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Early Human Development

Katrina M Moss, Gabrielle Simcock, Vanessa E Cobham, Sue Kildea, David P Laplante, Suzanne King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Early Human Development
Amihood Singer, Idit Maya, Arie Koifman, Nadra Nasser Samra, Hagit N Baris, Tzipora Falik-Zaccai, Shay Ben Shachar, Lena Sagi-Dain
INTRODUCTION: Fetal echogenic bowel is a frequent sonographic finding, demonstrated in about 1% of pregnancies. The advised evaluation of fetal echogenic bowel includes maternal serology, genetic testing for cystic fibrosis, detailed sonographic anatomic survey, and invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal aberrations. The objective of our study was to evaluate the risk for clinically significant chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) findings in pregnancies with isolated echogenic bowel...
March 6, 2018: Early Human Development
S Nadya J Kazzi, Sreenivas Karnati, Subhash Puthuraya, Ronald Thomas
BACKGROUND: Very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) have unexplained variation in respiratory morbidity, including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We examined a potential association to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25OHD) on day one. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, observational study on 89 VLBWI (≤1250 g). S-25OHD (day one and 21) and respiratory severity score (RSS) (day one) were examined. Other respiratory morbidities including BPD were compared between infants with s-25OHD ≤ 10 ng/ml (deficient) versus >10 ng/ml (adequate)...
March 5, 2018: Early Human Development
Arpitha Chiruvolu, Elise Elliott, Diana Rich, Genna Leal Stone, Huanying Qin, Robert W Inzer
BACKGROUND: In the range of timing suggested by American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 30 to 60 s, preterm infants may potentially derive more short and long-term benefits with delayed cord clamping (DCC) for at least 60 s. However, there are concerns with longer resuscitation delay in this vulnerable population. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical consequences of 45 versus 60 s delay in umbilical cord clamping in singleton infants born between 230/7 to 316/7 weeks gestation...
March 5, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) may be required by researchers as an inferential statistical test when more than two means require comparison. This paper explains how to perform ANOVA in Microsoft Excel.
March 3, 2018: Early Human Development
K M Boone, B Gracious, M Klebanoff, L K Rogers, J Rausch, D L Coury, S A Keim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Early Human Development
Lina Chalak, Samantha Latremouille, Imran Mir, Pablo J Sánchez, Guilherme Sant'Anna
A review of the conundrum called mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is provided. During the past decades, the definition of HIE has evolved to accommodate the short window of time required for the initiation of therapeutic hypothermia. Also, neurological evaluations have changed with the use of simpler staging systems that can be applied within the first 6 h of life. In this review, we discuss the challenges in the identification of newborns with "mild HIE" within 6 h after birth, the limitations in the existing early biomarkers of brain injury, and the current knowledge gaps in the long term neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants diagnosed with mild HIE...
March 2, 2018: Early Human Development
Kim M J Verdurmen, Guy J J Warmerdam, Carlijn Lempersz, Alexandra D J Hulsenboom, Joris Renckens, Jeanne P Dieleman, Rik Vullings, Judith O E H van Laar, S Guid Oei
BACKGROUND: Betamethasone is widely used to enhance fetal lung maturation in case of threatened preterm labour. Fetal heart rate variability is one of the most important parameters to assess in fetal monitoring, since it is a reliable indicator for fetal distress. AIM: To describe the effect of betamethasone on fetal heart rate variability, by applying spectral analysis on non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram recordings. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...
March 2, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
Contingency tables may be required to perform chi-test analyses. This provides pointers as to how to do this in Microsoft Excel and explains how to set up methods to calculate confidence intervals for proportions, including proportions with zero numerators.
March 1, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
t-Testing is a common component of inferential statistics when comparing two means. This paper explains the central limit theorem and the concept of the null hypothesis as well as types of errors. On the practical side, this paper outlines how different t-tests may be performed in Microsoft Excel, for different purposes, both statically as well as dynamically, with Excel's functions.
February 28, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
Carrying out research beyond that which is required by one's work/academic obligations, and teaching and training others so that one can be replaced or even surpassed, are both metamotivational. The Write a Scientific Paper (WASP) course provides a metamotivational outlet for senior academics to impart their collective experiences to WASP delegates in this crucial aspect of career progress.
February 27, 2018: Early Human Development
Sarah Cuschieri
Academics have a duty towards peers and scholars alike to engage in research work and to publish their findings. This also assists in establishing personal academic success as well as the attainment of research grants. In the past, authors used to publish their research articles for free but access to these articles was restricted to subscription users only. Recently, open access publishing has gained momentum, whereby such articles are made freely accessible online. However open access publishing comes with a price tag for the author through article processing charges...
February 27, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
The calculation of descriptive statistics after data collection provides researchers with an overview of the shape and nature of their datasets, along with basic descriptors, and may help identify true or incorrect outlier values. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics, when possible. This paper provides some pointers for doing so in Microsoft Excel, both statically and dynamically, with Excel's functions, including the calculation of standard deviation and variance and the relevance of the t-distribution...
February 26, 2018: Early Human Development
J M Conway, B H Walsh, G B Boylan, D M Murray
AIMS: Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains a significant cause of long term neurodisability despite therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Infants with mild HIE, representing 50% of those with HIE, are perceived as low risk and are currently not eligible for TH [1]. This review examines the available evidence of outcome in term infants with mild HIE. METHODS: Medline, Embase and Cochrane Clinical Trials databases were searched in March 2017. Studies with well-defined HIE grading at birth and standardised neurodevelopmental assessment at ≥18 months were included...
February 26, 2018: Early Human Development
Anna Eichler, Hartmut Heinrich, Gunther H Moll, Matthias W Beckmann, Tamme W Goecke, Peter A Fasching, Marcel-René Muschler, Polyxeni Bouna-Pyrrou, Bernd Lenz, Johannes Kornhuber
The second-to-forth digit length ratio (2D:4D) is considered to be a biomarker for intrauterine androgen levels. It is associated with adult and child mental health problems, primarily with behavioral symptoms and predominantly in males. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined whether 2D:4D was associated with conduct disorder (CD) symptoms in 138 primary-school aged children (54% boys, Mage  = 7.70 years) and considered child sex as a moderating factor. Children's digit lengths were measured from hand scans and mothers rated the behavioral/emotional symptoms of their child...
February 24, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
The almost inevitable descriptive statistics exercise that is undergone once data collection is complete, prior to inferential statistics, requires the acquisition of basic descriptors which may include standard deviation and quartiles. This paper provides pointers as to how to do this in Microsoft Excel™ and explains the relationship between the two.
February 23, 2018: Early Human Development
Ting Li, Lu Wu, Yujie Wang, Rongying Yao, Yanqiu Meng, Yifei Zhang, Zhiqiang Li, Yanni Zhou, Hui Han, Lianguo Fu
BACKGROUND: The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is a marker of prenatal hormone exposure, which is negatively correlated with prenatal androgen and positively correlated with prenatal estrogen. The study was to analyze the association between 2D:4D and the first spermatorrhea to indirectly show the possible role of prenatal hormone during puberty development among boys. METHOD: The total of 367 boys aged 8-15 years were enrolled by using the stratified cluster sampling method...
February 23, 2018: Early Human Development
Cathryn Crowle, Claire Galea, Karen Walker, Iona Novak, Nadia Badawi
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence indicates neonatal surgery is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disability, including cerebral palsy (CP). Despite evidence for prediction of CP there is limited information on use of the General Movements Assessment (GMA) with this population. AIM: To investigate the utility of the GMA for prediction of neurodevelopment in an infant surgical population. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study Subjects: 278 infants following cardiac surgery (n = 149), non-cardiac surgery (n = 123) or both surgeries (n = 6)...
February 22, 2018: Early Human Development
Tara DuPont, Lina Chalak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: Early Human Development
Brian H Walsh, Terrie E Inder
Historically, there has been limited neuro-imaging data acquired on infants with mild neonatal encephalopathy (NE). This likely reflects the traditional assumption that these infants had a universally good prognosis. As new evidence has emerged challenging this assumption, there has been a renewed interest in the neuro-imaging findings of these infants. To date, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in infants with mild NE have demonstrated abnormalities in 20-40% of cases suggestive that the injury occurs during the peripartum period with a predominant watershed pattern of injury...
February 17, 2018: Early Human Development
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