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Child Abuse & Neglect

Tracie O Afifi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Naomi C Z Andrews, Mary Motz, Debra J Pepler, Jessica J Jeong, Jennifer Khoury
Mothers who use substances need integrated, multi-sectoral intervention services to support substance use discontinuation. We explored mothers' service use at Breaking the Cycle, an early intervention and prevention program for pregnant and parenting women and their young children in Toronto, Canada. We conducted retrospective analyses of families' service records and client charts (N = 160). Aims were to 1) describe women's use of service, 2) examine how early engagement of pregnant women related to postnatal service use, and 3) examine the circumstances in which women ended their service relationship with Breaking the Cycle...
June 26, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Sara R Berzenski, Amber R Madden, Tuppett M Yates
As the consequences of childhood maltreatment for adult adjustment become increasingly established in the literature, investigations of individual differences in these effects must evolve to examine more nuanced components of the maltreatment experience. This is particularly true for studies of childhood emotional abuse (CEA), which represents an umbrella label for numerous qualitatively different experiences. The present study examined the distinct contributions and potential interactive effects of CEA frequency and intensity on adult psychopathology, caregiving behaviors, and caregivers' representations of the caregiver-child relationship in a diverse sample of 62 female caregivers of 4-year-old children, all of whom had experienced CEA...
June 23, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Judith L Perrigo, Lauren D Berkovits, Julie A Cederbaum, Marian E Williams, Michael S Hurlburt
The study objective was to examine the likelihood and magnitude of child abuse and neglect (CAN) re-reports for young children (0-71 months) with delays in cognitive, language, and adaptive development, compared to typically developing children. The National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II), a nationally representative and longitudinal survey, was used to examine CAN re-reports at two follow-up waves, 18- and 36-months post baseline assessments. Logistic regression models were employed to determine the correlation between number of developmental delays and a CAN re-report at waves 2 and 3...
June 22, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jennifer Price Wolf, Arturo Baiocchi, Tyler Argüello
According to bystander theory, factors such as the community environment, collective efficacy, and history of adverse childhood experiences could be related to likelihood of reporting or intervening against maltreatment. An online survey was conducted with 946 general population Californians obtained through mixed-mode random probability and quota-based recruitment methods. Using an experimental vignette design, participants were randomly assigned to two scenarios: a) potential child abuse occurring in their neighborhood; b) potential child abuse in an unfamiliar neighborhood...
June 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Thomas M Crea, Scott D Easton, Judith Florio, Richard P Barth
Previous research has established that child sexual abuse (CSA) and other forms of child maltreatment can have lasting and profound implications for survivors in terms of externalizing symptomatology. Few studies, however, have examined long-term consequences of CSA and maltreatment among adopted children. Guided by a polyvictimization framework, the present study investigated: (a) rates of co-occurrence of pre-adoptive CSA and maltreatment among adopted children, and (b) the relative impact of pre-adoptive CSA and maltreatment on externalizing behaviors at 14 years post-adoption...
June 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Laura E Cowley, Sabine Maguire, Daniel M Farewell, Harriet D Quinn-Scoggins, Matthew O Flynn, Alison M Kemp
Clinicians face unique challenges when assessing suspected child abuse cases. The majority of the literature exploring diagnostic decision-making in this field is anecdotal or survey-based and there is a lack of studies exploring decision-making around suspected abusive head trauma (AHT). We aimed to determine factors influencing decision-making and multidisciplinary collaboration in suspected AHT cases, amongst 56 child protection professionals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with clinicians (25), child protection social workers (10), legal practitioners (9, including 4 judges), police officers (8), and pathologists (4), purposively sampled across southwest United Kingdom...
June 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Lorraine M McKelvey, Nicola Conners Edge, Glenn R Mesman, Leanne Whiteside-Mansell, Robert H Bradley
Findings from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study articulated the negative effects of childhood trauma on long-term well-being. The purpose of the current study is to examine the associations between ACEs experienced in infancy and toddlerhood and adaptive behavior and academic status in middle childhood. We used data collected from a sample of low-income families during the impacts study of Early Head Start (EHS). Data were collected by trained interviewers demonstrating at least 85% reliability with protocols...
June 13, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Ramona Danielson, Gregory F Sanders
Childhood adversity (CA) has life-long effects that we are just beginning to understand. The Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) data is a rich resource that could contribute to the knowledge of the impact of CA in the later years but, while a number of CA items are included in MIDUS, a cumulative CA scale based on those items has not been created. Development of a CA scale would create numerous research opportunities within MIDUS and overcome some of the challenges of using a secondary dataset. The present study aimed to demonstrate that a cumulative measure of CA that is valid with older adults could be created using retrospective MIDUS Refresher study data (Ryff et al...
June 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Codi White, Dianne C Shanley, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck, Kerryann Walsh, Russell Hawkins, Katrina Lines, Haley Webb
Promoting young children's interpersonal safety knowledge, intentions confidence and skills is the goal of many child maltreatment prevention programs; however, evaluation of their effectiveness has been limited. In this study, a randomized controlled trial was conducted examining the effectiveness of the Australian protective behaviors program, Learn to be safe with Emmy and friends™ compared to a waitlist condition. In total, 611 Australian children in Grade 1 (5-7 years; 50% male) participated, with assessments at Pre-intervention, Post-intervention and a 6-month follow-up...
June 11, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Codi White, Dianne C Shanley, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck, Kerryann Walsh, Russell Hawkins, Katrina Lines
Despite being a key target outcome to prevent child maltreatment, little research has been conducted to examine the prevalence and predictors of interpersonal safety skills in a standardised manner. In this study, interpersonal safety skills were measured in a Year 1-2 student sample through use of a standardised simulated risk scenario, with three primary skills examined: withdrawal from an unknown confederate (motor safety response), verbal refusal of an abduction lure (verbal safety response) and disclosure of confederate presence...
June 11, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Kari C Kugler, Kate Guastaferro, Chad E Shenk, Sarah J Beal, Kathleen M Zadzora, Jennie G Noll
Children with substantiated child maltreatment (CM) experience adverse health outcomes. However, it is unclear whether substantiation vs. an investigation not resulting in substantiation has a greater impact on subsequent adolescent health. Propensity scores were used to examine the effect of investigated reports on the subsequent health of 503 adolescent females. CM was categorized into three levels: 1) investigated and substantiated, 2) investigated but unsubstantiated, and 3) no investigation. Models using inverse propensity score weights estimated the effect of an investigation on subsequent teen motherhood, HIV-risk behaviors, drug use, and depressive symptoms...
June 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Carmit Katz, Zion Barnetz
Confrontations and cross-examination are considered to be a vital stage in forensic investigations; however, laboratory and field studies have systematically shown their adverse effects on children`s testimonies. The current field study aimed to assess the strategies utilized, and the frequency with which they are used, in confrontations within forensic investigations involving children following suspected abuse, and to assess their effects on the children's testimonies. The forensic investigations were conducted using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Protocol...
June 6, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jo-Annie Spearson Goulet, Monique Tardif
Very few studies have taken a specific interest in the various sexual dimensions, beyond delinquent sexual behavior, of adolescents who have engaged in sexual abuse (AESA). Those that went beyond delinquent sexual behavior have report mixed results, suggesting they are a heterogeneous group. The current study used cluster analysis to examine the sexuality profiles of AESA, which included information on several sexual dimensions (atypical and normative fantasies and experiences, drive, body image, pornography, first masturbation, onset of sexual interest and first exposure to sex)...
June 5, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Julie L Halverson, Jesse Rio Russell, Colleen Kerwin
The mission and responsibility of child protective services (CPS) is to investigate maltreatment; intervene to protect children from harm; and promote safety, permanency, and well-being (DePanfilis & Salus, 2003; Goldman, Salus, Wolcott, & Kennedy, 2003). In 2015, approximately 7.2 million children in the United States were referred to CPS agencies, and 3.4 million children had an investigation or received an alternative response (US Department of Health & Human Services, 2017). Fluke, Shusterman, Hollinshead, and Yuan (2005) found that about one third of children with an allegation of maltreatment would have at least one re-report within a five-year period...
June 5, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Hannah C Espeleta, Emma I Brett, Leigh E Ridings, Eleanor L S Leavens, Larry L Mullins
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are important public health concerns, with links to higher prevalence rates of both health-risk behaviors and physical health difficulties in adulthood. Research has demonstrated an association between early adversity and long-term health-risk behavior development. The current study assessed the role of emotion dysregulation and facets of impulsivity as potential mediators in the relation between ACEs and general health-risk behaviors, including alcohol-related consequences and risky sexual behavior...
June 4, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Anna E Austin, Jared W Parrish, Meghan E Shanahan
We examined preconception and prenatal predictors of time to first child protective services (CPS) contact among Alaska children. Data were from the Alaska Longitudinal Child Abuse and Neglect Linkage (ALCANLink) project, a population-representative data source linking 2009-2011 Alaska Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data with administrative data sources through 2015. We examined the incidence CPS contact using the Kaplan-Meier method and predictors of CPS contact using Cox proportional hazards regression...
June 2, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
James C Spilsbury, Daphna Gross-Manos, Bridget M Haas, Kristina Bowdrie, Francisca Richter, Jill E Korbin, David S Crampton, Claudia J Coulton
Although approximately one-fifth of child maltreatment reports originate with family members, friends, neighbors, or community members, their efforts to identify and report child maltreatment are still not well understood. Nor is it well understood how these individuals' perceptions of what constitutes maltreatment may change over time. This study examined descriptions of behavior perceived as maltreatment by caregivers of minors in Cleveland, Ohio, USA neighborhoods. Data were obtained from two neighborhood-based cross-sectional surveys of caregivers of minors: one conducted in 1995-1996 and the other in 2014-2015...
June 2, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Minseop Kim, Antonio R Garcia, Shuyan Yang, Nahri Jung
Relying on data from a nationally representative sample of youth involved in the child welfare system (CWS) in 1999-2000 (the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, Cohort 1) and 2008-2009 (Cohort 2), this study implemented a diverse set of disparity indicators to estimate area-socioeconomic disparities in mental health (MH) services use and changes in area-socioeconomic disparities between the two cohorts. Our study found that there are area-socioeconomic disparities in MH service use, indicating that the rates of MH service use among youth referred to the CWS differ by area-socioeconomic positions defined by county-level poverty rates...
June 1, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
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