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Early Human Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775884/social-emotional-development-in-very-preterm-infants-during-early-infancy
#1
Peter H Gray, Dawn M Edwards, Ian P Hughes, Margo Pritchard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754023/closure-time-of-ductus-arteriosus-after-birth-based-on-survival-analysis
#2
Satoru Iwashima, Eichirou Satake, Hiroki Uchiyama, Keigo Seki, Takamichi Ishikawa
OBJECTIVES: The correct ductus arteriosus (DA) closure time is somewhere between the opening and closing time confirmed on echo, not on examination. We investigated DA closure time and factors affecting DA closure time using interval censoring analysis. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective study including 2611 healthy neonates. Echo was performed every 12-24 h after birth until DA closure. We investigated the DA closure time using interval censoring analysis...
May 10, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753537/wasp-write-a-scientific-paper-the-right-to-privacy
#3
Pierre Mallia
The data protection directive of the EU was set up to allow the freedom of movement of people between member states. This has the consequence of allowing the freedom of transfer of data between member states in research. The paper discusses three cases discussed during the project to see whether RECs can refuse research based on concern for data protection in some member states. Since the directive is not, as commonly thought, intended to protect the rights and freedoms of individuals - something which is the function of the Data Protection Acts of individual states, Member States do not have a right to prohibit research based on data laws...
May 9, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753536/wasp-write-a-scientific-paper-doctors-in-star-trek-correctly-compassionate-caring-kantian-zampolit
#4
Victor Grech, Elizabeth Grech, Jason T Eberl
Doctors in Star Trek are vital and central characters, often crucial in helping their captains to reach command decisions. They are also interdisciplinarians, performing not only medical tasks but also any form of work related to all fields of biology. Furthermore, these doctors also carry out any required research that pertains to the biological sciences. It is perhaps this unique blend of skills, combined with a fundamental orientation towards humanism and compassion, that leads to their default position, de facto, if not de jure, as the crew's ethics officers, a role that they embrace with as much dedication and zeal as the former Soviet communist political officers/commissars (the Zampolit) did theirs...
May 9, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685578/wasp-write-a-scientific-paper-advanced-statistical-analyses
#5
Victor Grech
Spreadsheet analysis software allows easy data management, as has been shown by the WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) sets of papers in these Best Practice Guidelines (BGP) in the previous issues. However, commonly available spreadsheet software, such as Excel, is weaker on the more advanced statistical techniques. Potential alternatives include the creation of custom macros, the utilisation of an Excel add-in, or using a standard, stand-alone, dedicated statistics package. This does not imply that Excel need be abandoned...
May 8, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747156/maternal-areola-ph-a-chemical-basis-for-mother-infant-recognition
#6
Vincenzo Zanardo, Francesca Volpe, Matteo Parotto, Lara Giliberti, Alphonse Simbi, Lorenzo Severino, Gianluca Straface
BACKGROUND: The human female's areolar region is the point of arrival of a natural progression from birth to breastfeeding continuum, supported by numerous functional features. AIMS: The aim of this study was to look more closely into the areola' skin chemical signals that are uniquely important for mother-infant chemoemission, chemoreception, and breastfeeding continuum. STUDY DESIGN: A dermatological study of the areolae and corresponding breast quadrants was undertaken on 71 healthy, at-term women...
May 7, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738894/unlike-kangaroo-care-mechanically-simulated-kangaroo-care-does-not-change-heart-rate-variability-in-preterm-neonates
#7
Deedee Kommers, Rohan Joshi, Carola van Pul, Loe Feijs, Guid Oei, Sidarto Bambang Oetomo, Peter Andriessen
BACKGROUND: While numerous positive effects of Kangaroo care (KC) have been reported, the duration that parents can spend kangarooing is often limited. AIM: To investigate whether a mattress that aims to mimic breathing motion and the sounds of heartbeats (BabyBe GMBH, Stuttgart, Germany) can simulate aspects of KC in preterm infants as measured by features of heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: A within-subject study design was employed in which every routine KC session was followed by a BabyBe (BB) session, with a washout period of at least 2 h in between...
May 5, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735271/wasp-write-a-scientific-paper-ethical-issues-and-data-protection-in-research
#8
Victor Grech
Medical ethics and related topics such as data protection are often viewed as extraneous encumberments by researchers. However these fields provide guidelines for correct conduct and are mostly common sense. This Best Practice Guideline collection will focus on various related aspects pertaining to ethics in publication, and this paper will outline the key points in each of these papers in the collection.
May 4, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731263/wasp-write-a-scientific-paper-recruitment-for-research
#9
Pierre Mallia
The recruitment of patients must occur in accordance with approved standards. Speaking to a patient during a routine clinical consultation and offering to participate in a research, even if consented to, can only be an introduction to the recruitment process. The potential participant must then be referred to a competent person who explains the reasons for the research, why the patient is a good candidate, what the requirements from the participant will be, such as any additional visits and blood samples to be taken, how long the research will last, any compensation and what type of research is to be undertaken, such as a double blind-controlled trial and what it means...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731262/wasp-write-a-scientific-paper-plagiarism-and-the-ethics-of-dealing-with-colleagues
#10
Josanne Vassallo
This paper aims to define and discuss the various forms and degrees of plagiarism. The potential consequences of this particular form of scientific misconduct will be highlighted. The overarching principles in ensuring adherence to research and work ethics are reviewed and the necessity for honesty, objectivity, integrity, respect for intellectual property, confidentiality as well as responsible publication emphasised. The "Publish or Perish" mantra has led to an increasing need for an understanding of the responsibilities related to authorship, acknowledgments and what these encompass...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731261/wasp-write-a-scientific-paper-ethics-approval-for-a-research-study-2
#11
Pierre Mallia
Research Ethics Committees are composed of a minimum of five members which include a lay person, a member from a different institution and at least another three members which should be versed in ethics. Legal and expert advisors can be sought by the committee. The REC will require a detailed protocol from the researcher including the curriculum of the principal investigator and all other researchers under him/her. The protocol should include all details of the research to be undertaken including a detailed description, the reasons for the research, literature pertaining to the research, a clear description of the target population, the actual consent form including what information is to be given to the participants, a declaration where necessary that things prohibited by the law (such as use of embryonic stem cells if this is the case in the country [2] will not be researchers, and a declaration that the relevant directives and rules and procedures which the REC falls under will be followed...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731260/wasp-write-a-scientific-paper-informed-consent-in-research
#12
Pierre Mallia
The autonomy of patients participating in research means that a proper informed consent process must take place. This means that information must be given according to a reasonable person standard implying what legally and ethical a reasonable person participating in the research would want to know. The research must assure that the patient has understood all the information given and that a voluntary choice has been made. This means that no form of coercion must take place and that information must not be manipulated in such a way as to influence the participant...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731259/response-to-the-letter-to-the-editor
#13
LETTER
William H James, Victor Grech
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730131/relationship-between-mother-infant-mutual-dyadic-responsiveness-and-premature-infant-development-as-measured-by-the-bayley-iii-at-6-weeks-corrected-age
#14
Rosemary C White-Traut, Kristin M Rankin, Joe Yoder, Laura Zawacki, Suzann Campbell, Meredith Censullo, Karen Kavanaugh, Kathleen F Norr
BACKGROUND: The quality of mother-preterm infant interaction has been identified as a key factor in influencing the infant's later development and language acquisition. The relationship between mother-infant responsiveness and later development may be evident early in infancy, a time period which has been understudied. AIM: Describe the relationship between mother-infant mutual dyadic responsiveness and premature infant development. DESIGN: This study employed a secondary analysis of data from the 6-week corrected age (CA) follow-up visit of the Hospital-Home Transition: Optimizing Prematures' Environment (H-HOPE) study, a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a mother- and infant- focused intervention for improving outcomes among premature infants...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730130/effects-of-early-intervention-on-feeding-behavior-in-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Camilla Fontana, Camilla Menis, Nicola Pesenti, Sofia Passera, Nadia Liotto, Fabio Mosca, Paola Roggero, Monica Fumagalli
BACKGROUND: Although highly beneficial, human milk feeding is challenging in preterm infants due to adverse NICU factors for the infant and mother. AIM: To investigate the effects of an early intervention in promoting infant's human milk feeding and acquisition of full oral feeding. METHODS: This study is part of a RCT. We included preterm infants born between 25+0 and 29+6 weeks of gestational age (GA) without severe morbidities, and their parents...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729816/wasp-write-a-scientific-paper-special-cases-of-selective-non-treatment-and-or-dnr
#16
Pierre Mallia
Fetuses at low gestational age limit of viability, neonates with life threatening or life limiting congenital anomalies and deteriorating acutely ill newborn babies in intensive care, pose taxing ethical questions on whether to forego or stop treatment and allow them to die naturally. Although there is essentially no ethical difference between end of life decision between neonates and other children and adults, in the former, the fact that we are dealing with a new life, may pose greater problems to staff and parents...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729817/wasp-write-a-scientific-paper-data-protection-a-guide-for-health-researchers
#17
Victor Grech, Hugo Agius-Muscat
Data protection (DP) protects crucial and humane fundamentals - the respect of human rights, particularly protecting aspects of privacy and confidentiality for living and identifiable persons. DP is enshrined in legislation, and this paper will outline the duties of potential data controllers (researchers) when applying for access to data, when processing said data, and what to do with it at the end of the study.
May 2, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709402/wasp-write-a-scientific-paper-using-excel-11-test-characteristics
#18
Victor Grech
The calculation of various test characteristics may be required as part of a data analysis exercise. This paper explains how to set up these calculations in Microsoft Excel in order to obtain sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, diagnostic accuracy and prevalence.
April 27, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706472/may-high-salt-intakes-affect-offspring-sex-ratio
#19
LETTER
Amir Abdoli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703623/wasp-write-a-scientific-paper-using-excel-12-odds-ratio-and-relative-risk
#20
Victor Grech
The calculation of odds ratios and relative risks may be required as part of a data analysis exercise. This paper explains how to set up these calculations in Microsoft Excel from a two by two contingency table.
April 24, 2018: Early Human Development
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