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Early Human Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927753/are-there-any-direct-human-studies-of-digit-ratio-2d-4d-and-measures-of-prenatal-sex-hormones
#1
LETTER
John T Manning, Bernhard Fink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927754/motility-disorders-in-infants
#2
I J N Koppen, M A Benninga, M M J Singendonk
Gastrointestinal motility disorders are common in the pediatric population and may affect the entire gastrointestinal tract and can vary from mild to severe conditions. They may clinically manifest as gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms, feeding difficulties and failure to thrive, constipation and diarrhea amongst others. This review first highlights the embryologic development of the gastrointestinal tract, after which the prenatal and neonatal development of gastrointestinal motility is discussed. Normal motility patterns as seen in (preterm) infants are described as a background for the discussion of the most common congenital and acquired motility disorders in infancy...
September 16, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927573/sex-differences-in-early-life-programming-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-humans
#3
REVIEW
Robert M Gifford, Rebecca M Reynolds
Increasing evidence supports fetal glucocorticoid exposure with associated altered offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity as a key mechanism linking early life events with later life disease. Alterations in HPA axis activity are linked to a range of cardiometabolic and psychiatric diseases. As many of these diseases manifest sex differences in presentation we review the evidence for programmed sex-differences in the HPA axis. Available literature suggests vulnerability of the female HPA axis to prenatal stressors with female offspring demonstrating increased HPA axis reactivity...
September 15, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923772/reference-intervals-of-citrated-native-whole-blood-thromboelastography-in-premature-neonates
#4
Mario Motta, Brunetta Guaragni, Elena Pezzotti, Carmen Rodriguez-Perez, Gaetano Chirico
BACKGROUND: Bleeding due to acquired coagulation disorders is a common complication in premature neonates. In this clinical setting, standard coagulation laboratory tests might be unsuitable to investigate the hemostatic function as they reflect the concentration of pro-coagulant proteins but not of anti-coagulant proteins. Thromboelastography (TEG), providing a more complete assessment of hemostasis, may be able to overcome some of these limitations. Unfortunately, experience on the use of TEG in premature neonates is very limited and, in particular in this population, reference ranges of TEG parameters have not been yet evaluated...
September 15, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919246/filtered-sunlight-solar-powered-phototherapy-and-other-strategies-for-managing-neonatal-jaundice-in-low-resource-settings
#5
Tina M Slusher, Louise Tina Day, Tolulope Ogundele, Nick Woolfield, Joseph Aderinsola Owa
Challenges in treating severe neonatal jaundice in low and middle-income country settings still exist at many levels. These include: a lack of awareness of causes and prevention by families, communities and even sometimes health care professionals; insufficient, ineffective, high quality affordable diagnostic and therapeutic options; limited availability of rehabilitation provision for kernicterus. Collectively these challenges lead to an unacceptably high global morbidity and mortality from severe neonatal jaundice...
September 15, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917583/digit-ratio-2d-4d-and-prenatal-perinatal-sex-hormones-a-response-to-manning-and-fink-2017
#6
LETTER
Gareth Richards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917582/preterm-pre-eclampsia-what-every-neonatologist-should-know
#7
REVIEW
Lisa Story, Lucy C Chappell
Although pre-eclampsia affects 5-10% of pregnancies globally and is responsible for substantial maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, currently there is no cure other than delivery of the baby. Predictive screening tests based on clinical risk factors, with or without the addition of biomarkers and imaging, have been developed, but adoption into clinical practice is limited by suboptimal test performance. Once established pre-eclampsia is diagnosed, a woman is usually managed expectantly prior to 37weeks' gestation to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with iatrogenic prematurity until maternal or fetal triggers for delivery mean that risks of pregnancy prolongation outweigh the benefits...
September 13, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899619/first-do-the-experiment-do-computerised-interpretation-of-cardiotocography-and-other-widely-used-interventions-improve-newborn-outcomes
#8
REVIEW
Philip Steer
The introduction of continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring (EFM) in labour has coincided with a steady and remarkable fall in perinatal mortality. Whether this is cause or coincidence remains unclear because randomised trials have been underpowered. Attempts to improve the sensitivity and specificity of fetal compromise detection using fetal blood sampling and pH measurement, pulse oximetry, and fetal electrocardiogram analysis have failed to provide evidence of additional value in randomised trials...
September 9, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899618/smell-and-taste-in-the-preterm-infant
#9
Frank H Bloomfield, Tanith Alexander, Mariana Muelbert, Friederike Beker
Olfaction and gustation are critical for the enjoyment of food but also have important metabolic roles, initiating the cephalic phase response that sets in train secretion of hormones important for metabolism and digestion before any food is actually ingested. Smell and taste receptors are functional in the fetus and there is evidence for antenatal learning of odours. Despite enteral nutrition and metabolism being major issues in the care of very preterm infants, often little consideration is given to the potential role of smell and taste in supporting these processes, or in the role they may have in encoding hypothalamic circuitry in a way that promotes healthy metabolism in the post‑neonatal period...
September 9, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899617/better-medicines-for-neonates-improving-medicine-development-testing-and-prescribing
#10
Karel Allegaert
Pharmacotherapy is a powerful tool to improve the outcome of neonates. Unfortunately, the potential health impact of pharmacotherapy in neonates remains underexplored. This necessitates a structured approach to go beyond the current practice of trial and error, reflected in off-label prescription. The existing regulatory framework hereby provides a structure to reflect about aspects like pharmacokinetic models for dose selection and outcome assessment, including long-term safety. Future medicine development should also be driven by neonatal needs, diseases and pathophysiology, since surfactant is the latest product developed for preterm neonates...
September 9, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899616/risk-factors-for-dental-problems-recommendations-for-oral-health-in-infancy
#11
REVIEW
Yvonne Wagner, Roswitha Heinrich-Weltzien
Primary care providers, gynaecologists and paediatricians have to be aware of the importance of oral health in infancy and possible consequences for child's development, growth, health and quality of life. Oral diseases, particularly dental caries, developmental defects of the dental tissues and periodontal or orthodontic issues have a complex and interrelated aetiology with common, primarily behavioral based risk factors. A sugar-rich diet is the key risk factor with detrimental consequences for general and oral health, particularly in combination with an insufficient oral hygiene...
September 9, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898707/the-effect-of-prenatal-substance-use-and-maternal-contingent-responsiveness-on-infant-affect
#12
Jean Lowe, Fares Qeadan, Lawrence Leeman, Shikhar Shrestha, Julia M Stephen, Ludmila N Bakhireva
BACKGROUND: The effects of prenatal substance exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes are inherently confounded by the effects of the postnatal environment, making it difficult to disentangle their influence. The goal of this study was to examine the contributing effects of prenatal substance use and parenting style (operationalized as contingent responding during the play episodes of the Still-face paradigm [SFP]) on infant affect. METHODS: A prospective cohort design was utilized with repeated assessment of substance use during pregnancy and the administration of the SFP, which measures infant response to a social stressor, at approximately 6months of age...
September 9, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892739/maturation-of-arousals-during-day-and-night-in-infants-with-non-smoking-and-smoking-mothers
#13
Barbara Gillioen, Sabine Plancoulaine, Enza Montemitro, Sophie Flori, Jian-Sheng Lin, Aurore Guyon, Camille Stagnara, Flora Bat-Pitault, Hugues Patural, Marie-Paule Gustin, Patricia Franco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890146/knitted-octopuses-inside-the-incubators-a-non-evidence-based-viral-practice
#14
LETTER
Adriana Bastons-Compta, Marta Astals, Erika Sánchez, Oscar Garcia-Algar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889037/gender-specific-evolution-of-fetal-heart-rate-variability-throughout-gestation-a-study-of-8823-cases
#15
Hernâni Gonçalves, Célia Amorim-Costa, Diogo Ayres-de-Campos, João Bernardes
BACKGROUND: Fetal heart rate (FHR) variability throughout gestation reflects aspects of fetal development, and its analysis has been used for the assessment of fetal well-being. AIM: The objective of this study was to provide a gender-specific analysis of the evolution of FHR variability indices throughout gestation, using linear time-domain, spectral and nonlinear FHR indices. STUDY DESIGN: A large retrospective study was carried out using antepartum FHR recordings obtained from 4713 male and 4110 female fetuses, with normal pregnancy outcome, between 2004 and 2013, with gestational ages ranging between 25 and 40weeks...
September 7, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886572/myristic-acid-in-amniotic-fluid-produces-appetitive-responses-in-human-newborns
#16
Ana G Gutiérrez-García, Carlos M Contreras, Cynthia Díaz-Marte
BACKGROUND: A mixture of eight fatty acids (lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, elaidic acid, and linoleic acid) that are contained in human amniotic fluid, colostrum, and milk produces appetitive responses in newborns, suggesting the existence of a transition of sensorial cues that guide newborns to the maternal breast. OBJECTIVE: To explore the ability of each of these eight fatty acids individually to produce appetitive responses in newborns...
September 5, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869923/infant-maternal-and-familial-predictors-and-correlates-of-regulatory-problems-in-early-infancy-the-differential-role-of-infant-temperament-and-maternal-anxiety-and-depression
#17
Julia Martini, Johanna Petzoldt, Susanne Knappe, Susan Garthus-Niegel, Eva Asselmann, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
BACKGROUND: Excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems are likely to emerge from the complex interplay of various factors. AIMS: To investigate the role of infant (e.g., temperament), maternal (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders), and familial (e.g., social support) factors as potential precursors of infant regulatory problems. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective-longitudinal study. SUBJECTS: 286 mother-infant dyads were investigated from early pregnancy until 16 months postpartum via questionnaires and interviews...
September 1, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843138/usefulness-of-the-infant-driven-scale-in-the-early-identification-of-preterm-infants-at-risk-for-delayed-oral-feeding-independency
#18
Maria Lorella Giannì, Patrizio Sannino, Elena Bezze, Laura Plevani, Chiara Esposito, Salvatore Muscolo, Paola Roggero, Fabio Mosca
BACKGROUND: Very preterm infants frequently experience difficulties in achieving feeding independency. The availability of feeding assessment instruments has been recommended to evaluate an infant's readiness for oral feeding and enable preterm infants' caregivers to document each infant's feeding readiness and advancements. AIMS: To investigate the implementation of the Infant Driven Scale in neonatal intensive care units and to identify a cut off value associated with delayed feeding independency...
August 23, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843137/fake-news-of-baby-booms-9months-after-major-sporting-events-distorts-the-public-s-understanding-of-early-human-development-science
#19
Victor Grech, Gwinyai Masukume
INTRODUCTION: In France on 27/6/16, Iceland's men's national football team won 2-1, knocking England out of the UEFA European Championship. RESULT: Nine months after this momentous Icelandic victory, Ásgeir Pétur Þorvaldsson a medical doctor in Iceland, posted a tweet in jest suggesting that a baby boom had occurred as a result of increased celebratory coital activity following the win. The media covered this widely but statistical analysis shows otherwise and this was confirmed by the original tweet source...
August 23, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822870/maternal-obesity-and-attention-related-symptoms-in-the-preterm-offspring
#20
Jelske W van der Burg, Elizabeth T Jensen, Margot van de Bor, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O'Shea, Karl Kuban, Elizabeth N Allred, Megan Scott, Scott Hunter, Stephen R Hooper, Olaf Dammann, Alan Leviton
BACKGROUND: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, in term-born children, is associated with an increased risk of attention problems, however this relationship has not been explored among children born extremely preterm. AIM: To estimate the risk of attention problems at age 10years in children born very preterm to overweight (i.e., body mass index (BMI) 25-29kg/m(2)) and obese (i.e., BMI≥30kg/m(2)) women relative to the risk among children born to women who were neither overweight nor obese (i...
August 17, 2017: Early Human Development
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