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African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686833/anti-oxidative-and-reno-restorative-effects-of-physalis-angulata-whole-plant-extract-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-male-wistar-rats
#1
E O Adewoye, M A Oguntola, A O Ige
Backgroiound: Hyperglycemia has been reported to increase protein glycation and generation of free radicals which predispose to diabetic renal dysfunction. Physalis ahgulata has been shown to have hypoglycacmic and anti-lipidemic properties but there is dearth of information regarding its effect on kidney functions in diabetes. This study investigated the anti-oxidative and reno-restorative effects of methanol extract of whole plant of Physalis angulata (MEPA) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. METHODOLOGY: Twenty male Wistar rats (150-180g) were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (control) received 0...
May 2016: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686832/anthropometric-indices-how-they-compare-in-screening-of-cardio-metabolic-risks-in-a-nigerian-sub-population
#2
V M Oguoma, E U Nwose, T C Skinner, R S Richards, K A Digban, I C Onyia, A E Anyasodor
BACKGROUND: The current anthropometric indices used for diagnosis of cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) in sub-Saharan Africa are those widely validated in the western world. We hereby aim to compare the sensitivity and specificity of these tools in identifying risk factors for CMS. METHOD: The study assessed body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Statistical analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of WHtR in comparison with WC cut-off points recommended by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) as well as BMI cut-offs prescribed by the World Health Organisation (WHO)...
May 2016: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686831/micronutrient-status-and-its-effect-on-glycaemic-indices-in-type-2-diabetics-with-foot-ulcer-in-ibadan-nigeria
#3
E B Bolajokol, O M Akinosui, J I Anetor, K S Mossanda
BACKGROUND: Micronutrients are required by organisms in trace concentrations sufficient to maintain homeostasis. Deficiency of these elements could result in different medical and metabolic abnormalities. There are limited data on micronutrient status in type 2 diabetics with foot ulcer (DM+FU). Premised on this, this study investigated micronutrient levels of DM+FU and examined their effects on glycaemic indices. METHODS: One hundred and twenty participants, comprising seventy DM+FU and fifty non-diabetic participants (controls) aged 40-60 years, were recruited for the study...
May 2016: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686830/knowledge-and-practices-of-nutritional-care-among-day-care-staff-in-selected-preschools-in-ibadan-north-local-government-area-oyo-state-nigeria
#4
O E Oyewole, I O Dipeolu, M A Muritala
BACKGROUND: Studies have established that growth of children usually falters during the preschool age when the child is usually left in the hands of other care givers; as parents go to work. Feeding of the preschool children is sometimes solely under the care of Day Care Staff (DCS) whoselevel of knowledge and practice of nutritional care is unknown. Knowledge and practices of nutritional care among DCS in selected preschools were investigated. METHOD: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used and 400 DCS were randomly selected for interview...
May 2016: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686829/drug-resistance-profiles-of-new-and-previously-treated-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-ibadan-nigeria
#5
A O Kehinde, E O Adebiyi, A O Salako, V O Ogunleye, A A Oni, R A Bakare, O Eltayeb, G Dairo, J Out, F Gehre, T Corrah, A V Deun, M Gumusoboga, E Declercq, T Demeulenaere, B C deJong, M Antonio
BACKGROUND: Information on TB drug resistance profiles and its' associated risk factors are scarce in Nigeria despite the large burden of disease in the country. The study was designed to report drug resistance profiles of new- and previously treated patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Ibadan, Nigeria. METHOD: Sputum from consenting pulmonary TB patients were collected and cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) at the TB laboratory of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria using standard method...
May 2016: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686828/prevlaence-of-chronic-kidney-disease-markers-in-kumbotso-rural-northern-nigeria
#6
A Nalado, A Abdu, B Adamu, M H Aliyu, F A Arogundade, A A Sanusi, S S Wali, A Akinsola
BACKGROUND: Data- on the epidemiology of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) from sub-SaharanAfrica are sparse. We investigated the prevalence of CKD and its early markers in Kumbotso, a rural community in northern Nigeria. METHODS: A total of 480 individuals were randomly selected from the general population using multistage stratified random sampling. Relevant- demographic and clinical data were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Biological samples (urine and blood) were drawn for relevant investigations...
May 2016: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686827/is-there-any-relationship-between-hearing-threshold-levels-and-cd4-cell-count-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults
#7
A J Fasunla, J O Ijitola, O M Akpa, O G B Nwaorgu, B Taiwo, D O Olaleye, R L Murphy, I F Adewole, O O Akinyinka
Background The role of viral load level and/or CD4 (Cluster of differentiation 4) cell count in the aetiopathogenesis of hearing loss in HIV infection is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between CD4 cell counts, viral load and hearing threshold of HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) infected adults. METHODS: This cohort audiometric study involved consecutive HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults as controls. Clinical data relating to hearing loss, HIV status, and highly -active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were obtained...
May 2016: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686826/oxygen-for-children-and-newborns-in-non-tertiary-hospitals-in-south-west-nigeria-a-needs-assessment
#8
H R Graham, A I Ayede, A A Bakare, O B Oyewole, D Peel, A G Falade, T Duke
BACKGROUND: Oxygen is important for the treatment of hypoxaemia associated with pneumonia, malaria, and other medical, obstetric, and surgical conditions. Access to oxygen therapy is limited in many of the high mortality settings where it would be of most benefit. METHODS: A needs assessment of 12 non-tertiary hospitals in south-west Nigeria, assessing structural, technical and clinical barriers to the provision of safe and effective oxygen therapy. RESULTS: Oxygen supply was reported to be a major challenge by hospital directors...
May 2016: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686825/overview-of-radiation-dose-to-patients-from-medical-x-ray-examinations-in-nigeria
#9
B I Akinlade, F B Odefemi, I P Farai
OBJECTIVES: Medical Imaging accounts for the largest radiation exposure of population from artificial sources of radiation. The radiation dose rcceivedby patients from iedicail x-ray examinations in Nigeria has shown large variations within and among diagnostic centers for similar examinations. This could be traced to lack of imaging protocols and on avalability of local/national diagnostic reference, levels. Hence, the need to assess the trend of radiation doseto patients from radiological practice in Nigeria...
May 2016: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686824/interplay-between-antiretroviral-therapy-and-oxidative-stress-in-hiv-seropositive-patients
#10
T D Popoola, O Awodele
BACKGROUND: HIV infection results in a decline of CD4+ T-cells count and ultimately results in qualitative impairments of CD4+ T-cell function. Antiretroviral therapy results in an increase in the number of CD4+ cells and the functional reconstitution of the immune system. However, patients on therapy commonly experience adverse effects; management of HIV infection thus becomes a balancing act between the benefits of HIV suppression and the risks of drug toxicity with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)...
May 2016: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462699/neck-trauma-a-red-herring-to-diagnosis-of-chemodectoma
#11
O A M Adesiyun, P O Adeoye, C K P Ofoegbu, E A O Afolayan
Chemodectoma, a neuroendocrine tumour of the paraganglionic cells in the carotid body remains an uncommon tumour. We report the first case from University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. Though with a red herring history of trauma induced swelling, clinical and radiologic features were characteristic of chemodectoma. Histologic features of the excised lesion are presented.
December 2015: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462698/effects-of-quail-egg-on-kidney-functions-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-wistar-rats
#12
E O Adewoye, T E Adekeye, A O Ige
UNLABELLED: Abstract INTRODUCTION: Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus has been reported to lead to renal dysfunction. Quail egg consumption has been reported to exert curative effects in some disease conditions like diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, and asthma. This study investigated the effects of quail egg consumption on some kidney functions in alloxan induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats with an average weight of 170g were randomly divided into four groups...
December 2015: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462697/female-circumcision-in-nigeria-and-attitudes-towards-its-discontinuation
#13
B M Gbadebo, R F Afolabi, A S Adebowale
BACKGROUND: Female Circumcision (FC) is a harmful traditional practice and remains a public health problem particularly in the era of HIV/AIDS. Aside its numerous health implications, it can cause infertility, complications in childbirth and increased risk of newborn deaths. FC is widely practised in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: The study assessed the level of FC, daughters' circumcision and attitude towards discontinuation of the practice among women of reproductive age...
December 2015: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462696/comparative-evaluation-of-perceptions-of-dental-students-to-three-methods-of-teaching-in-ile-ife-nigeria
#14
T A Esan, E O Oziegbe
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization in 1994 recommended that dental education should be problem based, socially and culturally relevant, and community oriented. OBJECTIVES: To explore the perceptions of Pre-phase II (pre-clinical II) dental students on three methods of teaching used during two academic sessions. METHODS: All part IV dental students in two consecutive sessions undergoing pre phase II course in the Faculty of Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife were recruited into the study...
December 2015: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462695/pattern-of-biliary-tract-carcinoma-at-the-university-college-hospital-ibadan
#15
T O Babatunde, J O Ogunbiyi
BACKGROUND: Biliary tract carcinomas are uncommon but highly fatal malignancies. Most patients in our environment are diagnosed late and are not candidates for curative resection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and risk factors of biliary tract carcinoma in Ibadan. METHODOLOGY: This was a retrospective study of histologically confirmed cases of biliary tract carcinoma diagnosed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan between January 1971 and December 20 10...
December 2015: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462694/sexual-behaviour-and-use-of-electronic-media-among-undergraduates-in-the-university-of-ibadan
#16
A T Salawu, S O Reis, O I Fawole, M D Dairo
BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviour among the youth contributes largely to the burden of reproductive health problems in Nigeria. This may have been worsened by the introduction of electronic media like internet and television (TV). However, little is known about the effects of electronic media on sexual behaviour of youth in Nigeria. Therefore, exploring the influence of effect of electronic media on sexual behaviour of youth may help policy maker to provide interventions to these problems...
December 2015: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462693/potentials-of-raw-and-cooked-walnuts-tetracapidium-conophorum-as-sources-of-valuable-nutrients-for-good-health
#17
O K Moyib, O Falegbe, F R Moyib
BACKGROUND: The present study estimated nutrient composition of walnuts before and after cooking with respect to its potential as valuable source of nutrients for daily intake. METHOD: Walnut fruits were purchased from five different markets in Ijebu-Ode local government area and its environs. The fruits samples were divided into two portions, labelled R (for raw) and C (cooked). The C samples were cooked at 100 degrees C for 1 hr and allowed to cool to room temperature...
December 2015: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462692/knowledge-of-hazards-of-antibiotics-self-medication-by-mothers-for-under-fives-in-rural-community-of-south-west-nigeria
#18
K A Akinlade, J O Akinyemi, O I Fawole
BACKGROUND: In Nigeria, self-medication of young children is common. Children under the age of five are often self-medicated with antibiotics because of their increased susceptibility to infections. OBJECTIVES: To assess mothers' knowledge on the hazards of antibiotics self-medication in a rural community of South-west Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 mothers selected through a purposive sampling technique from Koko community in Olodo, Ibadan between October and December, 2014...
December 2015: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462691/hiv-aids-pandemic-and-current-practice-among-paediatric-surgeons-in-nigeria
#19
OA Sowande, Ao Talabi, Sa Olowookere, Adejuyigbe, Fj Owotade
BACKGROUND: HIV exposed children could require surgical procedures when ill. This study assessed how paediatric HIV/AIDS affected surgical practice among Nigerian paediatric surgeons. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study among consenting paediatric surgeons completing a self-administered questionnaire on the current practices and perception on HIV/AIDS in relation to their surgical practice. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Thirty eight out of forty two copies of questionnaire distributed were completed and included in analysis giving a response rate of 92...
December 2015: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462690/helicobacter-pylori-a-pathogenic-threat-to-the-gastric-mucosal-barrier
#20
REVIEW
F S Oluwole
Peptic ulcer disease is a multi-factorial disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with a global prevalence affecting about 4.6 million people annually and having a mortality of one death per 10,000 cases. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays a profound role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, including gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and carcinoma. Any compromise to the gastric mucosal barrier will greatly affect the integrity of the stomach. H. pylori is an organism which mediates a compromise of the gastric mucosal barrier by stimulating increased gastric acid secretion, causing alteration of certain immune factors, penetration of the mucosal layer and provoking persistent inflammation even without invading the mucus membrane...
December 2015: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
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