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Drug and Chemical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394117/protective-effects-of-bidens-pilosa-on-hepatoxicity-and-nephrotoxicity-induced-by-carbon-tetrachloride-in-rats
#1
Cristiane Martinez Ruiz Pegoraro, Gisele Alborghetti Nai, Leonardo Alves Garcia, Fernanda de Maria Serra, Juliana Apolônio Alves, Pedro Henrique Nahas Chagas, Décio Gomes de Oliveira, Marcos Alberto Zocoler
The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of oral and topical treatment with Bidens pilosa (BP) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )- induced toxicity. Fifty-six rats were divided into seven groups: A: CCl4 only; B: CCl4 +oral BP; C: CCl4 and topical BP; D: CCl4 +oral and topical BP; E: oral BP only; F: negative control; and G: positive control (cyclophosphamide). The animals were treated for 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected for tests of hepatic and renal function, and fragments of the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, and intestine were collected for histopathological analyses...
November 5, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394115/toxicological-and-behavioral-study-of-two-potential-antibacterial-agents-4-chloromercuribenzoic-acid-and-quercetin-on-swiss-albino-mice
#2
Arijit Pal, Anusri Tripathi
Global dissemination of carbapenem resistant-Gram negative bacteria (CR-GNB) is supposed to be clinically alarming because it extremely delimits the treatment options against serious infections. 4-Chloromercuribenzoic acid (pCMB) is an efficient metallo-enzyme inhibitor, and quercetin is known for antioxidant, antiviral, anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities. These two compounds could be considered as potential candidates for the treatment of CR-GNB mediated infections. Hence, in this study, antibacterial activity of pCMB and quercetin was evaluated against CR-GNB through minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination...
November 5, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394111/the-cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-effects-of-daidzein-on-mia-paca-2-human-pancreatic-carcinoma-cells-and-ht-29-human-colon-cancer-cells
#3
Gulsah Gundogdu, Yavuz Dodurga, Meltem Cetin, Mucahit Secme, Betul Cicek
Daidzein (DZ) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, as well as the dose-dependent inhibition effect on cancer cells. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of DZ on HT-29 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells) and MIA PaCa-2 (human pancreatic cancer cells) cell lines were determined using the XTT method and Comet assay, respectively. IC50 concentrations of DZ were found to be 200 µM in both MIA PaCa-2 and HT-29 cells treated with DZ for 48 hours (h). When the cells were treated with 200 μM of DZ for 48 h, DNA damage was observed in both cell lines...
November 5, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332899/safety-evidence-on-the-administration-of-fucus-vesiculosus-l-bladderwrack-extract-and-lamotrigine-data-from-pharmacokinetic-studies-in-the-rat
#4
Sandra Ventura, Márcio Rodrigues, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
Fucus vesiculosus is often incorporated in weight loss dietary supplements to improve weight loss in overweight adults. Obesity is a common condition in epilepsy patients and is indeed increasing in refractory epilepsy and in patients under polytherapy. Since lamotrigine (LTG) is a first-line antiepileptic drug, used in monotherapy or adjunctive therapy, the main objective of this work was to investigate the potential pharmacokinetic-based interactions between F. vesiculosus and LTG in rats. In a first pharmacokinetic study, a single oral dose of F...
October 18, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293450/butea-monosperma-lam-taub-bark-fractions-protect-against-free-radicals-and-induce-apoptosis-in-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells-via-cell-cycle-arrest-and-ros-mediated-pathway
#5
Varinder Kaur, Manish Kumar, Ajay Kumar, Satwinderjeet Kaur
Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. is an ethnomedicinal tree of remedial value in the treatment of diabetes, bone fractures, and liver and neurological disorders. However, the information available on DNA-protective and anti-proliferative potential of bark of this tree is scarce. In the present study, the extract/fractions obtained from bark of B. monosperma were evaluated for antioxidant, DNA-protective, and anti-proliferative activities, along with their phytochemical profiling for identifying major constituents present in them...
October 8, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293447/the-mutagenic-effect-of-psychostimulant-modafinil-in-wistar-rats-in-vivo
#6
Lívia Maria de Castro Penna, Elisângela Düsman, Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini
The demands imposed by today's world require a fast and efficient society, then, significant section of the population looks for support from psychotropic medicine. Modafinil is a psychostimulant that promotes wakefulness, it being recommended for treatment of narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea, and shift-work sleep disorder, besides being a cognitive function potentiator. However, chemical components of drugs can alter genetic material. Thus, the present study evaluated the cytotoxic and clastogenic/mutagenic potential of 0...
October 8, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264597/zno-nanoparticles-recent-advances-in-ecotoxicity-and-risk-assessment
#7
Jia Du, Junhong Tang, Shaodan Xu, Jingyuan Ge, Yuwei Dong, Huanxuan Li, Meiqing Jin
The widespread application of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnO) has received increasing attention because of their potential risks to human health and the environment. This review summarizes the relationship between the toxic effects and physicochemical properties of nano-ZnO and the underlying toxicity mechanisms of nano-ZnO. This study presents the possible human health hazards posed by nano-ZnO exposure and the biotoxicity to bacteria, algae, higher plants, aquatic animals, terrestrial invertebrates and vertebrates in vitro and in vivo...
September 28, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264589/protective-effect-of-naringin-against-bpa-induced-cardiotoxicity-through-prevention-of-oxidative-stress-in-male-wistar-rats
#8
Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Heibatollah Kalantari, Masoud Mahdavinia, Layasadat Khorsandi, Soheila Alboghobeish, Azin Samimi, Saeid Alizadeh, Leila Zeidooni
Bisphenol A (BPA), which is an applied endocrine disrupting chemical in industry for producing epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics and naringin, is an active flavanone glycoside of grapefruit and many citrus fruits. The present study evaluated the protective effect of naringin against cardiotoxicity induced by BPA. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. Control group received oral olive oil; and BPA group orally were administrated 50 mg/kg of BPA for 30 d consecutively to induce toxicity. 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg of naringin were orally administered for 30 consecutive, along with BPA...
September 28, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257586/effect-of-curcumin-nanoparticles-on-the-cisplatin-induced-neurotoxicity-in-rat
#9
Yasser A Khadrawy, Mayada M El-Gizawy, Safwa M Sorour, Hussein G Sawie, Eman N Hosny
The present study is conducted to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of curcumin nanoparticles (CUR NP) against the neurotoxicity induced by cisplatin (CP) in rat. Rats were divided into control group that received saline solution, CP-treated rats that received a single i.p. injection of CP (12 mg/kg body wt), and CP-treated rats that received a single i.p injection of CP (12 mg/kg body wt) followed by a daily oral administration of CUR NP (50 mg/kg body wt) for 14 days. At the end of the experiment, the motor activity of rats was evaluated by open field test...
September 27, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257571/evaluation-of-genotoxic-potential-of-tert-butylquinone-and-its-derivatives-in-prokaryotic-and-eukaryotic-test-models
#10
Jelena Đorđević, Stoimir Kolarević, Jovana Jovanović, Jovana Kostić-Vuković, Irena Novaković, Marko Jeremić, Dušan Sladić, Branka Vuković-Gačić
Tert-butylquinone (TBQ) and its alkylamino and aralkylamino derivatives are of high interest as a potential antitumor agent. Therefore, it was necessary to investigate if the compounds exert undesirable activities such as interaction with DNA molecule which could result in negative side effects in the case of their use in the diseases treatment. The major aim of this study was to investigate genotoxic potential of TBQ and selected derivatives in an acellular model by using plasmid DNA, in the prokaryotic model by the SOS/umuC assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 and in eukaryotic models by using comet assay in human fetal lung cell line (MRC-5) and human liver cancer cell line (HepG2)...
September 27, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257570/pefloxacin-induced-changes-in-serotonergic-innervation-and-mast-cell-number-in-rat-salivary-glands
#11
Boglárka Emese Skopkó, Ádám Deák, Clara Matesz, Barna Kelentey, Tímea Bácskai
Pefloxacin is a second-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Besides its advantageous characteristics, side effects including the hypofunction of salivary glands, decreased saliva production, and peripheral neuropathy were observed during the administration of pefloxacin. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the number of serotonergic immunoreactive fibers and mast cells after pefloxacin treatment in the parotid and sublingual glands of rats to detect the possible neurotoxic effect of pefloxacin...
September 27, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257569/environmental-toxic-metals-in-placenta-and-their-effects-on-preterm-delivery-current-opinion
#12
Laxmi Singh, Madhu Anand, Saroj Singh, Ajay Taneja
Preterm birth is a significant public reproductive health concern globally; Furthermore, preterm birth has long-lasting medical and pecuniary burdens on the society. Moreover, preterm birth is well-established as the underlying cause of low birth weight in infants as well as neonatal mortality. A growing body of literature suggests that the etiology of preterm delivery in women is elusive; however, countless environmental factors are considered responsible for preterm birth. Environmental contaminants that are toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury are familiar confounding factors for preterm birth globally...
September 27, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257567/potential-protective-effects-of-naringenin-against-vancomycin-induced-nephrotoxicity-via-reduction-on-apoptotic-and-oxidative-stress-markers-in-rats
#13
Zuhal Uckun, Sevda Guzel, Necmiye Canacankatan, Cem Yalaza, Deniz Kibar, Banu Coskun Yilmaz
Vancomycin (VCM), a glycopeptide antibiotic, is a drug widely used in severe infections. However, VCM induce notable nephrotoxic side effects. Naringenin (NAR) is a natural of flavonoid and are known as strongly antioxidant, nefroprotective, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential protective effects of NAR against VCM-induced nephrotoxicity by measuring apoptotic and oxidative stress markers and evaluating histopathological alterations in rats. For this purpose, we used male Wistar albino rats that divided into seven groups: (i) Control [saline, intraperitoneally (i...
September 27, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257565/protective-effects-of-ethyl-acetate-extracts-of-rimulus-cinnamon-on-systemic-inflammation-and-lung-injury-in-endotoxin-poisoned-mice
#14
Feng Xu, Wentao Sang, Ling Li, Xinyu He, Feng Wang, Taoqun Wen, Nan Zeng
Rimulus cinnamon is the dried twig of Cinnamomum cassia Presl. It is widely used in China for the treatment of inflammatory processes, amenorrhea, and other diseases. We aimed to study the protective effects of ethyl acetate extracts of R. cinnamon (EAE) on systemic inflammation and lung injury in endotoxin-poisoned mice. EAE was administered 5 d prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge with 15 mg/kg LPS. The administration of EAE increased the levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and decreased the levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum...
September 27, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257109/ebselen-oxide-attenuates-mechlorethamine-dermatotoxicity-in-the-mouse-ear-vesicant-model
#15
Hemanta C Rao Tumu, Benedette J Cuffari, Maria A Pino, Jerzy Palus, Magdalena Piętka-Ottlik, Blase Billack
Mechlorethamine (HN2) is an alkylating agent and sulfur mustard mimetic. Topical exposure to HN2 is associated with tissue blistering. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that ebselen (EB-1) possesses anti-vesicant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and cytoprotective properties, both in vivo and in vitro. We recently reported that ebselen oxide (EB-2), an analog of EB-1 with a tetravalent selenium atom, also possesses anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity and confers cytoprotection against HN2 in vitro...
September 26, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30246564/comparative-toxicity-of-selected-pahs-in-rainbow-trout-hepatocytes-genotoxicity-oxidative-stress-and-cytotoxicity
#16
Mazyar Yazdani
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, which may have potentially toxic effects on organisms. In this study occurrence of DNA strand breaks, oxidative stress, and cytotoxicity were investigated in rainbow trout hepatocytes following in vitro exposure for 24 h to four PAHs (0.01-10 µM): naphthalene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The exposed hepatocytes were analyzed for DNA strand breaks using the comet assay and for antioxidant status by measuring intracellular glutathione (GSH) content using the fluorescent probe mBCl...
September 24, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239237/bibliometric-profile-of-global-scientific-research-on-digoxin-toxicity-1849-2015
#17
Sa'ed H Zyoud, William S Waring, Samah W Al-Jabi, Waleed M Sweileh
Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from the common foxglove digitalis purpurea and has been available for several centuries as a medicinal agent. Despite extensive patient experience over many years, there remains some controversy regarding the possibility that digoxin might have a deleterious effect on survival. This study was constructed to assess trends in digoxin toxicity research using well-established qualitative and quantitative bibliometric indicators. The current study is based on publications that have been indexed in Scopus...
September 21, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239227/hepatoprotective-and-antioxidant-activities-of-annona-squamosa-seed-extract-against-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#18
Mohammad Zahid, Muhammad Arif, Md Azizur Rahman, Md Mujahid
Alcohol is regarded as the third most common cause of death after hypertension and smoking. Its long-term excess exposure leads to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and liver injury, a worldwide health problem without efficient therapy. As there is no reliable liver protective drugs in allopathic medical practices, herbs play a major role in the management of liver diseases. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of Annona squamosa seed extract against alcohol-induced liver injury in Sprague Dawley rats...
September 21, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212238/assessment-of-the-phenolic-content-mutagenicity-and-genotoxicity-of-ethanolic-extracts-of-stem-bark-and-leaves-from-strychnos-pseudoquina-a-st-hil
#19
Douglas Costa Gontijo, Líria Granato Nunes, Letícia Monteiro Farias, Maria Gorette Resende Duarte, André Furtado Carvalho, Luciano Gomes Fietto, João Paulo Viana Leite
Strychnos pseudoquina is a plant species whose stem bark is used as bitter tonic beverage. The phytochemical analysis, as well as quantification of phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts from S. pseudoquina stem bark, and leaves were conducted. The extracts were tested for mutagenicity (Ames test) and DNA-damaging activity (Plasmid Cleavage test). Leaves recorded the largest amount of flavonoids. The performed high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed flavonoids such as isorhamnetin and strychnobiflavone (phytochemical markers of the investigated species) in stem barks, but not in leaves...
September 13, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208743/hair-straightening-products-and-the-risk-of-occupational-formaldehyde-exposure-in-hairstylists
#20
Mohamed A Aglan, Ghada N Mansour
Hair straitening products are widely used by hairstylists. Many keratin-based hair smoothing products contain formaldehyde. This study aimed to investigate occupational formaldehyde exposure among hairstylists dealing with hair straightening products and the relation between genotoxicity biomarkers and the short-term formaldehyde exposure concentrations and the working years. The study was carried out in Cairo, Egypt on 60 hairstylists use hair straightening products divided into two groups according to the working years...
September 13, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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