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Early Human Development

Margarita Bidegain, Tamara I Herrera, P Brian Smith, C Michael Cotten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 29, 2018: Early Human Development
Sabina Planas, Vicente Andreu-Fernández, Maria Martín, Marta de Castro-Catala, Adriana Bastons-Compta, Oscar García-Algar, Araceli Rosa
BACKGROUND: Dermatoglyphics alterations have been demonstrated to be an effective complement in the diagnosis of developmental disorders and a marker of prenatal stress. Several genetic and environmental factors can modify their morphology. Once defined, dermatoglyphics remain constant throughout life, being considered fossilized markers of the intrauterine development. Variations in bilateral morphological traits within an individual reflect developmental disturbances and can be measured by fluctuating asymmetry...
October 27, 2018: Early Human Development
Kei Tamai, Masahiro Nishihara, Katsuya Hirata, Jun Shiraishi, Shinya Hirano, Masanori Fujimura, Suguru Yano, Tadahiro Kanazawa, Hiroyuki Kitajima
BACKGROUND: The assessment of long-term outcomes in survivors born with extremely low birth weights (ELBWs) has become increasingly important. However, little has been reported on the physical fitness of non-disabled school-aged children born with ELBWs. AIMS: To assess the physical fitness of non-disabled school-aged children born with ELBWs. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: We analyzed 169 ELBW infants without cerebral palsy or intellectual disability (based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) Full Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) test < 70)...
October 27, 2018: Early Human Development
Veena Manja, Haresh Kirpalani, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2018: Early Human Development
Sarah Witt, Almut Weitkämper, Helmut Neumann, Thomas Lücke, Norbert Zmyj
BACKGROUND: Children born preterm are at high risk of developmental delay in various cognitive domains. Moreover, problems in social interaction are more frequently reported in preterm children than in their full-term peers. These difficulties can be observed at two years of age and seem to persist until school age. Although closely linked to social acceptance, remarkably little research has focused on social-cognitive skills such as Theory of Mind in preterm children. AIM: The aim of the current study was to assess Theory-of-Mind development in preterm (n = 34) and full-term (n = 38) children over the course of two years...
October 17, 2018: Early Human Development
Annice H T Kong, Melissa M Lai, Simon Finnigan, Robert S Ware, Roslyn N Boyd, Paul B Colditz
OBJECTIVES: Very preterm infants are at risk of cognitive impairment, but current capacity to predict at-risk infants is sub-optimal. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been used to assess brain function in development. This review investigates the relationship between EEG and cognitive outcomes in very preterm infants. METHODS: Two reviewers independently conducted a literature search in April 2018 using PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science...
October 16, 2018: Early Human Development
Paige Terrien Church, Alice Cavanagh, Shoo K Lee, Vibhuti Shah
BACKGROUND: Little is known of educators' knowledge of the impact of preterm birth on academic achievement and nothing is known of parental perspective of this knowledge. AIMS: To examine the knowledge of the impact of preterm birth on academic achievement amongst Canadian educators, characterize educators' attitudes towards these challenges, and examine parental perspectives of the educational system for their preterm child. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a mixed methods study involving kindergarten to Grade 3 educators and parents of preterm children aged 4-8 years...
October 13, 2018: Early Human Development
Aakash Pandita, Astha Panghal, Girish Gupta, Anup Verma, Anish Pillai, Anita Singh, Kirti Naranje
BACKGROUND: Childhood vaccination is a common procedure and a part of routine medical care during infancy. Although vaccination is the cornerstone for prevention of many infectious diseases, it is associated with significant pain, which is often ignored. Non pharmacological interventions such as breast feeding and kangaroo mother care (KMC) have been used to decrease this procedural pain. However there is paucity of published data on effective use of KMC in term neonates and infants beyond the neonatal age...
October 12, 2018: Early Human Development
Laszlo Markasz, Rashmin C Savani, Gunnar Sedin, Richard Sindelar
INTRODUCTION: Hyaluronan (HA) and the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM) may play an important role in lung development. We examined the expression of HA content and RHAMM during postnatal lung development by analyzing human lung specimens from newborn infants with a variety of lung diseases at different gestational (GA) and postnatal (PNA) ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-four patients were evaluated. Immunohistochemical RHAMM expression was studied with digital image analysis, followed by hierarchical cluster analysis of both these data and clinical data to define subgroups...
October 10, 2018: Early Human Development
Ranniery Acuña-Cordero, Monica P Sossa-Briceño, Carlos E Rodríguez-Martínez
BACKGROUND: There have been few research studies aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the prediction of subsequent respiratory morbidity at follow-up in infants with a previous history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) living in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of hospitalization for acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) in a population of infants with a history of BPD living in a LMIC. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we determined independent predictors of the number of hospitalizations for ALRIs during the first two years of life in a population of infants with a history of BPD living in Bogota, Colombia...
October 9, 2018: Early Human Development
Stefano Ghirardello, Genny Raffaeli, Erica Scalambrino, Veena Chantarangkul, Giacomo Cavallaro, Andrea Artoni, Fabio Mosca, Armando Tripodi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite the potential benefits of thromboelastography (TEG) for bedside hemostatic assessment in critical care settings, its accuracy remains to be determined, especially in critically ill neonates. We determined the intra-assay reproducibility of TEG parameters: Reaction time (R), clot kinetics (K) and Maximum Amplitude (MA) in a cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SUBJECTS: One hundred VLBW newborns...
October 9, 2018: Early Human Development
T M Slusher, L T Day, T Ogundele, N Woolfield, J A Owa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Hye Jeong Choi, Su Kyoung Kang, Mi Ra Chung
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding offers several advantages for infants with research suggesting that it benefits development, including cognitive and language development. However, limited research has examined the benefits in infants under one year. AIMS: To investigate the association between breastfeeding duration and infant development. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal study conducted over 12 months. SUBJECTS: Two hundred fifty-five mothers and their infants living in South Korea were seen at three time-points based on infants' age (4, 6, and 12 months)...
October 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Katherine Sanchez, Angela T Morgan, Justine M Slattery, Joy E Olsen, Katherine J Lee, Peter J Anderson, Deanne K Thompson, Lex W Doyle, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Alicia J Spittle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2018: Early Human Development
Lisa M Walter, Bushra Ahmed, Alexsandria Odoi, Hannah Cooney, Rosemary S C Horne, Flora Y Wong
BACKGROUND: Commonly the magnitude and frequency of bradycardia is underestimated in the neonatal unit due to the long averaging time used in bedside oximeters. We aimed to assess the frequency and severity of bradycardia in preterm infants using the lowest averaging time (2 s) available on a clinical oximeter, compared with bradycardia detected using electrocardiogram (ECG), and whether bradycardia severity and postmenstrual age affected cerebral oxygenation. METHODS: Preterm infants (10 M/9F) were studied longitudinally at 26-31 (very preterm) and 32-38 weeks (late preterm) postmenstrual age...
September 19, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
To date, these WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) Best Practice Guidelines have dealt with various aspects of conducting research and writing it up. The papers in this set will review some practical and material aspects related to paper writing, particularly those pertaining to online resources that may potentially be utilized for research, how to structure a scientific paper using the conventional IMRaD (Introduction - Method - Results - and - Discussion) format, the use of bibliographic software for handling references, and the practicalities of dealing with a pathology lab for research purposes...
September 18, 2018: Early Human Development
Sarah Cuschieri, Victor Grech, Neville Calleja
In the scholarly environment, research findings are disseminated as journal papers which support/dispute extant knowledge or add further to what is already known. The entire manuscript needs to be cited (in-text) and referenced (at the end of article), in order for readers to ascertain the validity of the research claim/s. This must be done in proper and accepted fashion as plagiarism is a serious misdeed and inappropriate referencing mars a paper. Recent advancements in technology have led to the development of bibliographic management software tools...
September 18, 2018: Early Human Development
Sarah Cuschieri
The global contemporary shift from paper-based to digital online resources has led to a revolutionary change in medical training. A multitude of online resources have been developed over the years that complement the medical professional's education, with greater access to knowledge, while enabling continuous medical education and development. These sources also allow us to keep up-to-date with medical news. The development of medical mobile applications (apps) has also facilitated medical training by providing versatility, flexibility and portability of updated medical resources...
September 18, 2018: Early Human Development
Sarah Cuschieri, Victor Grech, Christopher Barbara
The pathology laboratory is the hub of investigatory medical care, and constitutes an invaluable asset for clinical research. A number of disciplines fall under the cap of a pathology laboratory. Researchers may gain access to such services provided ethical and laboratory administrative permissions have been granted. While establishing the research budget it is essential to have a clear understanding of what goes on behind the path lab curtains as this may impinge on what can and cannot be done, financially and otherwise...
September 18, 2018: Early Human Development
Sarah Cuschieri, Victor Grech, Charles Savona-Ventura
Writing and publishing scientific papers have become requisites for all scientists (researchers and academics alike) to maintain their professional career. The prospects of writing a scientific paper are often regarded as somewhat daunting to the uninitiated. However a universal, well established structure format known as "IMRAD": i.e. Introduction, Methods, Results And Discussion has been established. This paper details this methodology.
September 18, 2018: Early Human Development
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