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Child Abuse & Neglect

Emily A Eismann, Eve S Pearl, Jack Theuerling, Alonzo T Folger, John S Hutton, Kathi Makoroff
BACKGROUND: Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a preventable form of child abuse. OBJECTIVE: This project used a mixed method design to assess the feasibility of the Calm Baby Gently educational baby book intervention for promoting safe practices related to infant crying in an effort to prevent AHT. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Three pediatric practices participated between June 2016 and January 2018, including 1045 caregivers who attended their infant's 2-month well-child visit...
January 15, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jessica Sprague-Jones, Jacqueline Counts, Mallory Rousseau, Casandra Firman
BACKGROUND: The Protective Factors Survey (PFS) is a self-report measure of multiple family-level protective factors against abuse and neglect. It is the only peer-reviewed valid and reliable tool collecting data on multiple protective factors, and is widely used by practitioners in child abuse prevention and related fields. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to revise the PFS in response to feedback from practitioners, and analyze the internal structure of new items...
January 15, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Simone Cunningham, Caeleb Goff, R Michael Bagby, Jeremy G Stewart, Cherie Larocque, Raegan Mazurka, Arun Ravindran, Kate L Harkness
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment is one of the strongest predictors of sexual and peer bullying re-victimization. However, it is not clear which types of maltreatment are associated with the greatest risk. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the differential relations of maternal- versus paternal-perpetrated emotional maltreatment, neglect, and physical maltreatment, as well as sexual maltreatment, to sexual victimization and peer bullying victimization outside the home...
January 15, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Ruby Charak, Lillianne Villarreal, Rachel M Schmitz, Michiyo Hirai, Julian D Ford
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and intimate partner violence victimization (IPV) is prevalent among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals (LGB). Identification of distinct patterns of childhood and adult victimization, including technology-mediated and face-to-face IPV, and their cumulative relations to mental/behavioral health challenges, among LGB people is needed to facilitate identification of at-risk individuals. OBJECTIVE: Using latent class analysis, we first sought to identify patterns of lifetime interpersonal victimization, primarily five types of CAN and IPV in LGB emerging adults...
January 14, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Manoj Therayil Kumar, Nilamadhab Kar, Sebind Kumar
BACKGROUND: Child abuse is a major concern in India with frequent reports of extreme maltreatment and fatalities. A dearth of robust and methodologically sound studies has resulted in ambiguity regarding the extent of child abuse in the general population. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the one-year and lifelong prevalence of exposure to violence, physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect using a validated instrument-the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool - Child, Home Version (ICAST-CH)...
January 11, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Tessie Mastorakos, Katreena L Scott
BACKGROUND: School-aged children and adolescents exposed to domestic violence (DV) disproportionality attend to threatening and sad cues in their environment. This bias in attention has been found to predict elevations in symptoms of psychopathology. Studies have yet to explore attention biases using eyetracking technology in preschool-aged children with DV exposure. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether preschool-aged children exposed to DV show vigilance to angry and sad faces versus happy faces and a target non-face stimulus relative to non-exposed children, and whether such vigilance relates to child social-emotional development...
January 10, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Maria Larsen Brattfjell, Anna Margrete Flåm
BACKGROUND: When child sexual abuse (CSA) is not disclosed, children run the risk of being subjected to longer or repeated abuse, not receiving necessary treatment, and being re-victimized. OBJECTIVE: This study examines what adults exposed to child sexual abuse in hindsight evaluate as important for disclosure. The aim was to explore exposed own experiences of steps towards final disclosure. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Data were obtained from adult users of Norwegian Sexual Abuse Support Centers...
January 10, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Seth M Woolf, John M Leventhal, Julie R Gaither, Priyanka Hardikar, Melissa L Langhan, Kirsten Bechtel, Marc A Auerbach, Gunjan Tiyyagura
BACKGROUND: Oral injuries in young children may indicate physical abuse. The prevalence of oral injuries in young children presenting to the emergency department is unknown. These data would assist providers in making decisions about the need for further abuse evaluation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of oral injuries, associated chief complaints and characteristics, and frequency of abuse evaluations in children younger than 24 months presenting to a pediatric emergency department (PED)...
January 8, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Janet Njelesani
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to understand how best to prevent and respond to violence against children with disabilities as they are at a high risk for violence because they are marginalized, isolated, and targeted and have little power within their communities. OBJECTIVE: Guided by social-ecological theory, this study explores responses to violence against children with disabilities, including preventative measures and treatment of victims in the West African countries of Guinea, Niger, Sierra Leone, and Togo...
January 8, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Eric Y Tenkorang
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between child marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ghana, looking specifically for possible mechanisms driving the relationship. METHOD: Nationally representative cross-sectional data were collected from 2289 ever-married Ghanaian women and analysed using random-effects regression techniques. RESULTS: Women who married as children differed significantly from those who did not in their socio-economic characteristics, attitudes to societal gender norms and autonomy...
January 7, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jisun Park, Joon Tag Cho
BACKGROUND: Considering the devastating long-term effects on victims caused by child abduction, a thorough examination of child abduction cases as well as the identification of specific factors determining offender arrest times are required. OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to better understand the characteristics of child abduction and contribute to improving efficient investigation and rapid offender apprehension. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The study uses data from investigation and trial records of abduction cases in South Korea from 1997 to 2008...
January 7, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Christoph Liel, Franziska Meinck, Janina I Steinert, Heinz Kindler, Katrin Lang, Andreas Eickhorst
BACKGROUND: In order to prevent child abuse, instruments measuring child abuse potential (CAP) need to be appropriate, reliable and valid. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to confirm the 6-factor structure of the Brief Child Abuse Potential Inventory (BCAPI) in a German sample of mothers and fathers, and to examine longitudinal predictors of CAP. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Two waves of data were collected from 197 mothers and 191 fathers of children aged 10-21 months for the "Kinder in Deutschland - KiD 0-3" in-depth study...
January 5, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Debra Allnock, Ruth Atkinson
BACKGROUND: School based, peer-to-peer sexual harm is under-researched despite its prevalence and adverse effects on young people across the globe. Understanding barriers to victim disclosure and peer reporting might help towards the prevention and protection of young people. OBJECTIVE: This study explores dual perspectives of young people and educational staff about school-specific environmental barriers to 1) young people's disclosure of sexual harm experienced, and 2) young people's reporting of sexual harm on behalf of others...
January 3, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Vivian Khamis
BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of the conflict in Syria, many people, including children and adolescents, have fled their homes into neighboring countries. Little research exists on the psychosocial adjustment of refugee children and adolescents resettled in Lebanon and Jordan. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of PTSD and emotion dysregulation in Syrian refugee children and adolescents who resettled in Lebanon and Jordan. It was hypothesized that a combination of pre-trauma variables (age and gender), trauma-specific variables (traumatic events and time spent in host country, and host country), and post-trauma variables (coping strategies, family relationships, and school environment) would be associated with PTSD and emotion dysregulation...
January 3, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Gennaro Catone, Simona Signoriello, Simone Pisano, Margherita Siciliano, Katia Russo, Roberta Marotta, Marco Carotenuto, Matthew R Broome, Antonella Gritti, Vincenzo Paolo Senese, Antonio Pascotto
BACKGROUND: Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that has captured attention from mental health researchers. Several studies have assessed bullying prevalence with some methodological concerns. OBJECTIVES: Preliminary, we analyzed the psychometric properties of two bullying scales for victimization (the multidimensional peer victimization scale - MPVS) and for perpetration (the bully subscale of the Illinois bully scale - IBS-B); then, we estimated bullying prevalence; finally, we evaluated the effect of gender and classroom on the phenomenon...
January 3, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Karen Albright, Laura Schwab Reese, Richard D Krugman
BACKGROUND: Child Protective Services (CPS) systems have not historically conducted system effectiveness research. More information is needed about the long-term outcomes of children and families served by the systems. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how workers within CPS systems in Colorado and the Netherlands measure and perceive the effectiveness of their CPS system. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: CPS administrators and workers in Colorado and the Netherlands from August 2015 through May 2016...
January 3, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Joseph A Schwartz, Emily M Wright, Bradon A Valgardson
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are a potent risk factor. Despite these findings, studies have also recognized the importance of considering additional sources of genetic and environmental influence that cluster within families. OBJECTIVE: To properly control for latent sources of genetic and within-family environmental influences and isolate the association between ACEs and the following outcomes in adulthood: physical health, depressive symptoms, educational attainment, income attainment, alcohol problems, and antisocial behavior...
December 31, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Hillary W Petska, Kelsey Porada, Melodee Nugent, Pippa Simpson, Lynn K Sheets
BACKGROUND: Although screening for drug exposure is an important consideration in the evaluation of suspected child maltreatment, limited data are available on the frequency of drug exposure in children with suspected physical abuse. OBJECTIVE: To examine occult drug and pharmaceutical exposure in young children with suspected physical abuse. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Children ages 2 weeks -59 months evaluated for physical abuse by a tertiary referral center Child Protection Team...
December 31, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Kirti Zeijlmans, Mónica López López, Hans Grietens, Erik J Knorth
Complex decisions are often based on heuristics, which are shortcuts or simple 'rules of thumb'. Since the matching decision in family foster care is often made in a less-than-ideal setting and riddled with uncertainty, heuristics are expected to be applied in that field of child and youth care on a daily basis. However, the use of heuristics in the matching decision has not been studied empirically until now. This research explores how decision-making heuristics are used by practitioners to determine which foster family is the best fit for a child...
December 24, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Barbara Fallon, Nicolette Joh-Carnella, Nico Trocmé, Martin Chabot, Tonino Esposito, Mahsima Nosrati-Inanlou, Delphine Collin-Vézina
BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse (CSA) rates have been declining since the 1990s (Dunne et al., 2003; Finkelhor & Jones, 2004, 2012; Jones et al., 2001). Discrepancies in contexts and measures complicate comparing CSA rates across jurisdictions and studies, and there is limited literature about trends in CSA in Canada. OBJECTIVE: Using data from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (OIS), the only source of provincially aggregated data in Ontario, Canada, that describes child welfare investigations, this paper provides information on reported and investigated CSA over the past 20 years...
December 20, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
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