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Drug and Chemical Toxicology

Abdullah Al Maruf, Peter J O'Brien, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Rozhina Fathian, Ahmad Salimi, Jalal Pourahmad
Methotrexate (MTX) is a folic acid antagonist that is widely used to treat a variety of diseases. One of the most serious side effects of MTX therapy is hepatotoxicity. The potential molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of MTX toward isolated rat hepatocytes were investigated using Accelerated Cytotoxicity Mechanism Screening (ACMS) techniques. A concentration and time dependent increase in cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were observed with MTX...
March 16, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Rosiane Soares Saturnino, Nayane Moreira Machado, Jeyson Cesary Lopes, Júlio César Nepomuceno
Amphotericin B (AmB) is an antifungal antibiotic extracted from Streptomyces nodosus. Its fungicidal activity depends primarily on its binding to the sterol group that is present in fungal membranes. In view of the toxicity of this drug, the purpose of this study was to evaluate its mutagenic, carcinogenic, and recombinogenic activity, based on the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) and the epithelial tumor detection test (wts) applied to Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae were chronically treated with different concentrations of AmB (0...
March 9, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Ankit Nariya, Ambar Pathan, Naumita Shah, Shiva Chettiar, Alpesh Patel, Jignasha Dattani, Divya Chandel, Mandava Rao, Devendrasinh Jhala
Lead, a heavy metal and multifaceted toxicant, is well studied for its distribution and toxicity in ecosystem, yet there is no consensus on its amelioration by any synthetic or phytochemical compounds. Curcumin, a known antioxidant and dietary element, is a well-known herb, for its therapeutic uses and having a wide spectrum of its beneficial properties against several adverse effects. Hence, the current study was taken into consideration to evaluate the ameliorative effects of curcumin (3.87 μM, i.e. 1...
February 1, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Regiane Pereira da Silva, Laura Vicedo Jacociunas, Raíne Fogliati de Carli, Bianca Regina Ribas de Abreu, Mauricio Lehmann, Juliana da Silva, Alexandre de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Rafael Rodrigues Dihl
Cynara scolymus L., popularly known as artichoke, is consumed as food and used as tea infusions for pharmacological purposes to treat liver dysfunctions and other conditions. Scientific data on the safety and protective effect of artichoke in human-derived liver cells is missing. This study investigated the genotoxic and modulatory effect of a liophilized extract suspended in water of C. scolymus L. leaves. Four extract concentrations (0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL) were evaluated using the comet assay on human hepatocyte cultures, HepG2 cells...
February 1, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Muhammad Ismail, Rahat Ali, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Asaf Khan, Muhammad Zubair, Tayyaba Ali, Qaiser Mahmood Khan
Chlorpyrifos is a commonly used organophosphate insecticide that causes toxicological effects in aquatic organisms especially in fish. This study determined the effects of chlorpyrifos on the genotoxic and hematological parameters of freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. The genotoxic effects of different sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos were investigated in the erythrocytes of Labeo rohita (commonly known as Rohu) using the Micronucleus test. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the hematological parameters of the fish were also observed...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Rima Celik, Mehmet Topaktas
4-Methylimidazole (4-MEI), a heterocyclic organic chemical compound, is widely found in many foods and consumed by people worldwide. In this research, we aimed to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of 4-MEI on human lymphocytes. For this purpose, human peripheral blood lymphocytes were treated with four concentrations of 4-MEI (300, 450, 600 and 750 μg/ml) for 24 h and 48 h periods and in vitro sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests were used...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Faqir Muhammad, Tuyen Duong Thanh Nguyen, Ahmad Raza, Bushra Akhtar, Santosh Aryal
Nanotechnology has gained significant penetration to different fields of medicine including drug delivery, disease interrogation, targeting and bio-imaging. In recent years, efforts have been put forth to assess the use of this technology in biodetoxification. In this review, we will discuss the current status of nanostructured biomaterials/nanoparticle (NP)-based technologies as a candidate biodetoxifying agent. Patient hospitalization due to illicit drug consumption, suicidal attempts and accidental toxin exposure are major challenges in the medical field...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Zygmunt Pejsak
The effect of enrofloxacin on cytokine secretion by porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was studied. Twenty 8-20-week-old pigs were randomly divided into two groups: control (C, n = 10) and experimental (E, n = 10) were used. Pigs from group E received enrofloxacin at therapeutic dose for 5 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected at 0 (before antibiotic administration), 2, 4 (during antibiotic therapy) 6, 9, 14 21, 35, 49, and 63 d of study (after treatment). PBMCs of pigs from both groups were incubated with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
January 25, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Hyoung-Il Choi, Hye-Won Lee, Tae-Min Eom, Sung-Ah Lim, Hun-Yong Ha, In-Chan Seol, Yoon-Sik Kim, Dal-Seok Oh, Ho-Ryong Yoo
We aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Yuk-Mi-Jihwang-Tang (YJT) against acute restraint stress-induced brain oxidative damage. A water extract of YJT was prepared and subjected to high performance liquid chromatography - diode array detector-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). Thirty-six heads of C57BL/6J male mice (7 weeks) were divided into six groups (n = 6/group). The mice were orally administrated YJT (0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) or vitamin C (100 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days before 6 h of acute restraint stress...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Majid Mahmoodi, Saeed Soleyman-Jahi, Kazem Zendehdel, Hossein Mozdarani, Cyrus Azimi, Farideh Farzanfar, Zahra Safari, Mohammad-Ali Mohagheghi, Malihea Khaleghian, Kouros Divsalar, Esfandiar Asgari, Nima Rezaei
OBJECTIVE: Concern exists regarding the possible hazards to the personnel handling anti-neoplastic drugs. The purpose of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity induced by anti-neoplastic agents in oncology department personnel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To do this, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes was assessed at G0 phase of the cell cycle using metaphase analysis, cytokinesis block-micronucleus (MN) assay and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Çiğdem Dönmez Güngüneş, Şükran Şeker, Ayşe Eser Elçin, Yaşar Murat Elçin
The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the time- and dose-dependent cellular response of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs), and mouse dermal fibroblasts (mDFs) to three different types of nanoparticles (NPs); fullerenes (C60), single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles via in vitro toxicity methods, and impedance based biosensor system. NPs were characterized according to their morphology, structure, surface area, particle size distribution and zeta potential by using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, dynamic light scattering and zeta sizer analyses...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Blanka Tariba, Tanja Živković, Goran Gajski, Marko Gerić, Valentina Gluščić, Vera Garaj-Vrhovac, Maja Peraica, Alica Pizent
Circulating platinum (Pt) is detectable in the blood of Pt-treated cancer patients for over a decade after the treatment. Prolonged exposure to Pt, in combination with adverse compounds from nutrition and lifestyle, such as cadmium (Cd), could increase the risk from second cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simultaneous exposure to Cd- and Pt-compounds on oxidative and DNA damage and the possible protective effects of zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se). The aqueous solutions of PtCl4, CdCl2 × H2O, ZnCl2 and Na2SeO3 were added, alone or in combination, to whole blood and isolated erythrocytes to produce the final concentrations of 2000 μg/L of Pt, 8 μg/L of Cd, 100 μg/L of Se, and 1000 μg/L of Zn...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Dilek Akyıl, Yasin Eren, Muhsin Konuk, Hatice Dere, Ahmet Serteser
The genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Halfenprox, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and acaricide, was assessed using two standard genotoxicity assays of the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and in vitro micronucleus (MN) assay in human peripheral lymphocytes. In the Ames test, Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 were treated with or without S9 fraction. The doses of Halfenprox were 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 μg/plate and test materials were dissolved in DMSO. The concentrations of Halfenprox did not show mutagenic activity on both strains with and without S9 fraction...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Simagol Ghasemi, Mahmoud Hosseini, Azadeh Feizpour, Fatemeh Alipour, Akram Sadeghi, Farzaneh Vafaee, Toktam Mohammadpour, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Farimah Beheshti
OBJECTIVE: The neuroprotective effects of both garlic and ascorbic acid (AA) have been documented. In this study the effects of garlic and ascorbic acid on memory deficits and brain tissue oxidative damages induced by lead exposure was investigated. METHODS: The juvenile rats were divided and treated: (1) Control, (2) Lead (lead acetate in drinking water, 8 weeks), (3) Lead - Ascorbic Acid (Lead-AA), (4)  Lead - Garlic (100 mg/kg, daily, gavage) (Lead-Gar). RESULTS: In Morris water maze (MWM), the escape latency and traveled path in the Lead group were significantly higher while, the time spent in the target quadrant (Q1) was lower than Control...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Linnzi K M Wright, Lucille A Lumley, Robyn B Lee, James T Taylor, Dennis B Miller, William T Muse, Edward J Emm, Christopher E Whalley
Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNA) inhibit acetylcholinesterase and are among the most lethal chemicals known to man. Children are predicted to be vulnerable to CWNA exposure because of their smaller body masses, higher ventilation rates and immature central nervous systems. While a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in younger animals have been published, exposure routes relevant to battlefield or terrorist situations (i.e. inhalation for sarin) were not used. Thus, we estimated the 24 h LC50 for whole-body (10 and 60 min) exposure to sarin using a stagewise, adaptive dose design...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Mayada Ragab Farag, Mahmoud Alagawany, Vincenzo Tufarelli
This study was conducted to explore the potential benefits of using cinnamaldehyde (CIN), resveratrol (RES) separately or in combination on cyadox (CYA)-induced alterations in isolated rabbit erythrocytes. Erythrocytes suspensions were partitioned into 7 groups (5 replicates/group), 1st kept as control treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO); 2nd group was subjected to CYA (40 μg/ml), 3rd group was incubated with CIN (40 μM), 4th group was subjected to RES (40 μM), 5th group was co-exposed to CYA (40 μg/ml) and CIN (40 μM), 6th group was co exposed to CYA (40 μg/ml) and RES (40 μM), and 7th group was exposed to CYA in combination with both CIN and RES at the same indicated concentrations...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Gökçe Taner, Deniz Özkan Vardar, Sevtap Aydin, Zeki Aytaç, Ahmet Başaran, Nurşen Başaran
Vanillic acid (VA) found in vanilla and cinnamic acid (CA) the precursor of flavonoids and found in cinnamon oil, are natural plant phenolic acids which are secondary aromatic plant products suggested to possess many physiological and pharmacological functions. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that phenolic acids exhibit powerful effects on biological responses by scavenging free radicals and eliciting antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant capacity of VA and CA by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, cytotoxicity by neutral red uptake (NRU) assay in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and also the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of these phenolic acids using the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) and the alkaline comet assays in human peripheral blood lymphocytes...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Juan José Rodríguez-Mercado, Diana Florín-Ramírez, Lucila Álvarez-Barrera, Mario Agustín Altamirano-Lozano
A variety of metal ions have biological functions, and many researchers have not actively investigated copper compounds, based on the assumption that endogenous metals might be less toxic. In the present study, we used a dual fluorochrome method and a single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay at pH > 13 to evaluate the cell viability and DNA damage induced by a copper-based antineoplastic drug, Casiopeina II-gly®, at concentrations of 1.04, 2.08, 4.17, 8.35 or 16 μg/mL in human peripheral-blood leukocytes in vitro...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Subhrajyoti Roy, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri
CONTEXT: Diplazium esculentum, a commonly consumed seasonal vegetable, has been reported to have some pathological effects in some animals. But, its effect on the male reproductive function has not yet been studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of boiled D. esculentum (BDE), the form which human consumes, on male reproductive functions of Swiss albino mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male (120 in no.) and female (80 in no.) Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks of age) were fed orally with 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg bw of BDE within a span of 180 d...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Maryam Zahin, Iqbal Ahmad, Farrukh Aqil
Fruits, vegetables and medicinal herbs rich in phenolics antioxidants contribute toward reduced risk of age-related diseases and cancer. In this study, Psidium guajava leaf extract was fractionated in various organic solvents viz. petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, ethanl and methanol and tested for their antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Methanolic fraction showed maximum antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) as tested by DPPH free radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, FRAP (Fe3 + reducing power) and CUPRAC (cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing ability) assays...
April 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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