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Law and Human Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234317/is-interviewer-support-associated-with-the-reduced-reluctance-and-enhanced-informativeness-of-alleged-child-abuse-victims
#1
Uri Blasbalg, Irit Hershkowitz, Michael E Lamb, Yael Karni-Visel, Elizabeth C Ahern
Child maltreatment victims are often reluctant to report abuse when formally interviewed. Evidence-based guidelines like the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Standard Investigative Interview Protocol do not adequately address such reluctance because they are focused on cognitive rather than socioemotional strategies. The present study was designed to determine whether the Revised National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Protocol, which emphasizes supportive interviewing more than the standard protocol does, might predict increases in the overall informativeness and reductions in the reluctance of alleged victims...
September 20, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234316/implicit-self-criminal-cognition-and-its-relation-to-criminal-behavior
#2
Luis M Rivera, Bonita M Veysey
Three studies adopted implicit social cognition theory and methodology to understand criminal cognition outside of conscious awareness or control, specifically by testing whether individual differences in implicit associations between the self and the group criminals are related to criminal behavior. A Single Category Implicit Association Test measured self-criminal associations across 3 adult samples-2 from Newark, New Jersey, a high-crime United States city, and an adult national sample from the United States...
September 20, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221948/psychopathy-self-identified-race-ethnicity-and-nonviolent-recidivism-a-longitudinal-study
#3
John R Anderson, Zach Walsh, David S Kosson
Psychopathy has long been noted to play an important role in the prediction of criminal behavior and offending. Although many studies have demonstrated that psychopathic traits are predictive of violent recidivism among offenders, relatively few studies have examined the predictive validity of psychopathic traits for nonviolent recidivism and very few have examined this issue in a sample of offenders in the United States. To address this issue, we examined the predictive validity of psychopathy for both nonviolent and general recidivism using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in a sample of 422 county jail inmates...
September 17, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160495/should-jurors-be-allowed-to-discuss-trial-evidence-before-deliberation-new-research-evidence
#4
Norbert L Kerr, Jiin Jung
Traditionally, jurors are not permitted to discuss trial evidence with one another prior to jury deliberation. Allowing such discussions, at least in civil trials, is a jury innovation that has become increasingly popular. Prior field research has generally supported the assumption that this innovation is benign and, in particular, introduces no systematic bias in jury verdicts. These issues are examined again here within an experimental jury simulation study. The opportunity for predeliberation juror discussion (PJD) between the plaintiff and defense cases-in-chief was manipulated...
August 30, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113190/reconsidering-risk-assessment-with-insanity-acquittees
#5
Michael J Vitacco, Elena Balduzzi, Kimberly Rideout, Shelly Banfe, Juliet Britton
States continue to rely on conditional release (CR) as an effective and cost-effective way to manage individuals found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI). Research has demonstrated that insanity acquittees returning to the community have low recidivism rates and moderately low revocation rates. This study followed 238 individuals found NGRI in Oregon who were evaluated with the Historical, Clinical, Risk-20 (HCR-20; Webster, Douglas, Eaves, & Hart, 1997) and placed in the community on CR. The majority of individuals on CR (n = 157, 66%) maintained their release throughout the entire follow-up period (between 4 and 9 years), but 81 (33...
August 16, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113189/the-effectiveness-of-army-field-manual-interrogation-approaches-for-educing-information-and-building-rapport
#6
Misty C Duke, James M Wood, Justin Magee, Hector Escobar
In 2016, the U.S. Congress mandated that federal intelligence interrogators adhere to the methods of the U.S. Army Field Manual FM 2-22.3 (AFM) and that the manual be revised based upon empirically based evaluations of the interrogation methods' effectiveness with interviewees motivated to withhold information. In the present study, 120 participants took part in a testing situation in which half were induced to cheat. All participants were then accused of cheating and interrogated with either (a) a combination of AFM interrogation approaches that focused on the potential benefits of cooperation with the interviewer (cooperation-focused condition), or (b) a combination of AFM approaches that focused on the potential risks of withholding information (withholding-focused condition)...
August 16, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047747/investigating-predictors-of-true-and-false-guilty-pleas
#7
Kelsey S Henderson, Lora M Levett
An estimated 90% to 95% of convictions are obtained via guilty pleas, and roughly 11% of individuals exonerated with the help of the Innocence Project falsely pleaded guilty (innocenceproject.org). Despite the prevalence of guilty pleas (and the existence of false guilty pleas), relatively little scholarship has examined what influences a defendant to plead guilty (Redlich, 2010). In this study, we investigated factors that affected whether guilty and innocent students who were accused of cheating pleaded guilty or took their case before the Student Conduct Committee in a hearing (analogous to a trial)...
July 26, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035551/fillers-can-help-control-for-contextual-bias-in-forensic-comparison-tasks
#8
Adele Quigley-McBride, Gary L Wells
Forensic examiners are often exposed to contextual information that can bias their conclusions about evidence samples (e.g., fingerprints, fibers, tool marks). We tested the recently proposed filler-control method for moderating the biasing effects of contextual information for forensic comparisons. Borrowing from an analogy to eyewitness lineups versus showups, the filler-control method embeds a suspect's sample among known-innocent samples rather than the standard practice of presenting the analyst with only the suspect's sample for comparison...
August 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29963877/the-presumption-of-guilt-in-suspect-interrogations-apprehension-as-a-trigger-of-confirmation-bias-and-debiasing-techniques
#9
Moa Lidén, Minna Gräns, Peter Juslin
This research tests whether a police officer's decision to apprehend a suspect triggers confirmation bias during an interrogation. The study also tests two strategies to reduce confirmation bias: (1) decoupling decision to apprehend from interrogation and (2) reducing cognitive load for the interrogating police officer. In Experiment 1, Swedish police officers ( N = 60) were faced with 12 scenarios in which they either had to decide for themselves whether to apprehend a suspect or were informed about the corresponding decision by another police officer or a prosecutor...
August 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620395/juvenile-probation-officers-evaluation-of-traumatic-event-exposures-and-traumatic-stress-symptoms-as-responsivity-factors-in-risk-assessment-and-case-planning
#10
Evan D Holloway, Keith R Cruise, Samantha L Morin, Holly Kaufman, Richard D Steele
Juvenile probation officers (JPOs) are increasingly using risk/needs assessments to evaluate delinquency risk, identify criminogenic needs and specific responsivity factors, and use this information in case planning. Justice-involved youth are exposed to traumatic events and experience traumatic stress symptoms at a high rate; such information warrants attention during the case planning process. The extent to which JPOs identify specific responsivity factors, in general, and trauma history, specifically, when scoring risk/need assessments is understudied...
August 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939066/interviewing-witnesses-eliciting-coarse-grain-information
#11
Neil Brewer, Ambika Nagesh Vagadia, Lorraine Hope, Fiona Gabbert
Eyewitnesses to crimes sometimes report inaccurate fine-grain details but fail to report accessible and potentially accurate coarse-grain details. We asked college students and community members (aged 17 to 62 years) who viewed a video of a simulated crime to answer interviewers' questions at coarse- and fine-grained levels of detail and measured the quantity and accuracy of their responses. Three experiments (overall N = 219) also (a) provided comparative data for participants who were interviewed using the open-ended Self-Administered Interview (Gabbert, Hope, & Fisher, 2009) or one of two "report everything" open-ended procedures, (b) tested the efficacy of the procedure using both written and verbal interviews, and (c) examined the generality of the findings across different encoding stimuli which required variations in the types of cued recall questions asked...
June 25, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939065/within-treatment-change-in-antisocial-attitudes-and-reoffending-in-a-large-sample-of-custodial-and-community-offenders
#12
Mark V A Howard, Gerard van Doorn
This study tested evidence for antisocial attitudes as a mechanism of change in offender treatment by examining whether the Measures of Antisocial Attitudes and Associates (MCAA) and within-treatment change in scores on this scale have predictive validity for risk of reoffending. Pretreatment and posttreatment scores on the MCAA were obtained from a large sample of 1,858 offenders who had completed offender treatment programs while in custody (n = 854) or in the community (n = 1,004). Individual within-treatment change was calculated with simple difference scores as well as categorizations of clinically significant change...
June 25, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939064/does-anyone-else-look-familiar-influencing-identification-decisions-by-asking-witnesses-to-re-examine-the-lineup
#13
Mitchell L Eisen, Gabriela C Cedré, T'awna Q Williams, Jennifer M Jones
Two experiments were conducted to see if asking witnesses to take another look at the lineup after they voiced their identification decisions would alter their choices, and if confirming feedback could then be used to solidify the selections they shifted to. Participants watched a simulated crime and were asked to identify the culprit from a photographic lineup. After voicing their identification decisions, participants were prompted to re-examine the lineup. Half of the participants then received confirming feedback for their decisions, regardless of whether they shifted to a new picture or not...
June 25, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939063/closing-with-emotion-the-differential-impact-of-male-versus-female-attorneys-expressing-anger-in-court
#14
Jessica M Salerno, Hannah J Phalen, Rosa N Reyes, N J Schweitzer
Emotion expression is a key part of trial advocacy. Attorneys are advised to gain credibility with juries by demonstrating conviction through anger expression. In 3 experiments, we tested whether expressing anger in court makes attorneys more effective and whether this depends on their gender. We randomly assigned participants (n = 120 undergraduates) to view a male or female attorney presenting the same closing argument in either a neutral or angry tone (Experiment 1). They reported their impressions of the attorney and how likely they would be to hire the attorney...
June 25, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939062/defendant-stereotypicality-moderates-the-effect-of-confession-evidence-on-judgments-of-guilt
#15
Laura Smalarz, Stephanie Madon, Anna Turosak
This research examined whether criminal stereotypes-i.e., beliefs about the typical characteristics of crime perpetrators-influence mock jurors' judgments of guilt in cases involving confession evidence. Mock jurors ( N = 450) read a trial transcript that manipulated whether a defendant's ethnicity was stereotypic or counterstereotypic of a crime, and whether the defendant had confessed to the crime or not. When a confession was present, the transcript varied whether the confession had been obtained using high-pressure or low-pressure interrogation tactics...
June 25, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927278/resistance-to-peer-influence-and-crime-desistance-in-emerging-adulthood-a-moderated-mediation-analysis
#16
Glenn D Walters
The current study sought to determine whether resistance to peer pressure contributes to crime desistance by inhibiting proactive criminal thinking (moral disengagement), a social-cognitive variable that has been found to mediate the peer influence effect. Using data from the Pathways to Desistance study ( N = 1,354), resistance to peer influence and peer delinquency were tested as predictors of subsequent offending when participants were 18, 19, and 20 years of age. Whereas peer delinquency (PD) facilitated future offending by increasing moral disengagement (MD), peer resistance inhibited future offending by decreasing moral disengagement...
June 21, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809028/bounded-authority-expanding-appropriate-police-behavior-beyond-procedural-justice
#17
Rick Trinkner, Jonathan Jackson, Tom R Tyler
This paper expands previous conceptualizations of appropriate police behavior beyond procedural justice. The focus of the current study is on the notion of bounded authority-that is, acting within the limits of one's rightful authority. According to work on legal socialization, U.S. citizens come to acquire three dimensions of values that determine how authorities ought to behave: (a) neutral, consistent, and transparent decision-making; (b) interpersonal treatment that conveys respect, dignity, and concern; and (c) respecting the limits of one's rightful power...
June 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809027/viewing-videotaped-identification-procedure-increases-juror-sensitivity-to-single-blind-photo-array-administration
#18
Karima Modjadidi, Margaret Bull Kovera
We investigated whether watching a videotaped photo array administration or expert testimony could sensitize jurors to the suggestiveness of single-blind eyewitness identification procedures. Mock jurors recruited from the community (N = 231) watched a videotaped simulation of a robbery trial in which the primary evidence against the defendant was an eyewitness identification. We varied whether the witness made an identification from a single- or double-blind photo array, the evidence included a videotape of the photo array procedure, and an expert testified about the effects of single-blind identification procedures on administrators' behaviors and witness accuracy...
June 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809026/does-filler-database-size-influence-identification-accuracy
#19
Amanda N Bergold, Paul Heaton
Police departments increasingly use large photo databases to select lineup fillers using facial recognition software, but this technological shift's implications have been largely unexplored in eyewitness research. Database use, particularly if coupled with facial matching software, could enable lineup constructors to increase filler-suspect similarity and thus enhance eyewitness accuracy (Fitzgerald, Oriet, Price, & Charman, 2013). However, with a large pool of potential fillers, such technologies might theoretically produce lineup fillers too similar to the suspect (Fitzgerald, Oriet, & Price, 2015; Luus & Wells, 1991; Wells, Rydell, & Seelau, 1993)...
June 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648841/do-risk-assessment-tools-help-manage-and-reduce-risk-of-violence-and-reoffending-a-systematic-review
#20
Jodi L Viljoen, Dana M Cochrane, Melissa R Jonnson
Although it is widely believed that risk assessment tools can help manage risk of violence and offending, it is unclear what evidence exists to support this view. As such, we conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis. To identify studies, we searched 13 databases, reviewed reference lists, and contacted experts. Through this review, we identified 73 published and unpublished studies (N = 31,551 psychiatric patients and offenders, N = 10,002 professionals) that examined either professionals' risk management efforts following the use of a tool, or rates of violence or offending following the implementation of a tool...
June 2018: Law and Human Behavior
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