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Child Abuse & Neglect

Saijun Zhang, Hui Huang, Qi Wu, Yong Li, Meirong Liu
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse has been prevalent among caregivers involved in child welfare and is a major barrier to their achieving favorable outcomes. Family Treatment Drug Courts (FTDCs) have been viewed as one of the most promising interventions but research has reported mixed effects on child welfare outcomes. No meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize the findings to reach a more generalizable conclusion. OBJECTIVE: The meta-analysis synthesized findings from existing evaluations to examine whether and to what extent FTDC participants achieved better reunification and safety outcomes than non-participants...
November 6, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Yo Jackson, Austen McGuire, Angela M Tunno, P Kalani Makanui
Child maltreatment research varies considerably in how maltreatment is measured. Although researchers have advocated for improvements in maltreatment assessment, a first step is a clear understanding of the status on how the field operationalizes maltreatment. The current paper sought to achieve this goal through reviewing research on child maltreatment over a recent 10-year span to identify trends in maltreatment assessment and operationalization. Information on maltreatment measurement was extracted from 338 articles across three major journals devoted to publishing research on child maltreatment...
November 1, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Md Jahirul Islam, Paul Mazerolle, Lisa Broidy, Kathleen Baird
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with a range of adult health outcomes; however, extant research has focused more on exposure to a single form of abuse rather than multiple forms. Moreover, very few studies have specifically investigated the impact of CM on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine: (1) the individual and combined effects of multiple forms of CM on EBF outcomes; and (2) whether postpartum depression and maternal stress act to mediate or moderate the association between CM and EBF...
November 1, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Anthony Fulginiti, Amy S He, Sonya Negriff
Suicide is a major public health problem among youth involved with the child welfare system. Although social connectedness rests at the core of many prevention approaches, we know little about this relationship over time in this vulnerable population. This study tested the hypotheses that inverse relationships would exist between connectedness in three social domains (i.e., caregiver, peers, and school) and suicidal ideation over time. The current study used baseline and 18-month follow-up data from 995 youth who participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II)-a nationally representative study of children and families investigated by a child welfare agency conducted from 2008 to 2011...
October 30, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Lenora M Olson, Kristine A Campbell, Lawrence Cook, Heather T Keenan
BACKGROUND: Child abuse pediatricians (CAPs) are often consulted for injuries when child physical abuse is suspected or when the etiology of a serious injury is unclear. CAPs carefully evaluate the reported mechanism of the child's injury and the medical findings in the context of the child's family and social setting to identify possible risk and protective factors for child abuse and the need for social services. It is unknown what population risk indicators along with other social cues CAPs record in the social history of the consultation notes when assessing families who are being evaluated for child physical abuse...
October 27, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Andrew Grogan-Kaylor, Julie Ma, Shawna J Lee, Berenice Castillo, Kaitlin P Ward, Sacha Klein
While corporal punishment is widely understood to have undesirable associations with children's behavior problems, there remains controversy as to whether such effects are consistent across different racial or ethnic groups. We employed a Bayesian regression analysis, which allows for the estimation of both similarities and differences across groups, to study whether there are differences in the relationship of corporal punishment and children's behavior problems using a diverse, urban sample of U.S. families (n = 2653)...
October 27, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Christina M Rodriguez, Paul J Silvia, Doris F Pu
Parents' cognitive schemas about parenting, personal vulnerabilities, and personal resources may affect their risk of engaging in parent-child aggression (PCA). This longitudinal study examined predictors of change in mothers' and fathers' PCA risk across the transition to parenthood, comparing trajectories of parents evidencing high versus low sociodemographic risk. Potential predictors involved parenting-relevant schemas (consistent with Social Information Processing theory, including approval of PCA, negative attributions of child behavior, and knowledge of nonphysical discipline options), personal vulnerabilities (psychopathology, intimate partner violence, substance use issues), and resources (problem-focused coping, emotion regulation, social support, and partner satisfaction)...
October 27, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Gina Fedock, Rachel C Garthe, Sophia Sarantakos, Seana Golder, George E Higgins, T K Logan
Women involved in the criminal justice system experience multiple forms of adversity over their lifetimes. These events may include childhood abuse, involvement in the child welfare system as children, intimate partner violence victimization during adulthood, and punitive interactions with the child welfare system as mothers. Community supervision (e.g. probation or parole) entails particular stressors, such as obtaining basic needs and employment. A majority of women under community supervision also experience depression and anxiety...
October 26, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Timothy P Williams, Vidur Chopra, Sharon R Chikanya
BACKGROUND: While refugee camps can protect children from harm, they can also introduce new risks and vulnerabilities. Research suggests that adolescent girls are at particular risk for gender-based violence and sexual exploitation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify existing social and economic vulnerabilities of female adolescents in refugee camps in Rwanda. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Research was carried out in two Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda...
October 25, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Troy Quast
BACKGROUND: One of the most devastating impacts of the U.S. opioid crisis is the challenge it creates for dependent parents to care for their children, potentially leading to the child being removed from their home. However, existing studies of the link between child removals and opioid prescriptions have either focused on a single state or estimated a national average. OBJECTIVE: To estimate state-level associations between child removals and opioid prescriptions...
October 22, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Anda Gershon, Laura Hayward, Geri R Donenberg, Helen Wilson
Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with increased exposure to victimization and traumatic stress. The present study evaluates longitudinal pathways linking victimization and trauma to depressive symptoms in a socioeconomically disadvantaged sample of African-American adolescent girls seeking mental health services (N = 177, 12-16 years old at baseline). Girls completed four assessments over the course of three years (T1-T4). Depressive symptoms were assessed at T1-T3 using clinical interviews and questionnaires...
October 22, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Cynthia J Najdowski, Kimberly M Bernstein
Black and poor children are overrepresented at every stage of the child welfare system, from suspicion of abuse to substantiation. Focusing on stereotypes as a source of bias that leads to these disparities, the current study examines the content and strength of stereotypes relating race and social class to child abuse as viewed by medical professionals. Doctors, nurses, and other medical professionals (Study 1: N = 53; Study 2: N = 40) were recruited in local hospitals and online through snowball sampling...
October 22, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Susan Yoon, Fei Pei, Xiafei Wang, Dalhee Yoon, Guijin Lee, Karla Shockley McCarthy, Sarah J Schoppe-Sullivan
Although research has indicated that maltreated children are at higher risk of adolescent substance use, it remains unclear whether the type and timing of maltreatment affect the likelihood of adolescent substance use. Research has also found father involvement to be a potential protective factor against adolescent substance use, but the role of quality vs. quantity of father involvement as well as gender differences in the effects of father involvement on substance use among at-risk adolescents have not been studied...
October 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Matthew Pugh, Glenn Waller, Mirko Esposito
Many individuals diagnosed with eating disorders describe their disorder as being represented by an internal 'voice'. In line with cognitive models of voice-hearing, previous research has identified associations between voice appraisals and eating psychopathology in anorexia nervosa. Whether these findings generalise to other eating disorder subtypes remains unknown. The aetiology of the internal eating disorder voice also remains unclear. Traumatic-dissociative models of voice-hearing, which link such experiences to decontexualised material arising from early traumatic events, might also be relevant to eating disorder groups...
October 13, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Laura E Cowley, Daniel M Farewell, Alison M Kemp
BACKGROUND: The validated Predicting Abusive Head Trauma (PredAHT) tool estimates the probability of abusive head trauma (AHT) in children <3 years old with intracranial injury. OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of PredAHT on clinicians' AHT probability estimates and child protection (CP) actions, and assess inter-rater agreement between their estimates and between their CP actions, before and after PredAHT. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Twenty-nine clinicians from different specialties, at teaching and community hospitals...
October 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Cora Peterson, Curtis Florence, Joanne Klevens
Child maltreatment incurs a high lifetime cost per victim and creates a substantial US population economic burden. This study aimed to use the most recent data and recommended methods to update previous (2008) estimates of 1) the per-victim lifetime cost, and 2) the annual US population economic burden of child maltreatment. Three ways to update the previous estimates were identified: 1) apply value per statistical life methodology to value child maltreatment mortality, 2) apply monetized quality-adjusted life years methodology to value child maltreatment morbidity, and 3) apply updated estimates of the exposed population...
October 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jonathan Adams, Sylvie Mrug, David C Knight
Childhood physical and sexual abuse victims are at increased risk for developing depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Prior findings suggest abuse onset, duration, and severity moderate relationships between victimization and psychopathology. However, because these abuse characteristics are highly intercorrelated, their unique, individual effects on mental health outcomes remain unclear. To address this gap, the present study examined relationships between physical and sexual abuse characteristics and mental health outcomes and whether these relationships differed by sex...
October 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Dominic A Alaazi, Bukola Salami, Sophie Yohani, Helen Vallianatos, Philomina Okeke-Ihejirika, Christina Nsaliwa
Child discipline remains a topic of public health interest across the globe. Despite this enduring interest, very little is known about the child disciplinary practices of African immigrants in Canada. This paper explores the disciplinary practices of African immigrant parents in Alberta, a Canadian province with a recent surge in the population of African immigrants. Employing a critical ethnographic methodology, informed by transnational theory, we collected data through in-depth qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of African community leaders (n = 14), African immigrant parents (n = 32), policymakers (n = 2), and health and immigrant settlement workers (n = 10)...
October 3, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Fang Hong, Amanda R Tarullo, Andrea E Mercurio, Siyu Liu, Qiyue Cai, Kathleen Malley-Morrison
Childhood maltreatment has many deleterious outcomes; however, trait resilience as well as emotion regulation strategies, including suppression and reappraisal, may mediate between childhood maltreatment and later perceived stress. For this study, 267 college students (183 females and 84 males; M age = 19.77, SD = 2.29) completed self-report measures of parental psychological and physical maltreatment, parental emotion neglect, habitual use of suppression and reappraisal strategies, emotion regulation self-efficacy, trait resilience, and recent perceived stress...
October 2, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Marie E Karlsson, Maegan Calvert, Juventino Hernandez Rodriguez, Rebecca Weston, Jeff R Temple
Teen dating violence is a pervasive issue in adolescence and has been linked to maladjustment (Temple, Shorey, Fite et al., 2013). Physical dating violence is a particularly significant problem with one in five adolescents reporting experiencing physical teen dating violence (TDV; Wincentak et al., 2017). Acceptance of violence has been suggested to increase the risk of TDV; however, most studies to date have been cross-sectional. The purpose of the current study is to examine patterns of acceptance of dating violence and TDV victimization across time...
October 1, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
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