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International Journal of Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431124/childhood-vaccinations-and-risk-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-in-children
#1
Signe Holst Søegaard, Klaus Rostgaard, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Mads Kamper-Jørgensen, Marie Hargreave, Henrik Hjalgrim, Anders Hviid
Background: It has been proposed that childhood vaccinations protect against acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children by modulation of future responses to common infections in childhood. However, the available studies provide inconsistent findings, and population-based cohort studies with longitudinal information on vaccinations are lacking. Methods: In a register-based cohort of all children born in Denmark from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2008, followed up until age 15 years or 31 December 2009 ( n  = 1 225 404), we evaluated exposure to childhood vaccination and risk of childhood ALL, including information on ALL subtypes...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430971/association-between-native-american-owned-casinos-and-the-prevalence-of-large-for-gestational-age-births
#2
Jessica C Jones-Smith, William H Dow, Vanessa M Oddo
Background: A small number of studies have used a natural experiment approach to examine the health impacts of increased economic resources stemming from Native American-owned casinos. We build on this work by examining whether casinos are associated with obesity-related health in utero . Methods: We examined whether casino openings or expansion (as proxy for increased economic resources) are associated with a decreased likelihood of infants being born large-for-gestational-age (LGA), an important risk factor for childhood overweight/obesity...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419249/cohort-profile-african-collaborative-center-for-microbiome-and-genomics-research-s-accme-human-papillomavirus-hpv-and-cervical-cancer-study
#3
Sally N Adebamowo, Eileen O Dareng, Ayotunde O Famooto, Richard Offiong, Olayinka Olaniyan, Kayode Obende, Amos Adebayo, Sanni Ologun, Bunmi Alabi, Peter Achara, Rasheed A Bakare, Michael Odutola, Oluwatoyosi Olawande, James Okuma, George Odonye, Ruxton Adebiyi, Patrick Dakum, Clement A Adebamowo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419313/association-between-month-of-birth-and-melanoma-risk-fact-or-fiction
#4
Cornelia Fiessler, Annette B Pfahlberg, Andrea K Keller, Martin Radespiel-Tröger, Wolfgang Uter, Olaf Gefeller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419306/metformin-and-cancer-in-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-comprehensive-bias-evaluation
#5
Ruth E Farmer, Deborah Ford, Harriet J Forbes, Nishi Chaturvedi, Richard Kaplan, Liam Smeeth, Krishnan Bhaskaran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419242/quantifying-the-impact-of-rising-food-prices-on-child-mortality-in-india-a-cross-district-statistical-analysis-of-the-district-level-household-survey
#6
Jasmine Fledderjohann, Sukumar Vellakkal, Zaky Khan, Shah Ebrahim, David Stuckler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419232/time-discounting-and-tobacco-smoking-a-systematic-review-and-network-analysis
#7
Pepita Barlow, Martin McKee, Aaron Reeves, Gauden Galea, David Stuckler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402496/mortality-selection-in-a-genetic-sample-and-implications-for-association-studies
#8
Benjamin W Domingue, Daniel W Belsky, Amal Harrati, Dalton Conley, David R Weir, Jason D Boardman
Background: Mortality selection occurs when a non-random subset of a population of interest has died before data collection and is unobserved in the data. Mortality selection is of general concern in the social and health sciences, but has received little attention in genetic epidemiology. We tested the hypothesis that mortality selection may bias genetic association estimates, using data from the US-based Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Methods: We tested mortality selection into the HRS genetic database by comparing HRS respondents who survive until genetic data collection in 2006 with those who do not...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402483/variable-selection-should-be-blinded-to-the-outcome
#9
Tamás Ferenci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402442/risk-of-heterosexual-hiv-transmission-attributable-to-sexually-transmitted-infections-and-non-specific-genital-inflammation-in-zambian-discordant-couples-1994-2012
#10
Kristin M Wall, William Kilembe, Bellington Vwalika, Lisa B Haddad, Eric Hunter, Shabir Lakhi, Roy Chavuma, Naw Htee Khu, Ilene Brill, Cheswa Vwalika, Lawrence Mwananyanda, Elwyn Chomba, Joseph Mulenga, Amanda Tichacek, Susan Allen
Background: Studies have demonstrated the role of ulcerative and non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infections (STI) in HIV transmission/acquisition risk; less is understood about the role of non-specific inflammatory genital abnormalities. Methods: HIV-discordant heterosexual Zambian couples were enrolled into longitudinal follow-up (1994-2012). Multivariable models estimated the effect of genital ulcers and inflammation in both partners on time-to-HIV transmission within the couple...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402424/response-to-the-comment-variable-selection-should-be-blinded-to-the-outcome
#11
Jordi Julvez, Claudia Avella-Garcia, Raquel Garcia-Esteban, Xavier Basagaña, Jordi Sunyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402471/non-specific-effects-of-bcg-vaccination-on-morbidity-among-children-in-greenland-an-answer-to-a-relevant-question
#12
Simon Haahr, Sascha Wilk Michelsen, Mikael Andersson, Karen Bjorn-Mortensen, Bolette Soborg, J Wohlfahrt, M Melbye, Anders Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398582/how-to-compare-instrumental-variable-and-conventional-regression-analyses-using-negative-controls-and-bias-plots
#13
Neil M Davies, Kyla H Thomas, Amy E Taylor, Gemma M J Taylor, Richard M Martin, Marcus R Munafò, Frank Windmeijer
There is increasing interest in the use of instrumental variable analysis to overcome unmeasured confounding in observational pharmacoepidemiological studies. This is partly because instrumental variable analyses are potentially less biased than conventional regression analyses. However, instrumental variable analyses are less precise, and regulators and clinicians find it difficult to interpret conflicting evidence from instrumental variable compared with conventional regression analyses. In this paper, we describe three techniques to assess which approach (instrumental variable versus conventional regression analyses) is least biased...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398554/prospective-associations-between-diet-quality-and-body-mass-index-in-disadvantaged-women-the-resilience-for-eating-and-activity-despite-inequality-readi-study
#14
Dana Lee Olstad, Karen E Lamb, Lukar E Thornton, Sarah A McNaughton, David A Crawford, Leia M Minaker, Kylie Ball
Background: Dietary patterns that align with recommended guidelines appear to minimize long-term weight gain in the general population. However, prospective associations between diet quality and weight change in disadvantaged adults have not been examined. This study examined associations between concurrent change in diet quality and body mass index (BMI) over 5 years among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods: Dietary intake and BMI were self-reported among 1242 women living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia, at three time points from 2007/08 to 2012/13...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398548/mendelianrandomization-an-r-package-for-performing-mendelian-randomization-analyses-using-summarized-data
#15
Olena O Yavorska, Stephen Burgess
MendelianRandomization is a software package for the R open-source software environment that performs Mendelian randomization analyses using summarized data. The core functionality is to implement the inverse-variance weighted, MR-Egger and weighted median methods for multiple genetic variants. Several options are available to the user, such as the use of robust regression, fixed- or random-effects models and the penalization of weights for genetic variants with heterogeneous causal estimates. Extensions to these methods, such as allowing for variants to be correlated, can be chosen if appropriate...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379526/the-challenging-interpretation-of-instrumental-variable-estimates-under-monotonicity
#16
Sonja A Swanson, Miguel A Hernán
Background: Instrumental variable (IV) methods are often used to identify 'local' causal effects in a subgroup of the population of interest. Such 'local' effects may not be ideal for informing clinical or policy decision making. When the instrument is non-causal, additional difficulties arise for interpreting 'local' effects. Little attention has been paid to these difficulties, even though commonly proposed instruments in epidemiology are non-causal (e.g. proxies for physician's preference; genetic variants in some Mendelian randomization studies)...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379434/a-review-of-the-evidence-linking-child-stunting-to-economic-outcomes
#17
Mark E McGovern, Aditi Krishna, Victor M Aguayo, S V Subramanian
Background: To understand the full impact of stunting in childhood it is important to consider the long-run effects of undernutrition on the outcomes of adults who were affected in early life. Focusing on the costs of stunting provides a means of evaluating the economic case for investing in childhood nutrition. Methods: We review the literature on the association between stunting and undernutrition in childhood and economic outcomes in adulthood. At the national level, we also evaluate the evidence linking stunting to economic growth...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379453/associations-of-parity-related-reproductive-histories-with-er%C3%A2-and-her2%C3%A2-receptor-specific-breast-cancer-aetiology
#18
William F Anderson, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Jan Wohlfahrt, Bent Ejlertsen, Maj-Britt Jensen, Niels Kroman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369404/on-misunderstandings-of-individual-and-population-risks-response-to-stephen-rappaport
#19
George Davey Smith, Caroline L Relton, Paul Brennan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369403/serum-gastrin-and-cholecystokinin-are-associated-with-subsequent-development-of-gastric-cancer-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-finnish-smokers
#20
Gwen Murphy, Christian C Abnet, Hyoyoung Choo-Wosoba, Emily Vogtmann, Stephanie J Weinstein, Philip R Taylor, Satu Männistö, Demetrius Albanes, Sanford M Dawsey, Jens F Rehfeld, Neal D Freedman
Background: Gastrin, which induces gastric acid secretion, and a structurally similar hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK)-a potent acid inhibitor, may each play a role in gastric cancer. However, few studies have investigated this hypothesis in humans. We therefore investigated whether serum gastrin or CCK concentrations at baseline were associated with the incidence of gastric non-cardia adenocarcinomas (GNCA), oesophagogastric junctional adenocarcinomas (EGJA) or gastric carcinoid tumours over 24 years of follow-up in a study nested within the all-male Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study of Finnish smokers...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
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