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Drug and Chemical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523965/safety-evaluation-of-an-oat-grain-alkaloid-gramine-by-genotoxicity-assays
#1
Manash Pratim Pathak, Rudragoud S Policegoudra, Danswrang Goyary, Aparoop Das, Santa Mandal, Srijita Chakraborti, Nilutpal Sharma Bora, Johirul Islam, Pompy Patowary, P Srinivas Raju, Pronobesh Chattopadhyay
Gramine is a natural indole alkaloid that has been isolated from different raw plants occurring mainly in Avena sativa, etc. The study was aimed to investigate the possible in vitro antioxidant, in vitro mutagenic, in vitro antimutagenic, and in vivo genotoxic activity of gramine using ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay, Metal chelating, Ames bacterial reverse mutation test, and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay as well as chromosomal aberration. Four concentrations of gramine viz. 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg/mL were evaluated for its antioxidant activity in FRAP Assay and Metal Chelating Test...
May 19, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511592/cytotoxicity-mutagenicity-and-antimutagenicity-of-the-gentisic-acid-on-htc-cells
#2
Flavia Maria Lima Cavalcante, Igor Vivian Almeida, Elisângela Düsman, Mário Sérgio Mantovani, Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini
Gentisic acid (GA) exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic activities. This substance can be found in citrus fruits, grapes, olive oil, and peas. Considering that there are few studies in the literature on the toxicity of GA, the present work aimed to investigate its cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities on HTC cells. GA was diluted in culture medium at the final concentration of 0.08, 0.16, 0.8, 1.6, and 8 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT assay and Trypan Blue exclusion method, with methyl methanesulfonate and doxorubicin as positive controls, respectively...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504020/propoxur-induced-oxidative-dna-damage-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-protective-effects-of-curcumin-and-%C3%AE-tocopherol
#3
Tanzeel Ahmed, Vasu Goel, B D Banerjee
The present study enumerates the attenuating effects of curcumin and α-tocopherol against propoxur induced oxidative DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Cultured cells were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers, and were exposed to varying concentrations of propoxur (0-21 μg/ml) for 6, 12, and 24 h, and in combination with curcumin (9.2 μg/ml) or α-tocopherol (4.3 μg/ml) or both. Cytotoxic effect of propoxur was examined by MTT assay. The role of oxidative stress beneath the cytotoxicity of propoxur was evaluated by the measurement of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) levels in cell lysate...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504001/n-acetylcysteine-potentiates-diclofenac-toxicity-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-stronger-potentiation-in-abc-transporter-mutant-strains
#4
Houssein Al-Attrache, Hala Chamieh, Monzer Hamzé, Isabelle Morel, Samir Taha, Ziad Abdel-Razzak
Diclofenac (DCF) adverse reactions involve diverse mechanisms in different models. We recently demonstrated that DCF-induced toxicity in HepaRG decreases as they express DCF-metabolizing enzymes. DCF metabolism promotes toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing heterologous cytochromes-P450. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is used to treat diverse medical conditions due to its multiple properties (antioxidant, metal chelator, thiol-disulfide disruption). The latter property accounts for its mucolytic effects and broadens its potential molecular targets to signal transduction proteins, ABC transporters and others...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503984/the-genotoxic-effect-of-oxcarbazepine-on-mice-blood-lymphocytes
#5
Huma Akbar, Ajmal Khan, Imdadullah Mohammadzai, Muhammad Khisroon, Ilham Begum
This study was conducted to assess the amount of DNA damage caused by Oxcarbazepine (OXC) through single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) technique/comet assay. OXC derived from dibenzazepine series is an effective second generation antiepileptic drug (AED) for both children and adults. Side effects like genotoxic effects of AEDs are of prime importance resulting from toxic metabolites, free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Forty Eight adult male Bagg's albino mice (BALB/c) were randomly classified into eight groups, each comprising of six animals...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503980/assessment-of-oxidative-stress-induced-by-gold-nanorods-following-intra-tracheal-instillation-in-rats
#6
Harikiran Lingabathula, Narsimhareddy Yellu
Gold nanorods (GNRs) are used for their wide variety of applications in various industries. There is a little availability of data related to toxicity and ecological implications of these GNRs. The study evaluated the oxidative stress induction following intra-tracheal instillation of 1 and 5 mg/kg b.w. doses of 10 and 25 nm GNRs by estimating various oxidative stress markers including lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde; MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) after 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months post exposure periods...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503953/effect-of-deltamethrin-and-fluoride-co-exposure-on-the-brain-antioxidant-status-and-cholinesterase-activity-in-wistar-rats
#7
Adil Mehraj Khan, Rajinder Raina, Nitin Dubey, Pawan Kumar Verma
The study evaluated the effect of commercial preparation of deltamethrin, Butox(®), and fluoride (F(-)) co-exposure on the brain antioxidant status and cholinesterase activity in rats. Group A was untreated. Group B was gavaged Butox(®), providing deltamethrin at the dose rate of 1.28 mg per kg body weight per day. Group C was administered F(-), as NaF, in drinking water providing 20 ppm F(-). Group D received both deltamethrin and F(-) at the same dosages as groups B and C, respectively. Although, glutathione S-transferase activity was induced only in Butox(®) alone treated group, the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were inhibited in all treatment groups when compared to the control group...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503943/transcriptional-profile-of-ethylene-glycol-monomethyl-ether-induced-testicular-toxicity-in-rats
#8
Takuya Matsuyama, Koichi Yabe, Chiharu Kuwata, Kazumi Ito, Yosuke Ando, Hiroshi Iida, Kazuhiko Mori
To clarify the molecular mechanism of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME)-induced testicular toxicity, the potential for EGME-related changes in transcript levels of genes including spermatocyte-specific genes was evaluated in the testis of rats given single dosing of EGME at 200, 600, or 2000 mg/kg. Furthermore, the contribution of decreased testicular testosterone on EGME-induced spermatocyte toxicity was investigated by comparing to transcriptional profile due to a testosterone synthesis inhibitor, ketoconazole (KET), at 30 or 300 mg/kg...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482707/the-impact-of-exposure-route-for-class-based-compounds-a-comparative-approach-of-lethal-toxicity-data-in-rodent-models
#9
Yu Wang, Shuo Wang, Xiao N Feng, Li C Yan, Shan S Zheng, Yue Wang, Yuan H Zhao
Relationships of toxicities from intravenous (i.v.), intraperitoneal (i.p.), subcutaneous (s.c.) and intragastric (i.g.) exposure routes to mice were investigated. Regression analysis showed that the toxicities from i.v. route is strongly correlated with i.p. and s.c. routes, but poorly with i.g. route. Close toxicities from different routes for some compounds indicate that distribution rate is the determining step and dictates chemical concentration at the target site(s). On the other hand, the absorption rate is the determining step for many compounds, which lead to different toxicities between exposure routes...
May 8, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482697/biotransformation-enzyme-activities-and-phase-i-metabolites-analysis-in-litopenaeus-vannamei-following-intramuscular-administration-of-t-2-toxin
#10
Yijia Deng, Yaling Wang, Lijun Sun, Pengli Lu, Rundong Wang, Lin Ye, Defeng Xu, Riying Ye, Ying Liu, Siyuan Bi, Ravi Gooneratne
T-2 toxin (T-2) is a type-A trichothecene produced by Fusarium that causes toxicity to animals. T-2 contamination of grain-based aquatic feed is a concern for the industries related to edible aquatic crustacean species such as the shrimp industry because it can lead to serious food safety issues. T-2, its metabolites, and selected phase I (EROD, CarE) and phase II (GST, UGT, SULT) detoxification enzymes in hemolymph and tissues were monitored at 0, 5, 10 15, 30, 45, and 60 min following T-2 intramuscular administration (3 mg/kg bw) in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)...
May 8, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441888/doxorubicin-induced-female-reproductive-toxicity-an-assessment-of-ovarian-follicular-apoptosis-cyclicity-and-reproductive-tissue-histology-in-wistar-rats
#11
Kumari Nishi, Vinoth Prasanna Gunasekaran, Jaganath Arunachalam, Mathan Ganeshan
Doxorubicin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for various cancers, particularly for the female breast cancer patients. Although the rate of young female cancer patients is increasing every year, conversely the lack of knowledge of adverse effects of doxorubicin on female reproductive system insisted us to assess the toxic effects of doxorubicin on the female reproductive tissue histoarchitecture, cyclicity, and mammary glands in Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two groups depending on the treatment period, i...
April 25, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440093/turmeric-curcuma-longa-l-extract-may-prevent-the-deterioration-of-spatial-memory-and-the-deficit-of-estimated-total-number-of-hippocampal-pyramidal-cells-of-trimethyltin-exposed-rats
#12
Sapto Yuliani, Mustofa, Ginus Partadiredja
CONTEXT: Protection of neurons from degeneration is an important preventive strategy for dementia. Much of the dementia pathology implicates oxidative stress pathways. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) contains curcuminoids which has anti-oxidative and neuro-protective effects. These effects are considered to be similar to those of citicoline which has been regularly used as one of standard medications for dementia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the effects of turmeric rhizome extract on the hippocampus of trimethyltin (TMT)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 25, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298149/methotrexate-induced-mitochondrial-injury-and-cytochrome-c-release-in-rat-liver-hepatocytes
#13
Abdullah Al Maruf, Peter J O'Brien, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Rozhina Fathian, Ahmad Salimi, Jalal Pourahmad
Methotrexate (MTX) is a folic acid antagonist that is widely used to treat a variety of diseases. One of the most serious side effects of MTX therapy is hepatotoxicity. The potential molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of MTX toward isolated rat hepatocytes were investigated using Accelerated Cytotoxicity Mechanism Screening (ACMS) techniques. A concentration and time dependent increase in cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were observed with MTX...
March 16, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274136/assessment-of-the-mutagenic-recombinogenic-and-carcinogenic-potential-of-amphotericin-b-in-somatic-cells-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Rosiane Soares Saturnino, Nayane Moreira Machado, Jeyson Cesary Lopes, Júlio César Nepomuceno
Amphotericin B (AmB) is an antifungal antibiotic extracted from Streptomyces nodosus. Its fungicidal activity depends primarily on its binding to the sterol group that is present in fungal membranes. In view of the toxicity of this drug, the purpose of this study was to evaluate its mutagenic, carcinogenic, and recombinogenic activity, based on the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) and the epithelial tumor detection test (wts) applied to Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae were chronically treated with different concentrations of AmB (0...
March 9, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125295/a-traditional-korean-multiple-herbal-formulae-yuk-mi-jihwang-tang-attenuates-acute-restraint-stress-induced-brain-tissue-oxidation
#15
Hyoung-Il Choi, Hye-Won Lee, Tae-Min Eom, Sung-Ah Lim, Hun-Yong Ha, In-Chan Seol, Yoon-Sik Kim, Dal-Seok Oh, Ho-Ryong Yoo
We aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Yuk-Mi-Jihwang-Tang (YJT) against acute restraint stress-induced brain oxidative damage. A water extract of YJT was prepared and subjected to high performance liquid chromatography - diode array detector-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). Thirty-six heads of C57BL/6J male mice (7 weeks) were divided into six groups (n = 6/group). The mice were orally administrated YJT (0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) or vitamin C (100 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days before 6 h of acute restraint stress...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461518/chromosomal-aberrations-sister-chromatid-exchanges-and-micronuclei-in-lymphocytes-of-oncology-department-personnel-handling-anti-neoplastic-drugs
#16
Majid Mahmoodi, Saeed Soleyman-Jahi, Kazem Zendehdel, Hossein Mozdarani, Cyrus Azimi, Farideh Farzanfar, Zahra Safari, Mohammad-Ali Mohagheghi, Malihea Khaleghian, Kouros Divsalar, Esfandiar Asgari, Nima Rezaei
OBJECTIVE: Concern exists regarding the possible hazards to the personnel handling anti-neoplastic drugs. The purpose of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity induced by anti-neoplastic agents in oncology department personnel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To do this, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes was assessed at G0 phase of the cell cycle using metaphase analysis, cytokinesis block-micronucleus (MN) assay and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424666/a-comparative-study-on-the-in-vitro-cytotoxic-responses-of-two-mammalian-cell-types-to-fullerenes-carbon-nanotubes-and-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Çiğdem Dönmez Güngüneş, Şükran Şeker, Ayşe Eser Elçin, Yaşar Murat Elçin
The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the time- and dose-dependent cellular response of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs), and mouse dermal fibroblasts (mDFs) to three different types of nanoparticles (NPs); fullerenes (C60), single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles via in vitro toxicity methods, and impedance based biosensor system. NPs were characterized according to their morphology, structure, surface area, particle size distribution and zeta potential by using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, dynamic light scattering and zeta sizer analyses...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387363/in-vitro-effects-of-simultaneous-exposure-to-platinum-and-cadmium-on-the-activity-of-antioxidant-enzymes-and-dna-damage-and-potential-protective-effects-of-selenium-and-zinc
#18
Blanka Tariba, Tanja Živković, Goran Gajski, Marko Gerić, Valentina Gluščić, Vera Garaj-Vrhovac, Maja Peraica, Alica Pizent
Circulating platinum (Pt) is detectable in the blood of Pt-treated cancer patients for over a decade after the treatment. Prolonged exposure to Pt, in combination with adverse compounds from nutrition and lifestyle, such as cadmium (Cd), could increase the risk from second cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simultaneous exposure to Cd- and Pt-compounds on oxidative and DNA damage and the possible protective effects of zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se). The aqueous solutions of PtCl4, CdCl2 × H2O, ZnCl2 and Na2SeO3 were added, alone or in combination, to whole blood and isolated erythrocytes to produce the final concentrations of 2000 μg/L of Pt, 8 μg/L of Cd, 100 μg/L of Se, and 1000 μg/L of Zn...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387265/genotoxic-evaluation-of-halfenprox-using-the-human-peripheral-lymphocyte-micronucleus-assay-and-the-ames-test
#19
Dilek Akyıl, Yasin Eren, Muhsin Konuk, Hatice Dere, Ahmet Serteser
The genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Halfenprox, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and acaricide, was assessed using two standard genotoxicity assays of the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and in vitro micronucleus (MN) assay in human peripheral lymphocytes. In the Ames test, Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 were treated with or without S9 fraction. The doses of Halfenprox were 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 μg/plate and test materials were dissolved in DMSO. The concentrations of Halfenprox did not show mutagenic activity on both strains with and without S9 fraction...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387089/beneficial-effects-of-garlic-on-learning-and-memory-deficits-and-brain-tissue-damages-induced-by-lead-exposure-during-juvenile-rat-growth-is-comparable-to-the-effect-of-ascorbic-acid
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Simagol Ghasemi, Mahmoud Hosseini, Azadeh Feizpour, Fatemeh Alipour, Akram Sadeghi, Farzaneh Vafaee, Toktam Mohammadpour, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Farimah Beheshti
OBJECTIVE: The neuroprotective effects of both garlic and ascorbic acid (AA) have been documented. In this study the effects of garlic and ascorbic acid on memory deficits and brain tissue oxidative damages induced by lead exposure was investigated. METHODS: The juvenile rats were divided and treated: (1) Control, (2) Lead (lead acetate in drinking water, 8 weeks), (3) Lead - Ascorbic Acid (Lead-AA), (4)  Lead - Garlic (100 mg/kg, daily, gavage) (Lead-Gar). RESULTS: In Morris water maze (MWM), the escape latency and traveled path in the Lead group were significantly higher while, the time spent in the target quadrant (Q1) was lower than Control...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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