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Artificial Organs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097669/mathematical-modeling-of-rotary-blood-pumps-in-a-pulsatile-in-vitro-flow-environment
#1
Tohid Pirbodaghi
Nowadays, sacrificing animals to develop medical devices and receive regulatory approval has become more common, which increases ethical concerns. Although in vivo tests are necessary for development and evaluation of new devices, nonetheless, with appropriate in vitro setups and mathematical models, a part of the validation process can be performed using these models to reduce the number of sacrificed animals. The main aim of this study is to present a mathematical model simulating the hydrodynamic function of a rotary blood pump (RBP) in a pulsatile in vitro flow environment...
January 18, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044355/a-cellular-model-of-shear-induced-hemolysis
#2
Salman Sohrabi, Yaling Liu
A novel model is presented to study red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis at cellular level. Under high shear rates, pores form on RBC membranes through which hemoglobin (Hb) leaks out and increases free Hb content of plasma leading to hemolysis. By coupling lattice Boltzmann and spring connected network models through immersed boundary method, we estimate hemolysis of a single RBC under various shear rates. First, we use adaptive meshing to find local strain distribution and critical sites on RBC membranes, and then we apply underlying molecular dynamics simulations to evaluate damage...
January 3, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028827/novel-application-for-electrochemotherapy-immersion-of-nasal-cavity-in-dog
#3
Daniela O H Suzuki, José A Berkenbrock, Krishna D de Oliveira, Jennifer O Freytag, Marcelo M M Rangel
Electrochemotherapy is a new modality of local cancer treatment that increases the delivery of chemotherapy drugs into tumor cells by applying intense electric fields. This novel electrochemotherapy application was applied as an adjuvant to surgery and eliminated intranasal tumors in dog. The treatment challenges are the surgery limitations due to anatomy and residual tumor in the bone cavity. Most of the tumoral mass on nasal cavity was surgically removed. The internal nasal cavity was immersed in liquid and bleomycin before applying electric field...
December 27, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025835/bedside-tunneled-dialysis-catheter-removal-a-lesson-learned-from-nephrology-trainees
#4
REVIEW
Tibor Fülöp, Mihály B Tapolyai, Mohit Agarwal, Arnaldo Lopez-Ruiz, Miklos Z Molnar, Neville R Dossabhoy
Semi-permanent dual-lumen tunneled (or tunneled-cuffed) hemodialysis catheters (TDC) are increasingly utilized during renal replacement therapy, while awaiting permanent access maturation or renal recovery. Although there is a wealth of literature focused on placement, infection prevention, and maintenance of catheter patency, circumstances and indications for TDC removal are less well understood. Timely removal of these catheters is an important management decision, with the length of TDC duration representing the largest cumulative risk factor for catheter-associated blood stream infections...
December 26, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025826/concurrent-use-of-continuous-and-pulsatile-flow-ventricular-assist-device-on-a-fontan-patient-a-simulation-study
#5
Arianna Di Molfetta, Gianfranco Ferrari, Roberta Iacobelli, Sergio Filippelli, Antonio Amodeo
The aim of this work is to develop and test a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system to simulate the concurrent use of pulsatile (PVAD) and continuous flow (CVAD) ventricular assist device (VAD) on Fontan patients. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic data of five Fontan patients were retrospectively collected and used to simulate the patients' baseline hemodynamics. Then, for each patient, the following assistance modality was simulated for the cavopulmonary and the single ventricle (SV): (a) CVAD for cavopulmonary assistance (RCF) and PVAD assisting the SV (LCF) (RPF + LCF), (b) CVAD assisting SV and PVAD for cavopulmonary assistance (LPF + RCF)...
December 26, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935084/a-physical-heart-failure-simulation-system-utilizing-the-total-artificial-heart-and-modified-donovan-mock-circulation
#6
Jessica R Crosby, Katrina J DeCook, Phat L Tran, Edward Betterton, Richard G Smith, Douglas F Larson, Zain I Khalpey, Daniel Burkhoff, Marvin J Slepian
With the growth and diversity of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) systems entering clinical use, a need exists for a robust mock circulation system capable of reliably emulating and reproducing physiologic as well as pathophysiologic states for use in MCS training and inter-device comparison. We report on the development of such a platform utilizing the SynCardia Total Artificial Heart and a modified Donovan Mock Circulation System, capable of being driven at normal and reduced output. With this platform, clinically relevant heart failure hemodynamics could be reliably reproduced as evidenced by elevated left atrial pressure (+112%), reduced aortic flow (-12...
December 9, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925247/does-flexible-arterial-tubing-retain-more-hemodynamic-energy-during-pediatric-pulsatile-extracorporeal-life-support
#7
Shigang Wang, Allen R Kunselman, Akif Ündar
The objective of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic performance and energy transmission of flexible arterial tubing as the arterial line in a simulated pediatric pulsatile extracorporeal life support (ECLS) system. The ECLS circuit consisted of a Medos Deltastream DP3 diagonal pump head, Medos Hilite 2400 LT oxygenator, Biomedicus arterial/venous cannula (10 Fr/14 Fr), 3 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) arterial tubing or latex rubber arterial tubing, primed with lactated Ringer's solution and packed red blood cells (hematocrit 40%)...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925243/hemodiafiltration-a-technique-for-physiological-correction-of-priming-solution-in-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-an-in-vitro-study
#8
Pankaj Garg, Arvind Kumar Bishnoi, Kartik Patel, Vivek Wadhawa, Jigar Surti, Atul Solanki, Komal Shah, Sanjay Patel
Pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit invariably requires priming with packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Metabolic composition of stored PRBCs is unphysiological and becomes worse with increasing duration of storage. It is recommended to correct these abnormalities before initiation of CPB. We tested the hypothesis that hemodiafiltration of the prime with 0.45% saline is sufficient for reducing the metabolic load and reaching a physiologic state. In an in vitro study, 100 mL of blood each from 45 units of PRBCs stored for 3-20 days were used for priming the 45 neonatal CPB circuits...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925242/red-blood-cell-mechanical-fragility-test-for-clinical-research-applications
#9
Luke A Ziegler, Salim E Olia, Marina V Kameneva
Red blood cell (RBC) susceptibility to mechanically induced hemolysis, or RBC mechanical fragility (MF), is an important parameter in the characterization of erythrocyte membrane health. The rocker bead test (RBT) and associated calculated mechanical fragility index (MFI) is a simple method for the assessment of RBC MF. Requiring a minimum of 15.5 mL of blood and necessitating adjustment of hematocrit (Ht) to a "standard" value (40%), the current RBT is not suitable for use in most studies involving human subjects...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925238/danshen-enhanced-cardioprotective-effect-of-cardioplegia-on-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-model
#10
Wei Wei, Yiwei Liu, Qiang Zhang, Yangming Wang, Xiaoling Zhang, Hao Zhang
Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is unavoidable during cardioplegic arrest and open-heart surgery. Danshen is one of the most popular traditional herbal medicines in China, which has entered the Food and Drug Administration-approved phase III clinical trial. This study was aimed to develop a human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) model to mimic I/R injury and evaluate the cardioprotective effect of regular cardioplegic solution with Danshen. hiPSC-CMs were cultured with the crystalloid cardioplegic solution (Thomas group) and Thomas solution with 2 or 10 µg/mL Danshen (Thomas plus Danshen groups)...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925237/ambiguity-in-the-presentation-of-decellularized-tissue-composition-the-need-for-standardized-approaches
#11
Arne A N Bruyneel, Carolyn A Carr
Decellularization offers great potential to the field of tissue engineering, as this method gives rise to scaffold material with the native organ architecture by removing all cellular material and leaving much of the extracellular matrix (ECM) intact. However, many parameters may affect decellularization efficacy and ECM retention and, therefore, decellularization protocols need to be optimized for specific needs. This requires robust methods for comparison of decellularized tissue composition. Various representation methods are used in literature to express tissue composition (DNA, glycosaminoglycans, collagen, other ECM proteins, and growth factors)...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925236/stresses-and-strains-analysis-using-different-palatal-expander-appliances-in-upper-jaw-and-midpalatal-suture
#12
Larissa Carvalho Trojan, Libardo Andrés González-Torres, Ana Claudia Moreira Melo, Estevam Barbosa de Las Casas
Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is the technique of increasing the transverse dimension of the upper jaw using lateral forces applied by palatal expander. Usually, this palatal appliance is anchored on posterior teeth. The purposes of this computer simulation study were to analyze the stress and strain distribution generated in the maxilla, mainly in midpalatal suture (MPS), during RME by tooth-borne and bone-borne expanders and to study the correlation between mechanical strain and Wolff's Law. The analysis was performed with finite element models developed based on Cone Beam computed tomography (CT)...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925235/quantification-of-operational-learning-in-minimal-invasive-extracorporeal-circulation
#13
Kyriakos Anastasiadis, Polychronis Antonitsis, Christos Asteriou, Helena Argiriadou, Apostolos Deliopoulos, Dimitrios Konstantinou, Vassilios Grosomanidis, Paschalis Tossios
Minimal invasive extracorporeal circulation (MiECC) has initiated important new efforts within science and technology towards a more physiologic perfusion. In this study, we aim to investigate the learning curve of our center regarding MiECC. We studied a series of 150 consecutive patients who underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting by the same surgical team during the initial phase of MiECC application. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups. Group A (n = 75) included patients operated on MiECC, while group B (n = 75) included patients operated with conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (cCPB)...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925233/quantification-and-analysis-of-leaflet-flutter-on-biological-prosthetic-cardiac-valves
#14
Artur H de F Avelar, Jean A Canestri, Camila Bim, Maíra G M Silva, Rudolf Huebner, Marcos Pinotti
The use of porcine or bovine pericardium biological cardiac valves has as its main disadvantage a relatively short lifespan, with failures due to calcification and fatigue. Increasing these valves' durability constitutes a great challenge. An understudied phenomenon is the effect of flutter, an oscillation of the leaflets that can cause regurgitation and accelerate calcification and fatigue. As a starting point to study how to reduce or prevent these oscillations, a method was developed to quantify the flutter frequencies occurring at the point of the valve's full opening...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925231/experimental-approach-to-visualize-flow-in-a-stacked-hollow-fiber-bundle-of-an-artificial-lung-with-particle-image-velocimetry
#15
Andreas Kaesler, Peter C Schlanstein, Felix Hesselmann, Martin Büsen, Michael Klaas, Dorothee Roggenkamp, Thomas Schmitz-Rode, Ulrich Steinseifer, Jutta Arens
Flow distribution is key in artificial lungs, as it directly influences gas exchange performance as well as clot forming and blood damaging potential. The current state of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in artificial lungs can only give insight on a macroscopic level due to model simplification applied to the fiber bundle. Based on our recent work on wound fiber bundles, we applied particle image velocimetry (PIV) to the model of an artificial lung prototype intended for neonatal use to visualize flow distribution in a stacked fiber bundle configuration to (i) evaluate the feasibility of PIV for artificial lungs, (ii) validate CFD in the fiber bundle of artificial lungs, and (iii) give a suggestion how to incorporate microscopic aspects into mainly macroscopic CFD studies...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925229/plga-ptmc-cultured-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cell-scaffold-enhances-cartilage-regeneration-in-tissue-engineered-tracheal-transplantation
#16
Bingyang Yan, Zhipei Zhang, Xiaoping Wang, Yunfeng Ni, Yongshi Liu, Tao Liu, Wuping Wang, Hao Xing, Ying Sun, Jian Wang, Xiao-Fei Li
The treatment of long-segment tracheal defect requires the transplantation of effective tracheal substitute, and the tissue-engineered trachea (TET) has been proposed as an ideal tracheal substitute. The major cause of the failure of segmental tracheal defect reconstruction by TET is airway collapse caused by the chondromalacia of TET cartilage. The key to maintain the TET structure is the regeneration of chondrocytes in cartilage, which can secrete plenty of cartilage matrices. To address the problem of the chondromalacia of TET cartilage, this study proposed an improved strategy...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925228/a-mock-circulatory-system-incorporating-a-compliant-3d-printed-anatomical-model-to-investigate-pulmonary-hemodynamics
#17
Paul G M Knoops, Giovanni Biglino, Alun D Hughes, Kim H Parker, Linzhang Xu, Silvia Schievano, Ryo Torii
A realistic mock circulatory system (MCS) could be a valuable in vitro testbed to study human circulatory hemodynamics. The objective of this study was to design a MCS replicating the pulmonary arterial circulation, incorporating an anatomically representative arterial model suitable for testing clinically relevant scenarios. A second objective of the study was to ensure the system's compatibility with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for additional measurements. A latex pulmonary arterial model with two generations of bifurcations was manufactured starting from a 3D-printed mold reconstructed from patient data...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925225/preclinical-study-of-anticoagulation-regimens-in-sheep-after-implantation-of-ch-vad-blood-pump
#18
Chuangye Xu, Guanghui Wu, Xiujian Liu, Yuna He, Xiaotong Hou, Haiyang Li, Chen Chen, Peng Yang, Changyan Lin
Effective anticoagulation regimens are needed to reduce risks of thrombosis and bleeding in animal models of ventricular assist device to verify its hemocompatibility, biologic safety and reliability. This study is to develop a validated anticoagulation procedure for a sheep model to test the newly developed CH-VAD. CH-VAD models were established in six healthy sheep by constructing blood bypass of left ventricle → ventricular assist device → descending aorta. Heparin infusion was used during operation and in the prior 4 days to maintain activated clotting time 1...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911005/adsorption-as-a-contributor-for-inflammatory-mediators-removal-by-different-hemofiltration-membranes-a-pilot-study
#19
Benjamin Malard, Nans Florens, Corine Lambert, Laurent Juillard
Atherosclerosis is an important predictor of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with a wide inflammatory response. The aim of this study is to evaluate in vitro how different membranes can remove mediators associated with this pathology in a closed loop dialysis model. We performed experimental hemofiltration in vitro using three different membrane materials. Human plasma was preliminarily incubated with various inflammatory mediators and filtered in a closed loop circulation model for 240 min...
December 2, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896819/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-outcomes-after-the-comprehensive-stage-ii-procedure-in-patients-with-single-ventricles
#20
Daniel Gomez, Vicky Duffy, Diane Hersey, Carl Backes, Peter Rycus, Patrick McConnell, Jordan Voss, Mark Galantowicz, Clifford L Cua
Outcomes for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have been described for patients with single ventricle physiology (SVP) undergoing cavopulmonary connection (Glenn procedure). An alternative surgical pathway for patients with SVP consists of an initial hybrid procedure followed by a comprehensive Stage II procedure. No data exist describing the outcomes of patients requiring ECMO after the comprehensive Stage II procedure. The goal of this study is to describe the outcomes for patients who required ECMO after the comprehensive Stage II procedure...
November 29, 2016: Artificial Organs
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