIV counselling and testing (CVCT) has not been quantified in real-world settings. We quantify cost-per-HIV-infection averted by CVCT in Zambia from the donor's perspective. Methods: From 2010 to 2016, CVCT was established in 73 Zambian government clinics. The cost-per-HIV-infection averted (CHIA) of CVCT was calculated using observed expenditures and effectiveness over longitudinal follow-up. These observed measures parameterized hypothetical 5-year nationwide implementations of: 'CVCT'; 'treatment-as-prevention (TasP) for discordant couples' identified by CVCT; and 'population TasP' for all HIV+ cohabiting persons identified by individual testing...
October 24, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Sawsan Abdulrahim, Rym El Rafei, Zahraa Beydoun, Ghinwa Y El Hayek, Pascale Nakad, Khalid Yunis
Background: Studies on immigrants revealed an epidemiological paradox whereby low-socioeconomic status (SES) immigrant mothers exhibit favourable birth outcomes compared with native-born mothers. We tested the epidemiological paradox in a context of forced migration, comparing associations of low birthweight (LBW) and maternal SES between Syrian and Lebanese newborns in Lebanon. Methods: We used data from the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network (NCPNN) of 31 Lebanese hospitals, including 45 442 Lebanese and 4910 Syrian neonates born 2011-13...
October 23, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
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