Read by QxMD icon Read

Law and Human Behavior

Scott E Wolfe, Justin Nix, Bradley A Campbell
Recent policing research has identified a positive relationship between line-level officers' perceptions of organizational justice and their adherence to agency goals and job satisfaction. However, we have little understanding of the factors that are related to police managers' support for organizational justice when interacting with employees. We collected survey data from a sample of U.S. command-level officers (N = 211) who attended a training program in a southern state to address this gap in the literature...
February 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Anna-Kaisa Newheiser, Tina C DeMarco
Public discourse regarding the treatment of terrorist suspects typically emphasizes utilitarian "greater-good" justifications related to ensuring public safety. By contrast, we hypothesized that laypeople's judgments of how suspected terrorists ought to be treated are more strongly informed by retributive concerns related to deservingness. Participants (N = 607, Mage = 34.25, recruited via Mechanical Turk) read about a terrorist suspect who was (vs. was not) presented as deserving of punishment and described as posing (vs...
February 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Chris Oriet, Ryan J Fitzgerald
The suspect in eyewitness lineups may be guilty or innocent. These possibilities are traditionally simulated in eyewitness identification studies using a dual-lineup paradigm: All witnesses observe the same perpetrator and then receive one of two lineups. In this paradigm, the suspect's guilt is manipulated by including the perpetrator in one lineup and an innocent suspect in the other. The lineup is then filled with people matched to either the suspect (resulting in different fillers in perpetrator-present and perpetrator-absent lineups) or to the perpetrator (resulting in the same fillers in each lineup)...
February 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Anne G Crocker, Michael S Martin, Marichelle C Leclair, Tonia L Nicholls, Michael C Seto
The early and late starter model provides one of the most enduring frameworks for understanding the developmental course and severity of violence and criminality among individuals with severe mental illness. We expanded the model to account for differences in the age of onset of criminal behavior and added a group with no prior contact with the justice or mental health systems. We sampled 1,800 men and women found Not Criminally Responsible on account of Mental Disorder in 3 Canadian provinces. Using a retrospective file-based study, we explored differences in criminal, health, demographic, and social functioning characteristics, processing through the forensic psychiatric system and recidivism outcomes of 5 groups...
February 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Anthony M Tarescavage, Lynn Luna Jones, Tayla T C Lee
Despite research suggesting that use of forensic assessment instruments of competency to stand trial (CST) can improve the integrity of forensic conceptualizations (Rogers & Johansson-Love, 2009), the majority of evaluators do not use these measures in CST evaluations (Nicholson & Norwood, 2000). The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap between competency evaluations based on a conventional interview and those conducted with the aid of a standardized forensic assessment instrument. To this end, we utilized an archival sample of 704 criminal defendants (543 males, 161 females) ordered to undergo evaluations of CST...
December 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Jennifer Teitcher, Nicholas Scurich
Two experiments tested (a) whether jurors make assumptions about the potential punishment that would follow from a guilty verdict, (b) whether those assumptions influence jurors' implicit threshold for reasonable doubt, and (c) whether informing jurors of the potential punishment additionally influences their implicit threshold. Experiment 1 manipulated the alleged crime (grand theft vs. manslaughter) holding all other factors constant, and found that mock jurors (n = 102, recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk) had different expectations about the relative punishments but that these expectations did not affect their implicit threshold for reasonable doubt...
December 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Jolene van der Kaap-Deeder, Elien Audenaert, Stijn Vandevelde, Bart Soenens, Sarah Van Mastrigt, Elien Mabbe, Maarten Vansteenkiste
Although prison life is generally characterized by little choice and autonomy, there exists considerable variation in the number and type of choices offered to different prisoners. Based on self-determination theory, which maintains that perceived afforded choice and autonomy are of crucial importance for individuals' psychological functioning, we investigated the relation between choice, autonomy satisfaction, and subjective quality of life among prisoners. We drew on quantitative cross-sectional data gathered among 156 Belgian prisoners (Mage = 38...
December 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Adam Charles Harvey, Aldert Vrij, Lorraine Hope, Sharon Leal, Samantha Mann
Research examining how truth tellers' and liars' verbal behavior is attenuated as a function of delay is largely absent from the literature, despite its important applied value. We examined this factor across 2 studies in which we examined the effects of a hypothetical delay (Experiment 1) or actual delay (Experiment 2) on liars' accounts. In Experiment 1-an insurance claim interview setting-claimants either genuinely experienced a (staged) loss of a tablet device (n = 40) or pretended to have experienced the same loss (n = 40)...
December 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Steffen Barra, Cornelia Bessler, Markus A Landolt, Marcel Aebi
The development of sexuality is a major goal in the normative course of puberty. However, some adolescents start and maintain sexually coercive behaviors. Maltreatment appears as a contributing factor in juvenile criminal persistence, although its role regarding reoffenses in juveniles convicted of sexual offenses (JSOs) is unclear. We examined time-dependent associations of maltreatment categories and subtypes with criminal persistence in JSOs. Files of 278 male JSOs (M = 14.64 years, SD = 1.58 years) were analyzed for experiences of emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual victimization, emotional neglect, and physical neglect...
December 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Jordan Beardslee, Meagan Docherty, Edward Mulvey, Carol Schubert, Dustin Pardini
Adolescent gun violence is a serious public health issue that disproportionately affects young Black males. Although it has been postulated that differential exposure to childhood risk factors might account for racial differences in adolescent gun carrying, no longitudinal studies have directly examined this issue. We examined whether childhood risk factors indexing neighborhood crime, peer delinquency, and conduct problems predicted the initiation of adolescent gun carrying among a community sample of Black and White boys...
November 27, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Glenn D Walters
Research has shown that procedural justice reliably predicts future offending behavior, although there is some indication that this may be more a function of legitimacy beliefs than of procedural justice per se. The current study sought to explain continuity and desistance in the moral model of criminal lifestyle development by comparing legitimacy beliefs, procedural justice, and moral disengagement as initiators and mediators of pathways leading to early adult offending. It was hypothesized that low legitimacy beliefs but not perceived procedural (in)justice or moral disengagement would initiate, and that moral disengagement but not low legitimacy beliefs or procedural injustice would mediate, the effect of low legitimacy beliefs on subsequent offending behavior...
November 2, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Diana C Bennett, David H Morris, Minden B Sexton, Erin E Bonar, Stephen T Chermack
Substance misuse is prevalent among veterans entering the criminal justice system, and is related to recidivism. Research demonstrates that trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, which commonly co-occur with substance misuse, also increase the risk of legal involvement and recidivism. However, it is unclear whether the associations between trauma, PTS symptoms and violent and nonviolent crime may be conflated by substance use. The aim of the present study was to understand the association between PTS symptoms and criminal justice involvement (both violent and nonviolent crime) among substance-using veterans seeking Veterans Affairs (VA) specialty mental health care after accounting for substance use frequency and demographics including age, gender, and ethnicity...
October 26, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Nélio Brazão, Daniel Rijo, Maria do Céu Salvador, José Pinto-Gouveia
This article describes a secondary data analysis collected from inmates who participated in an independent randomized controlled trial, testing the efficacy of the Growing Pro-Social (GPS) Program. The current study aimed to test the program's ability to increase, on one hand, cognitive reappraisal (adaptive emotion regulation strategy) and, on the other hand, decrease expressive suppression (maladaptive emotion regulation strategy) over time. It was also assessed if the GPS was capable of reducing disciplinary infractions committed by inmates over time...
October 26, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Kyle C Scherr, Christopher J Normile, Sabrina J Bierstetel, Andrew S Franks, Ian Hawkins
Most suspects waive the guaranteed protections that interrogation rights afford them against police intimidation. One factor thought to motivate suspects' inclination to waive their rights stems from the acquiescence bias whereby suspects mindlessly comply with interrogators' requests. However, research bearing on the phenomenology of innocence has demonstrated the power of innocents' mindset, which could motivate some innocent suspects to waive their rights knowingly (instead of mindlessly complying). To test these ideas, participants (N = 178) were (a) rightfully (guilty) or wrongfully (innocent) accused of wrongdoing during an experimental session, (b) administered 1 of 2 forms that by signing either waived or invoked their rights to a student advocate, and (c) given questions to assess their degree of knowing during the decision-making process (i...
October 9, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Christine L Ruva, Christina C Guenther
This experiment explored how mock-jurors' (N = 648) guilt decisions, perceptions of the defendant, memories, and evidence interpretation varied as a function of jury type and pretrial publicity (PTP); utilizing a 2 (jury type: pure-PTP vs. mixed-PTP) × 3 (PTP: defendant, victim, and irrelevant) factorial design. Mock-juries (N = 126) were composed of jurors exposed to the same type of PTP (pure-PTP; e.g., defendant-PTP) or different types of PTP (mixed-PTP; e.g., half exposed to defendant-PTP and half to irrelevant-PTP)...
October 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Ilona Laurinaitytė, Alfredas Laurinavičius, Laura Ustinavičiūtė, Dustin B Wygant, Martin Sellbom
The aim of the current study was to examine the construct validity of the Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI]-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) in a correctional setting. More specifically, we examined the associations between MMPI-2-RF scales with external variables relevant for sentence planning as well as the relationship with risk of reconviction assessed with the Offender Assessment System (OASys; Home Office, 2002). A random sample of 228 male offenders from Lithuanian custodial institutions was selected for the study...
October 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Christopher M King, Kirk Heilbrun, Na Young Kim, Kellie McWilliams, Sarah Phillips, Jessie Barbera, Ralph Fretz
Mobile computing technology presents various possibilities and challenges for psychological assessment. Within forensic and correctional psychology, assessment of justice-involved persons facilitated by such technology has not been empirically examined. Accordingly, this randomized controlled experiment involved administering questionnaires about risk-needs, treatment readiness, and computerized technology opinions to a large (N = 212) and diverse sample of individuals under custodial correctional supervision using either a tablet computer or traditional paper-and-pencil materials...
October 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Dawn M Sweet, Christian A Meissner, Dominick J Atkinson
Across 3 experiments, we assessed the ability of law enforcement officers and naïve controls to detect the concealment of a weapon or device. Study 1 used a classic signal detection paradigm in which participants were asked to assess whether a target was concealing a neutered 9-mm handgun. Study 2 involved a compound signal detection paradigm in which participants assessed whether or not 1 of several individuals was concealing an unstable device in their backpack. Study 3 moved to a 2-alternative forced choice paradigm in which participants evaluated which of 2 targets was concealing an unstable device in his backpack...
October 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Rebecca Campbell, Giannina Fehler-Cabral, Deborah Bybee, Jessica Shaw
Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) (also termed "rape kits") have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. DNA evidence can help sexual assault investigations and prosecutions by identifying offenders, revealing serial offenders through DNA matches across cases, and exonerating those who have been wrongly accused. In this article, we describe a 5-year action research project conducted with 1 city that had large numbers of untested SAKs-Detroit, Michigan-and our examination into why thousands of rape kits in this city were never submitted for forensic DNA testing...
October 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Mark E Olver, Sandy Jung
Improvements in the risk prediction of domestic violence against intimate partners have the potential to inform policing practices in the prevention of further victimization. The present study examined the incremental predictive validity of 3 measures of risk for intimate partner violence (IPV)-Spousal Assault Risk Assessment (SARA), Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA), and the Family Violence Investigative Report (FVIR)-for IPV, general violence, and general recidivism outcomes. The sample featured 289 men and women who were reported to police for IPV and followed up approximately 3 years post release...
October 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"