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Optics Letters

Tatiana Kovalevich, Abdoulaye Ndao, Miguel Suarez, Saulius Tumenas, Zigmas Balevicius, Arunas Ramanavicius, Ieva Baleviciute, Markus Häyrinen, Matthieu Roussey, Markku Kuittinen, Thierry Grosjean, Maria-Pilar Bernal
We present an original type of one-dimensional photonic crystal that includes one anisotropic layer made of a lithium niobate thin film. We demonstrate the versatility of such a device sustaining different Bloch surface waves (BSWs), depending on the orientation of the incident wave. By varying the orientation of the illumination of the multilayer, we measured an angle variation of 7° between the BSWs corresponding to the extraordinary and the ordinary index of the lithium niobate thin film. The potential of such a platform opens the way to novel tunable and active planar optics based on the electro- and thermo-optical properties of lithium niobate...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Edouard Berrocal, Sven-Göran Pettersson, Elias Kristensson
We show in this Letter a novel approach for high-contrast imaging through scattering media by combining structured illumination and Fourier filtering (SIF). To assess the image contrast enhancement at different image spatial frequencies, the modulation transfer function is calculated for four detection schemes: (1) no filtering, (2) Fourier filtering, (3) structured illumination, and (4) SIF filtering. A scattering solution consisting of D=7.3  μm polystyrene spheres immersed in distilled water and illuminated at λ=671  nm is used here...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Zhifeng Shi, Ying Li, Yuantao Zhang, Di Wu, Tingting Xu, Baolin Zhang, Lei Liang, Xinjian Li, Guotong Du
Electrically driven ultraviolet lasing was realized in two-dimensional ZnO nanowall networks from Au/MgO/n-ZnO/n-GaN/In structure, and whispering gallery type resonant modes are responsible for the lasing action. We present a comparative study on lasing action based on nanowall networks with different micro-hole sizes. The representative diode (Device II) with a moderate micro-hole size exhibits an ultralow threshold current density of 1.01  A/cm<sup>2</sup>, and the lasing action can be sustained at a temperature up to ∼413  K, showing a good temperature tolerance...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Frank Setzpfandt, Alexander S Solntsev, Andrey A Sukhorukov
In spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC), a pump photon spontaneously splits into signal and idler photons in media with quadratic nonlinearity. This phenomenon is the most widely utilized source of entangled photons with multiple applications in quantum information technology. SPDC on a chip is usually treated as a local process, meaning that signal and idler photons are created in the same position at which the pump photon is destroyed. We reveal that this locality condition can be violated in an array of coupled waveguides...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Biswajit Pathak, Bosanta R Boruah
In this Letter, we introduce a scheme to enhance the spatial resolution of a zonal wavefront sensor. The zonal wavefront sensor comprises an array of binary gratings implemented by a ferroelectric spatial light modulator (FLCSLM) followed by a lens, in lieu of the array of lenses in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We show that the fast response of the FLCSLM device facilitates quick display of several laterally shifted binary grating patterns, and the programmability of the device enables simultaneous capturing of each focal spot array...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Chao Wang, Shuang Wang, Zhen-Qiang Yin, Wei Chen, Hong-Wei Li, Chun-Mei Zhang, Yu-Yang Ding, Guang-Can Guo, Zheng-Fu Han
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI QKD) is an efficient way to share secrets using untrusted measurement devices. However, the assumption on the characterizations of encoding states is still necessary in this promising protocol, which may lead to unnecessary complexity and potential loopholes in realistic implementations. Here, by using the mismatched-basis statistics, we present the first proof-of-principle experiment of MDI QKD with uncharacterized encoding sources. In this demonstration, the encoded states are only required to be constrained in a two-dimensional Hilbert space, and two distant parties (Alice and Bob) are resistant to state preparation flaws even if they have no idea about the detailed information of their encoding states...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Tianjing Guo, Christos Argyropoulos
We present terahertz metasurfaces based on aligned rectangular graphene patches placed on top of a dielectric layer to convert the transmitted linearly polarized waves to circular or elliptical polarized radiation. Our results lead to the design of an ultrathin broadband terahertz quarter-wave plate. In addition, ultrathin metasurfaces based on the arrays of L-shaped graphene periodic patches are demonstrated to achieve broadband cross-polarization transformation in reflection and transmission. The proposed metasurface designs have tunable responses and are envisioned to become the building blocks of several integrated terahertz systems...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Martin Schnack, Tim Hellwig, Carsten Fallnich
The phase differences between the transverse modes of an optical fiber can be altered all-optically by intermodal cross-phase modulation. In this Letter, we experimentally demonstrate this effect with ultrashort laser pulses. An ultrashort probe pulse, guided in both modes of a two-mode fiber, is co-propagating and temporally overlapping with an ultrashort control pulse, guided in the fundamental mode only and centered at a separate wavelength. The use of ultrashort pulses allows for a notable phase shift at a 33-fold reduced control pulse energy and a 173-fold reduced fiber length, compared to previous experiments...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Zhaoyang Tai, Lulu Yan, Yanyan Zhang, Xiaofei Zhang, Wenge Guo, Shougang Zhang, Haifeng Jiang
The reduction of the residual amplitude modulation (RAM) induced by electro-optic modulation is essential for many applications of frequency modulation spectroscopy requiring a lower system noise floor. Here, we demonstrate a simple passive approach employing an electro-optic modulator (EOM) cut at Brewster's angle. The proposed EOM exhibits a RAM of a few parts per million, which is comparable with that achieved by a common EOM under critical active temperature and bias voltage controls. The frequency instability of a 10 cm cavity-stabilized laser induced by the RAM effect of the proposed EOM is below 3×10<sup>-17</sup> for integration times from 1 to 1000 s, and below 4×10<sup>-16</sup> for comprehensive noise contributions for integration times from 1 to 100 s...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Joel Carpenter, Benjamin J Eggleton, Jochen Schröder
The ability to measure a scattering medium's optical transfer matrix, the mapping between any spatial input and output, has enabled applications such as imaging to be performed through media which would otherwise be opaque due to scattering. However, the scattering of light occurs not just in space, but also in time. We complete the characterization of scatter by extending optical transfer matrix methods into the time domain, allowing any spatiotemporal input state at one end to be mapped directly to its corresponding spatiotemporal output state...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
A El Amili, M C M M Souza, F Vallini, N C Frateschi, Y Fainman
We experimentally investigate the application of magnetic fluids (MFs) on integrated silicon photonics. Using a ferrofluid-clad silicon microring resonator, we demonstrate active control of resonances by applying an external magnetic field. Relatively high loaded quality factors on the order of 6000 are achieved, despite the optical losses introduced by the magnetic nanoparticles. We demonstrate resonance shifts of 185 pm in response to a 110 Oe strong magnetic field, corresponding to an overall refractive index change of -3...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Brian Z Bentz, Anna G Bowen, Dergan Lin, Daniel Ysselstein, Davin H Huston, Jean-Christophe Rochet, Kevin J Webb
This note points out a number of corrections that were omitted from the published version of the article [Opt. Lett.41, 5230 (2016)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.41.005230].
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Fabio Baronio, Shihua Chen, Miguel Onorato, Stefano Trillo, Stefan Wabnitz, Yuji Kodama
We introduce spatiotemporal optical dark X solitary waves of the (2+1)D hyperbolic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE), which rules wave propagation in a self-focusing and normally dispersive medium. These analytical solutions are derived by exploiting the connection between the NLSE and a well-known equation of hydrodynamics, namely the type II Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP-II) equation. As a result, families of shallow water X soliton solutions of the KP-II equation are mapped into optical dark X solitary wave solutions of the NLSE...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Zun Huang, Evgenii E Narimanov
We propose a method of optical phase retrieval based on the conical refraction imaging in structured media. We show that a multilayered dielectric photonic crystal functioning as a conically refractive flat lens can be used to reconstruct phase information of complex optical signals. Our method enables a single simultaneous measurement of multiple images on the same image plane and allows a rapid stable recovery of the optical phase. The planar geometry of the proposed device is compatible with current nano-fabrication techniques and, therefore, can find broad applications in optical signal processing and imaging...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
A A Lanin, I V Fedotov, Yu G Ermakova, D A Sidorov-Biryukov, A B Fedotov, P Hemmer, V V Belousov, A M Zheltikov
Optically detected electron spin resonance in fiber-coupled nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers of diamond is used to demonstrate a fiber-optic quantum thermometry of individual thermogenetically activated neurons. Laser-induced temperature variations read out from single neurons with the NV-diamond fiber sensor are shown to strongly correlate with the fluorescence of calcium-ion sensors, serving as online indicators of the inward Ca<sup>2+</sup> current across the cell membrane of neurons expressing transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Elijah Dale, Mahmood Bagheri, Andrey B Matsko, Clifford Frez, Wei Liang, Siamak Forouhar, Lute Maleki
We report on the stabilization of a high-power distributed feedback (DFB) semiconductor laser operating at 2.05 μm wavelength, using a crystalline whispering gallery mode microresonator. The laser's frequency noise is measured to be below 100  Hz/Hz<sup>1/2</sup> at Fourier frequencies ranging from 10 Hz to 1 MHz. The instantaneous linewidth of the laser is improved by four orders of magnitude compared with the free-running DFB laser, and is measured to be 15 Hz at 0.1 ms measurement time...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Alberto Sottile, Eugenio Damiano, Mauro Tonelli
We report on, to the best of our knowledge, the first growth, spectroscopy, and laser operation of monocrystalline Ba(Y<sub>0.8</sub>Lu<sub>0.2</sub>)<sub>2</sub>F<sub>8</sub> doped with 1.25 at.% of Pr<sup>3+</sup> ions (Pr:BYLF). We studied the spectroscopic properties of this material, particularly in comparison with its isomorph Pr<sup>3+</sup>: BaY<sub>2</sub>F<sub>8</sub> (Pr:BYF). Under diode-pumped excitation, we achieved continuous-wave laser operation in the orange, red, and deep red regions in the three possible crystal orientations...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
John Canning, Md Arafat Hossain, Chunyang Han, Loic Chartier, Kevin Cook, Tristan Athanaze
The temperature distribution within extrusion nozzles of three low-cost desktop 3D printers is characterized using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to assess their compatibility as micro-furnaces for optical fiber and taper production. These profiles show remarkably consistent distributions suitable for direct drawing of optical fiber. As proof of principle, coreless optical fibers (φ=30  μm) made from fluorinated acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) are drawn...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
V Dvoyrin, M Sumetsky
We propose a new type of broadband and low repetition rate (RR) frequency comb generator that has the shape of an elongated and nanoscale-shallow optical bottle microresonator created at the surface of an optical fiber. The free spectral range (FSR) of the broadband azimuthal eigenfrequency series of this resonator is the exact multiple of the FSR of the dense and narrowband axial series. The effective radius variation of the microresonator is close to a parabola with a nanoscale height that is greater or equal to λ/2πn<sub>0</sub>...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Pooria Hosseini, Amir Abdolvand, Philip St J Russell
We report a novel scheme for the generation of dense clusters of Raman sidebands. The scheme uses a broadband-guiding hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) filled with a mixture of H<sub>2</sub>, D<sub>2</sub>, and Xe for efficient interaction between the gas mixture and a green laser pump pulse (532 nm, 1 ns) of only 5 μJ of energy. This results in the generation from noise of more than 135 rovibrational Raman sidebands covering the visible spectral region with an average spacing of only 2...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
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