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Law and Human Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191988/mock-juror-evaluations-of-traditional-and-ratings-based-eyewitness-identification-evidence
#1
James D Sauer, Matthew A Palmer, Neil Brewer
Compared to categorical identifications, culprit likelihood ratings (having the witness rate, for each lineup member, the likelihood that the individual is the culprit) provide a promising alternative for assessing a suspect's likely guilt. Four experiments addressed 2 broad questions about the use of culprit likelihood ratings evidence by mock-jurors. First, are mock-jurors receptive to noncategorical forms of identification evidence? Second, does the additional information provided by ratings (relating to discrimination) affect jurors' evaluations of the identification evidence? Experiments 1 and 1A manipulated confidence (90% vs...
February 13, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182459/deconstructing-the-simplification-of-jury-instructions-how-simplifying-the-features-of-complexity-affects-jurors-application-of-instructions
#2
Chantelle M Baguley, Blake M McKimmie, Barbara M Masser
Research consistently shows that techniques currently used to simplify jury instructions do not always improve mock jurors' comprehension. If improvements are observed, these are limited and overall comprehension remains low. It is unclear, however, why this occurs. It is possible that current simplification techniques do not effectively simplify the features of complexity, present in standardized instructions, which have the greatest effect on jurors' comprehension. It is not yet known, however, how much each feature of complexity individually affects jurors' comprehension...
February 9, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182458/combined-evaluations-of-competency-to-stand-trial-and-mental-state-at-the-time-of-the-offense-an-overlooked-methodological-consideration
#3
Lauren Kois, James M Wellbeloved-Stone, Preeti Chauhan, Janet I Warren
Combined evaluations of competency to stand trial (CST; competency) and mental state at the time of the offense (MSO; sanity) frequently co-occur. However, most research examines the 2 as discrete constructs without considering 4 potential combined evaluation outcomes: competent-sane, incompetent-sane, competent-insane, and incompetent-insane. External validity can be improved if research more closely mirrored practice. It may be incorrect to assume incompetent defendants are similar across CST-only and combined evaluations, and insane defendants are similar across MSO-only and combined evaluations...
February 9, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150976/spatial-language-question-type-and-young-children-s-ability-to-describe-clothing-legal-and-developmental-implications
#4
Stacia N Stolzenberg, Kelly McWilliams, Thomas D Lyon
Children's descriptions of clothing placement and touching with respect to clothing are central to assessing child sexual abuse allegations. This study examined children's ability to answer the types of questions attorneys and interviewers typically ask about clothing, using the most common spatial terms (on/off, outside/inside, over/under). Ninety-seven 3- to 6-year-olds were asked yes/no (e.g., "Is the shirt on?"), forced-choice (e.g., "Is the shirt on or off?"), open-choice (e.g., "Is the shirt on or off or something else?"), or where questions (e...
February 2, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150974/why-are-conservatives-more-punitive-than-liberals-a-moral-foundations-approach
#5
Jasmine R Silver, Eric Silver
Morality is thought to underlie both ideological and punitive attitudes. In particular, moral foundations research suggests that group-oriented moral concerns promote a conservative orientation, while individual-oriented moral concerns promote a liberal orientation (Graham, Haidt, & Nosek, 2009). Drawing on classical sociological theory, we argue that endorsement of group-oriented moral concerns also elicits higher levels of punitiveness by promoting a view of crime as being perpetrated against society, while endorsement of individual-oriented moral concerns reduces punitiveness by directing attention toward the welfare of offenders as well as victims...
February 2, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150977/is-the-effect-of-justice-system-attitudes-on-recidivism-stable-after-youths-first-arrest-race-and-legal-socialization-among-first-time-youth-offenders
#6
Adam Fine, Caitlin Cavanagh, Sachiko Donley, Paul J Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
Youth who hold negative attitudes toward the justice system are more likely to engage in crime. It is particularly important to study attitudes early in someone's criminal career when they may still be open to change. To date, however, there has been no empirical test assessing whether the relation between attitudes and behavior changes after a first arrest. Using a sample of 1,216 first-time, male, juvenile offenders from the Crossroads Study, the present study explored: (a) racial/ethnic differences in the longitudinal patterns of youths' attitudes; and (b) reciprocal associations between youths' attitudes and both their offending behavior and rearrests in the 2...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150975/witnessing-domestic-violence-during-childhood-is-associated-with-psychopathic-traits-in-adult-male-criminal-offenders
#7
Monika Dargis, Michael Koenigs
While there is growing evidence that suffering physical abuse during childhood is subsequently associated with psychopathic traits in both juvenile and adult offenders, there is considerably less research on whether exposure to domestic violence as a witness, rather than as a direct victim, influences the subsequent presentation of psychopathic traits in adulthood. Accordingly, the current study examined the relationship between witnessing domestic violence during childhood (i.e., witnessing, hearing, or intervening in abuse against a parent/sibling) and psychopathic traits in adulthood in a sample of n = 127 incarcerated male offenders...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150973/age-risk-assessment-and-sanctioning-overestimating-the-old-underestimating-the-young
#8
John Monahan, Jennifer Skeem, Christopher Lowenkamp
While many extoll the potential contribution of risk assessment to reducing the human and fiscal costs of mass incarceration without increasing crime, others adamantly oppose the incorporation of risk assessment in sanctioning. The principal concern is that any benefits in terms of reduced rates of incarceration achieved through the use of risk assessment will be offset by costs to social justice-which are claimed to be inherent in any risk assessment process that relies on variables for which offenders bear no responsibility, such as race, gender, and age...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786509/witness-memory-and-alcohol-the-effects-of-state-dependent-recall
#9
Nadja Schreiber Compo, Rolando N Carol, Jacqueline R Evans, Pamela Pimentel, Howard Holness, Kristin Nichols-Lopez, Stefan Rose, Kenneth G Furton
Many real-world eyewitnesses are under the influence of alcohol either at the time of the crime, the interview, or both. Only recently has empirical research begun to examine the effects of alcohol on witness memory, yielding mixed results. The present study tested the importance of state-dependent memory in the context of alcohol's effects on encoding versus retrieval of a witnessed event, while simultaneously informing real-world investigative practices: Should witnesses sober up before an interview? Participants (N = 249) were randomized to a control, placebo, or alcohol condition at encoding and to either an immediate retrieval condition (in the same state) or a 1-week delay control, placebo, or alcohol retrieval condition...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762571/how-suspect-race-affects-police-use-of-force-in-an-interaction-over-time
#10
Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Joel S Steele, Jean M McMahon, Greg Stewart
Although studies often find racial disparities in policing outcomes, less is known about how suspect race biases police interactions as they unfold. This study examines what is differentially occurring during police-suspect interactions for White, Black, and Latino suspects across time. It is hypothesized that racial bias may be more evident earlier in interactions, when less information about the situation is available. One hundred thirty-nine (62 White, 42 Black, and 35 Latino) use-of-force case files and associated written narratives from a medium to large size urban police department in the United States were analyzed...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762570/a-biphasic-process-of-resistance-among-suspects-the-mobilization-and-decline-of-self-regulatory-resources
#11
Stephanie Madon, Max Guyll, Yueran Yang, Laura Smalarz, Justin Marschall, Daniel G Lannin
We conducted two experiments to test whether police interrogation elicits a biphasic process of resistance from suspects. According to this process, the initial threat of police interrogation mobilizes suspects to resist interrogative influence in a manner akin to a fight or flight response, but suspects' protracted self-regulation of their behavior during subsequent questioning increases their susceptibility to interrogative influence in the long-run. In Experiment 1 (N = 316), participants who were threatened by an accusation of misconduct exhibited responses indicative of mobilization and more strongly resisted social pressure to acquiesce to suggestive questioning than did participants who were not accused...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685645/fair-lineups-are-better-than-biased-lineups-and-showups-but-not-because-they-increase-underlying-discriminability
#12
Andrew M Smith, Gary L Wells, R C L Lindsay, Steven D Penrod
Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis has recently come in vogue for assessing the underlying discriminability and the applied utility of lineup procedures. Two primary assumptions underlie recommendations that ROC analysis be used to assess the applied utility of lineup procedures: (a) ROC analysis of lineups measures underlying discriminability, and (b) the procedure that produces superior underlying discriminability produces superior applied utility. These same assumptions underlie a recently derived diagnostic-feature detection theory, a theory of discriminability, intended to explain recent patterns observed in ROC comparisons of lineups...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598562/context-influences-interpretation-of-eyewitness-confidence-statements
#13
Daniella K Cash, Sean M Lane
When an eyewitness makes an identification from a lineup, he or she is asked to provide a confidence statement to help jurors assess credibility. However, these are verbal statements and people must rely on metacognitive processes to correctly interpret them. Recently, Dodson and Dobolyi (2015) argued that a person's interpretation of a witness's verbal confidence is influenced by the diagnosticity of the features used to justify his or her identification. We tested this hypothesis in 2 experiments. Experiment 1 found that, relative to a confidence-only control, participants reduced their ratings of confidence when statements were justified using a facial feature that was shared by lineup members, but not when the feature was unique to the member chosen from the lineup...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977226/does-early-onset-of-criminal-behavior-differentiate-for-whom-serious-mental-illness-has-a-direct-or-indirect-effect-on-recidivism
#14
Jason Matejkowski, Aaron Conrad, Michael Ostermann
The involvement of people with serious mental illness (SMI) with the justice system may be a direct result of their disruptive/unsafe expression of psychiatric symptoms being responded to by law enforcement. SMI may also indirectly contribute to justice involvement, through exposure to environmental and social learning processes that place people with SMI at risk for criminal behavior. This study addresses the question: For whom does SMI directly or indirectly relate to criminal behavior? Mediation and conditional effects testing were used to examine the potential of early onset of criminal behavior to distinguish those groups for whom SMI displays a direct effect or an indirect effect on criminal recidivism...
December 15, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977225/the-role-of-mental-health-and-specific-responsivity-in-juvenile-justice-rehabilitation
#15
Sarah McCormick, Michele Peterson-Badali, Tracey A Skilling
Understanding the role that mental health issues play in justice-involved youth poses challenges for research, policy, and practice. While mental health problems are generally not risk factors for criminal behavior according to the risk-needs-responsivity (RNR) framework of correctional psychology practice, prevalence rates are very high and RNR principles suggest that mental health as a responsivity variable may moderate the success of interventions targeted to criminogenic needs. In this study we investigated the relationships among mental health status, criminogenic needs treatment, and recidivism in a sample of 232 youth referred for court-ordered assessments and followed through their community supervision sentence (probation)...
December 15, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936827/the-cultural-dimension-of-uncertainty-avoidance-impacts-police-civilian-interaction
#16
Ellen Giebels, Miriam S D Oostinga, Paul J Taylor, Joanna L Curtis
This research examines how the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance-a person's (in)tolerance for uncertain or unknown situations-impacts communication alignment in crisis negotiations. We hypothesized that perpetrators high on uncertainty avoidance would respond better to negotiators who use formal language and legitimize their position with reference to law, procedures, and moral codes. Data were transcriptions of 53 negotiations from a Dutch-German police training initiative, where police negotiators interacted with a high (German) and low (Dutch) uncertainty-avoidant mock perpetrator...
December 12, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936826/pcl-r-field-validity-in-prison-and-hospital-settings
#17
Inge Jeandarme, John F Edens, Petra Habets, Liesbeth Bruckers, Karel Oei, Stefan Bogaerts
Recent field studies have questioned the interrater reliability (IRR) and predictive validity regarding (violent) recidivism of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Using a forensic psychiatric sample, the current study investigated discrepancies in scoring between hospital and prison settings, as well as differences in predictive validity across these two settings. PCL-R information was collected from prison and hospital files, resulting in 224 PCL-R total scores and 74 double scores. When examining repeated measurements, large individual differences were found together with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCA,1) of ...
December 12, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936825/police-reports-of-mock-suspect-interrogations-a-test-of-accuracy-and-perception
#18
Saul M Kassin, Jeff Kukucka, Victoria Z Lawson, John DeCarlo
A 2-phased experiment assessed the accuracy and completeness of police reports on mock interrogations and their effects on people's perceptions. In Phase 1, 16 experienced officers investigated a mock crime scene, interrogated 2 innocent suspects-1 described by the experimenter as more suspicious than the other-and filed an incident report. All 32 sessions were covertly recorded; the recordings were later used to assess the reports. In Phase 2, 96 lay participants were presented with a brief summary of the case and then either read 1 police report, read 1 verbatim interrogation transcript, or listened to an audiotape of a session...
December 12, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797547/risk-assessment-matters-but-only-when-implemented-well-a-multisite-study-in-juvenile-probation
#19
Gina M Vincent, Laura S Guy, Rachael T Perrault, Bernice Gershenson
There is a strong movement toward juvenile justice agencies' use of risk assessment and risk-need-responsivity approaches to improve case management decisions for young offenders. However, little is known about whether adoption of risk assessment actually effectuates any changes in the way young offenders are handled. This was a multisite study of the impact on case processing of implementation of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) or Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory in 6 juvenile probation offices using a prepost design and 1,694 propensity score-matched young offenders...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685641/firms-compliance-with-complex-regulations
#20
Juan P Mendoza, Henri C Dekker, Jacco L Wielhouwer
This study addresses the question of what explains compliance with complex regulations, which are technical, extensive, and often subject to modifications. Based on official (anonymized) data of financial intermediaries in the Netherlands (N = 602), we examined the association between compliance (measured as number of law violations) and the extent to which regulatory complexity is perceived as fair (i.e., the perception that the extensive regulation generates unnecessary difficulties for the firm). We hypothesized that perceiving regulatory complexity as fair would motivate firms to acquire knowledge of the regulation, and that this knowledge in turn would improve their ability to comply...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
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