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Plasmid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003899/improvement-in-the-efficiency-of-natural-transformation-of-haemophilus-parasuis-by-shuttle-plasmid-methylation
#1
Xiaojing Zhang, Xuwang Cai, Yi Qi, Yunbao Liu, Qi Cao, Xiangru Wang, Huanchun Chen, Xiaojuan Xu
Some Haemophilus parasuis strains display resistance to transformation with Escherichia.coli-derived plasmids. This property limits the application of genetic approaches previously developed for H. parasuis. The present study showed that natural transformation with the shuttle plasmid pS2UK led to allelic exchange in H. parasuis strains SH0165 and CF7066. Furthermore, natural transformation with pS2UK yielded allelic exchange mutants in 10 of 17H. parasuis strains, similar to results using the suicide plasmid pK2UK...
July 9, 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932966/broad-host-range-inc18-plasmids-occurrence-spread-and-transfer-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Verena Kohler, Ankita Vaishampayan, Elisabeth Grohmann
Conjugative plasmid transfer is one of the major mechanisms responsible for the spread of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. The incompatibility (Inc) 18 group of plasmids is a family of plasmids replicating by the theta-mechanism, whose members have been detected frequently in enterococci and streptococci. Inc18 plasmids encode a variety of antibiotic resistances, including resistance to vancomycin, chloramphenicol and the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramine (MLS) group of antibiotics. These plasmids comprising insertions of Tn1546 were demonstrated to be responsible for the transfer of vancomycin resistance encoded by the vanA gene from vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
June 19, 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932965/mobile-lincosamide-resistance-genes-in-staphylococci
#3
REVIEW
Andrea T Feßler, Yang Wang, Congming Wu, Stefan Schwarz
Lincosamide resistance in staphylococci is based on the expression of a number of genes which specify three major resistance mechanisms: (i) enzymatic inactivation by lincosamide nucleotidyltransferases, (ii) ribosome protection by ABC-F proteins, and (iii) methylation of the ribosomal target site in the 23S rRNA by Cfr or Erm methylases. So far, only two lnu genes, lnu(A) and lnu(B), which code for different types of lincosamide nucleotidyltransferases have been found in staphylococci. The ABC-F proteins are encoded by genes of the vga, lsa and sal classes...
June 19, 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842913/baculovirus-for-gene-delivery-to-mammalian-cells-past-present-and-future
#4
REVIEW
Maysam Mansouri, Philipp Berger
Baculovirus is an insect virus which has been used for more than thirty years for production of recombinant proteins in insect cells. However, baculovirus can also be harnessed for efficient gene delivery to mammalian cells if it is equipped with mammalian promoters. This technology is known as BacMam and has been used for gene delivery to immortalized cell lines, stem cells, and primary cells, as well as for gene delivery in animals. Baculovirus has unique features when compared to mammalian viruses. Besides the fact that it is replication-incompetent and does not integrate into the host genome, it has large capacity for foreign DNA...
May 26, 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807043/mobile-macrolide-resistance-genes-in-staphylococci
#5
REVIEW
Andrea T Feßler, Yang Wang, Congming Wu, Stefan Schwarz
Macrolide resistance in staphylococci is based on the expression of a number of genes which specify four major resistance mechanisms: (i) target site modification by methylation of the ribosomal target site in the 23S rRNA, (ii) ribosome protection via ABC-F proteins, (iii) active efflux via Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporters, and (iv) enzymatic inactivation by phosphotransferases or esterases. So far, 14 different classes of erm genes, which code for 23S rRNA methylases, have been reported to occur in staphylococci from humans, animals and environmental sources...
May 26, 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608935/comparative-analysis-of-rhizobial-chromosomes-and-plasmids-to-estimate-their-evolutionary-relationships
#6
Xinye Wang, Dongying Liu, Yantao Luo, Liang Zhao, Zhenshan Liu, Minxia Chou, Entao Wang, Gehong Wei
In the present study, complete genomic sequences retrieved from 57 rhizobial strains that covered four genera including 11 species were analyzed comprehensively. The four types of replicons: chromosomes, chromids, nonsymbiotic plasmids, and symbiotic plasmids were investigated and compared among these strains. Results showed that co-evolution occurred among these four replicons based on the similarities in average nucleotide identity. High correlation coefficient r values were observed between chromosomes and chromids, as well as between chromosomes and nonsymbiotic plasmids...
March 30, 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702124/identification-of-large-cryptic-plasmids-in-clostridioides-clostridium-difficile
#7
Jacob Amy, Dieter Bulach, Daniel Knight, Tom Riley, Priscilla Johanesen, Dena Lyras
Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile is a major bacterial pathogen of both humans and animals. Several species of pathogenic clostridia are known to harbour large plasmids with combinations of virulence, antibiotic resistance and metabolism determinants. Small cryptic plasmids have been previously identified in C. difficile, but there is a lack of recent work examining the prevalence and heterogeneity of plasmids in this diverse bacterial species. A survey of clinical and historical isolates of C. difficile showed that several strains carry large plasmids...
March 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486211/compatibility-and-entry-exclusion-of-inca-and-incc-plasmids-revisited-inca-and-incc-plasmids-are-compatible
#8
Stephanie J Ambrose, Christopher J Harmer, Ruth M Hall
In an early study, IncA and IncC plasmids that were reported to be compatible were grouped as the "A-C complex" based on similarities and on strong entry exclusion. However, recently, the term IncA/C has been used frequently to describe plasmids belonging to both of these two groups. Granted that the supporting data was not included in the original reports and that the consensus iteron sequences have since been shown to be essentially identical, we have addressed the question again. The original IncA plasmid, RA1, and the IncC plasmid pRMH760, were introduced into the same cell by transformation, and were found to be maintained stably for over 100 generations in the absence of selection for either plasmid, i...
March 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427647/complete-sequence-of-the-tumor-inducing-plasmid-ptichry5-from-the-hypervirulent-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-strain-chry5
#9
Shuai Shao, Xiaorong Zhang, G Paul H van Heusden, Paul J J Hooykaas
Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain Chry5 is hypervirulent on many plants including soybean that are poorly transformed by other A. tumefaciens strains. Therefore, it is considered as a preferred vector for genetic transformation of plants. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of its chrysopine-type Ti-plasmid pTiChry5. It is comprised of 197,268 bp with an overall GC content of 54.5%. Two T-DNA regions are present and 219 putative protein-coding sequences could be identified in pTiChry5. Roughly one half of the plasmid is highly similar to the agropine-type Ti plasmid pTiBo542, including the virulence genes with an identical virG gene, which is responsible for the supervirulence caused by pTiBo542...
March 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343426/environmental-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-hominissuis-have-a-higher-probability-to-act-as-a-recipient-in-conjugation-than-clinical-strains
#10
Salma A Shoulah, Anna M Oschmann, Abdelfattah Selim, Torsten Semmler, Carsten Schwarz, Elisabeth Kamal, Faysal Hamouda, Elsayed Galila, Wilbert Bitter, Astrid Lewin
Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is a widespread opportunistic pathogen that can be isolated from environment (dust, soil and water) and patients with lung or lymphnode infection. In our previous research we revealed the pronounced genetic diversity in MAH by identifying eight different types of a newly described genomic island. In order to identify mechanisms of such horizontal gene transfer we now analyzed the ability of 47 MAH isolates to inherit the conjugative plasmid pRAW from M. marinum. A higher percentage of environmental isolates (22...
January 14, 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355570/a-novel-plasmid-psaa0430-08-from-streptococcus-anginosus-subsp-anginosus-strain-0430-08
#11
Atsushi Tabata, Douglas Deutsch, Seiya Otsuka, Kathleen Verratti, Toshifumi Tomoyasu, Hideaki Nagamune, Vincent A Fischetti
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are the genetic material often involved in the interspecies and intraspecies genetic transduction in bacteria. However, little is known about MGEs in the Anginosus group of streptococci (AGS), one of the streptococcal groups found in the oral cavity of humans. We looked for the presence of MGEs in Streptococcus anginosus subsp. anginosus (SAA), a representative species belonging to AGS, and found a novel plasmid from SAA strain 0430-08. This plasmid was 7038bp and ~31% G/C content which we named pSAA0430-08, and examined its genetic structure and characteristics...
January 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331350/construction-of-pogoduet-an-inducible-bicistronic-vector-for-synthesis-of-recombinant-proteins-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#12
Oliver Goldbeck, Gerd M Seibold
The Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum is widely known for its application in the industrial production of amino acids and as a non-pathogenic model organism for cell wall biosynthesis in the group of CMN bacteria. For biotechnological and physiological studies often co-expression of recombinant genes is required, however for C. glutamicum no vector for the independent co-expression of two genes was described. We here created the novel expression vector pOGOduet for C. glutamicum, which carries the ColE1 replicon of E...
January 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183750/pheromone-inducible-expression-vectors-for-fission-yeast-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#13
Stefan Hennig, Nadine Hornauer, Gerhard Rödel, Kai Ostermann
The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an attractive host for heterologous gene expression. However, expression systems for industrially viable large-scale fermentations are scarce. Several inducible expression vectors for S. pombe have been reported, with the strong thiamine-repressible nmt1+ promoter or derivatives thereof most commonly employed. Previously, the promoter regions of the genes sxa2+ and rep1+ were utilized to couple pheromone signaling to the expression of reporter genes for quantitative assessment of the cellular response to mating pheromones...
January 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170093/a-synthetic-construct-for-genetic-engineering-of-the-emerging-pathogenic-yeast-candida-auris
#14
Tatiana A Defosse, Yohann Le Govic, Patrick Vandeputte, Vincent Courdavault, Marc Clastre, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Anuradha Chowdhary, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nicolas Papon
Candida auris has recently emerged as a global cause of severe hospital-acquired fungal infections. To enable functional genomic approaches for this prominent pathogen, we designed a synthetic construct that can be used to genetically transform the genome-sequenced strain VPCI 479/P/13 of C. auris following an efficient electroporation procedure.
January 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050976/evolution-in-situ-of-ari-a-in-pb2-1-a-type-1-incc-plasmid-recovered-from-klebsiella-pneumoniae-and-stability-of-tn4352b
#15
Christopher J Harmer, Ruth M Hall
The IncC plasmid pB2-1, from a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate recovered in Brisbane prior to 1995, belongs to a subtype of type 1 IncC plasmids, here designated type 1a, that includes those carrying carbapenem resistance genes such as blaNDM and blaKPC. pB2-1 carries a 2358bp deletion in the rhs1 gene found in four other type 1a IncC plasmids. pB2-1 confers resistance to ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, tobramycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and trimethoprim. It transferred at a frequency of 4...
October 16, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986243/construction-of-an-expression-vector-that-uses-the-aph-promoter-for-protein-expression-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#16
Wei Zhang, Zihao Zhao, Yankun Yang, Xiuxia Liu, Zhonghu Bai
Corynebacterium glutamicum is an attractive host for the production of heterologous proteins despite its traditional use in fermentative production of amino acids. To enhance the expression levels of target genes, the development of useful promoters is required in the construction of expression systems. Here, we developed a new promoter, the aph promoter from aminoglycoside-3'-phosphotransferase gene, and used it to construct monocistronic and bicistronic expression systems that host different ribosome binding site (RBS) sequences...
October 3, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941941/novel-toxins-from-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-systems-with-acetyltransferase-activity
#17
REVIEW
Dukas Jurėnas, Abel Garcia-Pino, Laurence Van Melderen
Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are widespread in bacterial and archeal genomes. These modules are very dynamic and participate in bacterial genome evolution through horizontal gene transfer. TA systems are commonly composed of a labile antitoxin and a stable toxin. Toxins appear to preferentially inhibit the protein synthesis process. Toxins use a variety of molecular mechanisms and target nearly every step of translation to achieve their inhibitory function. This review focuses on a recently identified TA family that includes acetyltransferase toxins...
September 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842133/multiple-plasmid-interference-pledging-allegiance-to-my-enemy-s-enemy
#18
João Alves Gama, Rita Zilhão, Francisco Dionisio
As shown in the previous article, two distinct conjugative plasmids sometimes interact within bacterial cells, implicating changes of transfer rates. In most cases of interactions within bacteria, the transfer of one of the plasmids decreases. Less frequently, the transfer rate of one of the plasmids increases. Here we analyse what happens if three distinct conjugative plasmids colonize the same bacterial cell. Our aim is to understand how interactions between two plasmids affect the transfer rate of the third plasmid...
September 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842132/conjugation-efficiency-depends-on-intra-and-intercellular-interactions-between-distinct-plasmids-plasmids-promote-the-immigration-of-other-plasmids-but-repress-co-colonizing-plasmids
#19
João Alves Gama, Rita Zilhão, Francisco Dionisio
Conjugative plasmids encode the genes responsible for the synthesis of conjugative pili and plasmid transfer. Expression of the conjugative machinery (including conjugative pili) may be costly to bacteria, not only due to the energetic/metabolic cost associated with their expression but also because they serve as receptors for certain viruses. Consequently, the presence of two plasmids in the same cell may be disadvantageous to each plasmid, because they may impose a higher fitness cost on the host. Therefore, plasmids may encode mechanisms to cope with co-resident plasmids...
September 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842131/co-resident-plasmids-travel-together
#20
João Alves Gama, Rita Zilhão, Francisco Dionisio
Conjugative plasmids encode genes that enable them to transfer, by conjugation, from a given host cell to another cell. Conjugative transfer, despite being an important feature of conjugative plasmids, is not constitutive for most plasmids, the reason being that genes involved in horizontal transfer are mostly repressed. Only upon their transient de-repression are plasmids able to transfer horizontally. If host cells harbour multiple plasmids, their simultaneous transfer depends on simultaneous transient de-repression of all plasmids...
September 2017: Plasmid
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