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Plasmid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322855/reconstitutions-of-plasmid-partition-systems-and-their-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Adam C Brooks, Ling Chin Hwang
Bacterial plasmid and chromosome segregation systems ensure that genetic material is efficiently transmitted to progeny cells. Cell-based studies have shed light on the dynamic nature and the molecular basis of plasmid partition systems. In vitro reconstitutions, on the other hand, have proved to be an invaluable tool for studying the minimal components required to elucidate the mechanism of DNA segregation. This allows us to gain insight into the biological and biophysical processes that enable bacterial cells to move and position DNA...
March 16, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300545/the-replication-protein-of-phw126-auto-controls-its-expression
#2
Wilfried Rozhon
pHW126 belongs to a small group of rolling circle plasmids. So far, the region mediating autonomous replication has been identified and it was shown that the rep gene is required for replication. However, the regulation of rep expression remained elusive. Here evidence is presented that expression of the replication gene rep is auto-regulated. Sequence analysis revealed a conserved stretch in the rep promoter consisting of three imperfect direct repeats (DR2.1, DR2.2 and DR2.3). Assays for promoter activity showed that these direct repeats act as an enhancer of transcriptional activity...
March 11, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286183/ordering-the-mob-insights-into-replicon-and-mob-typing-schemes-from-analysis-of-a-curated-dataset-of-publicly-available-plasmids
#3
Alex Orlek, Hang Phan, Anna E Sheppard, Michel Doumith, Matthew Ellington, Tim Peto, Derrick Crook, A Sarah Walker, Neil Woodford, Muna F Anjum, Nicole Stoesser
Plasmid typing can provide insights into the epidemiology and transmission of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance. The principal plasmid typing schemes are replicon typing and MOB typing, which utilize variation in replication loci and relaxase proteins respectively. Previous studies investigating the proportion of plasmids assigned to a type by these schemes ('typeability') have yielded conflicting results; moreover, thousands of plasmid sequences have been added to NCBI in recent years, without consistent annotation to indicate which sequences represent complete plasmids...
March 9, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286218/the-tcp-conjugation-system-of-clostridium-perfringens
#4
REVIEW
Jessica A Wisniewski, Julian I Rood
The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens possesses a family of large conjugative plasmids that is typified by the tetracycline resistance plasmid pCW3. Since these plasmids may carry antibiotic resistance genes or genes encoding extracellular or sporulation-associated toxins, the conjugative transfer of these plasmids appears to be important for the epidemiology of C. perfringens-mediated diseases. Sequence analysis of members of this plasmid family identified a highly conserved 35kb region that encodes proteins with various functions, including plasmid replication and partitioning...
March 7, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267580/carriage-of-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-systems-by-the-growing-group-of-incx-plasmids
#5
Paula Bustamante, Jonathan R Iredell
The stable maintenance of certain plasmids in bacterial populations has contributed significantly to the current worldwide antibiotic resistance (AbR) emergency. IncX plasmids, long underestimated in this regard, have achieved recent notoriety for their roles in transmission of resistance to carbapenem and colistin, the last-line antibiotics for Gram-negative infections. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems contribute to stable maintenance of many AbR plasmids, and a few TA systems have been previously described in the IncX plasmids...
March 3, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263761/spatial-distribution-of-high-copy-number-plasmids-in-bacteria
#6
REVIEW
Yong Wang
Plasmids play essential roles in bacterial metabolism, evolution, and pathogenesis. The maintenance of plasmids is of great importance both scientifically and practically. In this mini-review, I look at the problem from a slightly different point of view and focus on the spatial distribution of high copy number plasmids, for which no active segregation mechanism has been identified. I review several distribution models and summarize the direct and indirect evidence in the literature, including the most recent progress on measuring the spatial distribution of high copy number plasmids using emerging super-resolution fluorescence microscopy...
March 2, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259635/characterization-of-the-cryptic-plasmid-pofk55-from-legionella-pneumophila-and-construction-of-a-pofk55-derived-shuttle-vector
#7
Takashi Nishida, Kenta Watanabe, Masato Tachibana, Takashi Shimizu, Masahisa Watarai
In this study, a cryptic plasmid pOfk55 from Legionella pneumophila was isolated and characterized. pOfk55 comprised 2584bp with a GC content of 37.3% and contained three putative open reading frames (ORFs). orf1 encoded a protein of 195 amino acids and the putative protein shared 39% sequence identity with a putative plasmid replication protein RepL. ORF1 was needed for replication in L. pneumophila but pOfk55 did not replicate in Escherichia coli. orf2 and orf3 encoded putative hypothetical proteins of 114 amino acids and 78 amino acids, respectively, but the functions of the putative proteins ORF2 and OFR3 are not clear...
March 1, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238706/an-extra-repabc-locus-in-the-incrh2-ti-plasmid-ptibo542-exerts-incompatibility-toward-an-incrh1-plasmid
#8
Shinji Yamamoto, Vita Agustina, Ayako Sakai, Kazuki Moriguchi, Katsunori Suzuki
Ti/Ri plasmids in pathogenic Agrobacterium species are repABC replicons that are stably maintained by the function of repABC genes. Two Ti plasmids, pTiBo542 and pTiS4, belonging to incRh2 and incRh4 incompatibility groups, respectively, were reported to carry two repABC loci. In the present study, to reveal the roles of the two repABC loci in the two plasmids, we constructed mini-replicons carrying any one or both of the repABC loci (referred to as repABC1 and repABC2 here) and examined their replication and incompatibility properties...
February 24, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219792/conjugative-type-iv-secretion-in-gram-positive-pathogens-trag-a-lytic-transglycosylase-and-endopeptidase-interacts-with-translocation-channel-protein-tram
#9
Verena Kohler, Ines Probst, Andreas Aufschnaiter, Sabrina Büttner, Lisa Schaden, Gerald N Rechberger, Günther Koraimann, Elisabeth Grohmann, Walter Keller
Conjugative transfer plays a major role in the transmission of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. pIP501 is a Gram-positive conjugative model plasmid with the broadest transfer host-range known so far and is frequently found in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates. The pIP501 type IV secretion system is encoded by 15 transfer genes. In this work, we focus on the VirB1-like protein TraG, a modular peptidoglycan metabolizing enzyme, and the VirB8-homolog TraM, a potential member of the translocation channel...
February 17, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189631/episomal-lentiviral-vectors-confer-erythropoietin-expression-in-dividing-cells
#10
Feng Chen, Xin Qi, Rong Zhang, Zong-Yong Wu, Cui-E Yan, Jia Li, Qiu-Ying Liu, Jun Qi
Lentiviral vectors are now widely considered as one of the most common gene delivery tools for dividing and non-dividing cells. However, insertional mutagenesis has been found in clinical trials with retroviral vectors, which poses a safety risk. The use of non-integrating lentiviral (NIL) vectors, which avoid integration, eliminates the insertional mutagenesis problem. These NIL vectors are unable to mediate stable gene delivery into dividing cells, which makes them of limited use in the clinical practice of gene therapy...
February 9, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137396/comparative-analysis-of-the-standard-pcr-based-replicon-typing-pbrt-with-the-commercial-pbrt-kit
#11
Elisa Carloni, Francesca Andreoni, Enrica Omiccioli, Laura Villa, Mauro Magnani, Alessandra Carattoli
Plasmids are the main vectors of resistance and virulence genes in Enterobacteriaceae and plasmid typing is essential for the analysis of evolution, epidemiology and spread of antibacterial resistance. The PCR-Based Replicon Typing (PBRT), developed by Carattoli et al. in 2005, was an efficient method for plasmid identification and typing in Enterobacteriaceae. The 2005 PBRT scheme detected 18 replicons in 8 PCR reactions. Recently, the identification of novel replicons and plasmid types requested an update of the PBRT scheme...
January 27, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130036/construction-of-a-biobrick%C3%A2-compatible-vector-system-for-rhodococcus
#12
James Ellinger, Claudia Schmidt-Dannert
Throughout the past decade, the field of synthetic biology has grown rapidly. By using assembly platforms such as BioBricks™, scientists can quickly and easily build gene circuits or multi-step pathways. One limitation, however, is that most of these parts were designed and characterized with Escherichia coli as the target chassis. As a consequence, there exists a lack of standardized and well characterized or BioBrick™ compatible plasmid backbones that replicate in other potential non-model chassis organisms...
January 24, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119062/baculovirus-based-genome-editing-in-primary-cells
#13
Maysam Mansouri, Zahra Ehsaei, Verdon Taylor, Philipp Berger
Genome editing in eukaryotes became easier in the last years with the development of nucleases that induce double strand breaks in DNA at user-defined sites. CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing is currently one of the most powerful strategies. In the easiest case, a nuclease (e.g. Cas9) and a target defining guide RNA (gRNA) are transferred into a target cell. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair of the DNA break following Cas9 cleavage can lead to inactivation of the target gene. Specific repair or insertion of DNA with Homology Directed Repair (HDR) needs the simultaneous delivery of a repair template...
January 22, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109681/editorial
#14
EDITORIAL
Julian I Rood, Christopher M Thomas, Eva M Top
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063893/a-plasmid-encoded-dsba-homologue-is-a-growth-phase-regulated-thioredoxin
#15
Amada Díaz-Magaña, Martha P Chávez-Moctezuma, Jesús Campos-García, Martha I Ramírez-Díaz, Carlos Cervantes
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmid pUM505 contains in a pathogenicity island the dsbA2 gene, which encodes a product with similarity to DsbA protein disulfide isomerases, enzymes that catalyze formation and isomerization of disulfide bonds in protein cysteine residues. Using transcriptional fusions, it was found that dsbA2 gene promoter is activated during the stationary phase, suggesting that DsbA2 protein may be required for adaptive changes that occur during this stage of bacterial growth. Transfer of the pUM505 dsbA2 gene to a cadmium-sensitive P...
January 4, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034789/bibac-gw-based-vectors-for-generating-reporter-lines-for-site-specific-genome-editing-in-planta
#16
Damar Tri Anggoro, Mariliis Tark-Dame, Aimee Walmsley, Rurika Oka, Mara de Sain, Maike Stam
When generating transgenic plants, one of the objectives is to achieve stable expression of the transgene. Transgene silencing can be avoided by single copy integration of the transgene. Binary systems that predominantly result in single copy integrations, such as BIBAC vectors, are also single-copy in E. coli, the organism in which the T-DNA to be delivered to the plant is assembled. Although a low-copy number is important for stable maintenance of large DNA fragments in E. coli, it hampers cloning into the vector due to a low DNA yield...
December 26, 2016: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916622/a-novel-group-of-incq1-plasmids-conferring-multidrug-resistance
#17
M Oliva, R Monno, P D'Addabbo, G Pesole, A M Dionisi, M Scrascia, M Chiara, D S Horner, C Manzari, I Luzzi, C Calia, A M D'Erchia, C Pazzani
The IncQ is a group of non-conjugative but mobilisable plasmids that are found and stably maintained in a wide range of bacteria contributing to the spread of antimicrobial resistance genes and to the insurgence of multidrug resistant bacteria. Here we report the identification, in clinical Salmonella Typhimurium strains, of an IncQ1 plasmid (pNUC) which confers resistance to sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and tetracycline through the presence of sul2, strAB and tetA genes, respectively. pNUC was detected in five multidrug resistant S...
January 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825973/an-efficient-system-for-the-generation-of-marked-genetic-mutants-in-members-of-the-genus-burkholderia
#18
Sravanthi Shastri, Helena L Spiewak, Aderonke Sofoluwe, Vigdis A Eidsvaag, Atif H Asghar, Tyrone Pereira, Edward H Bull, Aaron T Butt, Mark S Thomas
To elucidate the function of a gene in bacteria it is vital that targeted gene inactivation (allelic replacement) can be achieved. Allelic replacement is often carried out by disruption of the gene of interest by insertion of an antibiotic-resistance marker followed by subsequent transfer of the mutant allele to the genome of the host organism in place of the wild-type gene. However, due to their intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics only selected antibiotic-resistance markers can be used in members of the genus Burkholderia, including the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc)...
January 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989736/construction-of-pduo-a-bicistronic-shuttle-vector-series-for-dual-expression-of-recombinant-proteins
#19
Paul A Nakata
Our ability to genetically manipulate microbial systems is often hampered by the availability of genetic tools. Thus, there is a need for the continued expansion of our molecular tool box. In support of this expansion, this study reports the design, construction, and validation of a new bicistronic shuttle vector series, pDUO, for the dual expression of genes in different hosts. Each vector was designed and constructed to contain two araC-pBAD inducible promoter systems for tight control over gene expression...
December 16, 2016: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890562/tailor-made-fibroblast-specific-and-antibiotic-free-interleukin-12-plasmid-for-gene-electrotransfer-mediated-cancer-immunotherapy
#20
Urska Kamensek, Natasa Tesic, Gregor Sersa, Spela Kos, Maja Cemazar
Electrotransfer mediated delivery of interleukin-12 (IL-12) gene, encoded on a plasmid vector, has already been demonstrated to have a potent antitumor efficacy and great potential for clinical application. In the present study, our aim was to construct an optimized IL-12-encoding plasmid that is safe from the regulatory point of view. In light of previous studies demonstrating that IL-12 should be released in a tumor localized manner for optimal efficacy, the strong ubiquitous promoter was replaced with a weak endogenous promoter of the collagen 2 gene, which is specific for fibroblasts...
November 24, 2016: Plasmid
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