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International Journal of Epidemiology

James R Staley, Matthew Suderman, Andrew J Simpkin, Tom R Gaunt, Jon Heron, Caroline L Relton, Kate Tilling
Background: DNA methylation levels are known to vary over time, and modelling these trajectories is crucial for our understanding of the biological relevance of these changes over time. However, due to the computational cost of fitting multilevel models across the epigenome, most trajectory modelling efforts to date have focused on a subset of CpG sites identified through epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) at individual time-points. Methods: We propose using linear regression across the repeated measures, estimating cluster-robust standard errors using a sandwich estimator, as a less computationally intensive strategy than multilevel modelling...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Merete Osler, Erik L Mortensen, Kaare Christensen, Gunhild T Christensen
Aim: To investigate the bidirectional association between cognitive ability in young adulthood and epilepsy. Methods: This cohort study included 1 159 076 men enrolled in the mandatory conscription board examination from the Danish Conscription Database (DCD; 658 465 men examined 1957-84), the Danish Defence Personnel Organization Database (DPOD; 216 509 men examined 1987-2005) and the Danish Conscription Registry (DCR; 284 102 men examined 2006-15). A supplementary analysis included 14 814 female volunteers...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
David T Gamble, Allan B Clark, Robert N Luben, Nicholas J Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Phyo K Myint
Background: Stroke is primarily a disease of older age, with a substantial impact on global mortality and morbidity. Medications with anticholinergic effects are widely used, but no studies have been conducted to examine the relationship between anticholinergic burden (ACB) and stroke in a general population. Method: The sample was drawn from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. Baseline assessments were carried out during 1993-97 and participants were followed up until March 2016...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Kristin Hui Xian Tan, Linda Wei Lin Tan, Xueling Sim, E Shyong Tai, Jeannette Jen-Mai Lee, Kee Seng Chia, Rob M van Dam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Nicole M Warrington, Rachel M Freathy, Michael C Neale, David M Evans
Background: To date, 60 genetic variants have been robustly associated with birthweight. It is unclear whether these associations represent the effect of an individual's own genotype on their birthweight, their mother's genotype, or both. Methods: We demonstrate how structural equation modelling (SEM) can be used to estimate both maternal and fetal effects when phenotype information is present for individuals in two generations and genotype information is available on the older individual...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Marie-Claude Rousseau, Mariam El-Zein, Florence Conus, Marie-Elise Parent, Andrea Benedetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Val Gebski, Valérie Garès, Emma Gibbs, Karen Byth
We propose methods to determine the minimum number of subjects remaining at risk after which Kaplan-Meier survival plots for time-to-event outcomes should be curtailed, as, once the number remaining at risk drops below this minimum, the survival estimates are no longer meaningful in the context of the investigation. The size of the decrease of the Kaplan-Meier survival estimate S(t) at time t if one extra event should occur is considered in two ways. In the first approach, the investigator sets a maximum acceptable absolute decrease in S(t) should one extra event occur...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Yu-Tzu Wu, Gemma-Claire Ali, Maëlenn Guerchet, A Matthew Prina, Kit Yee Chan, Martin Prince, Carol Brayne
Background: There are several existing systematic reviews of prevalence of dementia for mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, but several studies have been newly reported. The aim of this study is to update prevalence data in this region and test for variation across geographical areas and time periods using the new dataset. Methods: Twenty prevalence studies identified from World Alzheimer Report 2015 (January 2011-March 2015) and an updated search (March 2015-February 2017) were added to the original dataset (N = 76)...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Catherine R Lesko, Lisa P Jacobson, Keri N Althoff, Alison G Abraham, Stephen J Gange, Richard D Moore, Sharada Modur, Bryan Lau
Collaborative study designs (CSDs) that combine individual-level data from multiple independent contributing studies (ICSs) are becoming much more common due to their many advantages: increased statistical power through large sample sizes; increased ability to investigate effect heterogeneity due to diversity of participants; cost-efficiency through capitalizing on existing data; and ability to foster cooperative research and training of junior investigators. CSDs also present surmountable political, logistical and methodological challenges...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Zhi-Ming Mai, Sai-Yin Ho, Ching-Man Lo, Man-Ping Wang, Richard Peto, Tai-Hing Lam
Background: The effects of smoking cessation might be different in different populations. Proportional mortality studies of all deaths, relating the certified cause to retrospectively determined smoking habits, have helped assess the hazards of smoking in Hong Kong, and further analyses can help assess the effects of prolonged cessation (although not of recent cessation, as life-threatening disease can itself cause cessation, particularly in old age). Methods: The LIMOR study sought the certified causes of all deaths in 1998, and interviewed 81% of families at death registries to determine the decedent's smoking history...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Morten Frisch, Andréa Besson, Kim Katrine Bjerring Clemmensen, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Kåre Mølbak, Anders Hviid
Background: In recent years, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of boys has been added to childhood vaccination programmes in several countries but, so far, no systematic population-based assessment with long-term follow-up has been undertaken of the relative incidence of adverse outcomes following HPV vaccination in this group. We investigated if quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination of 10-17-year-old boys is associated with any unusual risk of autoimmune diseases, neurological diseases or venous thromboembolism...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Brian I O'Toole, Mark Dadds, Sue Outram, Stanley V Catts
Background: War service increases the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to combatants, and has been shown to increase the risk of PTSD in their offspring. The extent to which there is an excess compared with the general population is not yet established, nor whether PTSD increases the risk of other psychiatric problems. Methods: A national sample of 133 sons and 182 daughters of a cohort of 179 Australian Vietnam veterans' families were assessed in person, using structured psychiatric interviews...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Stuart McTaggart, Clifford Nangle, Jacqueline Caldwell, Samantha Alvarez-Madrazo, Helen Colhoun, Marion Bennie
Background: Efficient generation of structured dose instructions that enable researchers to calculate drug exposure is central to pharmacoepidemiology studies. Our aim was to design and test an algorithm to codify dose instructions, applied to the NHS Scotland Prescribing Information System (PIS) that records about 100 million prescriptions per annum. Methods: A natural language processing (NLP) algorithm was developed that enabled free-text dose instructions to be represented by three attributes - quantity, frequency and qualifier - specified by three, three and two variables, respectively...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Maria C Magnus, Sjurdur F Olsen, Charlotta Granstrom, Nicolai A Lund-Blix, Jannet Svensson, Jesper Johannesen, Abigail Fraser, Torild Skrivarhaug, Geir Joner, Pål R Njølstad, Ketil Størdal, Lars C Stene
Background: Our objective was to examine the associations of parental body mass index (BMI) and maternal gestational weight gain with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. Comparing the associations of maternal and paternal BMI with type 1 diabetes in the offspring will provide further insight into the role of unmeasured confounding by characteristics linked to BMI in both parents. Methods: We studied 132 331 children participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) who were born between February 1998 and July 2009...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Win Pa Pa Thu, Susan Jane Sinclair Logan, Chun Wei Lim, Yue Luna Wang, Jane A Cauley, E L Yong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Jessica Eden Miller, Chunsen Wu, Lars Henning Pedersen, Nicholas de Klerk, Jørn Olsen, David P Burgner
Background: The early life microbiome contributes to immune development. Antibiotics during pregnancy alter the microbiome and may influence disease risks in the offspring. We investigated the relationship between maternal antibiotic exposure before and during pregnancy, and risk of childhood hospitalization with infection. Methods: We used population-based Danish national databases for pregnancies between 1995 and 2009. Infants were followed from birth until their first infection-related hospitalization, death, 14th birthday, emigration or end-2009...
February 4, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Bai Cham, Shaun Scholes, Linda Ng Fat, Omar Badjie, Jennifer S Mindell
Background: Non-communicable diseases are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and are estimated to account for 32% of adult deaths in The Gambia. Worldwide, prevalence of hypertension is highest in the African region (46%) and a very high proportion is undiagnosed. This study examined diagnosed and undiagnosed hypertension in The Gambian adult population. Methods: Data were collected in 2010 from a nationally representative random sample of 4111 adults aged 25-64 years, using the World Health Organization STEPwise cross-sectional survey methods...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Bénédicte Delcoigne, Nathalie C Støer, Marie Reilly
Background: It is not uncommon for investigators to conduct further analyses of subgroups, using data collected in a nested case-control design. Since the sampling of the participants is related to the outcome of interest, the data at hand are not a representative sample of the population, and subgroup analyses need to be carefully considered for their validity and interpretation. Methods: We performed simulation studies, generating cohorts within the proportional hazards model framework and with covariate coefficients chosen to mimic realistic data and more extreme situations...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Paulina Stehlik, Laura Rosella, David Henry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Zoe Aitken, Julie Anne Simpson, Lyle Gurrin, Rebecca Bentley, Anne Marie Kavanagh
Background: There is evidence of a causal relationship between disability acquisition and poor mental health; however, the mechanism by which disability affects mental health is poorly understood. This gap in understanding limits the development of effective interventions to improve the mental health of people with disabilities. Methods: We used four waves of data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey (2011-14) to compare self-reported mental health between individuals who acquired any disability (n=387) and those who remained disability-free (n=7936)...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
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