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Drug and Chemical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100091/the-effects-of-polyethylenimine-dna-nanoparticle-on-transcript-levels-of-apoptosis-related-genes
#1
Elham Pishavar, Mohammad Shafiei, Soghra Mehri, Mohammad Ramezani, Khalil Abnous
CONTEXT: Polyethylenimine (PEI) is a cationic polymer commonly used in gene transfer. Although numerous investigations have indicated that PEI can induce apoptosis/necrosis but the mechanism of its cytotoxicity is still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PEI/DNA complexes on the expression of apoptotic genes in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT29). METHODS: HT29 cells were exposed to PEI/DNA complex (C/P = 0...
January 18, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049353/nicotine-affects-protein-complex-rearrangement-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-cells
#2
Robert Sobkowiak, Andrzej Zielezinski, Wojciech M Karlowski, Andrzej Lesicki
Nicotine may affect cell function by rearranging protein complexes. We aimed to determine nicotine-induced alterations of protein complexes in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) cells, thereby revealing links between nicotine exposure and protein complex modulation. We compared the proteomic alterations induced by low and high nicotine concentrations (0.01 mM and 1 mM) with the control (no nicotine) in vivo by using mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques, specifically the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) discontinuous gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS and spectral counting...
January 3, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998191/in-vitro-potential-cytogenetic-and-oxidative-stress-effects-of-roxithromycin
#3
Mehmet Arslan, Taygun Timocin, Hasan B Ila
Macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin was evaluated in terms of its genotoxic, cytotoxic and oxidative stress effects. For this purpose; 25, 50, 100 and 200 μg/mL concentrations of roxithromycin were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and treated to human peripheral blood lymphocytes for two different treatment periods (24 and 48 h). In chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests, roxithromycin did not show genotoxic effect. But it induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE) at the highest concentration (200 μg/mL) for the 24-h treatment period and at all concentrations (except 25 μg/mL) for the 48-h treatment period...
December 21, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960556/acetaminophen-toxicity-in-rat-and-mouse-hepatocytes-in-vitro
#4
Otto Kučera, René Endlicher, David Rychtrmoc, Halka Lotková, Ondřej Sobotka, Zuzana Červinková
CONTEXT: Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is often studied in primary cultures of hepatocytes of various species, but there are only few works comparing interspecies differences in susceptibility of hepatocytes to APAP in vitro. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our work was to compare hepatotoxicity of APAP in rat and mouse hepatocytes in primary cultures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatocytes isolated from male Wistar rats and C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to APAP for up to 24 h...
December 14, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936973/premature-chromatid-separation-and-altered-proliferation-of-human-leukocytes-treated-with-vanadium-iii-oxide
#5
Rodrigo Anibal Mateos-Nava, Juan José Rodríguez-Mercado, Mario Agustín Altamirano-Lozano
Vanadium is a widely distributed metal in the Earth's surface and is released into the environment by either natural or anthropogenic causes. Vanadium (III) oxide (V2O3) is present in the environment, and many organisms are exposed to this compound; however, its effects at the cellular and genetic levels are still unknown. Therefore, in this study, the ability of V2O3 to induce chromosomal damage and impair cell proliferation was tested on human leukocytes in vitro. The cultures cells were treated for 48 h with different concentrations 2, 4, 8 or 16 μg/mL of V2O3, and we use the sister chromatid exchange's (SCE) test and the viability assay to evaluate the effects...
December 12, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894189/ziprasidone-induces-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-in-human-peripheral-lymphocytes
#6
Haluk Kefelioğlu, Zülal Atlı Şekeroğlu, Gamze Coşguner, Seval Kontaş Yedier, Vedat Şekeroğlu
It has been stated that some antipsychotic drugs might cause genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Ziprasidone (ZIP) is commonly used an antipsychotic drug. However, its genotoxicity and carcinogenicity data are very limited. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of ZIP on human peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in vitro by sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests in this study. Lymphocyte cultures were treated with 50, 75 and 100 μg/ml of ZIP in the presence and absence of a metabolic activator (S9 mix)...
November 29, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884068/silver-nanoparticle-exposure-in-pregnant-rats-increases-gene-expression-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-and-monoamine-oxidase-in-offspring-brain
#7
Seyed Reza Fatemi Tabatabaie, Babak Mehdiabadi, Najmeh Mori Bakhtiari, Mohammad Reza Tabandeh
CONTEXT: Maternal exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) affects neurobehavioral reflexes and spatial memory formation in offspring. Although the transmission of AgNPs into the brain has been reported, its toxic effect on dopamine metabolism in the brain of offspring has not been studied so far. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) genes in the brain of offspring exposed in utero to various concentrations of AgNPs...
November 24, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884059/dna-methylation-analysis-in-rat-kidney-epithelial-cells-exposed-to-3-mcpd-and-glycidol
#8
Mine Senyildiz, Buket Alpertunga, Sibel Ozden
3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a well-known food processing contaminant that has been regarded as a rat carcinogen, which is known to induce Leydig-cell and mammary gland tumors in males, as well as kidney tumors in both genders. 3-MCPD is highly suspected to be a non-genotoxic carcinogen. 2,3-Epoxy-1-propanol (glycidol) can be formed via dehalogenation from 3-MCPD. We aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of 3-MCPD and glycidol, then to demonstrate the possible epigenetic mechanisms with global and gene-specific DNA methylation in rat kidney epithelial cells (NRK-52E)...
November 24, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866417/bodipy-conjugated-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-a-fluorescent-probe
#9
Gizem Bor, Muhammed Üçüncü, Mustafa Emrullahoğlu, Aysel Tomak, Gülşah Şanlı-Mohamed
Recently, development of fluorescent nanoparticle-based probes for various bioimaging applications has attracted great attention. This work aims to develop a new type fluorescent nanoparticle conjugate and evaluate its cytotoxic effects on A549 and BEAS 2B cell lines. Throughout the study, ionically crosslinked chitosan nanoparticles (CNs) were conjugated with carboxylated 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY-COOH). The results of conjugates (BODIPY-CNs) were investigated with regard to their physic-chemical, optical, cytotoxic properties and cellular internalization...
November 21, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868436/an-oxovanadium-iv-complex-protects-murine-bone-marrow-cells-against-cisplatin-induced-myelotoxicity-and-dna-damage
#10
Abhishek Basu, Arin Bhattacharjee, Amalesh Samanta, Sudin Bhattacharya
Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the first-line anticancer drugs that has gained widespread use against various forms of human malignancies. But, the therapeutic outcome of CDDP therapy is limited due to its adverse effects including myelotoxicity and DNA damage which may lead to the subsequent risk of developing secondary cancer. Hence, in search of a suitable cytoprotectant, this study investigated the probable protective efficacy of an oxovanadium(IV) complex, namely oxovanadium(IV)-L-cysteine methyl ester complex (VC-IV) against CDDP-induced myelosuppression and genotoxic damage in the bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice...
November 20, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866426/comparative-study-on-the-induction-of-complex-genomic-alterations-after-exposure-of-mammalian-cells-to-carboplatin-and-oxaliplatin
#11
Ana Paula de Souza, Mauricio Lehmann, Rafael Rodrigues Dihl
Metal complexes are still broadly used as the first line of the treatment for different types of tumors nowadays. Carboplatin and oxaliplatin were authorized for clinical use, even though there is little information on the mutagenic profile associated to their usage. This study evaluated the cytostatic effects and the induction of complex genomic alterations after 24-h treatment of CHO-K1 cells to concentrations of 12.5-800 μM of carboplatin and oxaliplatin in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN-Cyt)...
November 20, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855523/immunomodulatory-and-cellular-anti-oxidant-activities-of-caffeic-ferulic-and-p-coumaric-phenolic-acids-a-structure-activity-relationship-study
#12
Soumaya Kilani-Jaziri, Imen Mokdad-Bzeouich, Mounira Krifa, Nouha Nasr, Kamel Ghedira, Leila Chekir-Ghedira
Many studies have been performed to assess the potential utility of natural products as immunomodulatory agents to enhance host responses and to reduce damage to the human body. To determine whether phenolic compounds (caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids) have immunomodulatory effects and clarify which types of immune effector cells are stimulated in vitro, we evaluated their effect on splenocyte proliferation and lysosomal enzyme activity. We also investigated the activity of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
November 18, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855522/melatonin-mitigates-neomycin-induced-hair-cell-injury-in-zebrafish
#13
Kyoung Ho Oh, Yoon Chan Rah, Kyu Ho Hwang, Seung Hoon Lee, Soon Young Kwon, Jae Hyung Cha, June Choi
CONTEXT: Ototoxicity due to medications, such as aminoglycosides, is irreversible, and free radicals in the inner ear are assumed to play a major role. Because melatonin has an antioxidant property, we hypothesize that it might mitigate hair cell injury by aminoglycosides. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether melatonin has an alleviative effect on neomycin-induced hair cell injury in zebrafish (Danio rerio). METHODS: Various concentrations of melatonin were administered to 5-day post-fertilization zebrafish treated with 125 μM neomycin for 1 h...
November 18, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790921/combined-repeated-dose-and-reproductive-developmental-toxicity-screening-test-of-1-tert-butoxy-4-chlorobenzene-in-rats
#14
Yasuhiro Tsubokura, Ryuichi Hasegawa, Sunao Aso, Toshio Kobayashi, Takayuki Koga, Satsuki Hoshuyama, Yutaka Oshima, Katsumi Miyata, Yuji Kusune, Takako Muroi, Naoki Hashizume, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Shozo Ajimi, Kotaro Furukawa
We have carried out animal toxicity tests of chemicals for a chemical safety program implemented by the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry of Japan. Here, we tested 1-tert-butoxy-4-chlorobenzene in a combined repeat-dose and developmental and reproductive toxicity test. The test chemical was administered daily by gavage to 9-week-old Crl:CD (SD) rats at doses of 0, 20, 100, and 500  mg/kg/d. Males were treated for 42 d beginning 14 d before mating. Females were treated from 14 d before mating to day 4 of lactation...
October 28, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788603/safety-assessment-of-powdered-cistanche-deserticola-y-c-ma-by-a-90-day-feeding-test-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#15
Yuqiu Gao, Guangqiu Qin, Pingjing Wen, Yanwu Wang, Weizhong Fu, Li He, Siyu Yao, Peng Zhao
Cistanche deserticola (C. deserticola), a holoparasitic plant widely distributed in arid or semi-arid areas in Eurasia and North Africa, has been used as an important tonic in traditional Eastern medicine for centuries. However, little information on the systemic toxicity and safety evaluation of it is available. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential toxicity of powdered C. deserticola as a novel food ingredient by use of a subchronic toxicity study in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. A total of 80 male and female rats were fed with diets containing 8, 4, 2 and 0% (control) powdered C...
October 28, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784184/genotoxicity-of-casiopeina-iii-ea-in-mouse-bone-marrow-cells
#16
Lucila Álvarez-Barrera, Juan J Rodríguez-Mercado, Michel López-Chaparro, Mario A Altamirano-Lozano
Casiopeina III-Ea® (Cas III-Ea®) is a chelated copper complex with antineoplastic activity that is capable of reducing tumor size and inducing antiproliferative and apoptotic effects. However, little is known about its in vivo genotoxic effects. Therefore, this study evaluated two cytogenetic and two proliferative parameters 24 h after the administration of Casiopeina III-Ea® to male CD-1 mice. Three doses of Cas III-Ea® were administered by intraperitoneal injections of 1.69, 3.39 and 6.76 mg/kg (corresponding to 1/8, 1/4 and 1/2 of LD50, respectively)...
October 26, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780364/bile-acids-and-their-oxo-derivatives-environmentally-safe-materials-for-drug-design-and-delivery
#17
Jovana Trifunović, Vladan Borčić, Saša Vukmirović, Velibor Vasović, Momir Mikov
PURPOSE: Animal tests have been often used in toxicology to determine parameters describing toxicity of a particular substance. However, in vivo tests must fulfill ethical requirements, and are both time and money consuming. Therefore, computational methods are considered to be very useful in toxicity prediction. METHODS: Retention parameters were acquired by normal-phase TLC. Lipophilicity was used as a key parameter for predicting toxic potential. The correlation coefficients between calculated log P values obtained by five different software and experimentally determined hydrophobicity parameters ([Formula: see text](tol/et), [Formula: see text](tol/but), b(tol/et) and b(tol/but)) were calculated...
October 26, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707005/genotoxicity-of-antiobesity-drug-orlistat-and-effect-of-caffeine-intervention-an-in-vitro-study
#18
Manoswini Chakrabarti, Ilika Ghosh, Aditi Jana, Manosij Ghosh, Anita Mukherjee
CONTEXT: Obesity is a major global health problem associated with various adverse effects. Pharmacological interventions are often necessary for the management of obesity. Orlistat is an FDA-approved antiobesity drug which is a potent inhibitor of intestinal lipases. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, orlistat was evaluated for its genotoxic potential in human lymphocyte cells in vitro and was compared with that of another antiobesity drug sibutramine, presently withdrawn from market due its undesirable health effects...
October 6, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071859/the-genotoxic-effects-of-anti-cancer-drug-gossypol-on-human-lymphocytes-and-its-mitigation-by-melatonin
#19
Mandava Venkatesh Rao, Moksha B Narechania
PURPOSE OF STUDY: To determine melatonin as a potential natural antioxidant to mitigate the genotoxic effects of promising anti-cancer drug gossypol in human lymphocytes. INTRODUCTION: Gossypol, is a polyphenolic compound naturally occurring in cotton seed, was originally identified as a male contraceptive but it has several proposed clinical applications. Gossypol has anti-proliferative effects on cancer cell lines. However, its genotoxic effects on normal cells are not much studied...
October 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27033971/mutagenicity-and-preclinical-safety-assessment-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-clinacanthus-nutans-leaves
#20
Elham Farsi, Kameh Esmailli, Armaghan Shafaei, Pegah Moradi Khaniabadi, Bassel Al Hindi, Mohamed B Khadeer Ahamed, Doblin Sandai, Munavvar Abdul Sattar, Zhari Ismail, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Aman Shah Abdul Majid
CONTEXT: Clinacanthus nutans (CN) is used traditionally for treating various illnesses. Robust safety data to support its use is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adverse effects of aqueous extract of CN leaves (AECNL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The oral toxicity of the AECNL was tested following Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Mutagenicity (Ames test) of AECNL was evaluated using TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains...
October 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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