Read by QxMD icon Read


Luis Alfredo Bañuelos-Vazquez, Gonzalo Torres Tejerizo, Susana Brom
Horizontal gene transfer has been recognized as one of the principal contributors to bacterial evolution and diversification. One of the mechanisms involved in this process is conjugative transfer of plasmids and Integrative Conjugative Elements (ICEs). Plasmids and ICEs often encode traits beneficial for bacterial survival in specific environments, or for the establishment of symbiosis or pathogenesis, in addition to genes allowing conjugative transfer. In this review, we analyze the mechanisms that regulate the expression of conjugative transfer genes...
April 21, 2017: Plasmid
Lionel Makart, Florian Commans, Annika Gillis, Jacques Mahillon
pXO16, a large plasmid originating from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis, displays unique conjugation capacities: besides efficient self-transfer, it is able to mobilize and retro-mobilize non-conjugative plasmids, including those missing an oriT and/or a mob gene, also known as "non-mobilizable" plasmids. In this paper, another peculiar transfer property of pXO16 is described. This element is indeed able to transfer chromosomal loci at frequencies of ca. 10(-5)-10(-6) transconjugants/donor cell. Whereas most other chromosomal transfer systems occur via the integration of the conjugative elements into the chromosome prior to its transfer, pXO16 appears to transfer the chromosomal markers in the absence of physical integration, but rather through a "donation-type" mobilization...
April 20, 2017: Plasmid
Thomas D Watts, Priscilla A Johanesen, Dena Lyras, Julian I Rood, Vicki Adams
Clostridium perfringens produces an extensive repertoire of toxins and extracellular enzymes, many of which are intimately involved in the progression of disease and are encoded by genes on conjugative plasmids. In addition, many C. perfringens strains can carry up to five of these conjugative toxin or antimicrobial resistance plasmids, each of which has a similar 35kb backbone. This conserved backbone includes the tcp conjugation locus and the central control region (CCR), which encodes genes involved in plasmid regulation, replication and partitioning, including a parMRC partitioning locus...
April 6, 2017: Plasmid
Christopher M Thomas, Nicholas R Thomson, Ana M Cerdeño-Tárraga, Celeste J Brown, Eva M Top, Laura S Frost
Good annotation of plasmid genomes is essential to maximise the value of the rapidly increasing volume of plasmid sequences. This short review highlights some of the current issues and suggests some ways forward. Where a well-studied related plasmid system exists we recommend that new annotation adheres to the convention already established for that system, so long as it is based on sound principles and solid experimental evidence, even if some of the new genes are more similar to homologues in different systems...
March 30, 2017: Plasmid
Katherine E L Cox, Joel F Schildbach
The R1 antibiotic resistance plasmid, originally discovered in a clinical Salmonella isolate in London, 1963, has served for decades as a key model for understanding conjugative plasmids. Despite its scientific importance, a complete sequence of this plasmid has never been reported. We present the complete genome sequence of R1 along with a brief review of the current knowledge concerning its various genetic systems and a comparison to the F and R100 plasmids. R1 is 97,566 nucleotides long and contains 120 genes...
March 28, 2017: Plasmid
Lilian A Lacerda, Lucia B Cavalca, Paula M M Martins, José S Govone, Maurício Bacci, Henrique Ferreira
Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) is a plant pathogen and the etiological agent of citrus canker, a severe disease that affects all the commercially important citrus varieties, and has worldwide distribution. Citrus canker cannot be healed, and the best method known to control the spread of X. citri in the orchards is the eradication of symptomatic and asymptomatic plants in the field. However, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the main orange producing area in the world, control is evolving to an integrated management system (IMS) in which growers have to use less susceptible plants, windshields to prevent bacterial spread out and sprays of cupric bactericidal formulations...
March 24, 2017: Plasmid
Adam C Brooks, Ling Chin Hwang
Bacterial plasmid and chromosome segregation systems ensure that genetic material is efficiently transmitted to progeny cells. Cell-based studies have shed light on the dynamic nature and the molecular basis of plasmid partition systems. In vitro reconstitutions, on the other hand, have proved to be an invaluable tool for studying the minimal components required to elucidate the mechanism of DNA segregation. This allows us to gain insight into the biological and biophysical processes that enable bacterial cells to move and position DNA...
March 18, 2017: Plasmid
Wilfried Rozhon
pHW126 belongs to a small group of rolling circle plasmids. So far, the region mediating autonomous replication has been identified and it was shown that the rep gene is required for replication. However, the regulation of rep expression remained elusive. Here evidence is presented that expression of the replication gene rep is auto-regulated. Sequence analysis revealed a conserved stretch in the rep promoter consisting of three imperfect direct repeats (DR2.1, DR2.2 and DR2.3). Assays for promoter activity showed that these direct repeats act as an enhancer of transcriptional activity...
March 11, 2017: Plasmid
Alex Orlek, Hang Phan, Anna E Sheppard, Michel Doumith, Matthew Ellington, Tim Peto, Derrick Crook, A Sarah Walker, Neil Woodford, Muna F Anjum, Nicole Stoesser
Plasmid typing can provide insights into the epidemiology and transmission of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance. The principal plasmid typing schemes are replicon typing and MOB typing, which utilize variation in replication loci and relaxase proteins respectively. Previous studies investigating the proportion of plasmids assigned a type by these schemes ('typeability') have yielded conflicting results; moreover, thousands of plasmid sequences have been added to NCBI in recent years, without consistent annotation to indicate which sequences represent complete plasmids...
March 9, 2017: Plasmid
Jessica A Wisniewski, Julian I Rood
The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens possesses a family of large conjugative plasmids that is typified by the tetracycline resistance plasmid pCW3. Since these plasmids may carry antibiotic resistance genes or genes encoding extracellular or sporulation-associated toxins, the conjugative transfer of these plasmids appears to be important for the epidemiology of C. perfringens-mediated diseases. Sequence analysis of members of this plasmid family identified a highly conserved 35kb region that encodes proteins with various functions, including plasmid replication and partitioning...
March 7, 2017: Plasmid
Paula Bustamante, Jonathan R Iredell
The stable maintenance of certain plasmids in bacterial populations has contributed significantly to the current worldwide antibiotic resistance (AbR) emergency. IncX plasmids, long underestimated in this regard, have achieved recent notoriety for their roles in transmission of resistance to carbapenem and colistin, the last-line antibiotics for Gram-negative infections. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems contribute to stable maintenance of many AbR plasmids, and a few TA systems have been previously described in the IncX plasmids...
March 3, 2017: Plasmid
Yong Wang
Plasmids play essential roles in bacterial metabolism, evolution, and pathogenesis. The maintenance of plasmids is of great importance both scientifically and practically. In this mini-review, I look at the problem from a slightly different point of view and focus on the spatial distribution of high copy number plasmids, for which no active segregation mechanism has been identified. I review several distribution models and summarize the direct and indirect evidence in the literature, including the most recent progress on measuring the spatial distribution of high copy number plasmids using emerging super-resolution fluorescence microscopy...
March 2, 2017: Plasmid
Takashi Nishida, Kenta Watanabe, Masato Tachibana, Takashi Shimizu, Masahisa Watarai
In this study, a cryptic plasmid pOfk55 from Legionella pneumophila was isolated and characterized. pOfk55 comprised 2584bp with a GC content of 37.3% and contained three putative open reading frames (ORFs). orf1 encoded a protein of 195 amino acids and the putative protein shared 39% sequence identity with a putative plasmid replication protein RepL. ORF1 was needed for replication in L. pneumophila but pOfk55 did not replicate in Escherichia coli. orf2 and orf3 encoded putative hypothetical proteins of 114 amino acids and 78 amino acids, respectively, but the functions of the putative proteins ORF2 and OFR3 are not clear...
March 1, 2017: Plasmid
Shinji Yamamoto, Vita Agustina, Ayako Sakai, Kazuki Moriguchi, Katsunori Suzuki
Ti/Ri plasmids in pathogenic Agrobacterium species are repABC replicons that are stably maintained by the function of repABC genes. Two Ti plasmids, pTiBo542 and pTiS4, belonging to incRh2 and incRh4 incompatibility groups, respectively, were reported to carry two repABC loci. In the present study, to reveal the roles of the two repABC loci in the two plasmids, we constructed mini-replicons carrying any one or both of the repABC loci (referred to as repABC1 and repABC2 here) and examined their replication and incompatibility properties...
February 24, 2017: Plasmid
Verena Kohler, Ines Probst, Andreas Aufschnaiter, Sabrina Büttner, Lisa Schaden, Gerald N Rechberger, Günther Koraimann, Elisabeth Grohmann, Walter Keller
Conjugative transfer plays a major role in the transmission of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. pIP501 is a Gram-positive conjugative model plasmid with the broadest transfer host-range known so far and is frequently found in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates. The pIP501 type IV secretion system is encoded by 15 transfer genes. In this work, we focus on the VirB1-like protein TraG, a modular peptidoglycan metabolizing enzyme, and the VirB8-homolog TraM, a potential member of the translocation channel...
February 17, 2017: Plasmid
Feng Chen, Xin Qi, Rong Zhang, Zong-Yong Wu, Cui-E Yan, Jia Li, Qiu-Ying Liu, Jun Qi
Lentiviral vectors are now widely considered as one of the most common gene delivery tools for dividing and non-dividing cells. However, insertional mutagenesis has been found in clinical trials with retroviral vectors, which poses a safety risk. The use of non-integrating lentiviral (NIL) vectors, which avoid integration, eliminates the insertional mutagenesis problem. These NIL vectors are unable to mediate stable gene delivery into dividing cells, which makes them of limited use in the clinical practice of gene therapy...
February 9, 2017: Plasmid
Elisa Carloni, Francesca Andreoni, Enrica Omiccioli, Laura Villa, Mauro Magnani, Alessandra Carattoli
Plasmids are the main vectors of resistance and virulence genes in Enterobacteriaceae and plasmid typing is essential for the analysis of evolution, epidemiology and spread of antibacterial resistance. The PCR-Based Replicon Typing (PBRT), developed by Carattoli et al. in 2005, was an efficient method for plasmid identification and typing in Enterobacteriaceae. The 2005 PBRT scheme detected 18 replicons in 8 PCR reactions. Recently, the identification of novel replicons and plasmid types requested an update of the PBRT scheme...
January 27, 2017: Plasmid
James Ellinger, Claudia Schmidt-Dannert
Throughout the past decade, the field of synthetic biology has grown rapidly. By using assembly platforms such as BioBricks™, scientists can quickly and easily build gene circuits or multi-step pathways. One limitation, however, is that most of these parts were designed and characterized with Escherichia coli as the target chassis. As a consequence, there exists a lack of standardized and well characterized or BioBrick™ compatible plasmid backbones that replicate in other potential non-model chassis organisms...
January 24, 2017: Plasmid
Maysam Mansouri, Zahra Ehsaei, Verdon Taylor, Philipp Berger
Genome editing in eukaryotes became easier in the last years with the development of nucleases that induce double strand breaks in DNA at user-defined sites. CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing is currently one of the most powerful strategies. In the easiest case, a nuclease (e.g. Cas9) and a target defining guide RNA (gRNA) are transferred into a target cell. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair of the DNA break following Cas9 cleavage can lead to inactivation of the target gene. Specific repair or insertion of DNA with Homology Directed Repair (HDR) needs the simultaneous delivery of a repair template...
January 22, 2017: Plasmid
Julian I Rood, Christopher M Thomas, Eva M Top
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Plasmid
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"