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Law and Human Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786509/witness-memory-and-alcohol-the-effects-of-state-dependent-recall
#1
Nadja Schreiber Compo, Rolando N Carol, Jacqueline R Evans, Pamela Pimentel, Howard Holness, Kristin Nichols-Lopez, Stefan Rose, Kenneth G Furton
Many real-world eyewitnesses are under the influence of alcohol either at the time of the crime, the interview, or both. Only recently has empirical research begun to examine the effects of alcohol on witness memory, yielding mixed results. The present study tested the importance of state-dependent memory in the context of alcohol's effects on encoding versus retrieval of a witnessed event, while simultaneously informing real-world investigative practices: Should witnesses sober up before an interview? Participants (N = 249) were randomized to a control, placebo, or alcohol condition at encoding and to either an immediate retrieval condition (in the same state) or a 1-week delay control, placebo, or alcohol retrieval condition...
October 27, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762573/the-interrogation-decision-making-model-a-general-theoretical-framework-for-confessions
#2
Yueran Yang, Max Guyll, Stephanie Madon
This article presents a new model of confessions referred to as the interrogation decision-making model. This model provides a theoretical umbrella with which to understand and analyze suspects' decisions to deny or confess guilt in the context of a custodial interrogation. The model draws upon expected utility theory to propose a mathematical account of the psychological mechanisms that not only underlie suspects' decisions to deny or confess guilt at any specific point during an interrogation, but also how confession decisions can change over time...
October 20, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762572/mock-juror-sampling-issues-in-jury-simulation-research-a-meta-analysis
#3
Brian H Bornstein, Jonathan M Golding, Jeffrey Neuschatz, Christopher Kimbrough, Krystia Reed, Casey Magyarics, Katherine Luecht
The advantages and disadvantages of jury simulation research have often been debated in the literature. Critics chiefly argue that jury simulations lack verisimilitude, particularly through their use of student mock jurors, and that this limits the generalizabilty of the findings. In the present article, the question of sample differences (student v. nonstudent) in jury research was meta-analyzed for 6 dependent variables: 3 criminal (guilty verdicts, culpability, and sentencing) and 3 civil (liability verdicts, continuous liability, and damages)...
October 20, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762571/how-suspect-race-affects-police-use-of-force-in-an-interaction-over-time
#4
Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Joel S Steele, Jean M McMahon, Greg Stewart
Although studies often find racial disparities in policing outcomes, less is known about how suspect race biases police interactions as they unfold. This study examines what is differentially occurring during police-suspect interactions for White, Black, and Latino suspects across time. It is hypothesized that racial bias may be more evident earlier in interactions, when less information about the situation is available. One hundred thirty-nine (62 White, 42 Black, and 35 Latino) use-of-force case files and associated written narratives from a medium to large size urban police department in the United States were analyzed...
October 20, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762570/a-biphasic-process-of-resistance-among-suspects-the-mobilization-and-decline-of-self-regulatory-resources
#5
Stephanie Madon, Max Guyll, Yueran Yang, Laura Smalarz, Justin Marschall, Daniel G Lannin
We conducted two experiments to test whether police interrogation elicits a biphasic process of resistance from suspects. According to this process, the initial threat of police interrogation mobilizes suspects to resist interrogative influence in a manner akin to a fight or flight response, but suspects' protracted self-regulation of their behavior during subsequent questioning increases their susceptibility to interrogative influence in the long-run. In Experiment 1 (N = 316), participants who were threatened by an accusation of misconduct exhibited responses indicative of mobilization and more strongly resisted social pressure to acquiesce to suggestive questioning than did participants who were not accused...
October 20, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685645/fair-lineups-are-better-than-biased-lineups-and-showups-but-not-because-they-increase-underlying-discriminability
#6
Andrew M Smith, Gary L Wells, R C L Lindsay, Steven D Penrod
Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis has recently come in vogue for assessing the underlying discriminability and the applied utility of lineup procedures. Two primary assumptions underlie recommendations that ROC analysis be used to assess the applied utility of lineup procedures: (a) ROC analysis of lineups measures underlying discriminability, and (b) the procedure that produces superior underlying discriminability produces superior applied utility. These same assumptions underlie a recently derived diagnostic-feature detection theory, a theory of discriminability, intended to explain recent patterns observed in ROC comparisons of lineups...
September 29, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685644/evaluating-lineup-fairness-variations-across-methods-and-measures
#7
Jamal K Mansour, Jennifer L Beaudry, Natalie Kalmet, Michelle I Bertrand, R C L Lindsay
Triers of fact sometimes consider lineup fairness when determining the suggestiveness of an identification procedure. Likewise, researchers often consider lineup fairness when comparing results across studies. Despite their importance, lineup fairness measures have received scant empirical attention and researchers inconsistently conduct and report mock-witness tasks and lineup fairness measures. We conducted a large-scale, online experiment (N = 1,010) to examine how lineup fairness measures varied with mock-witness task methodologies as well as to explore the validity and reliability of the measures...
September 29, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685643/effects-of-a-proven-error-on-evaluations-of-witness-testimony
#8
Tiffany Lavis, Neil Brewer
Witnesses frequently make an error when reporting events they have observed. Although some error in witness reports is to be expected and does not mean the testimony as a whole is flawed, an important question is how such an error affects judgments of credibility of the witness. In 2 experiments we investigated the impact of a single demonstrated (probative or nonprobative) detail inaccuracy on judgments of the likely reliability of witness memory. Potential mediators (witness dishonesty and forgetfulness) were examined to explain the relationship between inaccuracy and perceived reliability of the witness's memory report...
September 29, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685642/detecting-deception-in-children-a-meta-analysis
#9
Jennifer Gongola, Nicholas Scurich, Jodi A Quas
Although research reveals that children as young as 3 can use deception and will take steps to obscure truth, research concerning how well others detect children's deceptive efforts remains unclear. Yet adults regularly assess whether children are telling the truth in a variety of contexts, including at school, in the home, and in legal settings, particularly in investigations of maltreatment. We conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize extant research concerning adults' ability to detect deceptive statements produced by children...
September 29, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797547/risk-assessment-matters-but-only-when-implemented-well-a-multisite-study-in-juvenile-probation
#10
Gina M Vincent, Laura S Guy, Rachael T Perrault, Bernice Gershenson
There is a strong movement toward juvenile justice agencies' use of risk assessment and risk-need-responsivity approaches to improve case management decisions for young offenders. However, little is known about whether adoption of risk assessment actually effectuates any changes in the way young offenders are handled. This was a multisite study of the impact on case processing of implementation of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) or Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory in 6 juvenile probation offices using a prepost design and 1,694 propensity score-matched young offenders...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685641/firms-compliance-with-complex-regulations
#11
Juan P Mendoza, Henri C Dekker, Jacco L Wielhouwer
This study addresses the question of what explains compliance with complex regulations, which are technical, extensive, and often subject to modifications. Based on official (anonymized) data of financial intermediaries in the Netherlands (N = 602), we examined the association between compliance (measured as number of law violations) and the extent to which regulatory complexity is perceived as fair (i.e., the perception that the extensive regulation generates unnecessary difficulties for the firm). We hypothesized that perceiving regulatory complexity as fair would motivate firms to acquire knowledge of the regulation, and that this knowledge in turn would improve their ability to comply...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631401/wrong-or-merely-prohibited-special-treatment-of-strict-liability-in-intuitive-moral-judgment
#12
Carly Giffin, Tania Lombrozo
Most crimes in America require that the defendant have mens rea, Latin for "guilty mind." However, mens rea is not legally required for strict liability crimes, such as speeding, for which someone is guilty even if ignorant or deceived about her speed. In 3 experiments involving participants responding to descriptive vignettes, we investigated whether the division of strict liability crimes in the law reflects an aspect of laypeople's intuitive moral cognition. Experiment 1 (N = 396; 236 male, 159 female, 1 other; Mage = 30) found evidence that it does: ignorance and deception were less mitigating for strict liability crimes than for "mens rea" crimes...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607328/from-prison-to-the-streets-can-importation-work-in-reverse
#13
Glenn D Walters
The purpose of this study was to determine whether prison misconduct is capable of predicting rearrest and whether criminal thinking plays a role in this relationship. Two hypotheses, a variable-centered hypothesis and a person-centered hypothesis, were tested in a group of 951 male federal inmates, with results showing that at the variable level, prison misconduct predicted arrests for more serious crimes (person offenses) but not for less serious crimes (nonperson offenses). In an effort to examine the prison misconduct-community recidivism relationship at the person level, latent class growth analysis (LCGA) was performed on offending indicators across 3 nonoverlapping time periods: before prison (prior convictions), in prison (annual rate of incident reports), and after prison (total subsequent arrests)...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598561/evidentiary-extraevidentiary-and-deliberation-process-predictors-of-real-jury-verdicts
#14
Dennis J Devine, Paige C Krouse, Caitlin M Cavanaugh, Jaime Colon Basora
In contrast to the extensive literature based on mock jurors, large-sample studies of decision making by real juries are relatively rare. In this field study, we examined relationships between jury verdicts and variables representing 3 classes of potential determinants-evidentiary, extraevidentiary, and deliberation process-using a sample of 114 criminal jury trials. Posttrial data were collected from 11 presiding judges, 31 attorneys, and 367 jurors using a Web-based questionnaire. The strength of the prosecution's evidence was strongly related to the occurrence of a conviction, whereas most extraevidentiary and deliberation process variables were only weakly to modestly related in bivariate form and when the prosecution's evidence strength was controlled...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505466/moral-typecasting-underlies-punitive-responses-to-crime
#15
Andrea L Miller, Eugene Borgida
We examine the role of moral typecasting in lay individuals' punitive responses to crime. Individuals perceive criminal offenders and victims in ways that are biased by their perceptions of the actors' moral roles in prior simulated criminal incidents. We find that this psychological process of moral typecasting has important implications for punitive responses to criminal offenders, and these findings make 2 major contributions to the literature. First, we show that moral agency is distinct from moral deservingness, which is 1 of the dominant explanations for punitive behavior in social psychology...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454162/introduction-of-a-conceptual-model-for-integrating-the-mmpi-2-rf-into-hcr-20v3-violence-risk-assessments-and-associations-between-the-mmpi-2-rf-and-institutional-violence
#16
Anthony M Tarescavage, David M Glassmire, Danielle Burchett
Reflecting the need to prevent violence, structured professional judgment assessment tools have been developed specifically to assess the likelihood of future violence. These tools typically integrate data from clinical interviews and collateral records to assist in the conceptualization of violence risk, but objective psychological testing may also be useful in completing the instruments. The authors describe the advantages of using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in this manner with the Historical Clinical Management-20 Version 3 (HCR-20(V3))...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348715/to-plead-or-not-to-plead-a-comparison-of-juvenile-and-adult-true-and-false-plea-decisions
#17
Allison D Redlich, Reveka V Shteynberg
In a criminal justice system in which almost every adjudicated defendant, regardless of age, pleads guilty, it becomes important to understand the decision-making process underlying this choice. In the present research, we examined how age (juvenile vs. young adult), guilt versus innocence, and plea comprehension influenced the decision to plead guilty and the underlying plea rationale. We found that whereas age did not affect willingness to plead guilty when participants were asked to assume guilt in a hypothetical scenario, juveniles were more than twice as likely as young adults to plead guilty when asked to assume innocence...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243361/can-expert-testimony-sensitize-jurors-to-variations-in-confession-evidence
#18
Kelsey S Henderson, Lora M Levett
Confession evidence can be extremely damaging in the courtroom; jurors are more willing to convict based on the presence of a confession than eyewitness evidence and character testimony (Kassin & Neumann, 1997). To date, no research has examined whether jurors notice variations in confession evidence based on whether the confession is consistent or inconsistent with the crime evidence (a likely low quality confession). In Study 1, mock jurors read a trial summary in which a suspect's confession was consistent or inconsistent with other case facts...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27149289/the-interdependence-of-perceived-confession-voluntariness-and-case-evidence
#19
Rachel Greenspan, Nicholas Scurich
The current research investigated the mechanisms by which perceptions of confession evidence both influence and are influenced by perceptions of other case evidence using the theoretical framework of coherence-based reasoning (CBR). CBR posits that ambiguity and uncertainty are eschewed by artificially imposing consistency between pieces of evidence through bidirectional reasoning: Inferences about evidence lead to a preferred verdict, which in turn radiates backward to influence the perception of evidence...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598563/gender-risk-assessment-and-sanctioning-the-cost-of-treating-women-like-men
#20
Jennifer Skeem, John Monahan, Christopher Lowenkamp
Increasingly, jurisdictions across the United States are using risk assessment instruments to scaffold efforts to unwind mass incarceration without compromising public safety. Despite promising results, critics oppose the use of these instruments to inform sentencing and correctional decisions. One argument is that the use of instruments that include gender as a risk factor will discriminate against men in sanctioning. On the basis of a sample of 14,310 federal offenders, we empirically test the predictive fairness of an instrument that omits gender, the Post Conviction Risk Assessment (PCRA)...
October 2016: Law and Human Behavior
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