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Artificial Organs

Markus Luedi, Jan-Oliver Friess, Gabor Erdoes
Current guidelines on postcardiotomy veno-arterial extracorporeal oxygenation ECMO (vaECMO) do not mention the assessment of pulmonary function, especially prior to the weaning procedure in the operation room (OR). Mucociliary dysfunction, a nearly ubiquitous finding among mechanically ventilated patients, might put these patients at risk for potential airway problems and associated weaning failure at the time of vaECMO weaning in the OR. In conformity to veno-venous ECMO management, we suggest routine bronchoscopy with bronchial hygiene in the ICU prior to vaECMO weaning in the OR...
July 20, 2018: Artificial Organs
Maximilian Kreibich, Georg Trummer, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Christian Scherer, Katharina Förster, Itumeleng Taunyane, Christoph Benk
The reperfusion period after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been recognized as a key player in improving the outcome after cardiac arrest (CA). Our aim was to evaluate the effects of high mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulsatile flow during controlled automated reperfusion of the whole body. Following 20 min of normothermic CA, high MAP, and pulsatile blood flow (pulsatile group, n = 10) or low MAP and nonpulsatile flow (nonpulsatile group, n = 6) controlled automated reperfusion of the whole body was commenced through the femoral vessels of German landrace pigs for 60 min...
July 17, 2018: Artificial Organs
Weiming Wang, Biao Chen, Peng Xia, Jie Hu, Yinghong Peng
Electromyogram (EMG) signal decoding is the essential part of myoelectric control. However, traditional machine learning methods lack the capability of learning and expressing the information contained in EMG signals, and the robustness of the myoelectric control system is not sufficient for real life applications. In this article, a novel model based on recurrent convolutional neural networks (RCNNs) is proposed for hand movement classification and tested on the noninvasive EMG dataset. The proposed model uses deep architecture, which has advantages of dealing with complex time-series data, such as EMG signals...
July 13, 2018: Artificial Organs
Thomas Schlöglhofer, Johann Horvat, Francesco Moscato, Zeno Hartner, Georg Necid, Harald Schwingenschlögl, Julia Riebandt, Kamen Dimitrov, Philipp Angleitner, Dominik Wiedemann, Günther Laufer, Daniel Zimpfer, Heinrich Schima
Ventricular assist devices (VADs) are an established therapeutic option for patients with chronic heart failure. Continuous monitoring of VAD parameters and their adherence to guidelines are crucial to detect problems in an early stage to optimize outcomes. A telephone intervention algorithm for VAD outpatients was developed, clinically implemented and evaluated. During the phone calls, a structured inquiry of pump parameters, alarms, blood pressure, INR, body weight and temperature, exit-site status and heart failure symptoms was performed and electronically categorized by an algorithm into 5 levels of severity...
May 25, 2018: Artificial Organs
Tae Ryung Kim, Mahsa Hadidi, Seyed Pouria Motevalian, Takashi Sunohara, Andrew L Zydney
Blood-membrane interactions can have a large impact on the performance of hemodialysis membranes, particularly for high flux membranes in which the membrane itself provides very low resistance to solute transport. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to serum on the solute clearance and convective sieving characteristics of high flux polysulfone (Optiflux F250NR), polyethersulfone (ELISIO-25H), and asymmetric cellulose triacetate (SOLACEA-25H) hemodialyzers using both vitamin B12 and a range of polydisperse dextrans...
May 17, 2018: Artificial Organs
Konstantin Zhigalov, Ahmed Mashhour, Marcin Szczechowicz, Sabreen Mkalaluh, Sergei Karagezian, Irakli Gogia, Maxim Isaev, Bakitbek K Kadyraliev, Jerry Easo, Juergen Ennker, Harald C Eichstaedt, Alexander Weymann
We present a comparison between three left ventricular assist devices (LVADs): HeartWare (HVAD) (HeartWare International Inc., Framingham, MA, USA), HeartMate II (HMII) and HeartMate III (HMIII) (Thoratec Corp., Pleasanton, CA, USA). To our knowledge, no study to date has aimed at placing these three devices in juxtaposition. Between June 2007 and June 2017, 108 consecutive patients received HMII, n = 77 (71.3%), HVAD, n = 14 (13%), or HM III, n = 17 (15.7%), for end-stage heart failure. Mean age was 63...
May 17, 2018: Artificial Organs
Shigang Wang, Morgan Moroi, Christoph E Brehm, Allen R Kunselman, Akif Ündar
The objective of this study was to evaluate a pulsatile extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) system in terms of hemodynamic energy generation and transmission under various pulsatile amplitudes, flow rates, and pseudopatient pressures in a simulated adult ECMO circuit. Surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE), a measure of the quality of pulsatility, was used to quantify pulsatile flow. The circuit consisted of an i-cor diagonal pump, an adult XLung oxygenator, a 21 Fr Medtronic Biomedicus femoral arterial cannula, a 23/25 Fr Sorin RAP femoral venous cannula, and 3/8 in ID tubing for both arterial and venous lines...
May 17, 2018: Artificial Organs
Vicky Duffy, Daniel Gomez, Peter Rycus, Brian Rivera, Stephanie L Santoro, Carl H Backes, Clifford L Cua
Patients with Down syndrome (DS) may have multiple medical issues that place them at risk for requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in pediatric patients with Down syndrome has been described, but minimal data exist for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in adults with Down syndrome. The goal of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and to determine if there were differences between adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients with Down syndrome that were alive (aDS) versus those that died (dDS) prior to hospital discharge...
May 17, 2018: Artificial Organs
H Christiaan Stronks, Daniel J Parker, Ashley Stacey, Nick Barnes
Tactile vision substitution devices present visual images as tactile representations on the skin. In this study we have tested the performance of a prototype 96-tactor vibrotactile using a subset of 64 tactors. We have determined the tactile spatial acuity and intensity discrimination in 14 naïve subjects. Spatial acuity was determined using a grating acuity task. Subjects could successfully identify the orientation of horizontal and vertical gratings with an average psychophysical threshold of 120 mm. When diagonal gratings were included in the analysis, the median performance dropped below psychophysical threshold, but was still significantly above chance at gratings of 142 mm wide...
May 15, 2018: Artificial Organs
Jarod T Horobin, Michael J Simmonds, Deepika Nandakumar, Shaun D Gregory, Geoff Tansley, Jo P Pauls, Angela Girnghuber, Nicoletta Balletti, John F Fraser
Although rotary blood pumps (RBPs) sustain life, blood exposure to continuous supra-physiological shear stress induces adverse effects (e.g., thromboembolism); thus, pulsatile flow in RBPs represents a potential solution. The present study introduced pulsatile flow to the HeartWare HVAD using a custom-built controller and compared hemocompatibility biomarkers (i.e., platelet aggregation, concentrations for ADAMTS13, von Willebrand factor (vWf), and free-hemoglobin in plasma (pfHb), red blood cell (RBC) deformability, and RBC-nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity) between continuous and pulsatile flow in a blood circulation loop over 5 h...
May 3, 2018: Artificial Organs
Selim Bozkurt
Neurological complications in continuous flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) patients are the second-leading risk of death after multi-organ failure. They are associated with altered blood flow in the cardiovascular system because of CF-LVAD support. Moreover, an impaired cerebral autoregulation function may also contribute to complications such as hyperperfusion in the cerebral circulation under mechanical circulatory support. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of cerebral autoregulatory function on cerebral blood flow rate under CF-LVAD support...
May 3, 2018: Artificial Organs
Gabor Erdoes, Christian Rummel, Reto M Basciani, Rajeev Verma, Thierry Carrel, Yara Banz, Balthasar Eberle, Gerhard Schroth
Cerebral oximetry using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows for continuous monitoring of cerebral perfusion and immediate treatment of hemodynamic perturbations. In configurations used in current clinical practice, NIRS optodes are placed on the patient`s forehead and cerebral oxygen saturation (ScO2 ) is determined in bilateral frontal cortical samples. However, focal cerebral ischemic lesions outside of the NIRS field of view may remain undetected. The objective of this observational case-series study was to investigate ScO2 measurements in patients with acute iatrogenic stroke not located in the frontal cortical region...
May 3, 2018: Artificial Organs
Hamid Mirzadeh, Shadab Bagheri-Khoulenjani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Artificial Organs
Susumu Ookawara, Kiyonori Ito, Yoshiyuki Morishita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Artificial Organs
Shelley McKellar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Artificial Organs
Junsoo Alex Lee, Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili, Himabindu Vidula
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Artificial Organs
Swati Choudhry, Aimee Liou, Aamir Jeewa, Barbara A Elias, Iki Adachi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Artificial Organs
Per Jonsson, Lorentz Lindmark, Jan Axelsson, Lars Karlsson, Lennart Lundberg, Bernd Stegmayr
We were encouraged to investigate the reasons for large amounts of foam observed in bloodlines during hemodialysis (HD). Foam was visible in the venous air trap within the Artis Gambro dialysis device. Estimates of the extent of foam were graded (0-no foam, 10-extensive foam) by two persons that were blind to the type of dialyzer used. Thirty-seven patients were involved in the dialysis procedures. Consecutive dialyses were graded using dialyzers from Fresenius Medical Care (CorDiax dialyzers that were used for high flux HD-FX80 and FX100, and for hemodiafiltration-FX1000)...
May 2018: Artificial Organs
Ijad Kao, Yu Xiong, Axel Steffen, Kathrin Smuda, Lian Zhao, Radostina Georgieva, Axel Pruss, Hans Bäumler
Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) are being developed as oxygen and plasma volume-expanding therapeutics though their potential to promote oxidative tissue injury and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging combined with vasoconstriction has raised safety concerns. Therefore, we focused on these aspects during preclinical studies performed with the recently introduced hemoglobin microparticles (HbMP-700). Besides oxidative stress, we investigated possible vasoconstrictory influence of HBOCs as well as genetic toxicity...
May 2018: Artificial Organs
Carson Fox, Steven Chopski, Nohra Murad, Paul Allaire, Robert Mentzer, Joseph Rossano, Francisco Arabia, Amy Throckmorton
Clinical studies using total artificial hearts (TAHs) have demonstrated that pediatric and adult patients derive quality-of-life benefits from this form of therapy. Two clinically-approved TAHs and other pumps under development, however, have design challenges and limitations, including thromboembolic events, neurologic impairment, infection risk due to large size and percutaneous drivelines, and lack of ambulation, to name a few. To address these limitations, we are developing a hybrid-design, continuous-flow, implantable or extracorporeal, magnetically-levitated TAH for pediatric and adult patients with heart failure...
May 2018: Artificial Organs
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