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Drug and Chemical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319385/evaluating-the-effect-of-diallyl-sulfide-on-regulation-of-inflammatory-mrna-expression-in-3t3l1-adipocytes-and-raw-264-7-macrophages-during-ethanol-treatment
#1
Venkata Harini Kema, Imran Khan, Suman Kapur, Palash Mandal
Diallyl sulfide (DAS) has been studied extensively for its alleged role as an anticancer and protective agent. Alcohol influences and effects on human health have been extensively studied. However, investigations toward developing and testing therapeutic agents that can reduce the tissue injury caused by ethanol are scarce. In this backdrop, this study was designed to explore the potential effect of DAS in reducing alcohol induced damage of 3T3L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay was performed to determine the DAS effect on cell viability...
January 10, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319361/cinnamon-cinnamomum-zeylanicum-as-an-antidote-or-a-protective-agent-against-natural-or-chemical-toxicities-a-review
#2
Mahyar Dorri, Shirin Hashemitabar, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Lauraceae) is a food additive greatly used for its taste. However, recently this medicinal plant has been brought to attention due to its medical effects. Cinnamon has constituents such as cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid that offers some health benefits including antioxidant and free-radical scavenging properties, lowering of blood glucose, anti-cholesterolemic, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-yeast, anti-secretagogue, and anti-gastric ulcer effects. This review summarizes various in vitro and animal studies on the protective effects of cinnamon against natural and chemical toxins...
January 10, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299944/evaluation-of-genotoxic-potential-of-avarol-avarone-and-its-methoxy-and-methylamino-derivatives-in-prokaryotic-and-eukaryotic-test-models
#3
Stoimir Kolarević, Dragana Milovanović, Margareta Kračun-Kolarević, Jovana Kostić, Karolina Sunjog, Rajko Martinović, Jelena Đorđević, Irena Novaković, Dušan Sladić, Branka Vuković-Gačić
In this study, mutagenic and genotoxic potential of anti-tumor compounds avarol, avarone, and its derivatives 3'-methoxyavarone, 4'-(methylamino)avarone and 3'-(methylamino)avarone was evaluated and compared to cytostatics commonly used in chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, etoposid, and cisplatin). Mutagenic potential of selected hydroquinone and quinones was assessed in prokaryotic model by the SOS/umuC assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. Genotoxic potential was also assessed in eukaryotic models using comet assay in human fetal lung cell line (MRC-5), human adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A549), and in human peripheral blood cells (HPBC)...
January 4, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281933/toxicity-evaluation-of-magnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-reveals-neuronal-loss-in-chicken-embryo
#4
Shweta Patel, Sarmita Jana, Rajlakshmi Chetty, Sonal Thakore, Man Singh, Ranjitsinh Devkar
Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) display the ability to cross blood - brain barrier and are envisioned as diagnostic and therapeutic applications, but there are few studies on their potential embryonic toxicity in higher vertebrates. This study investigates interaction of IONs with egg albumen and its subsequent toxicity on chicken embryo. Physicochemical interactions of IONs with egg albumen revealed alterations in friccohesity and secondary structural changes due to weak Vander Waals forces. Toxicity assessment of IONs (10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µg/ml doses) on chicken embryo accounted for 100% mortality at 200 µg/ml dose due to Fe2+ ions overload...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281929/protective-effect-of-aspirin-against-mitomycin-c-induced-carcinogenicity-assessed-by-the-test-for-detection-of-epithelial-tumor-clones-warts-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Victor Constante Oliveira, Sarah Alves Rodrigues Constante, Lorena Polloni, Priscila Capelari Orsolin, Rosiane Gomes Silva-Oliveira, Nayane Moreira Machado, Robson José de Oliveira-Júnior, Júlio César Nepomuceno
The present study assessed the protective effect of aspirin against carcinogenicity induced by mitomycin C (MMC) by the test for detection of warts/epithelial tumor clones in Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae were treated with different concentrations of aspirin alone (10, 20 or 40 mg/mL) or aspirin in association with MMC. MMC and ultrapure water were employed as the positive and negative control, respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH method. For performing cytotoxicity assay on HeLa cells, the aspirin concentrations used ranged from 200 mmol/L to 3,125 mmol/L...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281926/investigation-of-genotoxic-effects-of-paraben-in-cultured-human-lymphocytes
#6
Devrim Güzel Bayülken, Berrin Ayaz Tüylü, Handan Sinan, Hülya Sivas
Paraben is a phenolic derivative of benzoic acid extensively used as preservatives in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries due to its antimicrobial characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro genotoxic effects of paraben in human lymphocyte cultures. Cells were analyzed by cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN), chromosome aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), and comet tests. For CBMN, CA, and SCE assays, the human lymphocytes were isolated from healthy donors and incubated with 500, 250, 100, and 50 µg/mL of paraben for 24 and 48 h, and for comet assay, cells were exposed to 1000, 750, 500, and 250 µg/mL of paraben for an hour...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280389/the-effects-of-black-garlic-on-the-working-memory-and-pyramidal-cell-number-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-rats-exposed-to-monosodium-glutamate
#7
Titis Nurmasitoh, Dwi Cahyani Ratna Sari, Ginus Partadiredja
Monosodium glutamate-induced exitotoxicity causes oxidative stress in many brain areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex. The ethanolic garlic (Allium sativum) extract is considered as a neuroprotective substance. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of the ethanolic fermented garlic extract on the working memory and the pyramidal cell number of the medial prefrontal cortex of adolescent male Wistar rats exposed to monosodium glutamate (MSG). Twenty-five rats were randomly divided into five groups...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268635/nicotine-exposure-suppresses-hyperinsulinemia-and-improves-endothelial-dysfunction-mediators-independent-of-corticosteroids-in-insulin-resistant-oral-contraceptive-treated-female-rats
#8
Olugbenga S Michael, Lawrence A Olatunji
Estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives (COC) or tobacco smoking has been associated with hypertension and endothelial dysfunction resulting in increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Contrasting effects of nicotine exposure on endothelial function have been reported. The effect of non-smoking nicotine exposure on endothelial dysfunction during COC treatment remains to be fully elucidated. We therefore, sought to determine the effects of nicotine exposure during COC treatment on endothelial dysfunction mediators and circulating corticosteroids...
December 22, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258333/assessment-of-the-acute-toxicity-of-chlorpyrifos-and-cypermethrin-to-heteropneustes-fossilis-and-their-impact-on-acetylcholinesterase-activity
#9
Rishikesh K Tiwari, Shikha Singh, Ravi S Pandey
In the present study, the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate, OP) and cypermethrin (a pyrethroid) pesticides was estimated for 96 h in Heteropneustes fossilis. The LC50 for chlorpyrifos (CPF) and cypermethrin was found to be 1.90 mg/L and 0.085 mg/L, respectively. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) activity in Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to both the insecticides was assayed in brain, muscle and gills. In general, tissue specific as well as dose-dependent decrease in the AChE activity was exhibited by both pesticides...
December 20, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250999/pesticides-exposure-through-environment-and-risk-of-pre-term-birth-a-study-from-agra-city
#10
M Anand, L Singh, P Agarwal, R Saroj, A Taneja
Pre-term birth is an increasingly prevalent complex condition with multiple risk factors including environmental pollutants. Evidences linking organochlorine pesticides with adverse pregnancy outcomes are inconsistent for link between organochlorine pesticides and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a case-control study of 50 cases of full-term births and 40 cases of pre-term births in this study. Placental organochlorine pesticides like metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane that is, (p,p-DDE, p,p-DDT and o,p-DDD) and isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (α, β, γ and δ HCH) were analyzed by gas chromatography...
December 18, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250976/attenuation-of-brain-mitochondria-oxidative-damage-by-albizia-julibrissin-durazz-neuroprotective-and-antiemetic-effects
#11
Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh, Hamed Fathi, Ali Ziar, Hamidreza Mohammadi
Medicinal plants, as new drugs, are considered for treatment of insomnia, anxiety, depression, confusion, nausea, and vomiting symptoms. The current study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective and antiemetic effects of Albizia. julibrissin Durazz. flower extract in the chickens. Emesis was induced by copper sulfate and ipecac (60 and 600 mg/kg, orally, respectively) and the methanolic extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.). Mitochondrial function, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl (PC) content, and catalase activity as biomarkers of oxidative damage were evaluated in the brain mitochondria...
December 18, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210293/phosphatidylcholine-attenuated-docetaxel-induced-peripheral-neurotoxicity-in-rats
#12
Sung Tae Kim, Eun Jung Kyung, Jung Sook Suh, Ho Sung Lee, Jun Ho Lee, Soo In Chae, Eon Sub Park, Yoon Hee Chung, Jinhyung Bae, Tae Jin Lee, Won Mo Lee, Uy Dong Sohn, Ji Hoon Jeong
Docetaxel is a taxane chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer and gastric cancer, but several side effects such as peripheral neurotoxicity could occur. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential of phosphatidylcholine (PC) on docetaxel-induced peripheral neurotoxicity. Rats were randomly divided into three groups and treated for 4 weeks. Behavioral tests were conducted to measure the effects of PC on docetaxel-induced decreases in mechanical & thermal nociceptive threshold...
December 6, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199475/chromosomal-instability-and-cytotoxicity-induced-by-ribavirin-comparative-analysis-in-cell-lines-with-different-drug-metabolizing-profiles
#13
Carina Sperotto Librelotto, Daniel Simon, Ana Paula de Souza, Mário Reis Álvares-da-Silva, Rafael Rodrigues Dihl
Ribavirin is an important component of the treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and, in combination with the new direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents, comprises the major current therapeutic regimens. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and chromosomal instability induced by ribavirin using the in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay in two cell lines with different expression levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes: human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells...
December 4, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199472/behavior-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-in-a-nicotine-gradient-modulated-by-food
#14
Robert Sobkowiak, Piotr Kaczmarek, Mateusz Kowalski, Rafał Kabaciński, Andrzej Lesicki
Nicotine decreases food intake, and smokers often report that they smoke to control their weight. To see whether similar phenomena could be observed in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, we challenged drug-naïve nematodes with a chronic low (0.01 mM) and high (1 mM) nicotine concentration for 55 h (from hatching to adulthood). After that, we recorded changes in their behavior in a nicotine gradient, where they could choose a desired nicotine concentration. By using a combination of behavioral and morphometric methods, we found that both nicotine and food modulate worm behavior...
December 4, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171299/whole-body-exposure-of-rats-to-sulfur-mustard-vapor
#15
Shlomit Dachir, Ishai Rabinovitz, Guy Yaacov, Hila Gutman, Liat Cohen, Vered Horwitz, Maayan Cohen, Tamar Kadar
Sulfur mustard (SM) is an incapacitating chemical warfare agent used in numerous conflicts around the world and it is still a major threat for both, army troops and civilians. To evaluate its multiple targets effects in experimental setup, a model of whole body exposure (WBE) to SM vapor was established in rats and its simultaneous effects on lungs and eyes as well as on general wellbeing were examined. Rats were exposed to SM vapor. Evaluation (up to 10 weeks post-exposure) included body weight, general observation, blood counts and histological analysis...
November 24, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161932/current-trends-in-in-silico-in-vitro-toxicology-and-safety-biomarkers-in-early-drug-development
#16
Simon Loiodice, Andre Nogueira da Costa, Franck Atienzar
The development of new medicines is a long and expensive process. Despite growing efforts in R&D over the last decades, attrition rate due to safety issues (especially cardiac and hepatic toxicity) remains a major challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. This may lead to market withdrawal or late stage halting of a drug development program. Consequently, early detection of toxicity issues is critical to avoid late-stage failures. To this end, development of predictive toxicology assays and models have become a strategic matter for drug makers...
November 21, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156995/combined-repeated-dose-and-reproductive-developmental-toxicity-screening-test-of-benzene-1-1-oxybis-tetrapropylene-derivs-in-rats
#17
Yasuhiro Tsubokura, Ryuichi Hasegawa, Sunao Aso, Toshio Kobayashi, Takayuki Koga, Satsuki Hoshuyama, Yutaka Oshima, Katsumi Miyata, Yuji Kusune, Takako Muroi, Naoki Hashizume, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Shozo Ajimi, Kotaro Furukawa
We have conducted animal toxicity tests of chemicals for a chemical safety program implemented by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan. Here we conducted a combined repeated-dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test of benzene, 1,1'-oxybis-, tetrapropylene derivs. (BOTD). BOTD was administered to 9-week-old Crl:CD(SD) male and female rats by gavage at 0, 40, 200, or 1000 mg/kg/day. Males were treated for 42 days including mating period. Females were treated for 42-53 days through the premating, mating, pregnancy, and until Day 4 of lactation periods...
November 20, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143548/evaluation-on-the-thyroid-disrupting-mechanism-of-malathion-in-fischer-rat-thyroid-follicular-cell-line-frtl-5
#18
Jingyuan Xiong, Liantian Tian, Yongjie Qiu, Ding Sun, Hao Zhang, Mei Wu, Jintao Wang
Thyroid hormones are involved in many important physiological activities including regulation of energy metabolism, development of nervous system, maintenance of cerebral functions, and so on. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that interfere with thyroid functions raise serious concerns due to their frequent misuse in areas where regulations are poorly implemented. In addition, chemicals that are originally regarded safe may now be considered as toxic with the development of life sciences. Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide that is widely applied and distributed in agricultural and residential settings...
November 16, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124983/comparative-toxicological-evaluation-of-nonylphenol-and-nonylphenol-polyethoxylates-using-human-keratinocytes
#19
Hyungjoo Kim, Sunhwa Oh, Myung Chan Gye, Incheol Shin
Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are a major group of nonionic surfactants widely used in various detergents, cleaners, plastics, papers, and agro-chemical products. Nonylphenol (NP), which is a final degraded metabolite derived from NPEOs, has been reported as an endocrine disrupter, known to mimic or disturb reproductive hormone functions. Concern about the hazards of NP and NPEOs has generated legal restrictions and action plans worldwide. Considering the fact that NP and NPEOs are majorly used in the production of products such as detergents, shampoos, and cosmetics which frequently come into contact with the skin, we investigated the effects of NP and NPEOs on a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT)...
November 10, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115178/effects-of-silica-nanoparticles-on-isolated-rat-uterine-smooth-muscle
#20
Selma Yaman, Ülkü Çömelekoğlu, Evren Değirmenci, Meryem İlkay Karagül, Serap Yalın, Ebru Ballı, Saadet Yıldırımcan, Metin Yıldırım, Adem Doğaner, Kasım Ocakoğlu
In spite of their widespread use, toxicity of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) to mammalian has not been extensively investigated. In the present study, it is aimed to investigate the effects and the mechanism of action of 20 nm sized SiO2 NPs on isolated uterine smooth muscle. A total number of 84 preparations of uterine strips were used in the experiments. Study was designed as four groups: group I (control), group II (0.2 mM SiO2 NPs), group III (0.4 mM SiO2 NPs) and group IV (0.8 mM SiO2 NPs). Spontaneous contractions were recorded using mechanical activity recording system...
November 8, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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