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International Journal of Epidemiology

David I W Phillips, Clive Osmond, Martin L Williams, Alexander Jones
BACKGROUND: Chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a globally important cause of heart disease. The reasons for the continuing high prevalence of this disease are obscure, but it may have its origins in the poor social and economic conditions with which the disease has been consistently and strongly linked. Mortality studies from the UK have suggested the importance of adverse environmental factors in early life; these studies demonstrated specific geographical associations between high rates of chest infection during infancy and subsequent RHD...
October 23, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Rachel Kidman
BACKGROUND: Studies in South Asia suggest that child marriage is a strong risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV), but evidence outside the region is lacking. METHODS: This study uses standardized data from demographic and health surveys in 34 countries to test the hypothesis that young women (age 20-24) who married as children are at increased risk of past year physical and/or sexual IPV as compared with those women who married as adults. RESULTS: Globally, 9% of respondents were married before they turned 15; another 25% were married between the ages of 15 and 17...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Douglas I Walker, Karan Uppal, Luoping Zhang, Roel Vermeulen, Martyn Smith, Wei Hu, Mark P Purdue, Xiaojiang Tang, Boris Reiss, Sungkyoon Kim, Laiyu Li, Hanlin Huang, Kurt D Pennell, Dean P Jones, Nathaniel Rothman, Qing Lan
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) has been linked to adverse health outcomes including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and kidney and liver cancer; however, TCE's mode of action for development of these diseases in humans is not well understood. METHODS: Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of plasma obtained from 80 TCE-exposed workers [full shift exposure range of 0.4 to 230 parts-per-million of air (ppma)] and 95 matched controls were completed by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Evie Stergiakouli, Joanna Martin, Marian L Hamshere, Jon Heron, Beate St Pourcain, Nicholas J Timpson, Anita Thapar, George Davey Smith
BACKGROUND: Children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder : ADHD) have lower cognitive ability and are at risk of adverse educational outcomes; ADHD genetic risks have been found to predict childhood cognitive ability and other neurodevelopmental traits in the general population; thus genetic risks might plausibly also contribute to cognitive ability later in development and to educational underachievement. METHODS: We generated ADHD polygenic risk scores in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children participants (maximum N: 6928 children and 7280 mothers) based on the results of a discovery clinical sample, a genome-wide association study of 727 cases with ADHD diagnosis and 5081 controls...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor, Nicole Bergen, Anne Schlotheuber, Cesar Victora, Ties Boerma, Aluisio J D Barros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Eva-Charlotte Ekström, Emma Lindström, Rubhana Raqib, Shams El Arifeen, Samar Basu, Kerstin Brismar, Katarina Selling, Lars-Åke Persson
BACKGROUND: Fetal nutritional insults may alter the later metabolic phenotype. We hypothesized that early timing of prenatal food supplementation and multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) would favourably influence childhood metabolic phenotype. METHODS: Pregnant women recruited 1 January to 31 December 2002 in Matlab, Bangladesh, were randomized into supplementation with capsules of either 30 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, 60 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, or MMS containing a daily allowance of 15 micronutrients, and randomized to food supplementation (608 kcal) either with early invitation (9 weeks' gestation) or usual invitation (at 20 weeks)...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Gaokun Qiu, Yan Zheng, Hao Wang, Jie Sun, Hongxia Ma, Yang Xiao, Yizhun Li, Yu Yuan, Handong Yang, Xiulou Li, Xinwen Min, Ce Zhang, Chengwei Xu, Yue Jiang, Xiaomin Zhang, Meian He, Ming Yang, Zhibin Hu, Huiru Tang, Hongbing Shen, Frank B Hu, An Pan, Tangchun Wu
BACKGROUND: Metabolomics studies in Caucasians have identified a number of novel metabolites in association with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, few prospective metabolomic studies are available in Chinese populations. In the present study, we sought to identify novel metabolites consistently associated with incident T2D in two independent cohorts of Chinese adults. METHODS: We performed targeted metabolomics (52 metabolites) of fasting plasma samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two prospective case-control studies nested within the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) cohort and Jiangsu Non-communicable Disease (JSNCD) cohort...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Nancy Krieger, George Davey Smith
'Causal inference', in 21st century epidemiology, has notably come to stand for a specific approach, one focused primarily on counterfactual and potential outcome reasoning and using particular representations, such as directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and Bayesian causal nets. In this essay, we suggest that in epidemiology no one causal approach should drive the questions asked or delimit what counts as useful evidence. Robust causal inference instead comprises a complex narrative, created by scientists appraising, from diverse perspectives, different strands of evidence produced by myriad methods...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Jane Pirkis, Dianne Currier, John Carlin, Louisa Degenhardt, Shyamali C Dharmage, Billie Giles-Corti, Ian R Gordon, Lyle C Gurrin, Jane S Hocking, Anne Kavanagh, Louise Keogh, Rachel Koelmeyer, Anthony D LaMontagne, George Patton, Lena Sanci, Matthew J Spittal, Marisa Schlichthorst, David Studdert, Joanne Williams, Dallas R English
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Laura D Howe, Andrew D Smith, Corrie Macdonald-Wallis, Emma L Anderson, Bruna Galobardes, Debbie A Lawlor, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Rebecca Hardy, Rachel Cooper, Kate Tilling, Abigail Fraser
Many questions in life course epidemiology involve mediation and/or interaction because of the long latency period between exposures and outcomes. In this paper, we explore how mediation analysis (based on counterfactual theory and implemented using conventional regression approaches) links with a structured approach to selecting life course hypotheses. Using theory and simulated data, we show how the alternative life course hypotheses assessed in the structured life course approach correspond to different combinations of mediation and interaction parameters...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Sanne Ae Peters, Ling Yang, Yu Guo, Yiping Chen, Zheng Bian, Iona Y Millwood, Shaojie Wang, Liqiu Yang, Yihe Hu, Jiaqiu Liu, Tao Wang, Junshi Chen, Richard Peto, Liming Li, Mark Woodward, Zhengming Chen
BACKGROUND: Women's parity has been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is unclear, however, whether it reflects biological effects of childbearing or uncontrolled socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with childrearing. We assessed the association between number of children and incident CVD outcomes separately in women and men. METHODS: In 2004-08, the nationwide China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 0.5 million individuals aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse regions...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
G N Kusneniwar, R Margaret Whelan, Kalpana Betha, Jamie M Robertson, Purushotham Reddy Ramidi, K Balasubramanian, Vijayaraghavan Kamasamudram, Catherine L Haggerty, Clareann H Bunker, P S Reddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
From John P Kemp, Adrian Sayers, George Davey Smith, Jonathan H Tobias, David M Evans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Cornelia Fiessler, Annette B Pfahlberg, Andrea K Keller, Martin Radespiel-Tröger, Wolfgang Uter, Olaf Gefeller
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in infancy on melanoma risk in later life is scarce. Three recent studies suggest that people born in spring carry a higher melanoma risk. Our study aimed at verifying whether such a seasonal pattern of melanoma risk actually exists. METHODS: Data from the population-based Cancer Registry Bavaria (CRB) on the birth months of 28 374 incident melanoma cases between 2002 and 2012 were analysed and compared with data from the Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing on the birth month distribution in the Bavarian population...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
From Jack Bowden, Stephen Burgess, George Davey Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Izzuddin M Aris, Jonathan Y Bernard, Ling-Wei Chen, Mya Thway Tint, Wei Wei Pang, Wai Yee Lim, Shu E Soh, Seang-Mei Saw, Keith M Godfrey, Peter D Gluckman, Yap-Seng Chong, Fabian Yap, Michael S Kramer, Yung Seng Lee
BACKGROUND: Infant body mass index (BMI) peak has received much interest recently as a potential predictor of future obesity and metabolic risk. No studies, however, have examined infant BMI peak in Asian populations, in whom the risk of metabolic disease is higher. METHODS: We utilized data among 1020 infants from a mother-offspring cohort, who were Singapore citizens or permanent residents of Chinese, Malay or Indian ethnicity with homogeneous parental ethnic backgrounds, and did not receive chemotherapy, psychotropic drugs or have diabetes mellitus...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Ylva Trolle Lagerros, Essi Hantikainen, Daniela Mariosa, Weimin Ye, Hans-Olov Adami, Alessandra Grotta, Francesca Ghilotti, Rino Bellocco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Fernando Pires Hartwig, Neil Martin Davies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Kyle P Messier, Marc L Serre
BACKGROUND: The risk of indoor air radon for lung cancer is well studied, but the risks of groundwater radon for both lung and stomach cancer are much less studied, and with mixed results. METHODS: Geomasked and geocoded stomach and lung cancer cases in North Carolina from 1999 to 2009 were obtained from the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry. Models for the association with groundwater radon and multiple confounders were implemented at two scales: (i) an ecological model estimating cancer incidence rates at the census tract level; and (ii) a case-only logistic model estimating the odds that individual cancer cases are members of local cancer clusters...
September 17, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Polina Girchenko, Esa Hämäläinen, Eero Kajantie, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Pia Villa, Hannele Laivuori, Katri Räikkönen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
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