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Law and Human Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191988/mock-juror-evaluations-of-traditional-and-ratings-based-eyewitness-identification-evidence
#1
James D Sauer, Matthew A Palmer, Neil Brewer
Compared to categorical identifications, culprit likelihood ratings (having the witness rate, for each lineup member, the likelihood that the individual is the culprit) provide a promising alternative for assessing a suspect's likely guilt. Four experiments addressed 2 broad questions about the use of culprit likelihood ratings evidence by mock-jurors. First, are mock-jurors receptive to noncategorical forms of identification evidence? Second, does the additional information provided by ratings (relating to discrimination) affect jurors' evaluations of the identification evidence? Experiments 1 and 1A manipulated confidence (90% vs...
February 13, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182459/deconstructing-the-simplification-of-jury-instructions-how-simplifying-the-features-of-complexity-affects-jurors-application-of-instructions
#2
Chantelle M Baguley, Blake M McKimmie, Barbara M Masser
Research consistently shows that techniques currently used to simplify jury instructions do not always improve mock jurors' comprehension. If improvements are observed, these are limited and overall comprehension remains low. It is unclear, however, why this occurs. It is possible that current simplification techniques do not effectively simplify the features of complexity, present in standardized instructions, which have the greatest effect on jurors' comprehension. It is not yet known, however, how much each feature of complexity individually affects jurors' comprehension...
February 9, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182458/combined-evaluations-of-competency-to-stand-trial-and-mental-state-at-the-time-of-the-offense-an-overlooked-methodological-consideration
#3
Lauren Kois, James M Wellbeloved-Stone, Preeti Chauhan, Janet I Warren
Combined evaluations of competency to stand trial (CST; competency) and mental state at the time of the offense (MSO; sanity) frequently co-occur. However, most research examines the 2 as discrete constructs without considering 4 potential combined evaluation outcomes: competent-sane, incompetent-sane, competent-insane, and incompetent-insane. External validity can be improved if research more closely mirrored practice. It may be incorrect to assume incompetent defendants are similar across CST-only and combined evaluations, and insane defendants are similar across MSO-only and combined evaluations...
February 9, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150977/is-the-effect-of-justice-system-attitudes-on-recidivism-stable-after-youths-first-arrest-race-and-legal-socialization-among-first-time-youth-offenders
#4
Adam Fine, Caitlin Cavanagh, Sachiko Donley, Paul J Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
Youth who hold negative attitudes toward the justice system are more likely to engage in crime. It is particularly important to study attitudes early in someone's criminal career when they may still be open to change. To date, however, there has been no empirical test assessing whether the relation between attitudes and behavior changes after a first arrest. Using a sample of 1,216 first-time, male, juvenile offenders from the Crossroads Study, the present study explored: (a) racial/ethnic differences in the longitudinal patterns of youths' attitudes; and (b) reciprocal associations between youths' attitudes and both their offending behavior and rearrests in the 2...
February 2, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150976/spatial-language-question-type-and-young-children-s-ability-to-describe-clothing-legal-and-developmental-implications
#5
Stacia N Stolzenberg, Kelly McWilliams, Thomas D Lyon
Children's descriptions of clothing placement and touching with respect to clothing are central to assessing child sexual abuse allegations. This study examined children's ability to answer the types of questions attorneys and interviewers typically ask about clothing, using the most common spatial terms (on/off, outside/inside, over/under). Ninety-seven 3- to 6-year-olds were asked yes/no (e.g., "Is the shirt on?"), forced-choice (e.g., "Is the shirt on or off?"), open-choice (e.g., "Is the shirt on or off or something else?"), or where questions (e...
February 2, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150975/witnessing-domestic-violence-during-childhood-is-associated-with-psychopathic-traits-in-adult-male-criminal-offenders
#6
Monika Dargis, Michael Koenigs
While there is growing evidence that suffering physical abuse during childhood is subsequently associated with psychopathic traits in both juvenile and adult offenders, there is considerably less research on whether exposure to domestic violence as a witness, rather than as a direct victim, influences the subsequent presentation of psychopathic traits in adulthood. Accordingly, the current study examined the relationship between witnessing domestic violence during childhood (i.e., witnessing, hearing, or intervening in abuse against a parent/sibling) and psychopathic traits in adulthood in a sample of n = 127 incarcerated male offenders...
February 2, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150974/why-are-conservatives-more-punitive-than-liberals-a-moral-foundations-approach
#7
Jasmine R Silver, Eric Silver
Morality is thought to underlie both ideological and punitive attitudes. In particular, moral foundations research suggests that group-oriented moral concerns promote a conservative orientation, while individual-oriented moral concerns promote a liberal orientation (Graham, Haidt, & Nosek, 2009). Drawing on classical sociological theory, we argue that endorsement of group-oriented moral concerns also elicits higher levels of punitiveness by promoting a view of crime as being perpetrated against society, while endorsement of individual-oriented moral concerns reduces punitiveness by directing attention toward the welfare of offenders as well as victims...
February 2, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150973/age-risk-assessment-and-sanctioning-overestimating-the-old-underestimating-the-young
#8
John Monahan, Jennifer Skeem, Christopher Lowenkamp
While many extoll the potential contribution of risk assessment to reducing the human and fiscal costs of mass incarceration without increasing crime, others adamantly oppose the incorporation of risk assessment in sanctioning. The principal concern is that any benefits in terms of reduced rates of incarceration achieved through the use of risk assessment will be offset by costs to social justice-which are claimed to be inherent in any risk assessment process that relies on variables for which offenders bear no responsibility, such as race, gender, and age...
February 2, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977226/does-early-onset-of-criminal-behavior-differentiate-for-whom-serious-mental-illness-has-a-direct-or-indirect-effect-on-recidivism
#9
Jason Matejkowski, Aaron Conrad, Michael Ostermann
The involvement of people with serious mental illness (SMI) with the justice system may be a direct result of their disruptive/unsafe expression of psychiatric symptoms being responded to by law enforcement. SMI may also indirectly contribute to justice involvement, through exposure to environmental and social learning processes that place people with SMI at risk for criminal behavior. This study addresses the question: For whom does SMI directly or indirectly relate to criminal behavior? Mediation and conditional effects testing were used to examine the potential of early onset of criminal behavior to distinguish those groups for whom SMI displays a direct effect or an indirect effect on criminal recidivism...
December 15, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977225/the-role-of-mental-health-and-specific-responsivity-in-juvenile-justice-rehabilitation
#10
Sarah McCormick, Michele Peterson-Badali, Tracey A Skilling
Understanding the role that mental health issues play in justice-involved youth poses challenges for research, policy, and practice. While mental health problems are generally not risk factors for criminal behavior according to the risk-needs-responsivity (RNR) framework of correctional psychology practice, prevalence rates are very high and RNR principles suggest that mental health as a responsivity variable may moderate the success of interventions targeted to criminogenic needs. In this study we investigated the relationships among mental health status, criminogenic needs treatment, and recidivism in a sample of 232 youth referred for court-ordered assessments and followed through their community supervision sentence (probation)...
December 15, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936827/the-cultural-dimension-of-uncertainty-avoidance-impacts-police-civilian-interaction
#11
Ellen Giebels, Miriam S D Oostinga, Paul J Taylor, Joanna L Curtis
This research examines how the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance-a person's (in)tolerance for uncertain or unknown situations-impacts communication alignment in crisis negotiations. We hypothesized that perpetrators high on uncertainty avoidance would respond better to negotiators who use formal language and legitimize their position with reference to law, procedures, and moral codes. Data were transcriptions of 53 negotiations from a Dutch-German police training initiative, where police negotiators interacted with a high (German) and low (Dutch) uncertainty-avoidant mock perpetrator...
December 12, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936826/pcl-r-field-validity-in-prison-and-hospital-settings
#12
Inge Jeandarme, John F Edens, Petra Habets, Liesbeth Bruckers, Karel Oei, Stefan Bogaerts
Recent field studies have questioned the interrater reliability (IRR) and predictive validity regarding (violent) recidivism of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Using a forensic psychiatric sample, the current study investigated discrepancies in scoring between hospital and prison settings, as well as differences in predictive validity across these two settings. PCL-R information was collected from prison and hospital files, resulting in 224 PCL-R total scores and 74 double scores. When examining repeated measurements, large individual differences were found together with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCA,1) of ...
December 12, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936825/police-reports-of-mock-suspect-interrogations-a-test-of-accuracy-and-perception
#13
Saul M Kassin, Jeff Kukucka, Victoria Z Lawson, John DeCarlo
A 2-phased experiment assessed the accuracy and completeness of police reports on mock interrogations and their effects on people's perceptions. In Phase 1, 16 experienced officers investigated a mock crime scene, interrogated 2 innocent suspects-1 described by the experimenter as more suspicious than the other-and filed an incident report. All 32 sessions were covertly recorded; the recordings were later used to assess the reports. In Phase 2, 96 lay participants were presented with a brief summary of the case and then either read 1 police report, read 1 verbatim interrogation transcript, or listened to an audiotape of a session...
December 12, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797547/risk-assessment-matters-but-only-when-implemented-well-a-multisite-study-in-juvenile-probation
#14
Gina M Vincent, Laura S Guy, Rachael T Perrault, Bernice Gershenson
There is a strong movement toward juvenile justice agencies' use of risk assessment and risk-need-responsivity approaches to improve case management decisions for young offenders. However, little is known about whether adoption of risk assessment actually effectuates any changes in the way young offenders are handled. This was a multisite study of the impact on case processing of implementation of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) or Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory in 6 juvenile probation offices using a prepost design and 1,694 propensity score-matched young offenders...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685641/firms-compliance-with-complex-regulations
#15
Juan P Mendoza, Henri C Dekker, Jacco L Wielhouwer
This study addresses the question of what explains compliance with complex regulations, which are technical, extensive, and often subject to modifications. Based on official (anonymized) data of financial intermediaries in the Netherlands (N = 602), we examined the association between compliance (measured as number of law violations) and the extent to which regulatory complexity is perceived as fair (i.e., the perception that the extensive regulation generates unnecessary difficulties for the firm). We hypothesized that perceiving regulatory complexity as fair would motivate firms to acquire knowledge of the regulation, and that this knowledge in turn would improve their ability to comply...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631401/wrong-or-merely-prohibited-special-treatment-of-strict-liability-in-intuitive-moral-judgment
#16
Carly Giffin, Tania Lombrozo
Most crimes in America require that the defendant have mens rea, Latin for "guilty mind." However, mens rea is not legally required for strict liability crimes, such as speeding, for which someone is guilty even if ignorant or deceived about her speed. In 3 experiments involving participants responding to descriptive vignettes, we investigated whether the division of strict liability crimes in the law reflects an aspect of laypeople's intuitive moral cognition. Experiment 1 (N = 396; 236 male, 159 female, 1 other; Mage = 30) found evidence that it does: ignorance and deception were less mitigating for strict liability crimes than for "mens rea" crimes...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607328/from-prison-to-the-streets-can-importation-work-in-reverse
#17
Glenn D Walters
The purpose of this study was to determine whether prison misconduct is capable of predicting rearrest and whether criminal thinking plays a role in this relationship. Two hypotheses, a variable-centered hypothesis and a person-centered hypothesis, were tested in a group of 951 male federal inmates, with results showing that at the variable level, prison misconduct predicted arrests for more serious crimes (person offenses) but not for less serious crimes (nonperson offenses). In an effort to examine the prison misconduct-community recidivism relationship at the person level, latent class growth analysis (LCGA) was performed on offending indicators across 3 nonoverlapping time periods: before prison (prior convictions), in prison (annual rate of incident reports), and after prison (total subsequent arrests)...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598561/evidentiary-extraevidentiary-and-deliberation-process-predictors-of-real-jury-verdicts
#18
Dennis J Devine, Paige C Krouse, Caitlin M Cavanaugh, Jaime Colon Basora
In contrast to the extensive literature based on mock jurors, large-sample studies of decision making by real juries are relatively rare. In this field study, we examined relationships between jury verdicts and variables representing 3 classes of potential determinants-evidentiary, extraevidentiary, and deliberation process-using a sample of 114 criminal jury trials. Posttrial data were collected from 11 presiding judges, 31 attorneys, and 367 jurors using a Web-based questionnaire. The strength of the prosecution's evidence was strongly related to the occurrence of a conviction, whereas most extraevidentiary and deliberation process variables were only weakly to modestly related in bivariate form and when the prosecution's evidence strength was controlled...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505466/moral-typecasting-underlies-punitive-responses-to-crime
#19
Andrea L Miller, Eugene Borgida
We examine the role of moral typecasting in lay individuals' punitive responses to crime. Individuals perceive criminal offenders and victims in ways that are biased by their perceptions of the actors' moral roles in prior simulated criminal incidents. We find that this psychological process of moral typecasting has important implications for punitive responses to criminal offenders, and these findings make 2 major contributions to the literature. First, we show that moral agency is distinct from moral deservingness, which is 1 of the dominant explanations for punitive behavior in social psychology...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454162/introduction-of-a-conceptual-model-for-integrating-the-mmpi-2-rf-into-hcr-20v3-violence-risk-assessments-and-associations-between-the-mmpi-2-rf-and-institutional-violence
#20
Anthony M Tarescavage, David M Glassmire, Danielle Burchett
Reflecting the need to prevent violence, structured professional judgment assessment tools have been developed specifically to assess the likelihood of future violence. These tools typically integrate data from clinical interviews and collateral records to assist in the conceptualization of violence risk, but objective psychological testing may also be useful in completing the instruments. The authors describe the advantages of using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in this manner with the Historical Clinical Management-20 Version 3 (HCR-20(V3))...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
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