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International Journal of Epidemiology

Elizabeth Rose Mayeda, Teresa J Filshtein, Yorghos Tripodis, M Maria Glymour, Alden L Gross
Background: The relationship between education and late-life cognitive decline is controversial. Selective survival between early life, when education is typically completed, and late life, when cognitive ageing studies take place, could attenuate effect estimates. Methods: We quantified potential survival bias (collider-stratification bias) in estimation of the effect of education on late-life cognitive decline by simulating hypothetical cohorts of 20-year-olds and applying cumulative mortality from US life tables...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Shah Ebrahim, George Davey Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Brittany Blouin, Martin Casapía, Lawrence Joseph, Jay S Kaufman, Charles Larson, Theresa W Gyorkos
Background: Limited research has documented an association between soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and child development. This has recently been identified as an important knowledge gap. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Iquitos, Peru, between September 2011 and July 2016. A cohort of 880 children, recruited at 1 year of age, was followed up to 5 years. STH infection was measured annually and child development was measured with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III (WPPSI-III) at 5 years...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Alberto L García-Basteiro, Joe Brew, Brian Williams, Martien Borgdorff, Frank Cobelens
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) periodically provide global estimates of tuberculosis (TB) mortality. We compared the 2015 WHO and GBD TB mortality estimates and explored which factors might drive the differences. Methods: We extracted the number of estimated TB-attributable deaths, disaggregated by age, HIV status, sex and country from publicly available WHO and GBD datasets for the year 2015...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Peter J Dodd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Suneela Mehta, Rod Jackson, Romana Pylypchuk, Katrina Poppe, Sue Wells, Andrew J Kerr
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction equations are primarily used in clinical settings to inform individual risk management decisions. We sought to develop and validate alternative equations derived solely from linked routinely collected national health data that could be applied countrywide to inform population health planning. Methods: Individual-level linkage of eight administrative health datasets identified all New Zealand residents aged 30-74 years in contact with publicly funded health services during 2006 with no previous hospitalizations for CVD or heart failure, and with complete data on eight pre-specified predictors...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Allison Milner, Tony Blakely, George Disney, Anne M Kavanagh, Anthony D LaMontagne, Zoe Aitken
Background: Young people with low education have worse health than those with higher education. This paper examined the extent to which employment and income reduced the adverse effects of low education on mental health among people aged 20-35 years. Methods: We used causal mediation analyses to estimate the total causal effect (TCE) of low education on mental health and to decompose the effect into the natural direct effect (NDE) and the natural indirect effect (NIE) through two mediators examined sequentially: employment (labour-force participation/occupation skill level) and income...
July 9, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Donna S Rothstein, Deborah Carr, Elizabeth Cooksey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
James Lopez Bernal, Steven Cummins, Antonio Gasparrini
Interrupted time series analysis differs from most other intervention study designs in that it involves a before-after comparison within a single population, rather than a comparison with a control group. This has the advantage that selection bias and confounding due to between-group differences are limited. However, the basic interrupted time series design cannot exclude confounding due to co-interventions or other events occurring around the time of the intervention. One approach to minimizse potential confounding from such simultaneous events is to add a control series so that there is both a before-after comparison and an intervention-control group comparison...
July 5, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Swaib A Lule, Benigna Namara, Helen Akurut, Lawrence Muhangi, Lawrence Lubyayi, Margaret Nampijja, Florence Akello, Josephine Tumusiime, Judith C Aujo, Gloria Oduru, Liam Smeeth, Alison M Elliott, Emily L Webb
Background: In Africa, where low birthweight (LBW), malnutrition and high blood pressure (BP) are prevalent, the relationships between birthweight (BW), weight gain and BP later in life remain uncertain. We examined the effects of early life growth on BP among Ugandan adolescents. Methods: Data were collected prenatally from women and their offspring were followed from birth, with BP measured following standard protocols in early adolescence. Weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ) were computed using World Health Organization references...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Claire Infante-Rivard, Alexandre Cusson
Selection bias remains a more difficult bias to understand than confounding or measurement error. Past definitions have not always been illuminating and a simple method (such as the change-in-estimate method for confounding) has not been available to determine its presence and magnitude in the study sample. A better understanding of the nature of the bias has led to the definition of endogenous selection bias. It is the result of conditioning on a collider variable, itself caused by two other variables; the latter variables become spuriously associated...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Cillian P McDowell, Rodney K Dishman, Davy Vancampfort, Mats Hallgren, Brendon Stubbs, Ciaran MacDonncha, Matthew P Herring
Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is prevalent and costly. Physical activity (PA) may protect against other mental health disorders, including depression, but its protective effect on GAD remains under-studied in the general population and unstudied among older adults. Therefore, the present study examines associations between meeting World Health Organization PA guidelines (i.e. ≥150 min of moderate PA, ≥75 min of vigorous PA or ≥600MET min of moderate and vigorous PA weekly) and the prevalence of probable GAD and incidence of GAD...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Khalid Iqbal, Stefan Dietrich, Clemens Wittenbecher, Jan Krumsiek, Tilman Kühn, Maria Elena Lacruz, Alexander Kluttig, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Martin von Bergen, Rudolf Kaaks, Matthias B Schulze, Heiner Boeing, Anna Floegel
Background: Metabolite networks are suggested to reflect biological pathways in health and disease. However, it is unknown whether such metabolite networks are reproducible across different populations. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate similarity of metabolite networks in four German population-based studies. Methods: One hundred serum metabolites were quantified in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam (n = 2458), EPIC-Heidelberg (n = 812), KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region) (n = 3029) and CARLA (Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle) (n = 1427) with targeted metabolomics...
July 2, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Maarit A Laaksonen, Karen Canfell, Robert MacInnis, Maria E Arriaga, Emily Banks, Dianna J Magliano, Graham G Giles, Robert G Cumming, Julie E Byles, Paul Mitchell, Tiffany K Gill, Vasant Hirani, Susan McCullough, Jonathan E Shaw, Anne W Taylor, Barbara-Ann Adelstein, Claire M Vajdic
Background: Knowledge of preventable disease and differences in disease burden can inform public health action to improve health and health equity. We quantified the future lung cancer burden preventable by behavioural modifications across Australia. Methods: We pooled seven Australian cohort studies (n = 367 058) and linked them to national registries to identify lung cancers and deaths. We estimated population attributable fractions and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for modifiable risk factors, using risk estimates from the cohort data and risk factor exposure distribution from contemporary national health surveys...
July 2, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Jacqueline M Torres, Kara E Rudolph, Oleg Sofrygin, M Maria Glymour, Rebeca Wong
Background: Migration may impact the mental health of family members who remain in places of origin. We examined longitudinal associations between having an adult child migrant and mental health, for middle-aged and older Mexican adults accounting for complex time-varying confounding. Methods: Mexican Health and Aging Study cohort (N = 11 806) respondents ≥50 years completed a 9-item past-week depressive symptoms scale; scores of ≥5 reflected elevated depressive symptoms...
July 2, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Jack Bowden, Wesley Spiller, Fabiola Del Greco M, Nuala Sheehan, John Thompson, Cosetta Minelli, George Davey Smith
Background: data furnishing a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study are often visualized with the aid of a scatter plot, in which single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-outcome associations are plotted against the SNP-exposure associations to provide an immediate picture of the causal-effect estimate for each individual variant. It is also convenient to overlay the standard inverse-variance weighted (IVW) estimate of causal effect as a fitted slope, to see whether an individual SNP provides evidence that supports, or conflicts with, the overall consensus...
June 28, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Suzanne H Gage, Jack Bowden, George Davey Smith, Marcus R Munafò
Background: Lower educational attainment is associated with increased rates of smoking, but ascertaining causality is challenging. We used two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses of summary statistics to examine whether educational attainment is causally related to smoking. Methods and Findings: We used summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of educational attainment and a range of smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, cotinine levels and smoking cessation)...
June 28, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Magali Leyvraz, Angeline Chatelan, Bruno R da Costa, Patrick Taffé, Gilles Paradis, Pascal Bovet, Murielle Bochud, Arnaud Chiolero
Background: High sodium intake is a cause of elevated blood pressure in adults. In children and adolescents, less evidence is available and findings are equivocal. We systematically reviewed the evidence from experimental and observational studies on the association between sodium intake and blood pressure in children and adolescents. Methods: A systematic search of the Medline, Embase, CINAHL and CENTRAL databases up to March 2017 was conducted and supplemented by a manual search of bibliographies and unpublished studies...
June 27, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Rebecca Bentley, Emma Baker, Koen Simons, Julie A Simpson, Tony Blakely
Background: Social housing may provide an affordable and secure residential environment, but has also been associated with stigma, poor housing conditions and locational disadvantage. We examined the cumulative effect of additional years, and tenure security (number of transitions in/out), of social housing on mental health in a large cohort of lower-income Australians. Methods: We analysed a longitudinal panel survey that annually collected information on tenure and health from 2001 to 2013...
June 26, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Corey M Peak, Amy Wesolowski, Elisabeth Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Andrew J Tatem, Erik Wetter, Xin Lu, Daniel Power, Elaine Weidman-Grunewald, Sergio Ramos, Simon Moritz, Caroline O Buckee, Linus Bengtsson
Background: Travel restrictions were implementeded on an unprecedented scale in 2015 in Sierra Leone to contain and eliminate Ebola virus disease. However, the impact of epidemic travel restrictions on mobility itself remains difficult to measure with traditional methods. New 'big data' approaches using mobile phone data can provide, in near real-time, the type of information needed to guide and evaluate control measures. Methods: We analysed anonymous mobile phone call detail records (CDRs) from a leading operator in Sierra Leone between 20 March and 1 July in 2015...
June 26, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
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