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Early Human Development

Misao Fukuda, Kiyomi Fukuda, Shawn Mason, Takashi Shimizu, Claus Yding Andersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 26, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
The presentation of scientific work resembles popular media narratives far more than it does the traditional paper writing that scientists are trained in. In the former, a good 'hook' is essential so as to hang a paper that is presented as a slide show, an abstract, a poster or text directly addressed to the media, and this hook must be obvious and apparent up front. A slight element of truthful sensationalism is therefore often helpful. This set of Best Practice Guidelines will offer factual and practical guidelines with regard to preparing research in these formats since self-presentation is essential for career progression...
June 21, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
A poster is a visual communication tool, but crucially, it is absolutely not a research paper directly transposed onto a board. It shows the results of research but it does not explain in detail in the way that a conventional paper does. This paper will explain how poster creation accedes to newspaper article writing theory, while adhering to the IMRAD (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) format.
June 21, 2018: Early Human Development
Sarah Cuschieri, Victor Grech, Charles Savona-Ventura
Writing for the media is a task faced by many professionals at some point during their academic or clinical life. The style and purpose of writing for the media is strikingly different from that of an academic manuscript. When writing for the media, the author presents information and persuades the mass audience about a particular topic or issue. The author needs to bear in mind that information sent out to the media will make today's story but will be yesterday's news, so time is of the essence. The format of newswriting follows an inverted pyramid structure with the most important message taking center stage at the beginning of the article followed by any additional messages...
June 20, 2018: Early Human Development
V Giordano, P Deindl, R Fuiko, L Unterasinger, T Waldhoer, F Cardona, A Berger, M Olischar
BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend the use of item based scales for the assessment of pain and sedation. In our previous study, the implementation of the Neonatal Pain Agitation and Sedation Scale (N-PASS), and the associated systematic assessment and treatment of pain and sedation reduced pain and over-sedation in our intervention group, but lead to a significant increase of individual opiate exposure. This increased opiate exposure was not associated with impaired motor and mental development at one year of age...
June 20, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
An abstract is typically prepared as a preface to a paper or as a submission to an event, such as a conference, so as to have research work presented as an oral presentation or as a poster. The principles are identical. Abstracts are always restricted by a word count, typically circa 250 words, so the maximum of economy is needed to convey result/s. The tenets to be borne in mind are therefore brevity, clarity, simplicity and parsimony. This paper provides some pointers and guidelines.
June 19, 2018: Early Human Development
Grech Victor
Slide show presentations have become integral to the workplace, and PowerPoint is ubiquitous since it ships with the Microsoft Office Suite. However, the increasing sophistication of such software may encourage presenters to privilege form over content. It is possible to apply scientific research from Educational Psychology to slide shows so as to not only avoid this fate but also to optimise presentations. This paper applies several Educational Psychology concepts to PowerPoint, most notably those of Mayer's Multimedia Learning Theory, and will emphasise and demonstrate that the quality of a presentation is dependent on the quality, relevance, and integrity of its content...
June 18, 2018: Early Human Development
Eva Asselmann, John Venz, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Julia Martini
BACKGROUND: Few studies prospectively examined the role of maternal anxiety and depressive disorders for early infant psychosocial stress responsivity. AIMS: To investigate the role of lifetime maternal anxiety and depressive disorders for various early infant interaction behaviors during the Face-to-Face Still Face Paradigm (FFSFP) at 4 months postpartum. STUDY DESIGN/SUBJECTS: Prospective-longitudinal study among n = 251 mothers (and their infants) from early pregnancy until 4 months postpartum...
June 11, 2018: Early Human Development
William H James, Victor Grech
Humans infected with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii display a wide variety of abnormal behaviours, from suicide and depression to stuttering. These behaviours have been seen as so serious as to constitute a public health problem. It is not clear to what extent the parasite is a cause of, or merely a marker for, these behaviours, but there is evidence for both. Some of these behaviours are associated with changes in steroid hormones, that is, estrogen in women and testosterone in men. It is suggested here that these endocrine-related states of infected people may be better understood by studying their offspring sex ratios...
June 7, 2018: Early Human Development
Pierre Mallia
Past experience in science has thought us the importance of ethics in research. Research is important to the advancement of medicine and therefore good clinical practice in research maintains public trust which otherwise is not only lost but may cause science to seem negative. The rights of participants in the research trial are discussed. This includes knowledge and information about the research itself, the obligations of the researchers and the rights of participants during the research. The EU Directive on Good Clinical Practice in research trials is reviewed, including the twelve principles of the directive...
June 4, 2018: Early Human Development
Agnieszka Żelaźniewicz, Bogusław Pawłowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2018: Early Human Development
Aakash Pandita, Nehit Kumar Choudhary, Girish Gupta, Kirti Naranje, Anita Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech, E V Grech, Jason T Eberl
Doctors in Star Trek are vital and central characters, often crucial in helping their captains to reach command decisions. They are also interdisciplinarians, performing not only medical tasks but also any form of work related to all fields of biology. Furthermore, these doctors also carry out any required research that pertains to the biological sciences. It is perhaps this unique blend of skills, combined with a fundamental orientation towards humanism and compassion, that leads to their default position, de facto, if not de jure, as the crew's ethics officers, a role that they embrace with as much dedication and zeal as the former Soviet communist political officers/commissars (the Zampolit) did theirs...
May 10, 2018: Early Human Development
Pierre Mallia
The data protection directive of the EU was set up to allow the freedom of movement of people between member states. This has the consequence of allowing the freedom of transfer of data between member states in research. The paper discusses three cases discussed during the project to see whether RECs can refuse research based on concern for data protection in some member states. Since the directive is not, as commonly thought, intended to protect the rights and freedoms of individuals - something which is the function of the Data Protection Acts of individual states, Member States do not have a right to prohibit research based on data laws...
May 9, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
Spreadsheet analysis software allows easy data management, as has been shown by the WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) sets of papers in these Best Practice Guidelines (BGP) in the previous issues. However, commonly available spreadsheet software, such as Excel, is weaker on the more advanced statistical techniques. Potential alternatives include the creation of custom macros, the utilisation of an Excel add-in, or using a standard, stand-alone, dedicated statistics package. This does not imply that Excel need be abandoned...
May 8, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
Medical ethics and related topics such as data protection are often viewed as extraneous encumberments by researchers. However these fields provide guidelines for correct conduct and are mostly common sense. This Best Practice Guideline collection will focus on various related aspects pertaining to ethics in publication, and this paper will outline the key points in each of these papers in the collection.
May 4, 2018: Early Human Development
Pierre Mallia
The recruitment of patients must occur in accordance with approved standards. Speaking to a patient during a routine clinical consultation and offering to participate in a research, even if consented to, can only be an introduction to the recruitment process. The potential participant must then be referred to a competent person who explains the reasons for the research, why the patient is a good candidate, what the requirements from the participant will be, such as any additional visits and blood samples to be taken, how long the research will last, any compensation and what type of research is to be undertaken, such as a double blind-controlled trial and what it means...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Josanne Vassallo
This paper aims to define and discuss the various forms and degrees of plagiarism. The potential consequences of this particular form of scientific misconduct will be highlighted. The overarching principles in ensuring adherence to research and work ethics are reviewed and the necessity for honesty, objectivity, integrity, respect for intellectual property, confidentiality as well as responsible publication emphasised. The "Publish or Perish" mantra has led to an increasing need for an understanding of the responsibilities related to authorship, acknowledgments and what these encompass...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Pierre Mallia
Research Ethics Committees are composed of a minimum of five members which include a lay person, a member from a different institution and at least another three members which should be versed in ethics. Legal and expert advisors can be sought by the committee. The REC will require a detailed protocol from the researcher including the curriculum of the principal investigator and all other researchers under him/her. The protocol should include all details of the research to be undertaken including a detailed description, the reasons for the research, literature pertaining to the research, a clear description of the target population, the actual consent form including what information is to be given to the participants, a declaration where necessary that things prohibited by the law (such as use of embryonic stem cells if this is the case in the country [2] will not be researchers, and a declaration that the relevant directives and rules and procedures which the REC falls under will be followed...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Pierre Mallia
The autonomy of patients participating in research means that a proper informed consent process must take place. This means that information must be given according to a reasonable person standard implying what legally and ethical a reasonable person participating in the research would want to know. The research must assure that the patient has understood all the information given and that a voluntary choice has been made. This means that no form of coercion must take place and that information must not be manipulated in such a way as to influence the participant...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
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