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Drug and Chemical Toxicology

Ankit Nariya, Ambar Pathan, Naumita Shah, Shiva Chettiar, Alpesh Patel, Jignasha Dattani, Divya Chandel, Mandava Rao, Devendrasinh Jhala
Lead, a heavy metal and multifaceted toxicant, is well studied for its distribution and toxicity in ecosystem, yet there is no consensus on its amelioration by any synthetic or phytochemical compounds. Curcumin, a known antioxidant and dietary element, is a well-known herb, for its therapeutic uses and having a wide spectrum of its beneficial properties against several adverse effects. Hence, the current study was taken into consideration to evaluate the ameliorative effects of curcumin (3.87 μM, i.e. 1...
February 1, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Regiane Pereira da Silva, Laura Vicedo Jacociunas, Raíne Fogliati de Carli, Bianca Regina Ribas de Abreu, Mauricio Lehmann, Juliana da Silva, Alexandre de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Rafael Rodrigues Dihl
Cynara scolymus L., popularly known as artichoke, is consumed as food and used as tea infusions for pharmacological purposes to treat liver dysfunctions and other conditions. Scientific data on the safety and protective effect of artichoke in human-derived liver cells is missing. This study investigated the genotoxic and modulatory effect of a liophilized extract suspended in water of C. scolymus L. leaves. Four extract concentrations (0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL) were evaluated using the comet assay on human hepatocyte cultures, HepG2 cells...
February 1, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Muhammad Ismail, Rahat Ali, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Asaf Khan, Muhammad Zubair, Tayyaba Ali, Qaiser Mahmood Khan
Chlorpyrifos is a commonly used organophosphate insecticide that causes toxicological effects in aquatic organisms especially in fish. This study determined the effects of chlorpyrifos on the genotoxic and hematological parameters of freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. The genotoxic effects of different sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos were investigated in the erythrocytes of Labeo rohita (commonly known as Rohu) using the Micronucleus test. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the hematological parameters of the fish were also observed...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Rima Celik, Mehmet Topaktas
4-Methylimidazole (4-MEI), a heterocyclic organic chemical compound, is widely found in many foods and consumed by people worldwide. In this research, we aimed to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of 4-MEI on human lymphocytes. For this purpose, human peripheral blood lymphocytes were treated with four concentrations of 4-MEI (300, 450, 600 and 750 μg/ml) for 24 h and 48 h periods and in vitro sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests were used...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Faqir Muhammad, Tuyen Duong Thanh Nguyen, Ahmad Raza, Bushra Akhtar, Santosh Aryal
Nanotechnology has gained significant penetration to different fields of medicine including drug delivery, disease interrogation, targeting and bio-imaging. In recent years, efforts have been put forth to assess the use of this technology in biodetoxification. In this review, we will discuss the current status of nanostructured biomaterials/nanoparticle (NP)-based technologies as a candidate biodetoxifying agent. Patient hospitalization due to illicit drug consumption, suicidal attempts and accidental toxin exposure are major challenges in the medical field...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Hyoung-Il Choi, Hye-Won Lee, Tae-Min Eom, Sung-Ah Lim, Hun-Yong Ha, In-Chan Seol, Yoon-Sik Kim, Dal-Seok Oh, Ho-Ryong Yoo
We aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Yuk-Mi-Jihwang-Tang (YJT) against acute restraint stress-induced brain oxidative damage. A water extract of YJT was prepared and subjected to high performance liquid chromatography - diode array detector-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). Thirty-six heads of C57BL/6J male mice (7 weeks) were divided into six groups (n = 6/group). The mice were orally administrated YJT (0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) or vitamin C (100 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days before 6 h of acute restraint stress...
January 26, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Zygmunt Pejsak
The effect of enrofloxacin on cytokine secretion by porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was studied. Twenty 8-20-week-old pigs were randomly divided into two groups: control (C, n = 10) and experimental (E, n = 10) were used. Pigs from group E received enrofloxacin at therapeutic dose for 5 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected at 0 (before antibiotic administration), 2, 4 (during antibiotic therapy) 6, 9, 14 21, 35, 49, and 63 d of study (after treatment). PBMCs of pigs from both groups were incubated with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
January 25, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Elham Pishavar, Mohammad Shafiei, Soghra Mehri, Mohammad Ramezani, Khalil Abnous
CONTEXT: Polyethylenimine (PEI) is a cationic polymer commonly used in gene transfer. Although numerous investigations have indicated that PEI can induce apoptosis/necrosis but the mechanism of its cytotoxicity is still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PEI/DNA complexes on the expression of apoptotic genes in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT29). METHODS: HT29 cells were exposed to PEI/DNA complex (C/P = 0...
January 18, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Robert Sobkowiak, Andrzej Zielezinski, Wojciech M Karlowski, Andrzej Lesicki
Nicotine may affect cell function by rearranging protein complexes. We aimed to determine nicotine-induced alterations of protein complexes in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) cells, thereby revealing links between nicotine exposure and protein complex modulation. We compared the proteomic alterations induced by low and high nicotine concentrations (0.01 mM and 1 mM) with the control (no nicotine) in vivo by using mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques, specifically the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) discontinuous gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS and spectral counting...
January 3, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Mehmet Arslan, Taygun Timocin, Hasan B Ila
Macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin was evaluated in terms of its genotoxic, cytotoxic and oxidative stress effects. For this purpose; 25, 50, 100 and 200 μg/mL concentrations of roxithromycin were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and treated to human peripheral blood lymphocytes for two different treatment periods (24 and 48 h). In chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests, roxithromycin did not show genotoxic effect. But it induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE) at the highest concentration (200 μg/mL) for the 24-h treatment period and at all concentrations (except 25 μg/mL) for the 48-h treatment period...
December 21, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Otto Kučera, René Endlicher, David Rychtrmoc, Halka Lotková, Ondřej Sobotka, Zuzana Červinková
CONTEXT: Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is often studied in primary cultures of hepatocytes of various species, but there are only few works comparing interspecies differences in susceptibility of hepatocytes to APAP in vitro. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our work was to compare hepatotoxicity of APAP in rat and mouse hepatocytes in primary cultures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatocytes isolated from male Wistar rats and C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to APAP for up to 24 h...
December 14, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Rodrigo Anibal Mateos-Nava, Juan José Rodríguez-Mercado, Mario Agustín Altamirano-Lozano
Vanadium is a widely distributed metal in the Earth's surface and is released into the environment by either natural or anthropogenic causes. Vanadium (III) oxide (V2O3) is present in the environment, and many organisms are exposed to this compound; however, its effects at the cellular and genetic levels are still unknown. Therefore, in this study, the ability of V2O3 to induce chromosomal damage and impair cell proliferation was tested on human leukocytes in vitro. The cultures cells were treated for 48 h with different concentrations 2, 4, 8 or 16 μg/mL of V2O3, and we use the sister chromatid exchange's (SCE) test and the viability assay to evaluate the effects...
December 12, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Haluk Kefelioğlu, Zülal Atlı Şekeroğlu, Gamze Coşguner, Seval Kontaş Yedier, Vedat Şekeroğlu
It has been stated that some antipsychotic drugs might cause genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Ziprasidone (ZIP) is commonly used an antipsychotic drug. However, its genotoxicity and carcinogenicity data are very limited. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of ZIP on human peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in vitro by sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests in this study. Lymphocyte cultures were treated with 50, 75 and 100 μg/ml of ZIP in the presence and absence of a metabolic activator (S9 mix)...
November 29, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
E R A Ferraz, A S Fernandes, I Salviano, I Felzenszwalb, A L Mencalha
LLL-3, an anthracene derived compound, has been shown to be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of some kinds of cancer such as chronic myeloid leukemia and glioblastoma. However, no data regarding the toxic properties of this compound have yet been described in the literature. The present work aimed to investigate the mutagenic and genotoxic activities of LLL-3 using the TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA104 Salmonella/microsome strains for the Ames test and the micronucleus assay with the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264...
January 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Tomohito Kamada, Mutsuharu Hayashi, Wakaya Fujiwara, Daiji Yoshikawa, Daisuke Mukaide, Yoshinori Sugishita, Masataka Yoshinaga, Takehiro Itoh, Hiroatsu Yokoi, Junichi Ishii, Eiichi Watanabe, Yukio Ozaki, Hideo Izawa
OBJECTIVES: The number of elderly patients with hypertension has been steadily increasing. However, there are limited data on the safety and efficacy of the new angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) azilsartan in elderly patients with hypertension. We investigated the clinical efficacy and safety of azilsartan in this population. METHODS: The study population comprised 56 ambulatory patients with essential hypertension. We evaluated the reduction in blood pressure and safety after 12 weeks of treatment with azilsartan in 29 hypertensive patients ≥65 years of age (aged group) in comparison with the findings in 27 patients <65 years of age (non-aged group)...
January 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Clayton Wright, Anand Krishnan V Iyer, Liying Wang, Nianqiang Wu, Juan S Yakisich, Yon Rojanasakul, Neelam Azad
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a ubiquitous whitening compound widely used in topical products such as sunscreens, lotions and facial creams. The damaging health effects of TiO2 inhalation has been widely studied in rats, mice and humans showing oxidative stress increase, DNA damage, cell death and inflammatory gene upregulation in lung and throat cells; however, the effects on skin cells from long-term topical use of various products remain largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the effect of specific TiO2 nanoparticles (H2TiO7) on a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT)...
January 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Olalekan Michael Ogundele, Balogun Wasiu Gbolahan, Ansa Emmanuel Cobham, Ishola Azeez Olakunle, Amin Abdulbasit
BACKGROUND: A major effect of cyanide toxicity (CN) and vascular occlusion (VO) is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) linked with a defective energy coupling process in the mitochondria. In CN, oxygen is present but its conversion is blocked in the mitochondria (Complex V). By contrast, in VO, oxidative stress is induced via reduction of oxygen (blood) circulation to the occluded brain region. We hypothesize that differential oxygen concentration in both forms of ischemia affect ROS production rate in the mitochondria; thus distinguishing the cytotoxicity pattern for CN and VO...
January 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Xinhui Liu, Juan Wu, Juan Wang, Jinjin Fan, Xiaoran Feng, Xueqing Yu, Xiao Yang
CONTEXT: The proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) are the primary target of aristolochic acids and especially vulnerable to mitochondrial injury from insults of toxic xenobiotics. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the possible role of mitochondrial injury in Caulis Aristolochia manshuriensis (CAM)-induced aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with CAM extract every other week for 1, 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively...
January 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Walid Hamdy El-Tantawy, Dina Sabry, Ekram Nemr Abd Al Haleem
INTRODUCTION: Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins including collagen that occurs in most types of chronic liver diseases. This study aimed to investigate and compare the therapeutic efficacy of different magnesium (Mg)-containing supplements (formulations A, B, and C) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of rats with CCl4 (1:1 in olive oil, 2 mL/kg, three times/week) for 4 weeks, and then rats were orally treated with different Mg-containing supplements (formulations A, B, and C) once daily for another one month...
January 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Soukaina Ennaceur
The genotoxic potential of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (α-, β-, and γ-) which are organochlorine pesticides was tested in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from two donors by using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Micronucleus (MN) frequency, binucleated cells with micronucleus (BNMN), and cytokinesis-blocked proliferation index (CBPI) were determined as genotoxic and cytotoxic endpoints. At the concentration ranges tested (12.5-100 μg.L (-1)), all HCH isomers induced dose-dependent cytotoxic effects, γ-HCH being the most toxic...
January 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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