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Artificial Organs

Farhad Azimifar, Kamran Hassani, Amir Hossein Saveh, Farhad Izadi
Fluoroscopy-guided placement of pedicle screws is usually used to position pedicle screws, although it is highly risky due to lack of accuracy during operation and surgeon's intensive labor requirement during surgery. In this study, a new method was introduced to consider the issues and we tried to reduce the risk of pedicle screw placement and drilling process. To put pedicle screw in the correct position and orientation, a specific drill guide is designed and fabricated by additive manufacturing technology...
September 19, 2018: Artificial Organs
Sanjairaj Vijayavenkataraman, Siti Thaharah, Shuo Zhang, Wen Feng Lu, Jerry Ying Hsi Fuh
The incidence of peripheral nerve injuries is on the rise and the current gold standard for treatment of such injuries is nerve autografting. Given the severe limitations of nerve autografts which include donor site morbidity and limited supply, Neural Guide Conduits (NGCs) are considered as an effective alternative treatment. Conductivity is a desired property of an ideal NGC. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) possesses several advantages in addition to its conductive nature such as the high surface area to volume ratio due to its nanostructure and has been explored for use in tissue engineering...
September 19, 2018: Artificial Organs
Bernd Ramsauer, Reindert Graaff, Aleksandar Sikole, Lada Trajceska, Sara Lundström, Stefan Arsov, Henrik Hadimeri, Bernd Stegmayr
Tissue advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a measure of cumulative metabolic and oxidative stress and cytokine-driven inflammatory reactions. AGEs are thought to contribute to the cardiovascular complications of hemodialysis (HD) patients. Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is related to the tissue accumulation of AGEs and rises with age. SAF is one of the strongest prognostic markers of mortality in these patients. The content of AGEs is high in barbecue food. Due to the location in northern Sweden, there is a short intense barbecue season between June and August...
September 19, 2018: Artificial Organs
Piotr Foltynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2018: Artificial Organs
Michele L Esposito, Kevin J Morine, Shiva K Annamalai, Ryan O'Kelly, Nima Aghili, Robert Pedicini, Catalina Breton, Andrew Mullin, Anas Hamadeh, Michael S Kiernan, David DeNofrio, Navin K Kapur
Hemolysis is a potential limitation of percutaneously delivered left-sided mechanical circulatory support pumps, including trans valvular micro-axial flow pumps (TVP). Hemolytic biomarkers among durable left ventricular assist devices include lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) >2.5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) and plasma-free hemoglobin (pf-Hb) >20 mg/dL. We examined the predictive value of these markers among patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) receiving a TVP. We retrospectively studied records of 116 consecutive patients receiving an Impella TVP at our institution between 2012 and 2017 for CS...
September 14, 2018: Artificial Organs
Burak Onan, Unal Aydin, Ersin Kadirogullari, İsmihan Selen Onan, Onur Sen
BACKGROUND: Robotic surgery for intracardiac pathologies in children is relatively uncommon. This study presents our initial experience with robotic-assisted cardiac surgery in children. We also present the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery in children. METHODS: From May 2013 through June 2018, 30 children underwent totally endoscopic robotic atrial septal defect closure (n=22), right-sided (n=5) or left-sided (n=1) partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection repair, tricuspid valve annuloplasty (n=4) and mitral valve replacement (n=2, due to Barlow and rheumatic diseases)...
September 12, 2018: Artificial Organs
Dario Fichera, Fabio Zanella, Assunta Fabozzo, Nicoletta Doglioni, Daniele Trevisanuto, Elisabetta Lolli, Vladimiro Vida, Enrico Ceccherini, Agostino Ebraico, Giovanni Stellin, Massimo Padalino
We aim to evaluate clinical outcomes of emergent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) implantation in newborns with life-threatening meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) in peripheral hospitals with Hub and Spoke (HandS) setting. We retrospectively reviewed all neonates presenting with MAS, with no other comorbidities, treated with HandS ECMO, in peripheral hospitals. Team activation time (TAT) was described as the time from first alerting call to ECMO support initiation. From May 2014 to December 2016, 4 patients met our inclusion criteria...
September 11, 2018: Artificial Organs
Mohammed Barakat, Danny Dvir, Ali N Azadani
Transcatheter aortic valves provide superior systolic hemodynamic performance in terms of valvular pressure gradient and effective orifice area compared with equivalent size surgical bioprostheses. However, in depth investigation of the flow field structures is of interest to examine the flow field characteristics and provide experimental evidence necessary for validation of computational models. The goal of this study was to compare flow field characteristics of the three most commonly used transcatheter and surgical valves using phase-locked particle image velocimetry (PIV)...
September 9, 2018: Artificial Organs
Gil Marom, Senthil K Eswaran, Richard J Rapoza, Syed F A Hossainy, Marvin J Slepian, Danny Bluestein
Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) provide transient vessel support for occluded coronary arteries while resorbing over time, potentially allowing vessel restoration approximating the native, healthy state. Clinical trials indicate that the Absorb BVS (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) performance was similar to that of the Xience metallic drug-eluting stent (DES), with low long-term complications rates. However, when under-deployed in very small vessels (diameter < 2.25 mm), the thrombosis rate of BVS was higher, possibly due to the effect of strut thickness on the hemodynamics (157 μm BVS vs...
September 5, 2018: Artificial Organs
Ali Poorkhalil, Davood Bizari, Hasan Farrokhzad
A new extracorporeal circuit for hemodialysis was designed with the goal of improving the middle and high molecular weight toxins removal. A recirculation pathway was added to the hemodialysis circuit and relevant pressure regulation was performed along the circuit in order to keep the ultrafiltration rate as zero. The influence of increasing the recirculation to dialysate flow rate ratio on the removal of urea, vitamin B12 and hemoglobin was investigated. This removal was also modeled by an analytical method and solved by MATLAB™ software...
September 4, 2018: Artificial Organs
Y B Huang, J Mei, Y L Yu, Y Q Ding, W Z Xia, T Yue, W J Chen, M T Zhou, Y J Yang
Decellularized (DC) organs/tissues offer a promising scaffold for regenerative bioengineering. However, it is not clear whether the diabetic mellitus (DM) pancreas can be used in decellularized and recellularized bioengineering. For assessment of these questions, murine pancreatic scaffolds of normal, type 1DM (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM) pancreas were generated using a perfusion decellularization technique and assessed by histology, scanning electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 4, 2018: Artificial Organs
Rossi Ferrario Silvia, Bacich Daniela, Beltrame Laura, Balestroni Gianluigi, Pistono Massimo
Few studies evaluated the effect of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs on perceived emotional and health-status of LVAD patients, and none explored their effect on caregivers' strain. We enrolled one hundred nineteen adult LVAD patients, together with their caregivers (n. 91), in two Rehabilitation Institutes that provided inpatient multidisciplinary activities. At admittance and prior to discharge they completed questionnaires evaluating patient emotional state and subjective perception of health status, caregiver strain, and patient and caregiver perception of LVAD...
August 29, 2018: Artificial Organs
Wenping Liu, Gangping Zhang, Liling Yu, Binfeng Xu, Haoyu Jin
Artificial pancreas (AP) is an important treatment for patients with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). The control algorithm adopted in an AP system determines its reliability and accuracy. The generalized predictive control (GPC) is a representative adaptive control algorithm and has been widely applied to AP systems. However, we found that the traditional GPC controller does not work well for adolescents with T1D because of their high-fluctuating blood glucose and high insulin resistance. Here, we propose an improved GPC algorithm with an adaptive reference glucose trajectory and an adaptive softening factor...
August 29, 2018: Artificial Organs
Maria Grazia Calabrò, Daniela Febres, Gaia Recca, Rosalba Lembo, Evgeny Fominskiy, Anna Mara Scandroglio, Alberto Zangrillo, Federico Pappalardo
The CytoSorb adsorber, a blood purification therapy, is able to remove molecules in the 5-60 kDa range which comprises the majority of inflammatory mediators and some endogenous molecules. We aimed to evaluate CytoSorb therapy on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. A retrospective case series study, from February 2016 to May 2017, was performed in 40 patients with multiple organ failure who received CytoSorb treatment. There were 28 patients with cardiogenic shock, 2 with septic shock, 9 with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 1 with liver failure...
August 29, 2018: Artificial Organs
Ricardo Gómez Bardón, Gabriele Dubini, Giancarlo Pennati
Clinical observation of condensation at the gas flow exit of blood oxygenators is a recurrent event during cardiopulmonary bypass. These devices consist of a bundle of hollow fibers made of a microporous membrane that allows the exchange of O2 and CO2 . The fibers carry a gas mixture inside (intraluminal flow), while blood flows externally around them (extraluminal flow). Although different studies described this effect in the past, the specific role of the different sections of the device requires further analysis, and the total condensation rate remains unquantified...
August 29, 2018: Artificial Organs
C Gross, C Marko, J Mikl, J Altenberger, T Schlöglhofer, H Schima, D Zimpfer, F Moscato
Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) restore cardiovascular circulatory demand at rest with a spontaneous increase in pump flow to exercise. The relevant contribution of cardiac output provided by the LVAD and ejected through the aortic valve for exercises of different intensities has been barely investigated in patients. The hypothesis of this study was that different responses in continuous recorded pump parameters occur for maximal and sub-maximal intensity exercises and that the pump flow change has an impact on the oxygen uptake at peak exercise (pVO2)...
August 28, 2018: Artificial Organs
Shigang Wang, Morgan K Moroi, Madison Force, Allen R Kunselman, Akif Ündar
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of rapid heart rate on pulsatile hemodynamic performance in a simulated neonatal extracorporeal life support (ECLS) system. The experimental circuit consisted of an i-cor diagonal pump, a Medos Hilite 800 LT oxygenator, an 8Fr Biomedicus arterial cannula, a 10Fr Biomedicus venous cannula, and six feet of 1/4 in ID tubing for arterial and venous lines. The circuit was primed with lactated Ringer's solution and packed red blood cells (hematocrit 40%). Trials were conducted at various heart rates (90, 120, and 150 bpm) and flow rates (200, 400, and 600mL/min) under nonpulsatile and pulsatile mode with pulsatile amplitudes of 1000-4000rpm (1000 rpm increments)...
August 28, 2018: Artificial Organs
David W Sutherland, Zachary D Blanks, Xin Zhang, Joseph L Charest
Central venous catheters (CVCs) are implanted in the majority of dialysis patients despite increased patient risk due to thrombotic occlusion and biofilm formation. Current solutions remain ineffective at preventing these complications and treatment options are limited and often harmful. We present further analysis of the previously proposed water infused surface protection (WISP) technology, an active method to reduce protein adsorption and effectively disrupt adsorbed protein sheaths on the inner surface of CVCs...
August 23, 2018: Artificial Organs
Osman Yesilbas, Esra Sevketoglu, Hasan S Kihtir, Mey Talip Petmezci, Nihal Akcay, Ulkem Kocoglu Barlas, Figen Palabiyik
Our study investigated the reliability of appearance of rapid atrial swirl flow (RASF) by ultrasonography (US) in the right atrium (RA), which occurred as a result of rapid isotonic saline infusion (RISI) into the central venous catheter (CVC), in predicting catheter tip position. This prospective observational study included 95 CVC procedures performed on 77 pediatric patients (41 boys and 36 girls) with a median age of 0.6 (0.29-1.53) years. Seventy-three (76.84%) catheter tips were found to be correctly placed, and 22 (23...
August 22, 2018: Artificial Organs
Shigang Wang, Madison Force, Allen R Kunselman, Christoph Brehm, Akif Ündar
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the hemodynamic characteristics of two femoral arterial cannulae in terms of circuit pressure, pressure drop and hemodynamic energy transmission under non-pulsatile and pulsatile mode in a simulated adult extracorporeal life support (ECLS) system. METHODS: The ECLS circuit consisted of i-cor diagonal pump and console (Xenios AG, Heilbronn, Germany), an iLA membrane ventilator (Xenios AG), an 18 Fr or 16 Fr femoral arterial cannula (Xenios AG), and a 23/25 Fr Estech remote access perfusion (RAP) femoral venous cannula (San Ramon, CA, USA)...
August 21, 2018: Artificial Organs
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