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Child Abuse & Neglect

Paul R Sterzing, G Allen Ratliff, Rachel E Gartner, Briana L McGeough, Kelly C Johnson
Polyvictimization is a common experience for youth in the United States, with 20% nationally experiencing five or more different forms of victimization in the last year. Utilizing a large, national convenience sample of sexual and gender minority adolescents (N = 1177, 14-19 years old), the current study aimed to (a) generate the first estimates of last year polyvictimization (including nine victimization subtypes) for transgender, genderqueer, and cisgender (i.e., assigned birth sex aligns with gender identity) sexual minority adolescents and (b) identify social ecological correlates of last year polyvictimization...
February 18, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Ben Mathews, Leah Bromfield, Kerryann Walsh, Qinglu Cheng, Rosana E Norman
Although prevalence studies show girls are more frequently sexually abused than boys, a significant proportion of boys also experience child sexual abuse (CSA). The challenges for public policy are amplified for boys due to less developed public and professional sensitisation to boys' experiences, conceptions of masculinity, and less research on boys including into reporting trends and outcomes. We conducted a 20-year longitudinal time-trend analysis of government data to identify reporting trends and report outcomes for CSA in Victoria, Australia from 1993 to 2012...
February 17, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Randy J McCarthy, John J Skowronski, Julie L Crouch, Joel S Milner
Parents' evaluations of children are believed to be a cognitive contributor to their subsequent child-directed harsh or physically abusive behaviors. The current research examined whether parents' (N=100) evaluations of children were moderated by either (a) the child behavior on which the evaluation was based and (b) parents' measured risk for child physical abuse. The study also explored whether parents' evaluations of children were related to their tendencies to symbolically harm their child. The current study also used a novel method to indirectly assess parents' evaluations of children: A modified Affect Misattribution Procedure...
February 16, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Marc Allroggen, Thea Rau, Jeannine Ohlert, Jörg M Fegert
The frequency of sexual victimization in high-risk populations like adolescents in institutional care has hardly been studied. In this study, we report lifetime prevalence and incidence from a nationwide German sample including 322 adolescents (mean age 16.69 years, 43% female) from 20 residential care facilities and 12 boarding schools. Lifetime prevalence for severe sexual victimization (in and outside of institution) was 46.7% for girls and 8.0% for boys. Moreover, 5% of all adolescents experienced severe sexual victimization for the first time after they were admitted to the current institution (mean duration of stay in the current institution 3...
February 14, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Myriam Denov, Atim Angela Lakor
This paper examines the realities and perspectives of a sample of 60 children born of wartime rape within the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), and currently living in northern Uganda. These children were born to mothers who were abducted by the LRA, held captive for extended periods of time, repeatedly raped and impregnated. The paper explores the multiple challenges that these children face in the post-war period including, rejection, stigma, violence, socio-economic marginalization, and issues of identity and belonging...
February 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Sabrina Fréchette, Elisa Romano
The lack of consensus about the definition of corporal punishment (CP) contributes to the varying research findings and fuels the debate surrounding its use. Related to the problem of definitional variability is also the possibility that some parents may not be aware that their physical disciplinary strategies (PDS) are forms of CP. As a first step to move beyond the debate and to tailor educational efforts to change cultural norms and parents' behaviors, the objective of the current study was to clarify what parents self-label as CP...
February 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Marie-Hélène Drouineau, Elise Guenego, Véronique Sebille-Rivain, Bénédicte Vrignaud, Martine Balençon, Thomas Blanchais, Karine Levieux, Nathalie Vabres, Georges Picherot, Christèle Gras-le Guen
The objective of this study was to investigate whether acute pain in abused children was under recognized by doctors and nurses compared to children evaluated for accidental injuries. We hypothesize that an abused child's reaction to physical pain could be an additional symptom of this challenging diagnosis. For the observational prospective case control study in an emergency department, children were eligible when: younger than six years old, the reported trauma occurred within the previous seven days, the trauma comprised a bone injury or burn, and the child was able to express his or her pain...
February 11, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Katherine Mitchell, Melissa Moynihan, Claire Pitcher, Annabel Francis, Abigail English, Elizabeth Saewyc
Research and policies on child and adolescent sexual exploitation frequently focus on the sexual exploitation of girls and fail to recognize the experiences of sexually exploited boys, including their potentially unique health care and social support needs. This oversight limits the ability of health care and social service providers to offer both targeted and evidence informed care to sexually exploited boys. As a first step in a larger grant to understand the experiences of sexually exploited boys and to develop interventions for this specific population, we conducted a systematic review to address the question, "What is the state of the research on sexually exploited boys internationally?" As we undertook this review, we faced a number of significant challenges that made the process more difficult than anticipated...
February 9, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Sylvia Y C L Kwok, Minmin Gu, Andy P S Cheung
Using data collected over a 1-year period on a stratified random sample of 368 parents with children studying in nurseries (mean age=3.97years), this study assessed the predictive effects of parental corporal punishment, parental psychological aggression, preschoolers' altruism, and preschoolers' forgiveness on preschoolers' anxiety symptoms in Hong Kong, China. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that parental psychological aggression, preschoolers' altruism and preschoolers' forgiveness at Time 1 significantly predicted preschoolers' anxiety at Time 2, when controlling for the initial level of preschoolers' anxiety and important demographic variables that co-vary with preschoolers' anxiety...
February 9, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Kimberlee S Burrows, Madeleine Bearman, Jacinthe Dion, Martine B Powell
For successful prosecution, investigative interviews with child sexual abuse victims need to establish the nature of the alleged offence by determining the body parts that were involved. To date, however, there has been a paucity of research on the extent to which children clearly identify sexual body parts in interviews and how they respond to interviewers' attempts to clarify ambiguous terms. The present study sought to explore children's use of sexual body part terms in field interviews, and their responses to questions aimed at clarifying ambiguous terms...
February 9, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Shauna Rienks, Jon Phillips, Julie McCrae, Kim Bender, Samantha Brown
Children referred to child welfare have higher-than-average rates of physical, mental, and developmental health conditions, yet coordinating medical care to address their complex needs is challenging. This study investigates complex health characteristics of child welfare-involved children to inform evolving patient-centered medical homes that incorporate multidisciplinary care and social health determinants. Study questions include: (1) To what degree do child welfare-involved children present with complex physical, behavioral, and developmental conditions? (2) How does the clustering of complex health concerns vary according to developmental stage? (3) What demographic factors relate to complex health concerns? Data are from 5873 children (birth to 18) who participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being II...
February 9, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Elizabeth Crouch, Melissa Strompolis, Kevin J Bennett, Melanie Morse, Elizabeth Radcliff
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to negative health outcomes in adulthood, but little research has been done on the effect of ACEs on the health and well-being of adults in South Carolina (SC). This study analyzed a sample of 9744 respondents who participated in the 2014 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to examine the relationship among childhood experiences of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, as well as witnessing household violence, on mental and physical health outcomes in adulthood among SC residents...
February 9, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Min-Ah Lee, Rira Song
This study examined associations among childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood, and whether and how the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms are mediated by the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness). The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey using a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used...
February 9, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Samantha J Andrews, Michael E Lamb
In the first study to systematically assess the structural linguistic complexity of lawyers' questions of children in Scotland, we examined 56 trial transcripts of 5- to 17-year-old children testifying as alleged victims of sexual abuse. Complexity was assessed using 8 quantitative measures of each utterance's components (number of questions, phrases, clauses, sentences, false starts, average word count, word length, and sentence length) and a composite measure was used in the analyses. Lawyers did not alter the complexity of questions when prompting children of different ages...
February 8, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Sarah Turner, Tamara Taillieu, Kristene Cheung, Tracie O Afifi
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the associations between childhood sexual abuse (CSA), co-occurrence with other types of maltreatment and adult mental health outcomes, specifically among males. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine the prevalence of males who have experienced a) childhood maltreatment without CSA; b) CSA without other forms of childhood maltreatment; and c) CSA along with other forms of childhood maltreatment; and 2) determine the relationship between CSA among males and mood, anxiety, substance and personality disorders and suicide attempts...
February 6, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Yunjiao Gao, Sally Atkinson-Sheppard, Xing Liu
Although cases of child abuse among migrant families are often reported by social media, the issue of child maltreatment among migrant families in China has received little empirical attention. This study investigated both the prevalence of child maltreatment by parents among migrant families, and the individual, family and community-level risk factors associated with child abuse in this context. A survey was conducted with 667 migrant and 496 local adolescents in Shenzhen, South China, with a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design...
February 6, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Shalhevet Attar-Schwartz, Rami Benbenishty, Ilan Roziner
This study examined change trajectories of aggressive behaviors among children in long-term residential care in Israel and identified various child-, family-, and placement-related predictors of the change trajectories. Records of 799 children (average age at the beginning of the four years=10.4, 33.1% female) in their first four consecutive years in care were analyzed using the TRF aggressive behavior subscale (Achenbach, 1991) to measure the outcome variable. Children's and parents' characteristics and placement-related factors were used to explain variance in change trajectories...
February 3, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Marian Morris, Stephanie Rivaux, Monica Faulkner
Forensic medical evaluation rates for child abuse victims in Texas are low relative to national rates. In exploring reasons, researchers collected quantitative and qualitative interview and focus group data from multidisciplinary child abuse response team members across the state. This paper presents results of a secondary analysis of (N=19) health care providers' interview and focus group transcripts, looking specifically at experiences with conducting forensic evaluations - thoughts, struggles, and ethical issues...
February 2, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Elizabeth T Gershoff, Shawna J Lee, Joan E Durrant
The strong and ever-growing evidence base demonstrating that physical punishment places children at risk for a range of negative outcomes, coupled with global recognition of children's inherent rights to protection and dignity, has led to the emergence of programs specifically designed to prevent physical punishment by parents. This paper describes promising programs and strategies designed for each of three levels of intervention - indicated, selective, and universal - and summarizes the existing evidence base of each...
February 2, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Daniel M Lindberg, Joanne N Wood, Kristine A Campbell, Philip V Scribano, Antoinette Laskey, John M Leventhal, Mary Clyde Pierce, Desmond K Runyan
Although child maltreatment medical research has benefited from several multi-center studies, the new specialty of child abuse pediatrics has not had a sustainable network capable of pursuing multiple, prospective, clinically-oriented studies. The Child Abuse Pediatrics Network (CAPNET) is a new multi-center research network dedicated to child maltreatment medical research. In order to establish a relevant, practical research agenda, we conducted a modified Delphi process to determine the topic areas with highest priority for such a network...
February 2, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
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