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Law and Human Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639803/determining-when-to-conduct-a-violence-risk-assessment-development-and-initial-validation-of-the-fordham-risk-screening-tool-frst
#1
Barry Rosenfeld, Melodie Foellmi, Ali Khadivi, Charity Wijetunga, Jacqueline Howe, Alicia Nijdam-Jones, Shana Grover, Merrill Rotter
Techniques to assess violence risk are increasingly common, but no systematic approach exists to help clinicians decide which psychiatric patients are most in need of a violence risk assessment. The Fordham Risk Screening Tool (FRST) was designed to fill this void, providing a structured, systematic approach to screening psychiatric patients and determining the need for further, more thorough violence risk assessment. The FRST was administered to a sample of 210 consecutive admissions to the civil psychiatric units of an urban medical center, 159 of whom were subsequently evaluated using the Historical Clinical Risk Management-20, version 3, to determine violence risk...
June 22, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639802/a-cross-cultural-analysis-of-the-test-of-memory-malingering-among-latin-american-spanish-speaking-adults
#2
Alicia Nijdam-Jones, Diego Rivera, Barry Rosenfeld, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
Cognitive efforts tests, such as the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM; Tombaugh, 1997), are widely used internationally, yet there is a dearth of research that has assessed the utility of these measures in different cultures, countries, and languages. This study evaluated the specificity of the TOMM Trial 2 among a sample of 3,590 Spanish-speaking adults residing in 8 Latin American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico). Trial 2 TOMM scores were negatively associated with participants' age and positively associated with level of education...
June 22, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639801/the-evolving-landscape-of-title-ix-predicting-mandatory-reporters-responses-to-sexual-assault-disclosures
#3
Kathryn J Holland, Lilia M Cortina
Approximately 1 in 4 women is sexually assaulted in college, a problem that federal law has attempted to address with recent changes. Under the evolving landscape of Title IX, and related law, universities nationwide have overhauled their sexual assault policies, procedures, and resources. Many of the new policies designate undergraduate resident assistants (RAs) as Responsible Employees-requiring them to provide assistance and report to the university if a fellow student discloses sexual assault. We investigated factors that predict the likelihood of RAs enacting their policy mandate, that is, reporting sexual assault disclosures to university authorities and referring survivors to sexual assault resources...
June 22, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459265/crime-seriousness-and-participation-in-restorative-justice-the-role-of-time-elapsed-since-the-offense
#4
Sven Zebel, Wendy Schreurs, Elze G Ufkes
Restorative justice policies and programs aimed at facilitating victim-offender mediation (VOM) are part of many criminal justice systems around the world. Given its voluntary nature and potential for positive outcomes, the appropriateness and feasibility of VOM after serious offenses is subject to debate in the literature. In light of this discussion, this study first aimed to unravel the prevalence of serious offenses in cases registered for VOM and examined whether crime seriousness predicts whether mediated contact is reached between victims and offenders...
May 1, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459264/a-room-with-a-view-setting-influences-information-disclosure-in-investigative-interviews
#5
Evan Dawson, Maria Hartwig, Laure Brimbal, Philipp Denisenkov
Research on embodied cognition and priming show that human behavior is influenced nonconsciously by the environment in metaphoric ways. Previous research has shown that conceptual priming can lead people to disclose sensitive information (Davis, Soref, Villalobos, & Mikulincer, 2016; Dawson, Hartwig, & Brimbal, 2015). Here, we sought to examine whether concepts of openness can be activated to promote disclosure within the interview itself, through the physical setting. In two laboratory studies, participants were exposed to details of a mock environmental terrorism conspiracy through a courier task, which they were subsequently interviewed about in different settings...
May 1, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383985/violent-offending-among-juveniles-a-7-year-longitudinal-study-of-recidivism-desistance-and-associations-with-mental-health
#6
Sascha Hein, Baptiste Barbot, Amanda Square, John Chapman, Catherine Foley Geib, Elena L Grigorenko
Serious and violent offending among juveniles is a consistent concern of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers, yet the development of violent offending remains poorly understood because of limited availability of relevant data, small sample sizes, and shortage of longitudinal data sets. This study analyzed developmental patterns of violent offending over 7 years in the complete population of court-referred youth in Connecticut between 2006 and 2012 (N = 58,678; mean age at first offense = 14.7 years)...
April 6, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383984/correlates-of-admitted-sexual-interest-in-children-among-individuals-convicted-of-child-pornography-offenses
#7
Michael C Seto, Angela W Eke
Recent research on a risk assessment tool for child pornography offending suggests that admission of sexual interest in children is a risk factor for any sexual recidivism. Admission is easily vulnerable to lying, however, or to refusals to respond when asked about sexual interests. This may become a particular issue when individuals are concerned about the potential impact of admission of sexual interest on sentencing and other risk-related decisions. In this study, we identified the following behavioral correlates (coded yes/no) of admission of sexual interest in children in the risk tool development sample of 286 men convicted of child pornography offenses: (a) never married (54% of sample), (b) child pornography content included child sexual abuse videos (64%), (c) child pornography content included sex stories involving children (31%), (d) evidence of interest in child pornography spanned 2 or more years (55%), (e) volunteered in a role with high access to children (7%), and (f) engaged in online sexual communication with a minor or officer posing as a minor (10%)...
April 6, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383983/for-whom-does-deterrence-affect-behavior-identifying-key-individual-differences
#8
Adam Fine, Benjamin van Rooij
Deterrence threats are essential mechanisms for affecting behavior, yet they are often ineffective. The literature is beginning to consider individual differences underlying differential susceptibility to deterrence. The present study sampled 223 adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk and used an experimental cheating paradigm to examine the role of 3 individual differences, including morality, self-control, and rule orientation, underlying differential susceptibility to deterrence. The results indicate that deterrence threats may be more influential for people who have low moral disengagement, who possess more self-control, or who are more rule oriented...
April 6, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383982/are-adolescent-risk-assessment-tools-sensitive-to-change-a-framework-and-examination-of-the-savry-and-the-yls-cmi
#9
Jodi L Viljoen, Catherine S Shaffer, Andrew L Gray, Kevin S Douglas
Although many adolescent risk assessment tools include an emphasis on dynamic factors, little research has examined the extent to which these tools are capable of measuring change. In this article, we outline a framework to evaluate a tool's capacity to measure change. This framework includes the following: (a) measurement error and reliable change, and (b) sensitivity (i.e., internal, external, and relative sensitivity). We then used this framework to evaluate the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) and Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI)...
April 6, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569542/-racial-bias-in-mock-juror-decision-making-a-meta-analytic-review-of-defendant-treatment-correction-to-mitchell-et-al-2005
#10
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Racial Bias in Mock Juror Decision-Making: A Meta-Analytic Review of Defendant Treatment" by Tara L. Mitchell, Ryann M. Haw, Jeffrey E. Pfeifer and Christian A. Meissner (Law and Human Behavior, 2005[Dec], Vol 29[6], 621-637). In the article, all of the numbers in Appendix A were correct, but the signs were reversed for z' in a number of studies, which are listed. Also, in Appendix B, some values were incorrect, some signs were reversed, and some values were missing. The corrected appendix is included...
June 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685643/effects-of-a-proven-error-on-evaluations-of-witness-testimony
#11
Tiffany Lavis, Neil Brewer
Witnesses frequently make an error when reporting events they have observed. Although some error in witness reports is to be expected and does not mean the testimony as a whole is flawed, an important question is how such an error affects judgments of credibility of the witness. In 2 experiments we investigated the impact of a single demonstrated (probative or nonprobative) detail inaccuracy on judgments of the likely reliability of witness memory. Potential mediators (witness dishonesty and forgetfulness) were examined to explain the relationship between inaccuracy and perceived reliability of the witness's memory report...
June 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150977/is-the-effect-of-justice-system-attitudes-on-recidivism-stable-after-youths-first-arrest-race-and-legal-socialization-among-first-time-youth-offenders
#12
Adam Fine, Caitlin Cavanagh, Sachiko Donley, Paul J Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
Youth who hold negative attitudes toward the justice system are more likely to engage in crime. It is particularly important to study attitudes early in someone's criminal career when they may still be open to change. To date, however, there has been no empirical test assessing whether the relation between attitudes and behavior changes after a first arrest. Using a sample of 1,216 first-time, male, juvenile offenders from the Crossroads Study, the present study explored: (a) racial/ethnic differences in the longitudinal patterns of youths' attitudes; and (b) reciprocal associations between youths' attitudes and both their offending behavior and rearrests in the 2...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150975/witnessing-domestic-violence-during-childhood-is-associated-with-psychopathic-traits-in-adult-male-criminal-offenders
#13
Monika Dargis, Michael Koenigs
While there is growing evidence that suffering physical abuse during childhood is subsequently associated with psychopathic traits in both juvenile and adult offenders, there is considerably less research on whether exposure to domestic violence as a witness, rather than as a direct victim, influences the subsequent presentation of psychopathic traits in adulthood. Accordingly, the current study examined the relationship between witnessing domestic violence during childhood (i.e., witnessing, hearing, or intervening in abuse against a parent/sibling) and psychopathic traits in adulthood in a sample of n = 127 incarcerated male offenders...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150973/age-risk-assessment-and-sanctioning-overestimating-the-old-underestimating-the-young
#14
John Monahan, Jennifer Skeem, Christopher Lowenkamp
While many extoll the potential contribution of risk assessment to reducing the human and fiscal costs of mass incarceration without increasing crime, others adamantly oppose the incorporation of risk assessment in sanctioning. The principal concern is that any benefits in terms of reduced rates of incarceration achieved through the use of risk assessment will be offset by costs to social justice-which are claimed to be inherent in any risk assessment process that relies on variables for which offenders bear no responsibility, such as race, gender, and age...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786509/witness-memory-and-alcohol-the-effects-of-state-dependent-recall
#15
Nadja Schreiber Compo, Rolando N Carol, Jacqueline R Evans, Pamela Pimentel, Howard Holness, Kristin Nichols-Lopez, Stefan Rose, Kenneth G Furton
Many real-world eyewitnesses are under the influence of alcohol either at the time of the crime, the interview, or both. Only recently has empirical research begun to examine the effects of alcohol on witness memory, yielding mixed results. The present study tested the importance of state-dependent memory in the context of alcohol's effects on encoding versus retrieval of a witnessed event, while simultaneously informing real-world investigative practices: Should witnesses sober up before an interview? Participants (N = 249) were randomized to a control, placebo, or alcohol condition at encoding and to either an immediate retrieval condition (in the same state) or a 1-week delay control, placebo, or alcohol retrieval condition...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762571/how-suspect-race-affects-police-use-of-force-in-an-interaction-over-time
#16
Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Joel S Steele, Jean M McMahon, Greg Stewart
Although studies often find racial disparities in policing outcomes, less is known about how suspect race biases police interactions as they unfold. This study examines what is differentially occurring during police-suspect interactions for White, Black, and Latino suspects across time. It is hypothesized that racial bias may be more evident earlier in interactions, when less information about the situation is available. One hundred thirty-nine (62 White, 42 Black, and 35 Latino) use-of-force case files and associated written narratives from a medium to large size urban police department in the United States were analyzed...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762570/a-biphasic-process-of-resistance-among-suspects-the-mobilization-and-decline-of-self-regulatory-resources
#17
Stephanie Madon, Max Guyll, Yueran Yang, Laura Smalarz, Justin Marschall, Daniel G Lannin
We conducted two experiments to test whether police interrogation elicits a biphasic process of resistance from suspects. According to this process, the initial threat of police interrogation mobilizes suspects to resist interrogative influence in a manner akin to a fight or flight response, but suspects' protracted self-regulation of their behavior during subsequent questioning increases their susceptibility to interrogative influence in the long-run. In Experiment 1 (N = 316), participants who were threatened by an accusation of misconduct exhibited responses indicative of mobilization and more strongly resisted social pressure to acquiesce to suggestive questioning than did participants who were not accused...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685645/fair-lineups-are-better-than-biased-lineups-and-showups-but-not-because-they-increase-underlying-discriminability
#18
Andrew M Smith, Gary L Wells, R C L Lindsay, Steven D Penrod
Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis has recently come in vogue for assessing the underlying discriminability and the applied utility of lineup procedures. Two primary assumptions underlie recommendations that ROC analysis be used to assess the applied utility of lineup procedures: (a) ROC analysis of lineups measures underlying discriminability, and (b) the procedure that produces superior underlying discriminability produces superior applied utility. These same assumptions underlie a recently derived diagnostic-feature detection theory, a theory of discriminability, intended to explain recent patterns observed in ROC comparisons of lineups...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598562/context-influences-interpretation-of-eyewitness-confidence-statements
#19
Daniella K Cash, Sean M Lane
When an eyewitness makes an identification from a lineup, he or she is asked to provide a confidence statement to help jurors assess credibility. However, these are verbal statements and people must rely on metacognitive processes to correctly interpret them. Recently, Dodson and Dobolyi (2015) argued that a person's interpretation of a witness's verbal confidence is influenced by the diagnosticity of the features used to justify his or her identification. We tested this hypothesis in 2 experiments. Experiment 1 found that, relative to a confidence-only control, participants reduced their ratings of confidence when statements were justified using a facial feature that was shared by lineup members, but not when the feature was unique to the member chosen from the lineup...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191988/mock-juror-evaluations-of-traditional-and-ratings-based-eyewitness-identification-evidence
#20
James D Sauer, Matthew A Palmer, Neil Brewer
Compared to categorical identifications, culprit likelihood ratings (having the witness rate, for each lineup member, the likelihood that the individual is the culprit) provide a promising alternative for assessing a suspect's likely guilt. Four experiments addressed 2 broad questions about the use of culprit likelihood ratings evidence by mock-jurors. First, are mock-jurors receptive to noncategorical forms of identification evidence? Second, does the additional information provided by ratings (relating to discrimination) affect jurors' evaluations of the identification evidence? Experiments 1 and 1A manipulated confidence (90% vs...
February 13, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
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