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Drug and Chemical Toxicology

Canan Sapmaz, Tulin Firat, Aysel Kukner, Azra Bozcaarmutlu
Morin is a flavonoid which is present in many plants. Endosulfan and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) are toxic chemicals that humans are exposed to in their daily lives. In this study, the protective role of morin was investigated in endosulfan and DMBA treated rats. Eight groups, each comprising seven 2.5-month-old adult male Wistar rats (weighing 170-255 g), were used. Endosulfan, morin, and DMBA were administered individually or in combinations, at 5 mg/kg body weight (bw) (three times/week), 25 mg/kg bw (three times/week), and 30 mg/kg bw (once/week for three weeks) via oral gavage, respectively...
May 18, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Samaneh Silakhori, Hossein Hosseinzadeh, Fatemeh Shaebani Behbahani, Soghra Mehri
Trimethyltin (TMT) is a short-chain trialkyltin with various applications in industry. In addition, it is a known neurotoxin, producing significant and selective neurodegeneration in the limbic system of both human and animals. Recently, effect of clavulanic acid (CA) in nervous system has been mentioned. Therefore, in this study, the role of CA in TMT-induced toxicity in PC12 cells was evaluated. For this study, PC12 cells were cultured and exposed to different concentrations of CA for 24 h. Then, TMT (20 µM) was added to cells...
May 15, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Mitra Samareh Fekri, Ali Mandegary, Fariba Sharififar, Hamid Reza Poursalehi, Mohammad Hadi Nematollahi, Atefe Izadi, Mohammad Mehdipour, Amir Asadi, Masoomeh Samareh Fekri
CONTEXT: Myrtle (Myrtus communis L) has been used widely in traditional medicine for different respiratory disorders. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an inflammatory disease characterized by progressive loss of lung function with poor prognosis. The pathogenesis of disease has not been completely elucidated, but probably persistent epithelial damages are involved. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of biochemical and histopathological effect of preventive and therapeutic doses of myrtle against bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) in animal model...
May 11, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Aliyu Muhammad, David Ebuka Arthur, Sanusi Babangida, Ochuko L Erukainure, Ibrahim Malami, Hadiza Sani, Aliyu Waziri Abdulhamid, Idayat Omoyemi Ajiboye, Ahmed Ariyo Saka, Nafisa Muhammed Hamza, Suleiman Asema, Zaharaddeen Muhammad Ado, Taibat Ishaq Musa
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentials of rutin on 2,5-hexanedione-induced toxicities. Two successive phases were involved using in silico and in vivo approaches. The in silico was adopted for potential oral toxicity and docking. The in vivo was carried-out in two stages for two weeks; the ameliorative (stage 1, first week), preventive, and curative studies (stage 2, extended to second week). In stage 1, rats were divided into four groups of seven each (distilled water, 3% (v/v) 2,5-hexanedione, 10 mg/kg rutin, and co-administration)...
May 10, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Kobra Afsordeh, Yousef Sadeghi, Abdollah Amini, Zahra Namvarpour, Mohammad-Amin Abdollahifar, Hojjat-Allah Abbaszadeh, Abass Aliaghaei
Evidence suggests that the effect of heavy metals on neuroimmune cells lead to neurogenic inflammatory responses. In this study, immune cells [mast cells (MCs) and microglia] and pro-neuroinflammation cytokines (interleukin-1b and tumor necrosis factor-α) were assessed in the prefrontal lobe of rat brains exposed to thimerosal in different timeframes. A total of 108 neonatal Wistar rats were divided into three groups having three subgroups. The experimental groups received a single dose of thimerosal (300 μg/kg) postnatally at 7, 9, 11, and 15 days...
May 10, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Eyyüp Rencüzoğulları, Muhsin Aydın
In this review, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of teratogenic chemical agents in both rat and mouse have been reviewed. Of these chemicals, 97 are drugs and 33 are pesticides or belong to other groups. Large literature searches were conducted to determine the effects of chemicals on chromosome abnormalities, sister chromatid exchanges, and micronucleus formation in experimental animals such as rats and mice. In addition, studies that include unscheduled DNA synthesis, DNA adduct formations, and gene mutations, which help to determine the genotoxicity or mutagenicity of chemicals, have been reviewed...
May 10, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Simagol Ghasemi, Malihe Moradzadeh, Mahmoud Hosseini, Farimah Beheshti, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia
This study was conducted to investigate protective effects of Urtica dioica extract on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and the oxidative damage of brain tissues in scopolamine-induced memory impairment model. The rats were treated with (1) saline (control), (2) scopolamine, and (3-5) the plant extract (20, 50, or 100 mg/kg) before scopolamine. The traveled distance and the latency to find the platform in Morris water maze (MWM) by scopolamine-treated group were longer while the time spent in target quadrant was shorter than those of the control...
May 10, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Sheharbano Bhatti, Syed Adnan Ali Shah, Touqeer Ahmed, Saadia Zahid
The present study investigates the neuroprotective effects of Foeniculum vulgare seeds in a lead (Pb)-induced brain neurotoxicity mice model. The dried seeds extract of Foeniculum vulgare was prepared with different concentrations of organic solvents (ethanol, methanol, n-hexane). The in vitro antioxidant activity of Foeniculum vulgare seed extracts was assessed through DPPH assay and the chemical composition of the extracts was determined by high-resolution 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The age-matched male Balb/c mice (divided into 9 groups) were administered with 0...
May 9, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Reza Heidari, Fatemeh Ahmadi, Hamid Reza Rahimi, Negar Azarpira, Massood Hosseinzadeh, Asma Najibi, Hossein Niknahad
Drug-induced liver injury is a major concern in clinical studies as well as in post-marketing surveillance. Previous evidence suggested that drug exposure during periods of inflammation could increase an individual's susceptibility to drug hepatoxicity. The antithyroid drugs, methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU) can cause adverse reactions in patients, with liver as a usual target. We tested the hypothesis that MMI and PTU could be rendered hepatotoxic in animals undergoing a modest inflammation. Mice were treated with a nonhepatotoxic dose of LPS (100 µg/kg, i...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Charatda Punvittayagul, Arpamas Chariyakornkul, Teera Chewonarin, Kanokwan Jarukamjorn, Rawiwan Wongpoomchai
Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) are classical carcinogens used in experimental rodent carcinogenesis. However, the interaction effects of these carcinogens on biochemical and molecular changes during carcinogenesis have not been investigated. Therefore, the effect of DEN and DMH co-administration on preneoplastic lesion formation and its molecular mechanism in rats were determined. Triple intraperitoneal administrations of DEN were made before, during or after double subcutaneous injections of DMH...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Mohammad Reza Khazdair, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
The long term effect of sulfur mustard (SM) exposure including, total and differential white blood cells (WBC), hematological parameters, pulmonary function tests (PFT), and respiratory symptoms (RS) in chemical war victims (CWV) exposed to SM 27-30 years ago were examined. Forty-six CWV and 42 control subjects with similar age from the general population were studied. Hematologic parameters, RS including; chest wheezing, night cough, night wheezing and cough, wheezing due to exercise (by Persian questionnaire), and PFT were assessed in all subjects...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Safa Ben Mimouna, Marouane Chemek, Sana Boughammoura, Zohra Haouas, Imed Messaoudi
The present study was conducted to assess the possible effect of cadmium (Cd) throughout gestation and lactation on the volume of the subregion of the hippocampus as well as the potential protective role of zinc (Zn) against Cd neurotoxicity. For this purpose, female rats received either tap water, Cd, Zn or Cd + Zn in their drinking water during gestation and lactation. At postnatal day 35 (PND35), the male pups were sacrificed, and their brains were taken for histologic, chemical, and biochemical analysis...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Ana Correia-Branco, Elisa Keating, Fátima Martel
Our aim was to investigate the effect of some xenobiotics on placentation-related processes in an extravillous trophoblastic cell line (HTR-8/SVneo cells). Amphetamine, MDMA, theophylline, and fluoxetine, but not nicotine, cocaine, and caffeine, had a negative effect on cell proliferation rates, culture growth, viability, or migratory capacity. These compounds have a detrimental effect in placentation-related processes of HTR-8/SVneo cells.
May 3, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Aslı Çilingir Yeltekin, Ahmet Regaib Oğuz
Alkylphenols, a nonionic surface-active agent group, such as nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) are important endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). In this study, the dose- and time-dependent effects of NP and OP were investigated in the primary hepatocyte culture of Van Fish. In this study, samples were taken at different times and biochemical parameters were studied separately. The effects of the chemicals used on SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, MDA, and 8-OHdG were investigated in hepatocyte culture. The antioxidants SOD and CAT were observed to increase in all groups in the primary hepatocyte cultures at the 24th hour after NP and OP administration, whereas the GSH-Px level was observed to increase with OP at the 24th hour and with NP at the 48th hour...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Mary Beth Dail, Edward Caldwell Meek, Howard Wayne Chambers, Janice Elaine Chambers
Novel-substituted phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oxime acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators (US patent 9,227,937) that showed convincing evidence of penetration into the brains of intact rats were developed by our laboratories. The oximes separated into three groups based on their levels of brain AChE reactivation following exposure of rats to the sarin surrogate nitrophenyl isopropyl methylphosphonate (NIMP). P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a major blood-brain barrier (BBB) transporter and requires ATP for efflux. To determine if P-gp affinity screening could be used to reduce animal use, we measured in vitro oxime-stimulated ATPase activity to see if the in vivo reactivation efficacies related to the oximes' functions as P-gp substrates...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Daryoush Hamidi Alamdari, B Fatemeh Nobakht, Mahdi Balali-Mood, Mohammad Reza Keramati, Amirhossein Sahebkar
The present study aimed to evaluate serum prooxidant -antioxidant balance (PAB) in an Iranian population exposed to sulfur mustard (SM) more than 20 years ago. In this study, 42 SM-exposed subjects and 30 unexposed subjects (as controls) were recruited. Serum PAB, biochemical, and hematological parameters were measured in all subjects. Correlation of PAB with biochemical and hematological parameters was determined. The mean PAB values in the SM-exposed group (82.5 ± 34.8 HK) were significantly higher than that in the control group [47...
April 23, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Naeima Eftekhar, Ali Moghimi, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Mahsa Kaveh, Farzaneh Shakeri
The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum) was shown previously. In the present study, the effect of O. basilicum on tracheal responsiveness (TR) to methacholine and ovalbumin (OVA), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of oxidant-antioxidant biomarkers as well as total and differential white blood cell (WBC) in sensitized rats was examined. Six groups of rats including control (group C), sensitized rats to OVA (group S), S groups treated with three concentrations of O...
April 23, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Leah K Bartel, Daniel A Hunter, Kayla B Anderson, W Yau, Ji Wu, Worlanyo E Gato
Various in vitro and in vivo studies have shown titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TDNPs) increase the production of reactive oxygen species and change the expression of genes and proteins involved in the inflammatory response and cell division. Although, the cytotoxicity of TDNPs has been shown to be largely dependent on the characteristics of the particles including shape and surface area. This present study investigates the effects of titanium dioxide nanofibers (TDNFs) with a diameter of 300-800 nm, on the histopathology of liver tissue, changes in feed efficiency and liver weights, changes in hepatic gene expression, and serum biochemical parameters in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 23, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Reetu Bhanot, Gurinder Kaur Sangha
In the present study, Triazophos (TZ) was used at acceptable daily intake (ADI) to investigate the consequence of prenatal and postnatal exposure on reproductive functions in the male offsprings. Pregnant females were divided into three groups, the first group was orally gavaged with olive oil (control), the second group was administered with 0.01 mg kg-1 bw of the ADI of TZ from gestation day (GD) 1 until parturition (designated as P group) and the third group was gavaged with the same dose from GD1 to postnatal day (PND) 21 of lactation (marked as P + L group)...
April 23, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Xiaofang Zhang, Yuping Zhu, Yijun Tian, Han Yan, Lijun Ren, Wenjing Shi, Jiangbo Zhu, Tianbao Zhang
The aims of the present research are to further validate the application of the improved three-dimensional (3 D) rat testicular cell co-culture model to evaluate the effects of various reprotoxic chemicals on the function of the main somatic cells, as well as on spermatogonial cell differentiation and even spermatogenesis, and to investigate the specific toxicant mechanisms in testes treated with HZ1006, a hydroxamate-based a hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI). Based on the characteristics of HZ1006, the appropriate exposure duration (8, 16, or 24 days), dosage (0, 3...
April 23, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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