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Child Abuse & Neglect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775872/adolescents-motives-for-selling-sex-in-a-welfare-state-a-swedish-national-study
#1
Cecilia Fredlund, Örjan Dahlström, Carl Göran Svedin, Marie Wadsby, Linda S Jonsson, Gisela Priebe
In addition to money or other compensation, other motives for selling sex may be important in a welfare country such as Sweden. The aim of this study was to carry out an exploratory investigation of adolescents' motives for selling sex in a population-based survey in Sweden. A total of 5839 adolescents from the third year of Swedish high school, mean age 18.0 years, participated in the study. The response rate was 59.7% and 51 students (0.9%) reported having sold sex. Exploratory factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to identify groups of adolescents according to underlying motives for selling sex...
May 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775871/associations-between-abuse-neglect-and-adhd-from-childhood-to-young-adulthood-a-prospective-nationally-representative-twin-study
#2
Adi Stern, Jessica Agnew-Blais, Andrea Danese, Helen L Fisher, Sara R Jaffee, Timothy Matthews, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Louise Arseneault
Child maltreatment has consistently been found to be associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the robustness of this association and the direction of the link between maltreatment and ADHD remain unclear. We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a cohort of 2232 British twins, to investigate the associations between exposure to abuse/neglect and ADHD in childhood and in young adulthood, and to test their robustness and specificity. We also aimed to test longitudinal associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD from childhood to young adulthood, controlling for confounders...
May 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775870/adverse-and-adaptive-childhood-experiences-are-associated-with-parental-reflective-functioning-in-mothers-with-substance-use-disorder
#3
Ulrika Håkansson, Reidulf Watten, Kerstin Söderström, Finn Skårderud, Merete Glenne Øie
Mothers with a substance use disorder (SUD) are at risk for maladaptive parenting practices, and have heightened likelihood of having experienced childhood adversity themselves. In addition, parental reflective functioning (PRF), a capacity underlying sensitive caregiving, is often low in mothers with SUD. This study examines the relationship between PRF and aversive (emotional, physical, sexual abuse and neglect) and adaptive (safety and competence) experiences, in different developmental phases (early childhood, latency, and adolescence) in mothers with a SUD...
May 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772468/understanding-child-protection-decisions-involving-parents-with-mental-illness-and-substance-abuse
#4
Joseph N Roscoe, Bridgette Lery, Jaclyn E Chambers
Among children investigated for maltreatment, those with parents experiencing mental illness or substance abuse are more likely to be placed out-of-home; however, little is known about why these children are at greater risk. Using a sample of 2488 Structured Decision Making® assessments administered in San Francisco county from 2011 to 2015, we identified a profile of safety threats that accounts for why workers are more likely to determine children of parents with mental illness and/or substance abuse unsafe in the home...
May 14, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763859/negative-parental-attributions-mediate-associations-between-risk-factors-and-dysfunctional-parenting-a-replication-and-extension
#5
Marieke Beckerman, Sheila R van Berkel, Judi Mesman, Lenneke R A Alink
The primary goal of the current study was to replicate our previous study in which was found that negative maternal attributions mediate the association between parenting stress and harsh and abusive discipline. In addition, we investigated this association in fathers, and added observational parenting data. During two home visits mothers and fathers were observed with their children (age 1.5-6.0 years), filled in questionnaires, and completed the Parental Attributions of Child behavior Task (PACT; a computerized attribution task)...
May 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758396/callous-unemotional-traits-and-the-relationship-between-aggressive-parenting-practices-and-conduct-problems-in-singaporean-families
#6
Khai Imm Sng, David J Hawes, Adrian Raine, Rebecca P Ang, Yoon Phaik Ooi, Daniel S S Fung
Research into parenting influences on child conduct problems in Asian countries has been limited compared to that conducted in Western countries, especially with regard to interplay between parenting and callous unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., lack of guilt and empathy). This study examined associations between dimensions of aggressive parenting practices (psychological aggression, mild and severe physical aggression), dimensions of child aggression (proactive, reactive), and child CU traits, in Singapore. Participants were children and adolescents with clinic-referred externalizing problems (N = 282; 87...
May 11, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753201/physical-sexual-and-emotional-abuse-during-childhood-experiences-of-a-sample-of-sri-lankan-young-adults
#7
Nadeeka K Chandraratne, Asvini D Fernando, Nalika Gunawardena
Abuse during childhood is a human tragedy leading to lifelong adverse health, social, and economic consequences for survivors. This descriptive, cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of childhood physical, sexual and emotional abusive experiences among students (aged 18-19 years) in a Sri Lankan district. Multistage cluster sampling was used to select a sample of 1500 students. Experiences of physical, sexual and emotional abuse and age at abuse, perpetrators, consequences and severity were assessed using a version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Retrospective Version (ICAST-R) which was culturally adapted and validated by the authors for use amongst Sinhalese students...
May 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753200/substance-exposed-newborn-infants-and-public-health-law-differences-in-addressing-the-legal-mandate-to-report
#8
Jordan J Hoerr, Anthony M Heard, Meredith M Baker, Joshua Fogel, Anne Elizabeth Glassgow, William C Kling, Maureen D Clark, James P Ronayne
Prenatal exposure to illicit substances is a finding that typically requires reporting to a child protective services agency. We examine whether there is differential reporting to two public agencies, and whether it varies by race/ethnicity and region. We also study predictors of indicating a maltreatment report as credible. Data on positive neonatal toxicology reports were obtained from the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) and the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS). Variation in reporting rates by race/ethnicity and region were compared with Pearson chi-square analysis...
May 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753199/acceptability-of-the-predicting-abusive-head-trauma-predaht-clinical-prediction-tool-a-qualitative-study-with-child-protection-professionals
#9
Laura E Cowley, Sabine Maguire, Daniel M Farewell, Harriet D Quinn-Scoggins, Matthew O Flynn, Alison M Kemp
The validated Predicting Abusive Head Trauma (PredAHT) tool estimates the probability of abusive head trauma (AHT) based on combinations of six clinical features: head/neck bruising; apnea; seizures; rib/long-bone fractures; retinal hemorrhages. We aimed to determine the acceptability of PredAHT to child protection professionals. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 56 participants: clinicians (25), child protection social workers (10), legal practitioners (9, including 4 judges), police officers (8), and pathologists (4), purposively sampled across southwest United Kingdom...
May 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747065/factors-associated-with-child-protection-recurrence-in-australia
#10
Brian Q Jenkins, Clare Tilbury, Hennessey Hayes, Paul Mazerolle
The aim of the current research was to advance understanding of child protection in Australia by examining the factors associated with recurrence of child protection notifications to the formal child protection system. Extant research has been primarily undertaken in the USA and it is important to understand whether similar factors associated with recurrence actually hold in the Australian context. Administrative data were obtained for a sample of 9608 children first subject to a screened-in report in 2011-12...
May 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747064/a-changing-child-welfare-workforce-what-worker-characteristics-are-valued-in-child-welfare
#11
Kristen Lwin, Barbara Fallon, Nico Trocmé, John Fluke, Faye Mishna
A child welfare system is responsible for making difficult decisions. Child welfare workers are charged with assessing and determining when a child is in need of protection, including when it is necessary to intervene on behalf of children when their caregivers' abilities and/or situation is deemed to put them at risk of abuse or neglect. Although the child welfare workforce in Ontario attended to an estimated 125,281 child maltreatment investigations in 2013, little is known about the skills, education, and experiences of these investigating workers...
May 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747063/maladaptive-schemas-as-mediators-of-the-relationship-between-previous-victimizations-in-the-family-and-dating-violence-victimization-in-adolescents
#12
Esther Calvete, Manuel Gámez-Guadix, Liria Fernández-Gonzalez, Izaskun Orue, Erika Borrajo
This study examined whether exposure to family violence, both in the form of direct victimization and witnessing violence, predicted dating violence victimization in adolescents through maladaptive schemas. A sample of 933 adolescents (445 boys and 488 girls), aged between 13 and 18 (M = 15.10), participated in a three-year longitudinal study. They completed measures of exposure to family violence, maladaptive schemas of disconnection/rejection, and dating violence victimization. The findings indicate that witnessing family violence predicts the increase of dating violence victimization over time, through the mediation of maladaptive schemas in girls, but not in boys...
May 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739000/the-impact-of-a-statewide-trauma-informed-child-welfare-initiative-on-children-s-permanency-and-maltreatment-outcomes
#13
Beth Barto, Jessica Dym Bartlett, Adam Von Ende, Ruth Bodian, Carmen Rosa Noroña, Jessica Griffin, Jenifer Goldman Fraser, Kristine Kinniburgh, Joseph Spinazzola, Crystaltina Montagna, Marybeth Todd
This article presents findings of a state-wide trauma informed child-welfare initiative with the goal of improving well-being, permanency and maltreatment outcomes for traumatized children. The Massachuetts Child Trauma Project (MCTP), funded by the Administration of Children and Families, Children's Bureau was a multi-year project implementing trauma-informed care into child welfare service delivery. The project's implementation design included training and consultation for mental health providers in three evidence-based treatments and training of the child-welfare workforce in trauma-informed case work practice...
May 5, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734111/a-pernicious-cycle-finding-the-pathways-from-child-maltreatment-to-adolescent-peer-victimization
#14
Dalhee Yoon, Susan Yoon, Jiho Park, Miyoung Yoon
The purpose of this study was to identify the pathways from childhood physical and sexual abuse to adolescent physical and sexual victimization by assessing behavior symptoms (both internalizing and externalizing) and peer popularity as potential mediating variables. The data derive from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN), which tracks the consequences of child abuse and neglect using five study sites across the US. Child physical and sexual abuse was measured at age 12 using self-reports of life-time maltreatment experiences...
May 4, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730313/exploring-detection-of-contact-vs-fantasy-online-sexual-offenders-in-chats-with-minors-statistical-discourse-analysis-of-self-disclosure-and-emotion-words
#15
Ming Ming Chiu, Kathryn C Seigfried-Spellar, Tatiana R Ringenberg
This exploratory study is the first to identify content differences between youths' online chats with contact child sex offenders (CCSOs; seek to meet with youths) and those with fantasy child sex offenders (FCSOs; do not meet with youths) using statistical discourse analysis (SDA). Past studies suggest that CCSOs share their experiences and emotions with targeted youths (self-disclosure grooming tactic) and encourage them to reciprocate, to build trust and closer relationships through a cycle of self-disclosures...
May 3, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730312/comparing-disciplinary-methods-used-by-mothers-in-palestine-and-qatar
#16
Madeeha Kamal, Samia Halileh, Soha Dargham, Khalid A Alyafei, Rita Giacaman, Sawsan Imseeh, Nehal Eldeeb, Shiraz Nasr, Mona Korayem, Niveen Abu-Rmeileh, Ziyad Mahfoud, Hassan Tawfik, Mohamed H Mahmoud, Marcellina Mian, Margaret A Lynch
This paper explores child disciplinary methods used by parents in Qatar and Palestine. In this study ICAST-P, an internationally recognized tool, was used with mothers reporting on one of their children up to their 12th birthday. It questions about disciplinary methods: nonviolent; physical: moderate and severe; and psychological methods that had been used in the previous year on the index child in the family. A comparative national cross-sectional household survey of mothers aged 25-50 years old was conducted in both Qatar and Palestine, both Arabic Muslim states, but with very different socio-economic and political contexts that place Qataris in a much more advantageous position...
May 3, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729535/the-emotional-and-behavioural-symptom-trajectories-of-children-in-long-term-out-of-home-care-in-an-english-local-authority
#17
Rachel M Hiller, Michelle C St Clair
The significant mental health needs of young people in out-of-home care has been well-documented. However, there is little empirical evidence on the timing or development of these difficulties, once these young people have been removed from the maltreatment-environment. Such information may provide useful clinical insight in to how problems develop and persist and whether intervention timings may allow for the prevention of later mental health problems. The current service-data study explored the emotional and behavioural symptom trajectories of 207 young people under the long-term care of a local authority in the South West of England, over their first five years in the care system...
May 1, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727766/ameliorating-the-biological-impacts-of-childhood-adversity-a-review-of-intervention-programs
#18
REVIEW
Sukhdip K Purewal Boparai, Vanessa Au, Kadiatou Koita, Debora Lee Oh, Susan Briner, Nadine Burke Harris, Monica Bucci
Childhood adversity negatively impacts the biological development of children and has been linked to poor health outcomes across the life course. The purpose of this literature review is to explore and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions that have addressed an array of biological markers and physical health outcomes in children and adolescents affected by adversity. PubMed, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Sociological Abstracts databases and additional sources (Cochrane, WHO, NIH trial registries) were searched for English language studies published between January 2007 and September 2017...
May 1, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723701/ritualistic-child-sexual-abuse-in-post-conflict-eastern-drc-factors-associated-with-the-phenomenon-and-implications-for-social-work
#19
Amani Clovis Kasherwa, Janestic Mwende Twikirize
Ritualistic child sexual abuse (RCSA) is a critical and under-recognised form of child maltreatment prevailing in developing countries. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), children from specific communities suffer complex forms of RCSA perpetrated with extreme brutality by various individuals and groups of conspirators. Although the DRC has achieved significant milestones towards combatting war-related sexual abuse of women and children, disturbing forms of RCSA, notably child kidnapping, rape, child defilement for fetish and superstitious beliefs, child sexual exploitation, and cult-based child marriage persist and affect many victims...
April 30, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723700/typologies-of-intimate-partner-violence-maternal-parenting-and-children-s-externalizing-problems-the-moderating-effect-of-the-exposure-to-other-forms-of-family-violence
#20
Diogo Lamela, Inês Jongenelen, Ricardo Pinto, Alytia Levendosky
Typologies of IPV and parenting practices in mothers who experienced police-reported IPV remain surprisingly unexplored, in addition to how those typologies are linked with children's externalizing problems. Using data from 162 Portuguese mother-child dyads with a police or child protection services referral of IPV, this study aimed to: (a) identify IPV-parenting typologies; (b) test the associations between typologies and children's externalizing problems, and (c) examine the moderating effect of children's exposure to other forms of family violence in those associations...
April 30, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
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