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Plasmid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050976/evolution-in-situ-of-ari-a-in-pb2-1-a-type-1-incc-plasmid-recovered-from-klebsiella-pneumoniae-and-stability-of-tn4352b
#1
Christopher J Harmer, Ruth M Hall
The IncC plasmid pB2-1, from a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate recovered in Brisbane prior to 1995, belongs to a subtype of type 1 IncC plasmids, here designated type 1a, that includes those carrying carbapenem resistance genes such as blaNDM and blaKPC. pB2-1 carries a 2358bp deletion in the rhs1 gene found in four other type 1a IncC plasmids. pB2-1 confers resistance to ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, tobramycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and trimethoprim. It transferred at a frequency of 4...
October 16, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986243/construction-of-an-expression-vector-that-uses-the-aph-promoter-for-protein-expression-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#2
Wei Zhang, Zihao Zhao, Yankun Yang, Xiuxia Liu, Zhonghu Bai
Corynebacterium glutamicum is an attractive host for the production of heterologous proteins despite its traditional use in fermentative production of amino acids. To enhance the expression levels of target genes, the development of useful promoters is required in the construction of expression systems. Here, we developed a new promoter, the aph promoter from aminoglycoside-3'-phosphotransferase gene, and used it to construct monocistronic and bicistronic expression systems that host different ribosome binding site (RBS) sequences...
October 3, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941941/novel-toxins-from-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-systems-with-acetyltransferase-activity
#3
REVIEW
Dukas Jurėnas, Abel Garcia-Pino, Laurence Van Melderen
Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are widespread in bacterial and archeal genomes. These modules are very dynamic and participate in bacterial genome evolution through horizontal gene transfer. TA systems are commonly composed of a labile antitoxin and a stable toxin. Toxins appear to preferentially inhibit the protein synthesis process. Toxins use a variety of molecular mechanisms and target nearly every step of translation to achieve their inhibitory function. This review focuses on a recently identified TA family that includes acetyltransferase toxins...
September 20, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842133/multiple-plasmid-interference-pledging-allegiance-to-my-enemy-s-enemy
#4
João Alves Gama, Rita Zilhão, Francisco Dionisio
As shown in the previous article, two distinct conjugative plasmids sometimes interact within bacterial cells, implicating changes of transfer rates. In most cases of interactions within bacteria, the transfer of one of the plasmids decreases. Less frequently, the transfer rate of one of the plasmids increases. Here we analyse what happens if three distinct conjugative plasmids colonize the same bacterial cell. Our aim is to understand how interactions between two plasmids affect the transfer rate of the third plasmid...
August 24, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842132/conjugation-efficiency-depends-on-intra-and-intercellular-interactions-between-distinct-plasmids-plasmids-promote-the-immigration-of-other-plasmids-but-repress-co-colonizing-plasmids
#5
João Alves Gama, Rita Zilhão, Francisco Dionisio
Conjugative plasmids encode the genes responsible for the synthesis of conjugative pili and plasmid transfer. Expression of the conjugative machinery (including conjugative pili) may be costly to bacteria, not only due to the energetic/metabolic cost associated with their expression but also because they serve as receptors for certain viruses. Consequently, the presence of two plasmids in the same cell may be disadvantageous to each plasmid, because they may impose a higher fitness cost on the host. Therefore, plasmids may encode mechanisms to cope with co-resident plasmids...
August 24, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842131/co-resident-plasmids-travel-together
#6
João Alves Gama, Rita Zilhão, Francisco Dionisio
Conjugative plasmids encode genes that enable them to transfer, by conjugation, from a given host cell to another cell. Conjugative transfer, despite being an important feature of conjugative plasmids, is not constitutive for most plasmids, the reason being that genes involved in horizontal transfer are mostly repressed. Only upon their transient de-repression are plasmids able to transfer horizontally. If host cells harbour multiple plasmids, their simultaneous transfer depends on simultaneous transient de-repression of all plasmids...
August 24, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802584/molecular-characterization-of-the-pa3j1-plasmid-from-the-psychrotolerant-antarctic-bacterium-pseudomonas-sp-ant_j3
#7
Krzysztof Romaniuk, Tomasz Krucon, Przemyslaw Decewicz, Adrian Gorecki, Lukasz Dziewit
The knowledge on plasmids of cold-active bacteria is highly limited. In this study, the molecular characterization of the pA3J1 plasmid of Antarctic psychrotolerant bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ANT_J3 was performed. Within this plasmid, thirteen putative open reading frames were identified. Nine of them encoded proteins involved in replication, partitioning, postsegregational elimination of plasmid-less cells (via a toxin-antitoxin system activity), multimer resolution and mobilization by conjugal transfer. These genes constitute the plasmid backbone...
August 9, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757095/a-novel-type-1-2-hybrid-incc-plasmid-carrying-fifteen-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-recovered-from-proteus-mirabilis-in-china
#8
Chang-Wei Lei, Ling-Han Kong, Su-Zhen Ma, Bi-Hui Liu, Yan-Peng Chen, An-Yun Zhang, Hong-Ning Wang
IncC plasmids are of great concern as vehicles of broad-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems resistance genes blaCMY and blaNDM. The aim of this study was to sequence and characterize a multidrug resistance (MDR) IncC plasmid (pPm14C18) recovered from Proteus mirabilis. pPm14C18 was identified in a CMY-2-producing P. mirabilis isolate from chicken in China in 2014, and could be transferred to Escherichia coli conferring an MDR phenotype. Whole genome sequencing confirmed pPm14C18 was a novel type 1/2 hybrid IncC plasmid 165,992bp in size, containing fifteen antimicrobial resistance genes...
July 27, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712958/enhancing-oxidative-stress-resistance-in-bifidobacterium-thermophilum-using-a-novel-overexpression-vector-and-transformation-protocol
#9
Marc J A Stevens, Adriano Venturini, Christophe Lacroix, Leo Meile
Bifidobacterium thermophilum is encountered in the GI-tract of pigs and infants. Here we provide a transformation protocol for B. thermophilum and a novel expression vector for this species. The protocol resulted in transformation rates of 1×10(3) transformed cells per μg DNA. Transformation was shown to be dependent on the presence of fructo-oligosaccharides during growth, polyethylene glycol in the electroporation buffer, and on methylation of the vector. The Escherichia coli - B. thermophilum shuttle vector pLFB1012 for heterologous gene expression was constructed harbouring the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter from Bifidobacterium longum (Pgap)...
July 14, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688673/characterization-of-phebe7-an-incfii-type-virulence-resistance-plasmid-carrying-blactx-m-98b-blatem-1-and-rmtb-genes-detected-in-escherichia-coli-from-a-chicken-isolate-in-china
#10
Yan-Xian Yang, Yong-Qiang Yang, Chang-Wei Lei, Bi-Hui Liu, Wei Jiang, Hong-Ning Wang, Maria Consuelo Gazitúa, An-Yun Zhang
Recently, a novel variant of the CTX-M enzyme, CTX-M-98, was detected in Escherichia coli isolates from food animals. However, few plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-98 have been fully characterized. In this study, we sequenced the complete pHeBE7 plasmid, an 86,015-bp plasmid that contains the blaCTX-M-98b, blaTEM-1, rmtB, and traT genes, using whole-genome sequencing. The backbone of pHeBE7 shows a high similarity (>99%) to pMC-NDM, which carries the blaNDM-1 gene, however its mosaic regions remain relatively unique among sequenced plasmids...
July 6, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529035/brownian-ratchet-mechanisms-of-para-mediated-partitioning
#11
REVIEW
Longhua Hu, Anthony G Vecchiarelli, Kiyoshi Mizuuchi, Keir C Neuman, Jian Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669811/evolutionary-persistence-of-tripartite-integrative-and-conjugative-elements
#12
REVIEW
Timothy L Haskett, Joshua P Ramsay, Amanuel A Bekuma, John T Sullivan, Graham W O'Hara, Jason J Terpolilli
Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are generally regarded as regions of contiguous DNA integrated within a bacterial genome that are capable of excision and horizontal transfer via conjugation. We recently characterized a unique group of ICEs present in Mesorhizobium spp., which exist as three entirely separate but inextricably linked chromosomal regions termed α, β and γ. These regions occupy three different recombinase attachment (att) sites; however, they do not excise independently. Rather, they recombine the host chromosome to form a single contiguous region prior to excision and conjugative transfer...
June 29, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577759/pip40a-a-type-1-incc-plasmid-from-1969-carries-the-integrative-element-gisul2-and-a-novel-class-ii-mercury-resistance-transposon
#13
Christopher J Harmer, Mohammad Hamidian, Ruth M Hall
The 167.5kb sequence of the conjugative IncC plasmid pIP40a, isolated from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 1969, was analysed. pIP40a confers resistance to kanamycin, neomycin, ampicillin, sulphonamides and mercuric ions, and several insertions in a type 1 IncC backbone were found, including copies of IS3, Tn1000 and a novel mercury resistance transposon, Tn6182. The antibiotic resistance genes were in two locations. Tn6023, containing the aphA1 kanamycin and neomycin resistance gene, is in a partial copy of Tn1/Tn2/Tn3 (blaTEM, ampicillin resistance) in the kfrA gene, and the sul2 sulphonamide resistance gene is in the integrative element GIsul2 in the position of ARI-B islands...
May 31, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571994/acquisition-of-a-second-multi-drug-resistance-encoding-element-by-incm1-plasmid-pacm130-abolished-conjugative-transfer
#14
Karen E Preston, John A Tine
Within the IncM plasmid family there is a lineage that has a transposon Tn1721-based multiple-resistance island inserted in the backbone gene mucB. So far, this group includes R1215, p202c, pIGT15, pARM26, and pACM1, from Europe and the USA. A new member of this group, pACM130, was isolated at the same American hospital as pACM1 and has a similar resistance island, but also carries a copy of Tn1331 that interrupts the traY gene in the conjugation operon. The conjugative phenotype of this plasmid has been abolished, though pACM130 could be mobilized by an intact traY cloned into a laboratory vector and transformed into the same donor bacterium...
May 30, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499723/a-dual-site-gateway-cloning-system-for-simultaneous-cloning-of-two-genes-for-plant-transformation
#15
Mostafa Aboulela, Yuji Tanaka, Kohji Nishimura, Shoji Mano, Tetsuya Kimura, Tsuyoshi Nakagawa
Analyses of the subcellular localization of proteins and protein-protein interaction networks are essential to uncover the molecular basis of diverse biological processes in plants. To this end, we have created a Gateway cloning-compatible vector system, named dual-site (DS) Gateway cloning system to allow simple cloning of two expression cassettes in a binary vector and to express them simultaneously in plant cells. In the DS Gateway cloning system, (i) a moderate constitutive nopaline synthase promoter (Pnos), which is much suitable for localization analysis, is used to guide each expression cassette, (ii) four series of vectors with different plant resistance markers are established, (iii) N-terminal fusion with 6 fluorescent proteins and 7 epitope tags is available, (iv) both N- and C-terminal fusions with split enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) are possible for efficient detection of protein-protein interactions using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay...
May 9, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286183/ordering-the-mob-insights-into-replicon-and-mob-typing-schemes-from-analysis-of-a-curated-dataset-of-publicly-available-plasmids
#16
Alex Orlek, Hang Phan, Anna E Sheppard, Michel Doumith, Matthew Ellington, Tim Peto, Derrick Crook, A Sarah Walker, Neil Woodford, Muna F Anjum, Nicole Stoesser
Plasmid typing can provide insights into the epidemiology and transmission of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance. The principal plasmid typing schemes are replicon typing and MOB typing, which utilize variation in replication loci and relaxase proteins respectively. Previous studies investigating the proportion of plasmids assigned a type by these schemes ('typeability') have yielded conflicting results; moreover, thousands of plasmid sequences have been added to NCBI in recent years, without consistent annotation to indicate which sequences represent complete plasmids...
May 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461122/conjugative-plasmids-enable-the-maintenance-of-low-cost-non-transmissible-plasmids
#17
Martin Werisch, Uta Berger, Thomas U Berendonk
Some plasmids can be transferred by conjugation to other bacterial hosts. But almost half of the plasmids are non-transmissible. These plasmid types can only be transmitted to the daughter cells of their host after bacterial fission. Previous studies suggest that non-transmissible plasmids become extinct in the absence of selection of their encoded traits, as plasmid-free bacteria are more competitive. Here, we aim to identify mechanisms that enable non-transmissible plasmids to persist, even if they are not beneficial...
April 28, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461121/the-evolution-of-plasmid-stability-are-infectious-transmission-and-compensatory-evolution-competing-evolutionary-trajectories
#18
James P J Hall, Michael A Brockhurst, Calvin Dytham, Ellie Harrison
Conjugative plasmids are widespread and play an important role in bacterial evolution by accelerating adaptation through horizontal gene transfer. However, explaining the long-term stability of plasmids remains challenging because segregational loss and the costs of plasmid carriage should drive the loss of plasmids though purifying selection. Theoretical and experimental studies suggest two key evolutionary routes to plasmid stability: First, the evolution of high conjugation rates would allow plasmids to survive through horizontal transmission as infectious agents, and second, compensatory evolution to ameliorate the cost of plasmid carriage can weaken purifying selection against plasmids...
April 28, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438469/regulation-of-conjugative-transfer-of-plasmids-and-integrative-conjugative-elements
#19
REVIEW
Luis Alfredo Bañuelos-Vazquez, Gonzalo Torres Tejerizo, Susana Brom
Horizontal gene transfer has been recognized as one of the principal contributors to bacterial evolution and diversification. One of the mechanisms involved in this process is conjugative transfer of plasmids and Integrative Conjugative Elements (ICEs). Plasmids and ICEs often encode traits beneficial for bacterial survival in specific environments, or for the establishment of symbiosis or pathogenesis, in addition to genes allowing conjugative transfer. In this review, we analyze the mechanisms that regulate the expression of conjugative transfer genes...
April 22, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435006/horizontal-transfer-of-chromosomal-markers-mediated-by-the-large-conjugative-plasmid-pxo16-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-serovar-israelensis
#20
Lionel Makart, Florian Commans, Annika Gillis, Jacques Mahillon
pXO16, a large plasmid originating from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis, displays unique conjugation capacities: besides efficient self-transfer, it is able to mobilize and retro-mobilize non-conjugative plasmids, including those missing an oriT and/or a mob gene, also known as "non-mobilizable" plasmids. In this paper, another peculiar transfer property of pXO16 is described. This element is indeed able to transfer chromosomal loci at frequencies of ca. 10(-5)-10(-6) transconjugants/donor cell. Whereas most other chromosomal transfer systems occur via the integration of the conjugative elements into the chromosome prior to its transfer, pXO16 appears to transfer the chromosomal markers in the absence of physical integration, but rather through a "donation-type" mobilization...
April 20, 2017: Plasmid
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