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Drug and Chemical Toxicology

Manoswini Chakrabarti, Ilika Ghosh, Aditi Jana, Manosij Ghosh, Anita Mukherjee
CONTEXT: Obesity is a major global health problem associated with various adverse effects. Pharmacological interventions are often necessary for the management of obesity. Orlistat is an FDA-approved antiobesity drug which is a potent inhibitor of intestinal lipases. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, orlistat was evaluated for its genotoxic potential in human lymphocyte cells in vitro and was compared with that of another antiobesity drug sibutramine, presently withdrawn from market due its undesirable health effects...
October 6, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Hatice Tunca, Ahmet Ali Berber, Kubra Çanakçi, Murat Tuna, Salih Zeki Yildiz, Hüseyin Aksoy
In this study, a Cd(II) complex was synthesized using 8-hydroxyquinoline and thiocyanate as the ligands and structurally characterized with the combination of FTIR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, UV-vis, and MS spectral data. Then, genotoxic effects of the prepared complex were investigated. Genotoxic properties of the dimeric 8-hydroxyquinolinthiocyanatoCd(II) [Cd2(8Q)2(SCN)2] complex synthesized as drug raw material were analyzed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Concentrations of 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 μg/mL [Cd2(8Q)2(SCN)2] were used for 24 and 48  h durations...
September 15, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Taygun Timocin, Mehmet Tahir Husunet, Ebrahim Valipour, Mostafa Norizadeh Tazehkand, Rima Celik, Mehmet Topaktas, Hasan B Ila
Flurbiprofen (FLB) (anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug) and roxithromycin (RXM) (antibiotic) were widely used in world wide. This study deals with investigation of genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and oxidative stress effects of a particular combination of these drugs in human cultured lymphocytes. Also, DNA damaging-protective effects of combination of these drugs were analyzed on plasmid DNA. Human lymphocytes were treated with different concentrations (FLB + RXM; 10 μg/mL + 25 μg/mL, 15 μg/mL + 50 μg/mL, and 20 μg/mL + 100 μg/mL) of the drugs following by study of their genotoxic and cytotoxic effects by analysis of cytokinesis-block micronucleus test and nuclear division index, respectively...
September 6, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Justina Kazokaitė, Ashok Aspatwar, Visvaldas Kairys, Seppo Parkkila, Daumantas Matulis
The toxic effects of two recently discovered inhibitors (VD12-09 and VD11-4-2) that selectively and with extraordinary strong, picomolar binding affinity to human carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoform IX were investigated on zebrafish embryonic development. CA IX has been recently introduced as an anticancer target since it is highly overexpressed in numerous human cancers but nearly absent in normal tissues. Morphological changes in zebrafish treated by the compounds were studied by light-field microscopy and histological analysis...
September 6, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Madhu Sharma, Pooja Chadha
The detection of a possible DNA damaging effect of 4-nonylphenol (NP) after subchronic exposure and repair after cessation of exposure to Channa punctatus is the aim of the present study. Channa punctatus was exposed to different concentrations (0.15 mg/l, 0.10 mg/l, and 0.07 mg/l) of NP along with positive control (ethanol) and negative control (water) for 90 d and after that allowed to recover for 30 d. Comet assay and micronucleus assay were used for the determination of DNA damage and repair by using blood cells...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Malachy N O Ajima, Pramod K Pandey, Kundan Kumar, Nalini Poojary
The influx of pharmaceutical drugs and their metabolites have been reported to cause negative impact on aquatic biota. In this study, effects of long-term exposure of verapamil on mutagenic, hematological parameters and activities of the oxidative enzymes of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus were investigated for 60 days exposure at the concentrations of 0.29, 0.58 and 1.15 mg L(-1) in the fish liver. The exposure resulted in significantly high (p < 0.05) micronuclei induction of peripheral blood cells at the peak on day 30 at 1...
August 25, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Marla Hahn, Marília Baierle, Mariele F Charão, Guilherme B Bubols, Fernanda S Gravina, Paulo Zielinsky, Marcelo D Arbo, Solange Cristina Garcia
This review aimed to investigate possible protective or deleterious effects of polyphenol-rich foods (PRF) on chronic diseases, e.g. cardiovascular, and in pregnant women, along with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. A great variety of foods and beverages, such as herbal teas, grape and orange derivatives, dark chocolate, and many others contain high concentrations of flavonoids and are freely consumed by the general population. In humans, PRF consumption reduces lipid peroxidation, and several studies have shown a positive correlation between an increased consumption of PRF and a decrease in the incidence of cardiovascular disease...
August 7, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Emerson Luiz Botelho Lourenço, Rita de Cassia Lima Ribeiro, Valdinei de Oliveira Araújo, Anderson Joel Martino-Andrade, Paulo Roberto Dalsenter, Arquimedes Gasparotto
The prevalence of the use of herbal medicines is on the rise across the world, especially amongst pregnant women. A fact that draws attention is that many species commonly used by pregnant women, including the Tropaeolum majus L. (Tropaeolaceae), also present inhibitory activity on the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Herein, we have investigated the effects of T. majus extract (HETM) on fetal development, evaluating its relationship with possible ACE inhibitory activity. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with different HETM doses (3, 30 and 300 mg/kg/day) from gestational days 8-20...
August 2, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Majid Mahmoodi, Saeed Soleyman-Jahi, Kazem Zendehdel, Hossein Mozdarani, Cyrus Azimi, Farideh Farzanfar, Zahra Safari, Mohammad-Ali Mohagheghi, Malihea Khaleghian, Kouros Divsalar, Esfandiar Asgari, Nima Rezaei
OBJECTIVE: Concern exists regarding the possible hazards to the personnel handling anti-neoplastic drugs. The purpose of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity induced by anti-neoplastic agents in oncology department personnel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To do this, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes was assessed at G0 phase of the cell cycle using metaphase analysis, cytokinesis block-micronucleus (MN) assay and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay...
July 27, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Mohammad Azab, Omar F Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi, Hasan Hawamdeh, Maram Quttina, Liliana Nassar
Pyrethrin is an insecticide that is obtained from the Chrysanthemum flower (Pyrethrum). In this study, we examined the genotoxic effects of pyrethrin on cultured human lymphocytes using sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) assays. Cultures were treated with different concentrations of pyrethrin (25, 50, and 100 μg/mL), which was dissolved in in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The results showed that treatment of cultured lymphocytes with pyrethrin at 50 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL induced significant elevation in SCEs (p < 0...
July 27, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Merve Bacanlı, A Ahmet Başaran, Nurşen Başaran
Phenolic compounds not only contribute to the sensory qualities of fruits and vegetables but also exhibit several health protective properties. Galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid are commonly used plant phenolics in folk medicine. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and the cytotoxic effects by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in V79 cells were investigated. The genotoxic potentials of galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid were evaluated by micronucleus (MN) and alkaline COMET assays in human lymphocytes and in V79 cells...
July 27, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Alina-Maria Petrescu, Gheorghe Ilia
This study presents in silico prediction of toxic activities and carcinogenicity, represented by the potential carcinogenicity DSSTox/DBS, based on vector regression with a new Kernel activity, and correlating the predicted toxicity values through a QSAR model, namely: QSTR/QSCarciAR (quantitative structure toxicity relationship/quantitative structure carcinogenicity-activity relationship) described by 2D, 3D descriptors and biological descriptors. The results showed a connection between carcinogenicity (compared to the structure of a compound) and toxicity, as a basis for future studies on this subject, but each prediction is based on structurally similar compounds and the reactivation of the substructures of these compounds...
July 27, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Christopher Didigwu Nwani, Peace Onas Somdare, Emmanuel Okechukwu Ogueji, Jacinta Chinedu Nwani, Juliana Adimonye Ukonze, Alfreda O Nwadinigwe
Fenthion is one of the most widely used organophosphate insecticides for the control of many varieties of pests in Nigeria. The genotoxic effect of the pesticide was evaluated in the blood erythrocytes of Clarias gariepinus using the micronucleus (MN) test. The oxidative stress parameters were also studied in the liver and gill tissues. Fish were exposed to 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mgL(-1) of fenthion and sampling was done on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and after 7-day recovery. Micronuclei induction was highest (7.55) on day 14 at all concentrations in the peripheral blood cells...
July 26, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Mandava Venkatesh Rao, Moksha B Narechania
PURPOSE OF STUDY: To determine melatonin as a potential natural antioxidant to mitigate the genotoxic effects of promising anti-cancer drug gossypol in human lymphocytes. INTRODUCTION: Gossypol, is a polyphenolic compound naturally occurring in cotton seed, was originally identified as a male contraceptive but it has several proposed clinical applications. Gossypol has anti-proliferative effects on cancer cell lines. However, its genotoxic effects on normal cells are not much studied...
October 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Elham Farsi, Kameh Esmailli, Armaghan Shafaei, Pegah Moradi Khaniabadi, Bassel Al Hindi, Mohamed B Khadeer Ahamed, Doblin Sandai, Munavvar Abdul Sattar, Zhari Ismail, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Aman Shah Abdul Majid
CONTEXT: Clinacanthus nutans (CN) is used traditionally for treating various illnesses. Robust safety data to support its use is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adverse effects of aqueous extract of CN leaves (AECNL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The oral toxicity of the AECNL was tested following Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Mutagenicity (Ames test) of AECNL was evaluated using TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains...
October 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Yuqiu Zhang, Hong Cao, Tong Lin, Lan Gong
The aim of the study was to observe the effect of different artificial tears on healing the drug-induced keratopathy. To this aim, 64 rabbits received topical administration of 0.01% benzalkonium chloride to establish models and were divided into four groups. The control group received ocular saline solution (Saline), while the others were treated with Refresh Plus® (RF), Hycosan® (H) and Systane® Ultra (SU). Surface abnormalities were examined daily using slit-lamp. Fluorescein staining, histopathological and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination were performed at day 0, 2 weeks, and 1 and 2 months...
October 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Mehrnoosh Moosavi, Mohsen Rezaei, Heibatullah Kalantari, Abdolazim Behfar, Golnaz Varnaseri
CONTEXT: Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to be the main mechanism of T-2 toxin toxicity. T-2 toxin is the most potent trichothecene mycotoxin which is present in agricultural products. L-carnitine, besides its anti-oxidative properties, facilitates the transportation of long-chain fatty acids in to mitochondrial matrix. OBJECTIVE: In this study we tested whether L-carnitine, an antioxidant and a facilitator for long-chain fatty acid transportation across mitochondrial membranes, could protect rat hepatocytes against toxicity induced by T-2 toxin...
October 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Peter Luke Santa Maria, Sungwoo Kim, Yunzhi Peter Yang
CONTEXT: Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor like growth factor (HB-EGF) is an emerging therapeutic for the regeneration of the tympanic membrane (TM). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine whether the doses of HB-EGF delivered in a sustained release hydrogel into a middle ear mouse model, would be measurable in the systemic circulation. We also aimed to observe, in the scenario that the intended dose was absorbed directly into the circulation, whether these levels could be measured above the background levels of HB-EGF in the circulation...
October 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Ozlem Dalmizrak, Gulnihal Kulaksiz-Erkmen, Nazmi Ozer
CONTEXT: The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (FLU) is considered in the group of selective serotonine re-uptake inhibitors. Its distribution in brain and binding to human brain glutathione S-transferase-π (GST-π) have been shown. FLU can cross blood brain barrier and placenta, accumulate in fetus and may cause congenital malformations. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the interaction of placental GST-π with FLU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, concentration-dependent inhibition of human placental GST-π was evaluated by using different FLU concentrations and then 0...
October 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi, Wanvipa Sueudom, Nareelak Tangsrisakda, Samur Thanoi
Methamphetamine (METH) is known to damage neurons and induce psychosis. It can also induce apoptosis in seminiferous tubules and affect sperm quality. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of a rat model of METH addiction on sperm quality and expression of progesterone receptors (PR) and estrogen receptors (ER) in the testis. Sperm quality parameters including sperm motility, sperm morphology and sperm concentration were examined. Protein and gene expressions PR, ERα and ERβ were studied using immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, respectively...
October 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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