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Child Abuse & Neglect

Dalila Talevi, Lorenzo Imburgia, Chiara Luperini, Alessandro Zancla, Alberto Collazzoni, Rodolofo Rossi, Francesca Pacitti, Alessandro Rossi
Violence is a burdensome problem in daily psychiatric practice, even though the diagnosisof a mental disorder is not sufficient to determine a violent behavior; therefore, other factors are involved. We predicted that the participants could be distributed in two groups (e.g. high versus low violence-maltreatment groups) because this grouping would better describe specific patterns of associations in a clinical sample. We aimed to investigate the relation between interpersonal violence and maltreating experiences in childhood...
September 13, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Yuerong Liu, Darcey H Merritt
Based on the family stress model and the stress-buffering model, the present study examines the relationship between caregivers' financial stress and child internalizing problem behaviors, the mediating role of caregiver maltreating behaviors, and whether social services for caregivers buffer this relationship. The current study is based on data from wave two of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being dataset (N = 2670). Results indicated increased high familial financial stress was associated with child internalizing problems...
September 13, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Marudan Sivagurunathan, Treena Orchard, Joy C MacDermid, Marilyn Evans
Research regarding child sexual abuse (CSA) indicates significant gender differences in disclosure rates, with males less likely to disclose their abuse compared to females. CSA can have lasting impact on a children's emotional, physical, and psychological wellbeing. While service providers play an instrumental role in providing care and support for male CSA survivors, little is known about their perceptions and experiences related to disclosure among these men. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore service providers' perceptions and awareness of disclosure-related barriers and facilitators amongst male CSA survivors...
September 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Natalie Stavas, Judy Shea, Shimrit Keddem, Joanne Wood, Whitney Orji, Catherine Cullen, Philip Scribano
BACKGROUND: Childhood sexual abuse is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. All victims should receive a timely comprehensive medical exam. Currently there is a critical shortage of child abuse pediatricians who can complete the comprehensive child sexual abuse examination. Telemedicine has emerged as an innovative way to provide subspecialty care to this population. Despite the growing popularity of telemedicine, no literature exists describing patient and caregiver perceptions of telemedicine for this sensitive exam...
September 11, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Lauren M Schaefer, Kathryn H Howell, Laura E Schwartz, Jamison S Bottomley, Candice B Crossnine
The present study concurrently examined protective factors associated with the adaptive outcomes of resilience and posttraumatic growth (PTG; defined as positive psychological change resulting from a life crisis or trauma), after accounting for relevant demographic factors and the impact of circumstances surrounding childhood victimization (i.e., age of first trauma, frequency of victimization, and perception of trauma severity). The protective factors examined in the present study included social support from friends and family, optimism, positive religious coping (i...
September 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Gabrielle F Miller, Laura Chiang, NaTasha Hollis
This study seeks to assess the impact of economic factors on sexual, emotional, and physical violence on Nigerian children and adolescents aged 13-24 years. Data collected from the Nigerian Violence Against Children Survey (VACS), a national, cross-sectional household survey of females and males aged 13-24 years were used to examine sexual, emotional, and physical violence victimization. Data were collected on household economic status, e.g., flooring and roofing materials, transportation. A poverty index was developed using the Simple Poverty Scorecard™ for Nigeria to determine the impact that economic factors have on these violence measures...
September 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Sugy Choi, Jinsol Yoo, Jayoung Park, Hwa-Young Lee, Huong Thi Giang Tran, Jong-Koo Lee, Juhwan Oh
Physical child punishment is a critical public health problem that exhibits negative and long-lasting mental and physical health consequences. Yet, the predictors of physical punishment are understudied in developing countries, and disparities that exist between levels of economic status are not known well. The socioeconomic predictors of physical child punishment were investigated using three rounds of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) results in a lower middle-income country, Viet Nam from 2006 to 2014...
September 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Julia Rudolph, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck
Although parents are essential to child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention efforts, their views on prevention and protection are not always represented in the research literature. In this qualitative study of 24 Australian parents, beliefs about CSA, its risk factors, prevention methods, and parents' role in CSA protection, and parents' approaches to protection of their own children, are examined. Findings were condensed into five themes: (a) parents' understanding of child sexual abuse, grooming and risk; (b) parent-led CSA education; (c) parents' beliefs about CSA education; (d) children recognizing and resisting CSA; and (e) parent responsibility for protection...
September 1, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Stéphanie Mignot, Xavier Fritel, Marie Loreal, Philippe Binder, Marie-Thérèse Roux, Ludovic Gicquel, Pierre Ingrand
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is an international public health problem. While general practitioners are perhaps ideally positioned to detect CSA, a lack of simple tools and their discomfort in bringing up such a sensitive subject reduce the likelihood of its being brought up and flagged in primary care. However, it may be possible to identify victims of CSA by observing its consequences on student well-being, overall well-being and risk behavior. This study investigate the predictive value of daily life events possibly associated with CSA: relationship difficulties with peers and teachers, autolytic attempts, self-mutilation, low self-esteem, addiction, poor body image, physical and psychological violence, low quality of sleep...
August 30, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Sunny H Shin, Shelby Elaine McDonald, David Conley
The influence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), which often include childhood exposure to maltreatment and household dysfunction, on health risk behaviors during young adulthood has been widely documented. A vulnerability marker for the increased risky behaviors among young ACEs victims such as impulsivity remains to be explored. The present study investigated how different profiles of ACEs influence impulsivity in young adulthood. Respondents were young people (N = 336; ages 18-25) who were recruited from the community...
August 29, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Marcela Raffaelli, Juliana Prates Santana, Normanda Araujo de Morais, Carlos J Nieto, Silvia H Koller
Most research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has been conducted in high-income countries in the global North. The current longitudinal study examined the prevalence, overlap, and impact of ACEs in a sample of Brazilian children and adolescents who use city streets as spaces for socialization and survival (i.e., street-involved youth). Participants (N = 113; M age = 14.18 years) were recruited in three cities following standardized procedures. Most youth were male (80.5%) and non-White (91%)...
August 28, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Grace Skrzypiec, Earvin Alinsug, Ulil Amri Nasiruddin, Eleni Andreou, Antonella Brighi, Eleni Didaskalou, Annalisa Guarini, Soon-Won Kang, Kirandeep Kaur, Soonjung Kwon, Rosario Ortega-Ruiz, Eva M Romera, Christina Roussi-Vergou, Damanjit Sandhu, Iwona Sikorska, Mirella Wyra, Chih-Chien Yang
While the poor psychosocial outcomes of young people who have experienced bullying are well known, the harm associated with experiences that do not meet the bullying criteria is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the level of harm associated with experiences of peer aggression, as well as bullying, by directly measuring the four elements of intent, perceived harm, repetition and power imbalance that comprise the bullying criteria. The purpose of the study was to establish whether bullying was the most harmful form of peer aggression and whether other types of peer aggression that did not comprise all elements of bullying were comparably harmful...
August 28, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Juliet Rumball-Smith, Janet Fromkin, Bruce Rsosenthal, Debra Shane, Janet Skrbin, Tammy Bimber, Rachel P Berger
BACKGROUND: Routine child abuse screening is an approach to early identification of abuse. Previous studies evaluated paper-based screens; the widespread use of electronic health records suggests that screening is more likely to succeed if integrated into the electronic record. OBJECTIVE: To implement an electronic health record-based child abuse screen in a diverse hospital system and to evaluate the screening rate, rate of positive screens, and number of reports to Child Protective Services and assess whether hospital and patient characteristics are associated with these rates...
August 28, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
RaeAnn E Anderson, Larissa-Jayne Edwards, Kristin E Silver, Dawn M Johnson
Parental risk for perpetrating child abuse is frequently associated with intergenerational patterns of abuse: being abused increases the risk for future abuse. Yet, the mechanisms of intergenerational abuse are unclear, and the risk factors for perpetrating child abuse are interrelated. Research suggests that history of childhood abuse, psychiatric distress, and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) are all related risk factors for perpetrating child abuse. We investigated these three risk factors using the developmental psychopathology framework in a racially diverse sample of high-risk women: women residing in domestic violence shelters...
August 28, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Rebecca Orsi, Paula Yuma-Guerrero, Kristen Sergi, Anita Alves Pena, Audrey M Shillington
This national study of US counties (n = 2963) investigated whether county-level drug overdose mortality is associated with maltreatment report rates, and whether the relationship between overdose mortality and maltreatment reports is moderated by a county's rural, non-metro or metro status. Data included county-level 2015 maltreatment reports from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, modeled drug-overdose mortality from the Centers for Disease Control, United States Department of Agriculture Rural-Urban Continuum Codes, US Census demographic data and crime reports from the Federal Bureau of Investigation...
August 27, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Margaret J Briggs-Gowan, Ryne Estabrook, David Henry, Damion G Grasso, James Burns, Kimberly J McCarthy, Seth J Pollak, Lauren S Wakschlag
Early childhood exposure to family violence predicts increased risk for psychopathology. However, violence between partners and towards children often co-occur. This complicates efforts to determine how experiences of family violence contribute to early mental health problems. Utilizing mother-report data on harsh parenting and intimate partner violence (IPV) from two large community-based, socioeconomically and ethnically diverse samples of 3-5-year-old children, we illustrate the value of a bifactor method for characterizing a family climate in which verbal and physical violence are more chronic and pervasive among family members...
August 24, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Lauren D Brumley, Benjamin P Brumley, Sara R Jaffee
Child maltreatment is a complex and multifaceted construct in need of advanced statistical techniques to improve its measurement. The current study compared the predictive utility of a cumulative index to a factor analytic approach for constructing a measure of maltreatment. Data were from Waves III and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Wave III: n = 14,800; Wave IV: n = 12,288). As adults, participants retrospectively reported on their childhood experiences of physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, supervisory neglect, and social services investigations...
August 23, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Miriam Nuño, Beatrice Ugiliweneza, Veronica Zepeda, Jamie E Anderson, Kevin Coulter, Julia N Magana, Doniel Drazin, Maxwell Boakye
OBJECTIVE: Abusive head trauma is the leading cause of physical abuse deaths in children under the age of 5 and is associated with severe long-lasting health problems and developmental disabilities. This study evaluates the long-term impact of AHT and identifies factors associated with poor long-term outcomes (LTOs). METHODS: We used the Truven Health MarketScan Research Claims Database (2000-2015) to identify children diagnosed with AHT and follow them up until they turn 5...
August 23, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Gideon de Jong, Gert Schout
There is discussion on the most appropriate research methodology to examine the efficacy of Family Group Conferencing (FGC). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), despite their pitfalls, are considered by many to be the 'golden standard', but the argument is not compelling. In this paper, the theory on programme evaluation is discussed which offers an alternative methodology to study FGC. It is argued that reaching a comprehensive image of truth in the social sciences is never within reach. A RCT is an abstraction of reality, it only provides a partial image of the complex reality of families and the impact that FGC has on safety issues and the quality of their lives...
August 18, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Melissa S Jones, Meredith G F Worthen, Susan F Sharp, David A McLeod
Most incarcerated women suffer from adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as abuse (e.g., physical, sexual, emotional), neglect, (e.g., physical, emotional), and chaotic home environments (e.g., witnessing domestic violence), and adult intimate partner violence (IPV). Yet the majority of research on the relationship between ACEs and IPV has been limited to non-incarcerated populations. Using data from a stratified random sample of all incarcerated women in Oklahoma (n = 355), we explore the relationships between individual, cumulative, and clusters of ACEs as they relate to multiple forms of IPV in adulthood utilizing a feminist life course theory approach...
August 17, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
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