journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Law and Human Behavior

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648841/do-risk-assessment-tools-help-manage-and-reduce-risk-of-violence-and-reoffending-a-systematic-review
#1
Jodi L Viljoen, Dana M Cochrane, Melissa R Jonnson
Although it is widely believed that risk assessment tools can help manage risk of violence and offending, it is unclear what evidence exists to support this view. As such, we conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis. To identify studies, we searched 13 databases, reviewed reference lists, and contacted experts. Through this review, we identified 73 published and unpublished studies (N = 31,551 psychiatric patients and offenders, N = 10,002 professionals) that examined either professionals' risk management efforts following the use of a tool, or rates of violence or offending following the implementation of a tool...
April 12, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620397/real-world-use-of-the-risk-need-responsivity-model-and-the-level-of-service-case-management-inventory-with-community-supervised-offenders
#2
Heather L Dyck, Mary Ann Campbell, Julie L Wershler
The risk-need-responsivity model (RNR; Bonta & Andrews, 2017) has become a leading approach for effective offender case management, but field tests of this model are still required. The present study first assessed the predictive validity of the RNR-informed Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (LS/CMI; Andrews, Bonta, & Wormith, 2004) with a sample of Atlantic Canadian male and female community-supervised provincial offenders (N = 136). Next, the case management plans prepared from these LS/CMI results were analyzed for adherence to the principles of risk, need, and responsivity...
April 5, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620396/eyewitness-identification-performance-on-showups-improves-with-an-additional-opportunities-instruction-evidence-for-present-absent-criteria-discrepancy
#3
Andrew M Smith, Gary L Wells, R C L Lindsay, Tiffany Myerson
We tested the proposition that when eyewitnesses find it difficult to recognize a suspect (as in a culprit-absent showup), eyewitnesses accept a weaker match to memory for making an identification. We tie this proposition to the basic recognition memory literature, which shows people use lower decision criteria when recognition is made difficult so as to not miss their chance of getting a hit on the target. We randomly assigned participant-witnesses (N = 610) to a condition in which they were told that if they did not believe the suspect was the culprit, they would have additional opportunities to make an identification later (additional-opportunities instruction)...
April 5, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620395/juvenile-probation-officers-evaluation-of-traumatic-event-exposures-and-traumatic-stress-symptoms-as-responsivity-factors-in-risk-assessment-and-case-planning
#4
Evan D Holloway, Keith R Cruise, Samantha L Morin, Holly Kaufman, Richard D Steele
Juvenile probation officers (JPOs) are increasingly using risk/needs assessments to evaluate delinquency risk, identify criminogenic needs and specific responsivity factors, and use this information in case planning. Justice-involved youth are exposed to traumatic events and experience traumatic stress symptoms at a high rate; such information warrants attention during the case planning process. The extent to which JPOs identify specific responsivity factors, in general, and trauma history, specifically, when scoring risk/need assessments is understudied...
April 5, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620394/the-home-field-advantage-and-the-perils-of-professional-judgment-evaluating-the-performance-of-the-static-99r-and-the-mnsost-3-in-predicting-sexual-recidivism
#5
Grant Duwe, Michael Rocque
When sex offenders in Minnesota are assigned risk levels prior to their release from prison, correctional staff frequently exercise professional judgment by overriding the presumptive risk level per an offender's score on the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-3 (MnSOST-3), a sexual recidivism risk-assessment instrument. These overrides enabled us to evaluate whether the use of professional judgment resulted in better predictive performance than did reliance on "actuarial" judgment (MnSOST-3). Using multiple metrics, we also compared the performance of a home-grown instrument (the MnSOST-3) with a global assessment (the revised version of the Static-99 [Static-99R]) in predicting sexual recidivism for 650 sex offenders released from Minnesota prisons in 2012...
April 5, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672096/legitimacy-versus-morality-why-do-the-chinese-obey-the-law
#6
Jingkang Gao, Jinhua Zhao
This study explored two aspects of the rule of law in China: (1) motivations for compliance with 4 groups of everyday laws and regulations and (2) determinants of the legitimacy of legal authorities. We applied a structural equations model, constructed from Tyler's conceptual process-based self-regulation model with morality added as a motivation, to online questionnaire responses from 1,000 Shanghai drivers. We explored the compliance with four particular groups of laws: public disturbance; conventional traffic laws; illegal downloading; and distracted driving...
April 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672095/concurrent-validity-of-the-personality-assessment-screener-in-a-large-sample-of-offenders
#7
Shannon E Kelley, John F Edens, Kevin S Douglas
Mental health problems are disproportionately prevalent in forensic and correctional settings, and there have been numerous attempts to develop screening tools to evaluate individuals in such contexts. This study investigates the clinical utility of the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS; Morey, 1997), a brief self-report measure of risk for emotional and behavioral dysfunction, in a large mixed-gender offender sample (N = 1,658). The PAS is a 22-item measure derived from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007), a more comprehensive self-report instrument widely used to assess for psychological disturbances among forensic and correctional populations...
April 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672094/truth-tellers-stand-the-test-of-time-and-contradict-evidence-less-than-liars-even-months-after-a-crime
#8
Divya Sukumar, Kimberley A Wade, Jacqueline S Hodgson
When deceptive suspects are unaware of the evidence the police hold against them, they contradict that evidence more than truthful suspects do-a useful cue to deception. But given that, over time, truthful suspects might forget the past and also contradict the evidence, how effective are lie detection techniques that rely on such inconsistencies when suspects are questioned months after a crime? In Experiment 1, people committed a theft (liars) or a benign activity (truth-tellers) in a university bookshop. Shortly after or 2 months later, we questioned them about their bookshop visit without informing them of the evidence implicating them in the theft...
April 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672093/development-and-validation-of-the-attitudes-towards-police-legitimacy-scale
#9
Joshua J Reynolds, Victoria Estrada-Reynolds, Narina Nunez
Although there is a substantial body of work examining attitudes towards the police, no measure has been developed to consistently capture citizens' beliefs regarding police legitimacy. Given that police conduct has garnered a great deal of attention, particularly in the last few years, the current research sought to develop a scale measuring perceptions of police legitimacy. Across multiple studies, items were created and the scale's factor structure explored (Study 1 and Study 2), the factor structure was confirmed (Study 3a), and the predictive validity of the scale was tested (Studies 3b-3d)...
April 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672092/from-meaning-to-money-translating-injury-into-dollars
#10
Valerie P Hans, Rebecca K Helm, Valerie F Reyna
Legal systems often require the translation of qualitative assessments into quantitative judgments, yet the qualitative-to-quantitative conversion is a challenging, understudied process. We conducted an experimental test of predictions from a new theory of juror damage award decision making, examining how 154 lay people engaged in the translation process in recommending money damages for pain and suffering in a personal injury tort case. The experiment varied the presence, size, and meaningfulness of an anchor number to determine how these factors influenced monetary award judgments, perceived difficulty, and subjective meaningfulness of awards...
April 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461078/police-managers-self-control-and-support-for-organizational-justice
#11
Scott E Wolfe, Justin Nix, Bradley A Campbell
Recent policing research has identified a positive relationship between line-level officers' perceptions of organizational justice and their adherence to agency goals and job satisfaction. However, we have little understanding of the factors that are related to police managers' support for organizational justice when interacting with employees. We collected survey data from a sample of U.S. command-level officers (N = 211) who attended a training program in a southern state to address this gap in the literature...
February 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461077/who-deserves-basic-rights-people-condone-violations-of-procedural-and-physical-rights-in-the-treatment-of-terrorist-suspects
#12
Anna-Kaisa Newheiser, Tina C DeMarco
Public discourse regarding the treatment of terrorist suspects typically emphasizes utilitarian "greater-good" justifications related to ensuring public safety. By contrast, we hypothesized that laypeople's judgments of how suspected terrorists ought to be treated are more strongly informed by retributive concerns related to deservingness. Participants (N = 607, Mage = 34.25, recruited via Mechanical Turk) read about a terrorist suspect who was (vs. was not) presented as deserving of punishment and described as posing (vs...
February 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461076/the-single-lineup-paradigm-a-new-way-to-manipulate-target-presence-in-eyewitness-identification-experiments
#13
Chris Oriet, Ryan J Fitzgerald
The suspect in eyewitness lineups may be guilty or innocent. These possibilities are traditionally simulated in eyewitness identification studies using a dual-lineup paradigm: All witnesses observe the same perpetrator and then receive one of two lineups. In this paradigm, the suspect's guilt is manipulated by including the perpetrator in one lineup and an innocent suspect in the other. The lineup is then filled with people matched to either the suspect (resulting in different fillers in perpetrator-present and perpetrator-absent lineups) or to the perpetrator (resulting in the same fillers in each lineup)...
February 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172557/expanding-the-early-and-late-starter-model-of-criminal-justice-involvement-for-forensic-mental-health-clients
#14
Anne G Crocker, Michael S Martin, Marichelle C Leclair, Tonia L Nicholls, Michael C Seto
The early and late starter model provides one of the most enduring frameworks for understanding the developmental course and severity of violence and criminality among individuals with severe mental illness. We expanded the model to account for differences in the age of onset of criminal behavior and added a group with no prior contact with the justice or mental health systems. We sampled 1,800 men and women found Not Criminally Responsible on account of Mental Disorder in 3 Canadian provinces. Using a retrospective file-based study, we explored differences in criminal, health, demographic, and social functioning characteristics, processing through the forensic psychiatric system and recidivism outcomes of 5 groups...
February 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094954/procedural-justice-legitimacy-beliefs-and-moral-disengagement-in-emerging-adulthood-explaining-continuity-and-desistance-in-the-moral-model-of-criminal-lifestyle-development
#15
Glenn D Walters
Research has shown that procedural justice reliably predicts future offending behavior, although there is some indication that this may be more a function of legitimacy beliefs than of procedural justice per se. The current study sought to explain continuity and desistance in the moral model of criminal lifestyle development by comparing legitimacy beliefs, procedural justice, and moral disengagement as initiators and mediators of pathways leading to early adult offending. It was hypothesized that low legitimacy beliefs but not perceived procedural (in)justice or moral disengagement would initiate, and that moral disengagement but not low legitimacy beliefs or procedural injustice would mediate, the effect of low legitimacy beliefs on subsequent offending behavior...
February 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072472/promoting-emotion-and-behavior-regulation-in-male-prison-inmates-a-secondary-data-analysis-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial-testing-the-efficacy-of-the-growing-pro-social-program
#16
Nélio Brazão, Daniel Rijo, Maria do Céu Salvador, José Pinto-Gouveia
This article describes a secondary data analysis collected from inmates who participated in an independent randomized controlled trial, testing the efficacy of the Growing Pro-Social (GPS) Program. The current study aimed to test the program's ability to increase, on one hand, cognitive reappraisal (adaptive emotion regulation strategy) and, on the other hand, decrease expressive suppression (maladaptive emotion regulation strategy) over time. It was also assessed if the GPS was capable of reducing disciplinary infractions committed by inmates over time...
February 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016152/knowingly-but-naively-the-overpowering-influence-of-innocence-on-interrogation-rights-decision-making
#17
Kyle C Scherr, Christopher J Normile, Sabrina J Bierstetel, Andrew S Franks, Ian Hawkins
Most suspects waive the guaranteed protections that interrogation rights afford them against police intimidation. One factor thought to motivate suspects' inclination to waive their rights stems from the acquiescence bias whereby suspects mindlessly comply with interrogators' requests. However, research bearing on the phenomenology of innocence has demonstrated the power of innocents' mindset, which could motivate some innocent suspects to waive their rights knowingly (instead of mindlessly complying). To test these ideas, participants (N = 178) were (a) rightfully (guilty) or wrongfully (innocent) accused of wrongdoing during an experimental session, (b) administered 1 of 2 forms that by signing either waived or invoked their rights to a student advocate, and (c) given questions to assess their degree of knowing during the decision-making process (i...
February 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857580/predictive-validity-of-hcr-20-start-and-static-99r-assessments-in-predicting-institutional-aggression-among-sexual-offenders
#18
Joel K Cartwright, Sarah L Desmarais, Justin Hazel, Travis Griffith, Allen Azizian
Sexual offenders are at greater risk of nonsexual than sexual violence. Yet, only a handful of studies have examined the validity of risk assessments in predicting general, nonsexual violence in this population. This study examined the predictive validity of assessments completed using the Historical-Clinical-Risk Managment-20 Version 2 (HCR-20; Webster, Douglas, Eaves, & Hart, 1997), Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START; Webster, Martin, Brink, Nicholls, & Desmarais, 2009), and Static-99R (Hanson & Thornton, 1999) in predicting institutional (nonsexual) aggression among 152 sexual offenders in a large secure forensic state hospital...
February 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857581/bridging-the-gap-between-conventional-and-standardized-competency-to-stand-trial-cst-assessments-an-examination-of-defendant-answers-to-conventional-cst-questions
#19
Anthony M Tarescavage, Lynn Luna Jones, Tayla T C Lee
Despite research suggesting that use of forensic assessment instruments of competency to stand trial (CST) can improve the integrity of forensic conceptualizations (Rogers & Johansson-Love, 2009), the majority of evaluators do not use these measures in CST evaluations (Nicholson & Norwood, 2000). The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap between competency evaluations based on a conventional interview and those conducted with the aid of a standardized forensic assessment instrument. To this end, we utilized an archival sample of 704 criminal defendants (543 males, 161 females) ordered to undergo evaluations of CST...
December 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816465/on-informing-jurors-of-potential-sanctions
#20
Jennifer Teitcher, Nicholas Scurich
Two experiments tested (a) whether jurors make assumptions about the potential punishment that would follow from a guilty verdict, (b) whether those assumptions influence jurors' implicit threshold for reasonable doubt, and (c) whether informing jurors of the potential punishment additionally influences their implicit threshold. Experiment 1 manipulated the alleged crime (grand theft vs. manslaughter) holding all other factors constant, and found that mock jurors (n = 102, recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk) had different expectations about the relative punishments but that these expectations did not affect their implicit threshold for reasonable doubt...
December 2017: Law and Human Behavior
journal
journal
27231
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"