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Child Abuse & Neglect

Lisa Bunting, Gavin Davidson, Claire McCartan, Jennifer Hanratty, Paul Bywaters, Will Mason, Nicole Steils
Child maltreatment is a global problem affecting millions of children and is associated with an array of cumulative negative outcomes later in life, including unemployment and financial difficulties. Although establishing child maltreatment as a causal mechanism for adult economic outcomes is fraught with difficulty, understanding the relationship between the two is essential to reducing such inequality. This paper presents findings from a systematic review of longitudinal research examining experiences of child maltreatment and economic outcomes in adulthood...
January 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Minna Rytilä-Manninen, Henna Haravuori, Sari Fröjd, Mauri Marttunen, Nina Lindberg
We investigated whether psychiatric symptomatology, impulsivity, family and social dysfunction, and alcohol use mediate the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and suicidality. The study population comprised 206 adolescent psychiatric inpatients and 203 age- and gender-matched adolescents from the community. ACEs and suicidality were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime version, the Life Events Checklist, and a structured background data collection sheet...
January 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Michael Andre Guerzoni
To date, a predominant focus within the field of 'clerical collar crime' has revolved around institutional-level church responses to child sexual abuse events, survivors and offenders. Comparatively, little attention has been directed towards the micro-level and in particular, examining clerical responses to child sexual abuse. This article presents empirical findings concerning the 'everyday' child protective practices of Anglican clergy in the Diocese of Tasmania, Australia. Research data was acquired through open-ended qualitative interviews conducted with a sample of 34 clergy in a broader study of clerical culture, habitus and life amidst the 'church abuse crisis'...
January 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Mabula Nkuba, Katharin Hermenau, Tobias Hecker
Though the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations aim to end all forms of violence against minors, child maltreatment remains a globally prevalent phenomenon. Despite the fact that parents in numerous countries apply violent discipline methods to control children's behavior, little is known about the prevalence of maltreatment and violent discipline in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we examined the prevalence of maltreatment and violent discipline from both the adolescents' and parents' perspectives...
January 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Ju Yeon Kwak, Jae Yop Kim, Yoe Won Yoon
The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of the relationships with parents, peers, and teachers as a cause of adolescents' smartphone addiction, and to examine the effect of parental neglect on smartphone addiction and the mediating effect of relational maladjustment in school, especially focusing on the relational maladjustment with peers and teachers. For this purpose, a survey was conducted of students from middle schools and high schools in four regions of South Korea. A total of 1170 middle-school students who reported using smartphone took part in this study...
January 3, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Randy J McCarthy, Joel S Milner, Sarah L Coley, LaJuana Ormsby, Mark Oliver
The current study examined child maltreatment re-offending in United States Air Force (USAF) families. In a clinical database containing 24,999 child maltreatment incidents perpetrated by 15,042 offenders between the years 1997 and 2013, 13% of offenders maltreated a child on more than one date (i.e., they re-offended). We explored several offender demographic characteristics associated with who re-offended and found that civilians re-offended at a similar rate as active duty members, males re-offended at a similar rate as females, and younger offenders were more likely to re-offend than older offenders...
January 3, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Feng Cheng, Yifang Wang, Xixian Wu, Zhuqing Su
The current study shows that parental punitive discipline places children at risk of developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Although some studies have analyzed the reasons for the use of discipline methods, little to no research has analyzed the moderating effects. In this study, we examine the relationship between maternal negative emotional expression and mothers' use of disciplinary methods (psychological aggression, corporal punishment and physical maltreatment) and the moderating effects of educational attainment in Chinese societies...
January 2, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino, Hanna Savioja, Sari Fröjd, Mauri Marttunen
Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with a number of negative outcomes, such as internalizing and externalizing symptoms and a disinclination to attend school. Among adolescents, sexual harassment may increase with both their emerging sexual desires and increased socializing in mixed-gender peer groups during early adolescence. We set out to study the possible associations between normative and risk-taking sexual behavior and subjection to sexual harassment among adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 years...
January 2, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
T Kvist, E-M Annerbäck, G Dahllöf
Child abuse and neglect (CAN) are likely to have negative consequences on health; however, for oral health, studies on associated outcomes are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess oral health and oral health behaviors in relation to suspected CAN among children being investigated by the Swedish Social Services. The material comprised data from the Social Services and dental records; the sample, 86 children and 172 matched controls. The children in the study group had a higher prevalence of dental caries than the control group; in addition, levels of non-attendance and dental avoidance were high, as was parental failure to promote good oral health...
December 30, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Margaret McLafferty, Siobhan O'Neill, Sam Murphy, Cherie Armour, Brendan Bunting
Childhood adversities are strong predictors of psychopathology and suicidality. However, specific adversities are associated with different outcomes, with cross-national variations reported. The current study examined rates of adversities reported in Northern Ireland (NI), and associations between adverse childhood experiences and psychopathology and suicidal behaviour were explored. Data was obtained from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress (NISHS), conducted as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative (2004-2008); response rate 68...
December 30, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Renate S M Buisman, Katharina Pittner, Laura H C G Compier-de Block, Lisa J M van den Berg, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Lenneke R A Alink
In the current study associations between parents' experiences of childhood maltreatment and their perceptual, behavioral and autonomic responses to infant emotional signals were examined in a sample of 160 parents. Experienced maltreatment (both physical and emotional abuse and neglect) was reported by the participants and, in approximately half of the cases, also by their parents. During a standardized infant vocalization paradigm, participants were asked to squeeze a handgrip dynamometer at maximal and at half strength while listening to infant crying and laughter sounds and to rate their perception of the sounds...
December 30, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Fidelis O Ogwumike, Uche M Ozughalu
Development economists and policy makers have in recent times focused attention on child poverty as a crucial aspect of poverty. The importance of the analysis of child poverty partly lies in the fact that children are the most vulnerable group in every society. This study used two poverty lines and the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke index to analyze extreme and overall child poverty headcount, depth and severity in Nigeria. The study also used the headcount ratio to analyze the extent of child deprivation in education, health, nutrition, child protection, water and sanitation...
December 30, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Christine L M Gervais, Elisa Romano
Research on youth sexual offending has focused primarily on its prevalence. However, recent efforts have begun to consider the collateral consequences for the relatives of offending youth, although little has been done in this regard toward exploring caregiver accountability. This study presents qualitative data on parents' sense of responsibility in situations where their child engaged in sexual offending behaviour against another child. We analyzed interview data among 16 parents from 10 families in Canada using thematic coding procedures...
December 27, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Kathi L H Harp, Carrie B Oser
This study examines the influence of child custody loss on drug use and crime among a sample of African American mothers. Two types of custody loss are examined: informal custody loss (child living apart from mother but courts not involved), and official loss (child removed from mother's care by authorities). METHODS: Using data from 339 African American women, longitudinal random coefficient models analyzed the effects of each type of custody loss on subsequent drug use and crime. RESULTS: indicated that both informal and official custody loss predicted increased drug use, and informal loss predicted increased criminal involvement...
December 26, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Brigitte Lueger-Schuster, Matthias Knefel, Tobias M Glück, Reinhold Jagsch, Viktoria Kantor, Dina Weindl
Child maltreatment (CM) in foster care settings (i.e., institutional abuse, IA) is known to have negative effects on adult survivor's mental health. This study examines and compares the extent of CM (physical, emotional, and sexual abuse; physical and emotional neglect) and lifetime traumatization with regard to current adult mental health in a group of survivors of IA and a comparison group from the community. Participants in the foster care group (n = 220) were adult survivors of IA in Viennese foster care institutions, the comparison group (n = 234) consisted of persons from the Viennese population...
December 22, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Joshua P Mersky, Colleen E Janczewski
Despite great interest in adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), there has been limited research on racial and ethnic differences in their prevalence. Prior research in the United States suggests that the prevalence of ACEs varies along socioeconomic lines, but it is uncertain whether there are racial/ethnic differences in ACE rates among low-income populations. This study examined the distribution of ACEs in a sample of 1523 low-income women in Wisconsin that received home visiting services. Participants ranging in age from 16 to 50 years were coded into five racial/ethnic groups, including Hispanics and four non-Hispanic groups: blacks, whites, American Indians, and other race...
December 19, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Rachel Wamser-Nanney, Rebecca E Chesher
Trauma-related sleep difficulties are quite common and their functional and clinical importance are increasingly recognized. High rates of sleep problems have been documented among trauma-exposed adults, particularly those diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, research with trauma-exposed children is relatively limited. Research specifically with child samples is critical due to the numerous developmental and functional implications that may result from sleep impairment. Characteristics of the traumatic event may play a key role in understanding sleep difficulties, yet, these associations are not well understood among trauma-exposed children...
December 18, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Michael G Wessells
This paper examines the utility of the Differential Impact Theory for child protection practitioners who work in humanitarian settings, with a focus on war-affected children. A primary advantage of DIT is that it focuses efforts to strengthen children's resilience on improving children's social ecologies at different levels. This ecological focus is more likely to address the sources of children's suffering and resilience and also helps to avoid the problems associated with an individualized focus. It also shows how DIT provides a differentiated view of war-affected children and stimulates multiple interventions at different ecological levels, avoiding the common error of taking a one size fits all approach to intervention...
December 15, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Wassilis Kassis, Sibylle Artz, Ivana Maurovic, Celeste Simões
This study expands on earlier analyses of the data generated by a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 5149 middle-school students with a mean age of 14.5 years from four EU-countries (Austria, Germany, Slovenia, and Spain), in which every fourth respondent (23.0%) had been physically abused by his or her parents and almost every sixth respondent (17.3%) had witnessed physical spousal abuse. Contrary to expectations, some of these youths reported no engagement in peer violence and no symptoms of depression, which meant that they could be considered "resilient...
December 15, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Tine Vertommen, Jarl Kampen, Nicolette Schipper-van Veldhoven, Kasia Uzieblo, Filip Van Den Eede
In a recent large-scale prevalence study of interpersonal violence (IV) against child athletes in the Netherlands and Belgium we found that 9% of adult respondents who participated in organized sports before the age of 18 had experienced severe psychological violence, 8% severe physical violence, and 6% severe sexual violence in various sport settings. While the general literature has repeatedly shown that exposure to IV during childhood is associated with mental health problems in adulthood and to a lesser extent with reduced quality of life (QOL), these relationships have not been demonstrated in (former) athletes...
December 15, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
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