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International Journal of Artificial Organs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886350/design-of-artificial-red-blood-cells-using-polymeric-hydrogel-microcapsules-hydrogel-stability-improvement-and-polymer-selection
#1
Wujie Zhang, Matthew J Bissen, Emily S Savela, Joshua N Clausen, Samantha J Fredricks, Xiaoru Guo, Zachary R Paquin, Ryan P Dohn, Ian J Pavelich, Alec L Polovchak, Michael J Wedemeyer, Brock E Shilling, Emily N Dufner, Anna C O'Donnell, Gerardo Rubio, Logan R Readnour, Tyler F Brown, Jung C Lee, Matey G Kaltchev, Junhong Chen, Charles S Tritt
PURPOSE: To improve the stability of pectin-oligochitosan hydrogel microcapsules under physiological conditions. METHODS: Two different approaches were examined: change of the cross-linker length and treatment of the hydrogel microcapsules with 150 Mm CaCl2. Replacement of pectin with alginate was also studied. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that the molecular weight of the cross-linker oligochiotsan had no significant improvement on microcapsule stability...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791259/are-all-dialyzers-compatible-with-the-convective-volumes-suggested-for-postdilution-online-hemodiafiltration
#2
Jacky Potier, Guillaume Queffeulou, Julien Bouet
INTRODUCTION: The recent analysis of 4 randomized controlled trials has confirmed the lower mortality risk for postdilution online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) compared to hemodialysis, and above all for patients with the highest delivered body surface area standardized convective volume (CV/BSA >23 L/1.73 m²/session). Since the impact of the dialyzers used in these trials has never been studied, we retrospectively analyzed clinical tests carried out with 19 commonly used dialyzers...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768205/fibonacci-compliant-finger-design
#3
Mogeeb A El-Sheikh
PURPOSE: This work presents the mechanical design of 4 configurations of compliant fingers in order to address the need for commercially feasible prosthetic and robotic hands. METHODS: The fingers consist of a single part and utilize a compliant mechanism to reduce the cost and control complexity. The geometric parameters of the compliant finger designs follow the Fibonacci series. The first and second compliant fingers have 2 joints and 2 degrees of freedom. The others have 3 joints and 3 degrees of freedom...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901556/apical-transportation-during-removal-of-root-canal-filling-with-different-retreatment-systems
#4
Baran C Sağlam, Ersan Çiçek, Mustafa M Koçak, Sibel Koçak, Bağdagül H Kıvanç
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to compare apical transportation during retreatment using ProTaper Universal retreatment (PTUR), Mtwo R and D-RaCe instruments in curved root canals. METHODS: 36 extracted mandibular molar teeth with curved mesiobuccal roots were selected. The teeth were embedded into acrylic blocks. The blocks were fixed on the experimental setup. After determining the working length (WL), mesiobuccal canals were prepared with ProTaper Universal rotary instruments to size F1 (20/0...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901555/osteoblast-seeded-bioglass-gelatin-nanocomposite-a-promising-bone-substitute-in-critical-size-calvarial-defect-repair-in-rat
#5
Behrooz Johari, Mehdi Kadivar, Shirin Lak, Mazaher Gholipourmalekabadi, Aleksandra M Urbanska, Masoud Mozafari, Maryam Ahmadzadehzarajabad, Asaad Azarnezhad, Samane Afshari, Jamil Zargan, Saeid Kargozar
INTRODUCTION: Amid the plethora of methods to repair critical bone defects, there is no one perfect approach. In this study, we sought to evaluate a potent 3-dimensional (3D) bioactive SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glasses (bioglass)/gelatin (gel) scaffold for its biocompatibility by seeding cells as well as for its regenerative properties by animal implantation. METHODS: Osteoblast cells were seeded onto nanocomposite scaffolds to investigate the process of critical-size calvarial defect via new bone formation...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901554/a-possible-wound-dressing-material-from-marine-food-waste
#6
Senthil Rethinam, Prabakaran Nivedita, Thiagarajan Hemalatha, Sathyaraj Weslen Vedakumari, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara Sastry
PURPOSE: Bluefin Trevally (Caranx melampygus) fish is mainly used for fillet production, the bones of which are discarded as a major solid waste in the fish food processing industry. In the present study, novel collagen films were prepared using the bones of Bluefin Trevally (BT). The study investigates the potential of using this collagen film as a wound dressing material. METHODS: The prepared collagen films (CFs) were characterized for their physicochemical properties using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), tensile strength, elongation at break, etc...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901553/a-prediction-and-simulation-model-for-target-oriented-regional-citrate-calcium-anticoagulation-in-extracorporeal-blood-purification
#7
Martin Brandl, Karlheinz Kellner
AIMS: Regional citrate-calcium anticoagulation is becoming more and more attractive for extracorporeal treatments in the clinical routine. METHODS: A prediction and simulation tool for the safe application of RCA during extracorporeal treatments was introduced. The model predicts the course of the ionized calcium level in the patient and the current anticoagulation status in the extracorporeal circuit based on the actual settings of the dialysis machine. RESULTS: The simulation tool delivers areas in which the blood and dialysate flow can be adjusted to reach the desired target values for RCA and predicts the time course of several parameters during treatment...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834448/tibial-revision-knee-arthroplasty-influence-of-modular-stems-on-implant-fixation-and-bone-flexibility-in-aori-type-t2a-defects
#8
Jan Nadorf, Simone Gantz, Konner Kohl, Jan P Kretzer
BACKGROUND: Due to the varying bone defects presented to surgeons during revision total knee arthroplasty, modular implant systems are preferred over standard implant designs. However, every implant combination (sleeves, stems and augments) can affect the fixation in different ways and thus influence the long-term outcome. We therefore aimed to analyze the effect of large metaphyseal sleeves with and without short modular stems on implant fixation and bone flexibility of a modular tibial revision knee system...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768204/in-vitro-performance-investigation-of-syncardia%C3%A2-freedom%C3%A2-driver-via-patient-simulator-mock-loop
#9
Riccardo Toninato, Silvia Scuri, Vincenzo Tarzia, Gino Gerosa, Francesca M Susin
PURPOSE: The gold standard therapy for patients with advanced heart failure is heart transplant. The gap between donors and patients in waiting lists promoted the development of circulatory support devices, such as the total artificial heart (TAH). Focusing on in vitro tests performed with CardioWest™ TAH (CW) driven by the SynCardia Freedom® portable driver (FD) the present study goals are: i) prove the reliability of a hydraulic circuit used as patient simulator to replicate a quasi-physiological scenario for various hydrodynamic conditions, ii) investigate the hydrodynamic performance of the CW FD, iii) help clinicians in possible interpretation of clinical cases outcomes...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834450/echocardiographic-detection-of-left-ventricular-thrombus-in-patients-undergoing-heartmate-ii-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation
#10
Heidi B Schubmehl, Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili, Eugene Storoznsky, Jeffrey D Alexis, Leway Chen, Howard T Massey
PURPOSE: Transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiograms (TEE) are considered accurate in detecting the presence of left ventricular (LV) thrombus. A persistent LV thrombus poses risks of pump thrombosis and stroke in LVAD recipients. The relationship between preoperative echocardiography and intraoperative findings at LVAD implantation has not previously been studied. METHODS: A retrospective review examined all patients undergoing LVAD placement or exchange from October 2011 to March 2014...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834449/finite-element-modeling-of-time-dependent-sodium-exchange-across-the-hollow-fiber-of-a-hemodialyzer-by-coupling-with-a-blood-pool-model
#11
Enrico Ravagli, Elena Grandi, Paolo Rovatti, Stefano Severi
INTRODUCTION: Hollow fiber models describe the exchange of solutes between blood and dialysate across the membrane of a single fiber of the hemodialysis filter (hemodialyzer). This work aims to develop a new approach to simulate the solute exchange in a hollow fiber in a dynamic and realistic way. Sodium was chosen as our solute of interest due to its importance in hemodialysis as an osmotic regulator. METHODS: A 2-dimensional (2D) hollow fiber model based on the finite element method (FEM) is coupled to a simple blood pool model to dynamically update the concentration of the solute entering the dialyzer...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834447/physical-capacity-in-lvad-patients-hemodynamic-principles-diagnostic-tools-and-training-control
#12
Nils Reiss, Thomas Schmidt, Anke Workowski, Detlev Willemsen, Jan D Schmitto, Axel Haverich, Birna Bjarnason-Wehrens
Over time left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) have become an alternative to heart transplantation because of enormous technical development and miniaturization. Most patients present a significant improvement in clinical conditions and exercise capacity. Nevertheless, exercise tolerance remains markedly limited even after LVAD implantation compared to a control group. The complex physiological and hemodynamic changes in LVAD patients, both at rest and during exercise, are not yet understood, or at least not completely...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834446/high-cut-off-hemofiltration-versus-standard-hemofiltration-effect-on-plasma-cytokines
#13
Rafidah Atan, Leah Peck, Kumar Visvanathan, Narelle Skinner, Glenn Eastwood, Rinaldo Bellomo, Markus Storr, Hermann Goehl
PURPOSE: To study the effects of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) with high cut-off filters (CVVH-HCO) on plasma cytokine levels, sieving coefficient and clearance compared to CVVH using standard filters (CVVH-Std) in a nested cohort within a double-blind randomized controlled trial in severe acute kidney injury (AKI) patients. METHODS: We measured plasma and post-filter levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-8, IL-1 beta, RANTES, IL-10, IFN-gamma and IFN-alpha in both study groups...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748946/data-analytics-for-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-historical-limitations-and-recent-technology-advances
#14
William R Clark, Francesco Garzotto, Mauro Neri, Anna Lorenzin, Marta Zaccaria, Claudio Ronco
PURPOSE: Dialysis is a highly quantitative therapy involving large volumes of both clinical and technical data. While automated data collection has been implemented for chronic dialysis, this has not been done for acute kidney injury patients treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). METHODS: After a brief review of the fundamental aspects of electronic medical records (EMRs), a new tool designed to provide clinicians with individualized CRRT treatment data is analyzed, with emphasis on its quality assurance capabilities...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716868/twelve-month-quality-of-life-improvement-and-all-cause-mortality-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#15
Paweł Kleczyński, Maciej Bagieński, Artur Dziewierz, Łukasz Rzeszutko, Danuta Sorysz, Jarosław Trębacz, Robert Sobczyński, Marek Tomala, Maciej Stąpór, Dariusz Dudek
PURPOSE: Restoration of quality of life (QoL) and improvement of clinical outcomes is crucial in elderly patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We sought to evaluate changes in QoL and all-cause mortality 12 months after TAVI. METHODS: A total of 101 patients who underwent TAVI were included. Patients were followed for 12 months. QoL was assessed at baseline and at 1, 6 and 12 months after TAVI using EQ-5D-3L with a visual analog scale (VAS)...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646633/partial-lvad-restores-ventricular-outputs-and-normalizes-lv-but-not-rv-stress-distributions-in-the-acutely-failing-heart-in-silico
#16
Kevin L Sack, Brian Baillargeon, Gabriel Acevedo-Bolton, Martin Genet, Nuno Rebelo, Ellen Kuhl, Liviu Klein, Georg M Weiselthaler, Daniel Burkhoff, Thomas Franz, Julius M Guccione
PURPOSE: Heart failure is a worldwide epidemic that is unlikely to change as the population ages and life expectancy increases. We sought to detail significant recent improvements to the Dassault Systèmes Living Heart Model (LHM) and use the LHM to compute left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) myofiber stress distributions under the following 4 conditions: (1) normal cardiac function; (2) acute left heart failure (ALHF); (3) ALHF treated using an LV assist device (LVAD) flow rate of 2 L/min; and (4) ALHF treated using an LVAD flow rate of 4...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646632/prospects-for-clinical-applications-of-polymer-coated-haemoconcentrator-on-extracorporeal-circuit-in-cardiopulmonary-bypass-surgeries
#17
Masashi Tagaya, Shunsuke Takahashi, Morihiro Matsuda, Taiichi Takasaki, Makoto Hamaishi, Kazunobu Hara
PURPOSE: Extracorporeal circulation circuits used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgeries are increasingly being coated with polymer materials to reduce the thrombogenicity of extracorporeal devices. However, a haemoconcentrator, which corrects haematocrit and electrolyte imbalances, is not coated with polymers. In this study, we sought to assess the filtration performance of polymer-coated haemoconcentrators in order to obtain insight into their prospects for use in clinical applications...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646631/poly-l-lactic-acid-porous-scaffold-supported-alginate-hydrogel-with-improved-mechanical-properties-and-biocompatibility
#18
Jiaqi Chu, Shaodong Zeng, Liyang Gao, Thomas Groth, Zhiwen Li, Junchao Kong, Mingyan Zhao, Lihua Li
PURPOSE: Polymer porous scaffolds and hydrogels have been separately employed and explored for a wide range of applications including cell encapsulation, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. METHODS: In this study, a three-dimensional poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffold with interconnected and homogeneously distributed pores was fabricated to support the alginate hydrogel (Alg). The gels were filled into the porous scaffold, which acted as an analogue of native extracellular matrix (ECM) for entrapment of cells within a support of predefined shape...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646630/optimisation-of-the-sputnik-vad-design
#19
Sergey V Selishchev, Dmitry V Telyshev
PURPOSE: Miniaturisation of VADs can offer important benefits, including less invasive implantation techniques and more versatility in patient selection. The aim of this work was to reduce the weight, size, and energy consumption of the Sputnik VAD. METHODS: The second generation of the Sputnik VAD was developed with a set of changes in construction. The head pressure-flow rate (H-Q) and power consumption-flow rate curves for the Sputnik VADs were measured at different rotational speeds...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646629/shear-bond-strengths-of-brackets-bonded-with-a-new-self-adhering-resin-composite
#20
Ahmet Yalcin Gungor, Huseyin Alkis, Hakan Turkkahraman
PURPOSE: To determine the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded with a self-adhering resin composite. METHODS: 45 freshly extracted mandibular incisors were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 15 per group). Brackets were bonded with 3 bonding systems and cured with an LED light. Brackets were bonded with a new self-adhering resin cement in the study group. A conventional etch-and-rinse adhesive system and a self-etching adhesive system were used for comparison...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
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