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Drug and Chemical Toxicology

Prince Sharma, Pooja Chadha, Harvinder Singh Saini
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the most widely used brominated flame retardant and its increased use in common products such as plastics, electronic equipment, etc., has raised concern about its ecotoxicity. The present study was conducted to investigate the oxidative stress and genotoxic potential of TBBPA on fresh water fish Channa punctatus by measuring malondialdehyde level and DNA damage, respectively. Fish were exposed to 5.09 mg/l (1/2 of LC50 ) of TBBPA along with positive (acetone) and negative controls (water) for 96 h...
March 14, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Yusuf Çamlıca, Salih Cüfer Bediz, Ülkü Çömelekoğlu, Şakir Necat Yilmaz
In this study, the effects of a neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid on the sciatic nerve of Rana ridibunda were investigated by using electrophysiological and histological methods. A total of 35 preparations of sciatic nerve isolated from 35 frogs (Nervus ischiadicus) were used in the experiments. Experiments were designed as four different dose groups (n = 8 per group). Acetamiprid solutions of 1 (group 1), 10 (group 2), 100 (group 3), and 1000 µM (group 4) were applied to the nerves in dose groups...
March 14, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Eisa Tahmasbpour, Mostafa Ghanei, Abolfazl Khor, Yunes Panahi
CONTEXT: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a strong alkylating toxicant that targets different organs, particularly human lung tissue. Change in genes expression is one of the molecular mechanisms of SM toxicity in damaged tissue. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation is to characterize the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO), inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (iNOS2), and surfactant protein D (SFTPD) in lungs of patients who exposed to SM...
March 14, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Isha Ranadive, Sonam Patel, Abhilasha Mhaske, Gowri Kumari Uggini, Isha Desai, Suresh Balakrishnan
Currently, scientists show keen interest in the drugs that inhibit multiple kinases, LDN193189, being an example. It combats certain cancers in vitro as well as in vivo, making it a prerequisite for researchers to study the toxic potential of this drug in animal models. As most of the drugs metabolized by liver cause hepatic injury, LDN193189-induced hepatotoxicity was examined using a teleost fish, Poecilia latipinna. As a prelude, calculation of LD50 showed a value of 95.22 mg/kg body weight and three doses were decided based on it for further evaluations...
March 2, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Vinod Vijayan, Avik Mazumder
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) is an important spice which is widely consumed in the Indian subcontinent as well as in several other parts of the world. In the present study, NMR spectroscopy showed the presence of cinnamaldehyde to be the major component of the bark. The possible mutagenic effects of cinnamon bark ethanolic extract (CEE, 0.01-1 mg/plate) cinnamon oil (CNO, 0.125-1 mg/plate), and its active component cinnamadehyde (CLD, 0.125-1 mg/plate) were evaluated. Antimutagenic activity of CEE, CNO, and CLD was also tested against various food borne mutagens (heterocyclic amines and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)) and sodium azide (SA) using Ames assay...
February 26, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Zülal Atlı Şekeroğlu, Vedat Şekeroğlu, Ebru Uçgun, Seval Kontaş Yedier, Birsen Aydın
Clothianidin (CHN) is a broad-spectrum neonicotinoid insecticide. Limited studies have been carried out on the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of both CHN using different genotoxicity tests in human cells with or without human metabolic activation system (S9 mix). Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of CHN and its metabolites on human lymphocyte cultures with or without S9 mix using chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests. The cultures were treated with 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml of CHN in the presence (3 h treatment) and absence (48 h treatment) of S9 mix...
February 26, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Isha Nagpal, Suresh K Abraham
In the present study, coffee (CF) was evaluated for its protective effects against genotoxic damage and oxidative stress induced by the chemotherapeutic drug, cyclophosphamide (CPH). The sex-linked recessive lethal (SLRL) test was employed to study the induction of mutations in the larvae as well as in all the successive germ cell stages of treated males. Control and treated third instar larvae were used to monitor the biomarkers of oxidative stress response such as glutathione content (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (MDA content)...
February 26, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Omamuyovwi Meashack Ijomone, Stephen Odey Okori, Olayemi Kafilat Ijomone, Azubike Peter Ebokaiwe
Nickel (Ni) is a heavy metal with wide industrial uses. Environmental and occupational exposures to Ni are potential risk factors for neurological symptoms in humans. The present study investigated the behavior and histomorphological alterations in brain of rats sub-acutely exposed to nickel chloride (NiCl2 ) and the possible involvement of oxidative stress. Rats were administered with 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg NiCl2 via intraperitoneal injections for 21 days. Neurobehavioral assessment was performed using the Y-maze and open field test (OFT)...
February 26, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Ayşe Yavuz Kocaman, Müge Güzelkokar
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice) is one of the most important medicinal plants, which is widely used throughout the world both in traditional and contemporary medical industries. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential genotoxic activity of G. glabra methanolic root extract, and its possible antigenotoxic properties against mitomycin C (MMC)-induced DNA damage in in vitro chromosome aberrations (CAs) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assays in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs)...
February 15, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Lubica Muckova, Jaroslav Pejchal, Petr Jost, Nela Vanova, David Herman, Daniel Jun
The development of acetylcholinesterase reactivators, i.e., antidotes against organophosphorus poisoning, is an important goal of defense research. The aim of this study was to compare cytotoxicity and chemical structure of five currently available oximes (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, and asoxime) together with four perspective oximes from K-series (K027, K074, K075, and K203). The cytotoxicity of tested substances was measured using two methods - colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and impedance based real-time cytotoxicity assay - in three different cell lines (HepG2, ACHN, and NHLF)...
February 9, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Honoka Wada, Keisuke Oyama, Risa Kamae, Toshiya Masuda, Kaori Kanemaru, Kumio Yokoigawa, Yasuo Oyama
Coffee contains hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ). HHQ is one of the by-products released during bean roasting. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the bioactivity of HHQ to predict its beneficial or adverse effects on humans. We studied zinc-dependent and independent actions of commercially procured synthetic HHQ in rat thymocytes using flow cytometric techniques with propidium iodide, FluoZin-3-AM, 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate, and annexin V-FITC. HHQ at 1050 µM elevated intracellular Zn2+ levels by releasing intracellular Zn2+...
February 9, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Maryam Zahin, Mohammad Shavez Khan, Faizan Abul Qais, Hussein Hasan Abulreesh, Iqbal Ahmad
Spices and herbs are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants and thus play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases and aging. Piper cubeba is one among them and known for its medicinal properties for decades. Various biological activities are associated with its extract and phytocompounds. However, the anti-mutagenic activity of antioxidant rich extract is less explored. In this study, we performed the fraction-based antioxidant activity of P. cubeba using four different assays and evaluated the anti-mutagenic activity of most potent antioxidant fraction using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains against four mutagens (methyl methanesulfonate [MMS], sodium azide [SA], benzo(a)pyrene, and 2-aminoflourene) respectively...
February 7, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Preeti Bagri, S K Jain
Acetamiprid (ACE), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) assay was utilized to assess the genotoxic effects of ACE in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. Acetamiprid was administered i.p. daily at 4.6 and 2.3 mg/kg/day along with 3% gum acacia as negative control for 60 and 90 days and cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg b.wt.) as positive control...
February 6, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Fawzi Babiker, Aisha Al-Kouh, Narayana Kilarkaje
Disrupting role of lead toxicity in heart functions and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases is not well known. This study investigated the interference of lead in heart functions and pacing postconditioning-mediated protection to the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Lead exposure decreased the body weight and increased the heart weight in male rats (p < 0.001). Long-term lead exposure (45 days exposure to lead) increased total oxidant levels (p < 0.001) in the heart. Furthermore, lead exposure abrogated the pacing postconditioning-mediated protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury...
February 5, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Archana Vyas, Ashok Purohit, Heera Ram
Diclofenac sodium is widely used in the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in the treatment of pain and inflammation. It is also particularly associated with its adverse effects on avian fauna and linked to environmental issues. The present study was aimed to assess the dose-dependent toxicity of diclofenac sodium on a male reproductive system of rats. Four groups of healthy adult fertile male rats were administered with saline (control) or 0.25 mg/kg, 0.50 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg of diclofenac sodium, respectively for 30 days...
February 2, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
P Binu, K Gifty, R C Vineetha, S Abhilash, P Arathi, R Harikumaran Nair
Arsenic trioxide is an effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. The clinical usefulness of arsenic trioxide is narrow due to different organ toxicities. It is hypothesized that the generation of reactive oxygen species by arsenic trioxide leads to thiol-based oxidative damage in rat myocardium. In this study, the defensive effect of eugenol on thiol-based oxidative stress was investigated in arsenic trioxide-treated rats. Rats were orally administered with arsenic trioxide (4 mg/kg per day) alone and in combination with eugenol (5 mg/kg per day) for 30 days...
January 26, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Rajib Majumder, Anilava Kaviraj
Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organosphosphate insecticide in India. Residue of the insecticide is frequently detected in trace to moderate concentration in food grains and in surface water of different freshwater ecosystems of the country. In this study, 96 h LC50 of the technical grade (94% a.i.) and commercial formulation (20% EC) of chlorpyrifos to freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus were determined as 90.0 and 42.0 µg/L based on 2 h actual concentration of chlorpyrifos in water. About 96 h exposure to sublethal concentrations (0, 12...
January 26, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
I-Chen Li, Wan-Ping Chen, Yen-Po Chen, Li-Ya Lee, Yueh-Ting Tsai, Chin-Chu Chen
This study aimed to establish an in vitro model to confirm the efficacy of erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus (EAHE) mycelia and investigate its potential adverse effects in a preclinical experimental setting, including an assessment on the oral administration of EAHE mycelia in acute and prenatal developmental toxicity tests. At a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight, EAHE mycelia elicited no death or treatment-related signs of toxicity in ten Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes during the 14 days of the experimental period...
January 23, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Norio Kamemura
Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is used as a gasoline antiknock additive. However, the toxic effect of MMT is currently not well understood. In this study, we investigated the toxic effect of MMT on rat thymocytes using a flow cytometer and fluorescent probes. MMT at 100-300 µM significantly increased the population of cells exhibiting propidium fluorescence, i.e., the population of dead cells. The intensity of BES-So-AM fluorescence significantly increased when using 100 µM MMT. In addition, the intensity of oxonol fluorescence in rat thymocytes increased with the treatment with MMT in a concentration-dependent manner (10-100 µM)...
January 23, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Akash Sharma, Brian Gorey, Alan Casey
Nanoparticles use in nano-biotechnology applications have increased significantly with Aminated polystyrene amine (AmPs NP), Zinc oxide (ZnO NP), and Silver (Ag NP) nanoparticles utilized in wide variety of consumer products. This has presented a number of concerns due to their increased exposure risks and associated toxicity on living systems. Changes in the structural and physicochemical properties of nanoparticles can lead to changes in biological activities. This study investigates, compares, and contrasts the potential toxicity of AmPs, ZnO and Ag NPs on an in vitro model (HeLa cells) and assesses the associated mechanism for their corresponding cytotoxicity relative to the surface material...
January 23, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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