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Early Human Development

Morgan R Chojnacki, Hannah D Holscher, Alaina R Balbinot, Lauren B Raine, John R Biggan, Anne M Walk, Arthur F Kramer, Neal J Cohen, Charles H Hillman, Naiman A Khan
BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery (CS) is an increasingly common mode of delivery comprising over 30% of all deliveries in the U.S. The long-term impact of this delivery mode on child development remains unclear. AIMS: We investigated the relationship between mode of delivery (vaginal vs. CS) and timing of developmental milestones and adiposity in preadolescence, as well as additional milestones beyond motor/language development including toilet training, dressing, and feeding self...
January 11, 2019: Early Human Development
Katie A Hunt, Rebecca Ling, Marie White, Kamal K Ali, Theodore Dassios, Anthony D Milner, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: Sustained inflations at initial stabilisation in the delivery suite may reduce the need for intubation and result in a shorter duration of initial ventilation, but have not been compared to routine UK practice. AIMS: To compare the early efficacy of sustained inflation during stabilisation after delivery to UK practice. STUDY DESIGN: A randomised trial was performed of a fifteen second sustained inflation compared to five inflations lasting 2 to 3 s, each intervention could be repeated once if no chest rise was apparent...
January 11, 2019: Early Human Development
Anette Aija, Liis Toome, Anna Axelin, Simo Raiskila, Liisa Lehtonen
BACKGROUND: Parents' involvement during hospital care is beneficial for preterm infants and their parents. Although parents are encouraged to be present in many neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), little is known about their role during medical rounds. AIMS: To study parents' presence in the NICU, the degree of parents' participation during medical rounds, and to identify underlying factors for participation. STUDY DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: A prospective study was performed in 11 neonatal units in six European countries including parents of preterm infants born before 35 gestational weeks...
January 10, 2019: Early Human Development
Carla-Sophie Bultmann, Thorsten Orlikowsky, Martin Häusler, Sonja Trepels-Kottek, Catherine Disselhorst-Klug, Mark Schoberer
BACKGROUND: Moderate preterm infants (MPI) and late preterm infants (LPI) account for the majority of children born preterm. Up to 5% of MPI and LPI are estimated to manifest neurodevelopmental impairments. However, information about normal early motor development in these patients is lacking. AIM: To find characteristic patterns for motor development in the first four months of life among MPI and LPI without risk factors for developmental impairment by using accelerometry of spontaneous movements...
January 10, 2019: Early Human Development
Regula Everts, Corina G Schöne, Ines Mürner-Lavanchy, Maja Steinlin
Preterm-born individuals are at risk for poorer executive functions. Longitudinal studies investigating whether preterm-born individuals present persistent cognitive deficits, or a transient delay of development are scarce. We assessed developmental trajectories of executive functions (inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility) in 29 very preterm-born individuals (<32 weeks' gestation) and 25 term-born controls longitudinally over two time points, namely in childhood (7-12 years of age, TP1) and adolescence (13-16 years of age, TP2)...
January 10, 2019: Early Human Development
Machiel Drenth Olivares, Derk B Kuiper, Maaike L Haadsma, Kirsten R Heineman, Maas Jan Heineman, Mijna Hadders-Algra
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is not associated with neurological abnormalities in offspring's early childhood. Yet, it is unclear whether this is also true for school age. Neither do we know the role of parental subfertility in offspring's neurological development. The present study examined neurological condition at 9 years of 57 singletons born after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF (COH-IVF), 46 singletons born after modified natural cycle IVF (MNC-IVF) and 66 singletons born to subfertile parents after natural conception (Sub-NC)...
January 9, 2019: Early Human Development
Avi Harlev, Tamar Wainstock, Asnat Walfisch, Daniella Landau, Eyal Sheiner
BACKGROUND: Uterine fibroids are a common morbidity in women and its prevalence is increasing with age. As maternal age rises, fibroids become more prevalent during pregnancy. AIM: To assess perinatal outcome and long-term health of children to mothers with uterine fibroids during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cohort analysis assessing long-term hospitalizations of offspring, up to the age of 18 years, due to gastrointestinal, neurological, cardiovascular, endocrine, and respiratory morbidity, following pregnancies diagnosed with and without a fibroid uterus...
January 9, 2019: Early Human Development
Collin T Erickson, Philip T Levy, Mary Craft, Ling Li, David A Danford, Shelby Kutty
AIM: To test the hypothesis that right ventricular (RV) function has age-specific patterns of development, we tracked the evolution of RV strain mechanics by 2D-speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) in healthy subjects from mid-gestation through one year of age. METHODS: We conducted a prospective longitudinal echocardiography study in 50 healthy subjects at five time periods across gestation (16-20 weeks, 21-25 weeks, 26-30 weeks, 31-35 weeks, and 36-40 weeks) and four time periods following delivery (1 week, 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year of age)...
January 3, 2019: Early Human Development
Karianne E Kraft, Suzanne E Verhage, Anne E den Heijer, Arend F Bos
BACKGROUND: Surviving preterm born children, postnatally exposed to high doses of dexamethasone, show an increased risk of neurodevelopmental impairments. Regarding treatment with low doses of dexamethasone, no data exist on outcomes at school age. AIM: To assess the functional outcome at school age of preterm-born children treated with low-dose dexamethasone. STUDY DESIGN: In this cohort study, twenty-seven very preterm-born infants treated with dexamethasone from eight days after birth, underwent neuropsychological assessments at age 6-13 years...
December 28, 2018: Early Human Development
Sarit van Veen, Aleid G van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Anton H van Kaam, Jaap Oosterlaan, Cornelieke S H Aarnoudse-Moens
BACKGROUND: Already in preschool, very preterm (VP) children perform worse than term born-children on preschool mathematical skills tests. Strong associations have been found between preschool mathematical skills, cognition and visual-motor integration. AIMS: To compare VP children and their term-born peers on preschool mathematical achievement at the corrected age of five years, and determine whether cognitive, visual-perceptive, visual-motor, and motor-coordination skills, account for any significant differences observed...
December 27, 2018: Early Human Development
Anna Maria Lavezzi, Beatrice Paradiso, Teresa Pusiol, Francesco Piscioli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 24, 2018: Early Human Development
Laura Gardon, Odoardo Picciolini, Chiara Squarza, Andrea Frigerio, Maria Lorella Giannì, Silvana Gangi, Monica Fumagalli, Fabio Mosca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2018: Early Human Development
Chun Hong, Hua Deng, Mi Li, Wei-Ping Zhou, Jing Tang, Bo Xia, Gang Yu, Liang Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM), especially type-III, shares similar sonographic features with congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) in routine ultrasound scan. Thus, prenatal differentiation of CLE from a microcystic CCAM is challenging and difficult in practice. Discovery of molecular biomarkers has important clinical significance. METHODS: We profiled gene expression in lung tissue from four CCAM type-III and five CLE subjects by microarray...
December 21, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
Interdisciplinarity, the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity, is generally encouraged, but there are many pitfalls in the path of the would-be interdisciplinarian. Science fiction, has repeatedly warned of indulgence in super-specialization. This paper will review the genre's depiction of some protagonists who have reified the interdisciplinary paradigm within science fiction, and some lessons that may be learned from these narratives.
December 20, 2018: Early Human Development
Sarah Cuschieri, Josanne Vassallo
Publishing scholarly work is a requisite in academia. Identifying a suitable journal for a particular paper can be difficult. Authors need to initially establish whether they want to publish in a subscription-based or an open access journal, which requires a clear understanding of the pros and cons of both options as well as issues relating to copyright licences. Establishing specific journal selection criteria ranging from whether to publish in a general or a specialised journal to the publication frequency of the journal is essential...
December 20, 2018: Early Human Development
Sarah Cuschieri, Josanne Vassallo
Once an author/s submits a manuscript to a journal, editorial and review processes are initiated which will determine acceptance or rejection of a manuscript. Understanding the editor's perspective and role enables authors to appreciate the factors that can ensure that the submitted manuscript meets the editor's expectations. This increases the chances that the manuscript passes the initial scrutiny and is forwarded for peer review. The reviewers' comments and recommendations make or break the manuscript and will take the form of comments for the authors as well as confidential recommendations to the Editor...
December 18, 2018: Early Human Development
Erin A Plummer, Qi Wang, Catherine M Larson-Nath, Johannah M Scheurer, Sara E Ramel
BACKGROUND: Children with congenital gastrointestinal anomalies (CGIAs) experience multiple stressors while hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units during an essential time of growth and development. Early stress and inadequate nutrition are linked to altered growth patterns and later neurodevelopmental delays. In other at-risk populations, improved fat-free mass (FFM) accretion is associated with improved cognitive outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine if body composition is associated with cognitive function in preschool-age children with CGIAs...
December 15, 2018: Early Human Development
Ludmila N Bakhireva, Bradley D Holbrook, Shikhar Shrestha, Yuridia Leyva, Malia Ashley, Sandra Cano, Jean Lowe, Julia M Stephen, Lawrence Leeman
BACKGROUND: While use of prescription opioids and medication assisted therapy (MAT) for opioid use disorder in pregnancy, as well as the incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) continue to rise, little is known about outcomes for children with NOWS beyond the newborn period. METHODS: We examined 1) prenatal MAT exposure vs. unexposed healthy controls [HC]; and 2) treatment for NOWS and NOWS severity on infant neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes at 5-8 months of age in 78 maternal-infant pairs from the ENRICH prospective cohort study...
December 13, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
As an experienced writer, one is often asked the question "what can I publish" by younger and inexperienced colleagues who must publish. This paper will briefly review the reasons why academics publish and will then outline what kind of papers one may be able to publish with relative ease, using personal experience and citing first hand material as a practical guide. Potential authors must cultivate "a lean and hungry look" as competition from fellow writers is stiff, and editors are choosy...
December 10, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
Academics may deliberately hoax colleagues with false research, so as to forcibly and dramatically make a particular point. Moreover, false research may a process of deliberate and outright fraud. This paper will review a few examples as cautionary tales for academics and researchers. While it may seem amusing and clever to entrap colleagues in a hoax, the repercussions may have chronic and unintended consequences. Outright fraud may result in short term gain but will almost inevitably, quite simply, lead to the destruction of one's career, along with the potential for exposure to criminal charges...
December 10, 2018: Early Human Development
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