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Drug and Chemical Toxicology

Douglas Costa Gontijo, Líria Granato Nunes, Letícia Monteiro Farias, Maria Gorette Resende Duarte, André Furtado Carvalho, Luciano Gomes Fietto, João Paulo Viana Leite
Strychnos pseudoquina is a plant species whose stem bark is used as bitter tonic beverage. The phytochemical analysis, as well as quantification of phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts from S. pseudoquina stem bark, and leaves were conducted. The extracts were tested for mutagenicity (Ames test) and DNA-damaging activity (Plasmid Cleavage test). Leaves recorded the largest amount of flavonoids. The performed high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed flavonoids such as isorhamnetin and strychnobiflavone (phytochemical markers of the investigated species) in stem barks, but not in leaves...
September 13, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Mohamed A Aglan, Ghada N Mansour
Hair straitening products are widely used by hairstylists. Many keratin-based hair smoothing products contain formaldehyde. This study aimed to investigate occupational formaldehyde exposure among hairstylists dealing with hair straightening products and the relation between genotoxicity biomarkers and the short-term formaldehyde exposure concentrations and the working years. The study was carried out in Cairo, Egypt on 60 hairstylists use hair straightening products divided into two groups according to the working years...
September 13, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Suryashis Jana, Sandip Chattopadhyay, Arindam Dey, Hasina Perveen, Durgapada Dolai
The painful invasive chelation therapy makes it challenging to continue the prolonged treatment against arsenic toxicity. Hence, the significance of the present preliminary investigation was to explore a noninvasive treatment strategy against sodium arsenite (As3+ ) by the use of a hydroethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (MO) seed. Arsenic treatment (10 mg/kg body-weight) in animals showed significant level of oxidative stress as evidenced by increased serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD) and reduced level of non-protein thiol (NPSH)...
September 13, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Mohamed Yassin Ali, Gamal Mohamedin Hassan, Abdel Moniem Sadek Hassan, Zaher Ahmed Mohamed, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
The use of additives in different food products is growing up. It has attracted the attention towards the relation between the mutagenic potential of human diseases and food additives. Sunset yellow (SY) and sodium benzoate (NaB) are used as colorant and food additives worldwide. In the present study, genotoxic effects of different combinations of SY and NaB were assessed in vivo in female rats. Different combinations of SY and NaB were dissolved in water and administered daily to six animals groups for 12 weeks...
September 13, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Allyne Cristina Grando, Nilza Nascimento Guimarães, Ana Paula de Souza, Mauricio Lehmann, Kênya Silva Cunha, Rafael Rodrigues Dihl
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens are based on the use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), which are the main drugs used by patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The use of NRTIs combinations has afforded clear clinical benefits to patients undergoing HAART. However, the combination of two NRTIs may increase the risk of genomic instability in comparison with the drugs administered individually. We analyzed the ability of zidovudine (AZT) and lamivudine (3TC), and the combination AZT +3TC to induce complex genomic alterations using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells...
September 12, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Mehmet Varol, Kadriye Benkli, Ayşe T Koparal, Rakibe B Bostancıoğlu
Drug design and discovery studies are important because of the prevalence of diseases without available medical cures. New anticancer agents are particularly urgent because of the high mortality rate associated with cancer. A series of mononuclear gold (III) and platinum (II) complexes based on boronated phenylalanine (BPA) were designed and synthesized using 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-dipyridyl (L1) or 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dion (L2) ligands to obtain promising anticancer drug candidates. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, mass spectrometry, and elemental analyses were utilized for chemical characterizations...
September 12, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Jamshid Karimi, Adel Mohammadalipour, Nasrin Sheikh, Iraj Khodadadi, Mohammad Hashemina, Farjam Goudarzi, Vahid Khanjarsim, Ghasem Solgi, Mehrdad Hajilooi, Majid Bahabadi, Nejat Kheiripour, Keshvad Hedayatyanfard
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed as therapeutic compounds for inhibiting the progression of liver fibrosis. In the present study, the simultaneous treatment of Nilotinib (TKIs) and Losartan was studied. Forty rats were divided into eight groups of fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) and therapeutics (Nilotinib, Losartan, and combination therapy). In the end, serum parameters of the liver and gene expression analysis of transforming growth factor-β1 , its receptors (TβRII), platelet-derived growth factor, its receptors (PDGFRβ ), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), tumor necrosis factor-α, cytochrome P450 2E1, and collagen1 type 1 were performed...
September 12, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Zubeyir Elmazoglu, Atiye Seda Yar Saglam, Can Sonmez, Cimen Karasu
Rotenone, an environmental toxin, triggers Parkinson's disease (PD)-like pathology through microglia-mediated neuronal death. The effects and molecular mechanisms of flavonoid luteolin against rotenone-induced toxicity was assessed in microglial BV2 cells. Cells were pretreated with luteolin (1-50 µM) for 12 h and then was co-treated with 20 µM of rotenone for an additional 12 h in the presence of luteolin. The viability (MTT), IL-1β and TNF-α levels and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release (ELISA), and Park2, Lrrk2, Pink1, Nrf2 and Trx1 mRNA levels (qRT-PCR) were measured...
September 12, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Yuri Karen Sinzato, Rafael Bottaro Gelaleti, Gustavo Tadeu Volpato, Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge, Emilio Herrera, Débora Cristina Damasceno
Although several studies using peripheral blood samples suggest that DNA damage is caused by streptozotocin (STZ) per se, our hypothesis is that DNA damage is caused by STZ-induced glycemic changes. Thus, we aimed at evaluating DNA damage levels in peripheral blood samples from rats at different time points within the first 24 h after a single intravenous dose of STZ. Female Wistar rats (control, n = 8; STZ, n = 7) were administered a single STZ intravenous injection (40 mg/kg body weight). Blood samples were collected from the tail vein for genotoxicity analysis by comet assay and glycemia assessment before STZ administration (time point zero) and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 h afterward...
September 12, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Banu Orta Yilmaz, Nebahat Yildizbayrak, Melike Erkan
Arsenic is commonly found in the natural environment and is toxic agent for living organism in many countries in the world. Studies on animal models suggest that exposure to arsenic may cause reproductive toxicity; however, effect of arsenic on reproductive toxicity has still not been clearly described. This study was focused on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and the antioxidant defense system induced with exposure to sodium arsenite in Mus musculus Leydig and Sertoli cells. The cells were exposed to two different concentrations of sodium arsenite of 50 ppb (0...
September 12, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Surajit Pathak, Roberto Catanzaro, Dharani Vasan, Francesco Marotta, Yashna Chabria, Ganesan Jothimani, Rama Shanker Verma, Murugesan Ramachandran, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh, Antara Banerjee
Garlic (Allium sativum L.), a popular spice, has been used for decades in treating several medical conditions. Although Allicin, an active ingredient of garlic has been extensively studied on carcinogen-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats (Rattus norvegicus), no systematic study on the beneficial effects of generic aged garlic and specific aged garlic extract-Kyolic has been done. The present study involves rats fed chronically with two liver carcinogens, p-dimethylaminoazobenzene and phenobarbital, to produce hepatotoxicity...
September 12, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Sevcan Mamur, Fatma Ünal, Serkan Yılmaz, Esra Erikel, Deniz Yüzbaşıoğlu
Fusaric acid (FA) is produced by several Fusarium species and is commonly found in grains. This investigation was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of FA either in human cervix carcinoma (HeLa) cell line using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and in human lymphocytes using chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), micronuclei (MN) as well as comet assay in vitro. The cells were treated with 0.78, 1.56, 3.125, 6.25, 12.50, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 µg/mL concentrations of FA...
September 11, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Waleed A Q Hailan, Faisal M Abou-Tarboush, Khalid M Al-Anazi, Areeba Ahmad, Ahmed Qasem, Mohammad Abul Farah
The present study was conducted to demonstrate cytotoxicity, apoptosis and hepatic damage induced by gemcitabine in laboratory mice. Animals were treated with a single dose of gemcitabine (415 mg/kg body wt), equivalent to a human therapeutic dose, and sacrificed after 1, 2 and 3 weeks. A significant decrease in mean body weight and absolute liver weight was registered. The levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were increased as a result of this induced stress...
September 11, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Asieh Karimani, Mohammad Heidarpour, Amir Moghaddam Jafari
The aim of this study was to elucidate the protective effect of glycyrrhizin on diazinon-induced changes in body and organ weights, blood hematology, lipid profile, biochemistry parameters and tissue markers of oxidative stress in male Wistar rats over a 7-week period. Rats were orally given sublethal dose of diazinon (10 mg/kg daily; 0.008 LD50), while glycyrrhizin (25 mg kg-1 daily) was given alone or in combination with diazinon. At the end of 7th week, statistically significant decrease of pseudocholinesterase activity was detected when diazinon- and glycyrrhizin + diazinon-treated groups were compared to the control group...
September 11, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Masamichi Ae, Naohiro Imura, Tomoko Inubushi, Shin Abe, Bekki Yusuke, Mayumi Sugimoto, Norio Kamemura
Biphenyl is found both in natural and anthropogenic sources and is used as a fungistat in the packaging of citrus fruits. Acute exposure to high levels of biphenyl has been observed to cause skin irritation and toxic effects on the liver and kidneys. However, the mechanisms of cytotoxicity induced by biphenyl are not yet well understood. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of biphenyl was studied by flow cytometry with fluorescent probes. Biphenyl at 100 μM significantly increased cell lethality after 3 h in rat thymocytes...
September 11, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Fikret Türkan, Zübeyir Huyut, Parham Taslimi, Mehmet Tahir Huyut, İlhami Gülçin
Glutathione S-transferases are multifunctional enzymes for the cellular defense against xenobiotics and provide protection for organism. In this study, the inhibition effects of some antibiotics were investigated against GST obtained from albino-rats kidney, liver, and heart tissues. Ninety-six albino-rats were randomly divided into 16 groups (n:6). The first four groups were control groups that were administrated blank enjection and decapitated at 1-7 h. The other groups were administrated the antibiotics...
September 11, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Susy Ricardo Lemes, Carolina Ribeiro eSilva, Jefferson Holanda Véras, Lee Chen-Chen, Rosa Silva Lima, Caridad Noda Perez, Maria Alice Montes de Sousa, Paulo Roberto de Melo Reis, Nelson Jorge da Silva Junior
Chalcones are chemically defined as α,β-unsaturated ketones with a 1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one nucleus. These compounds occur naturally in plants and are considered precursors of flavonoids. Given that evaluating genetic toxicology tests is essential in investigating the safe use and chemopreventive potential of different natural and synthetic compounds, this study aimed to assess the genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic activity of the chalcone 1E,4E-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexen-1-yl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one (CAB7β)...
September 11, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Mostafa Saif-Elnasr, Nahed Abdel-Aziz, Ahmed Ibrahim El-Batal
Cisplatin (CP) is a major antineoplastic drug for the treatment of solid tumors, however, its clinical utility is limited by nephrotoxicity. Also, radiotherapy is an important treatment modality for many malignancies. The present studies were performed to test whether fish oil (FO) and/or selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) administration have an ameliorative effect on CP and γ-irradiation induced nephrotoxicity. FO and/or SeNPs were administered to male albino rats daily for 12 days before being intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of CP (10 mg/kg body weight) and whole body exposed to a single dose of γ-radiation (0...
September 11, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Małgorzata M Dobrzyńska, Ewa J Tyrkiel
The aim of the study was the estimation of the effects of 8 weeks exposure mature and pubescent male mice to DEHP on the prenatal development of the offspring F2 generation. The F1 offspring, of males exposed for whole cycle of spermatogenesis to DEHP (2000 mg/kg bw or 8000 mg/kg bw) and unexposed females, at 8-9 weeks of age were caged males with females from the same group, but from different litter. Eight weeks preconceptional exposure of mature F0 males to 2000 mg/kg bw DEHP induced the significantly higher number of dead fetuses in the F2 offspring; however, the effect on the sperm count and quality of F1 males was not seen...
September 10, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
C E Davico, A Loteste, M J Parma, G Poletta, M F Simoniello
The use of toxic pesticides has become a world problem because they can contaminate streams and rivers, producing an adverse impact on non-target aquatic biota, including fishes. Cypermethrin is one of the most important insecticides to control ectoparasites in wide-scale. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercial formulations of cypermethrin, SHERPA O (0.0, 0.075, 0.15, and 0.3 µg/L of cypermethrin) in fish Prochilodus lineatus for 96 h in semi-static condition, using biomarkers of genotoxicity: micronucleus frequency (MNF) in erythrocytes and biomarkers of oxidative damage: lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and antioxidant defenses, catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) in liver tissue...
September 7, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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