Read by QxMD icon Read

Early Human Development

Jing Chen, Gwenden Dueker, Candace Cowling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor E Grech, William H James, Josef Lauri
One popular stopping rule intended to increase the rate of male births is to keep having babies until the first male is born. We show that such a stopping rule does not change the sex ratio at birth when the probability p that a birth produces a male is constant across a population. We show, however, that when p varies across couples, as evidence suggests that it does in the human population, with mean around 0.515 and standard deviation 0.05, then such a stopping rule tends to favour female births and the correct rule should be to stop procreating until the first female is born...
September 13, 2018: Early Human Development
J Gonya, K Feldman, K Brown, M Stein, S Keim, K Boone, W Rumpf, W Ray, N Chawla, E Butter
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants represent one of the highest risk categories for impairments in social competence. Few studies have explored the impact of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment on social development. However, none have specifically analyzed the effects of the care structure the infant receives during hospitalization on later social competence indicators. OBJECTIVE: To identify associations between the care structures received by extremely preterm infants in the NICU and scores on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) post-discharge...
September 12, 2018: Early Human Development
Angela Yulia, Paul Winyard
Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and the urinary tract (CAKUT) are one of the most common sonographically identified antenatal malformations. Dilatation of the renal pelvis accounts for the majority of cases, but this is usually mild rather than an indicator of obstructive uropathy. Other conditions such as small through large hyperechogenic and/or cystic kidneys present a significant diagnostic dilemma on routine scanning. Accurate diagnosis and prediction of prognosis is often not possible without a positive family history, although maintenance of adequate amniotic fluid is usually a good sign...
September 10, 2018: Early Human Development
Helen McKenna, Irwin Karl Marcel Reiss
Time of day is a critical factor for most biological functions, but concepts from the field of chronobiology have yet to be fully translated to clinical practice. Circadian rhythms, generated internally and synchronised to the external environment, promote function and support survival in almost every living species. Fetal circadian rhythms can be observed in utero from 30weeks gestation, coupled to the maternal rhythm, but synchronise to the external environment only after birth. Important cues for synchronisation include the light/dark cycle, the timing of feeding, and exposure to melatonin in breast milk...
September 8, 2018: Early Human Development
M F A Wright, C Wallis
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common complication of prematurity, and despite significant advances in neonatal care over recent decades its incidence has not diminished. Although most affected infants have mild disease requiring a short period of oxygen supplementation or respiratory support, severely affected infants can become dependent on positive pressure support for a prolonged duration. In such cases, investigations should be carried out to ascertain whether there are secondary disease processes exacerbating the child's respiratory status...
September 8, 2018: Early Human Development
Fatima Crispi, Francesca Crovetto, Eduard Gratacos
Intrauterine growth restriction is one of the most common obstetric conditions, affecting 7-10% of fetuses. Affected fetuses are actually exposed in utero to an adverse environment during the highly critical time of development and may face life-long health consequences such as increased cardiovascular risk in adulthood. Already in utero, fetuses affected by growth restriction show remodeled hearts with signs of systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Cardiovascular remodeling persist into postnatal life, from the neonatal period to adolescence, suggesting a primary fetal cardiac programming that might explain the increased cardiovascular risk later in life...
September 8, 2018: Early Human Development
Dimitrios Rallis, Aniko Deierl, Gaurav Atreja, Badr Chaban, Jayanta Banerjee
BACKGROUND: Although inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy in term infants with pulmonary hypertension (PHT) has demonstrated definite benefit, the use of iNO in preterm infants remains inconclusive. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of iNO treatment in premature infants with acute PHT. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SUBJECTS: Infants < 34 weeks' gestational age, admitted during 2010-2016 to two neonatal units, having treated with iNO for confirmed PHT...
September 8, 2018: Early Human Development
Niccolò Butti, Rosario Montirosso, Renato Borgatti, Cosimo Urgesi
BACKGROUND: Prematurity may affect mother-infant bonding and alter maternal sensitivity to infant's cues. Efficient perception of infants' facial and bodily cues is a crucial aspect of maternal sensitivity and may be challenged by prematurity, as infants' signals may not be easily intelligible. However, it is still unexplored how premature birth impacts the maternal ability to perceive infants' signals. AIMS: To investigate whether prematurity influences the perceptual sensitivity of mothers to infants' cues and, in particular, the configural processing of the faces and bodies of familiar and unfamiliar infants...
September 7, 2018: Early Human Development
Nilkant Phad, Koert de Waal, Mark Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: Early Human Development
Laura A Wang, P Brian Smith, Matthew Laughon, Ronald N Goldberg, Lawrence C Ku, Kanecia O Zimmerman, Stephen Balevic, Reese H Clark, Daniel K Benjamin, Rachel G Greenberg
BACKGROUND: At very high doses, furosemide is linked to ototoxicity in adults, but little is known about the risk of hearing loss in premature infants exposed to furosemide. AIMS: Evaluate the association between prolonged furosemide exposure and abnormal hearing screening in premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: Using propensity scoring, infants with prolonged (≥28 days) exposure to furosemide were matched to infants never exposed. The matched sample was used to estimate the impact of prolonged furosemide exposure on the probability of an abnormal hearing screen prior to hospital discharge...
September 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Stephanie A Borg, Nicholas J Bishop
Bone disease in the neonatal period has often been regarded as an issue affecting premature infants, or a collection of rare and ultra-rare disorders that most neonatologists will see only once or twice each year, or possibly each decade. The emergence of targeted therapies for some of these rare disorders means that neonatologists may be faced with diagnostic dilemmas that need a rapid solution in order to access management options that did not previously exist. The diagnostic modalities available to the neonatologist have not changed a great deal in recent years; blood tests and radiographs still form the mainstays with other techniques usually reserved for research studies, but rapid access to genomic testing is emergent...
September 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Jasmine Hoskens, Katrijn Klingels, Bouwien Smits-Engelsman
BACKGROUND: The Dutch translation of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III-NL) is a comprehensive tool assessing cognitive, language and motor development in children up to 42 months. AIMS: The first aim of this study was to evaluate concurrent validity of the Bayley-III-NL Gross Motor Scale (GMS) in relation to the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Secondly, divergent validity between the other subscales mutually and the AIMS was investigated...
August 30, 2018: Early Human Development
John E Krzeczkowski, Khrista Boylan, Tye E Arbuckle, Linda Dodds, Gina Muckle, William Fraser, Lindsay A Favotto, Ryan J Van Lieshout
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to maternal metabolic complications has been linked to offspring neurodevelopmental problems. However, no studies investigating these links have examined the role of maternal prenatal diet. AIMS: To determine if prenatal exposure to maternal adiposity or hyperglycemia is associated with neurodevelopmental problems in 3-4 year old children, and if links persist following adjustment for confounding variables, including prenatal diet...
August 24, 2018: Early Human Development
Tamara I Herrera, Laura Edwards, William F Malcolm, P Brian Smith, Kimberley A Fisher, Carolyn Pizoli, Kathryn E Gustafson, Ricki F Goldstein, C Michael Cotten, Ronald N Goldberg, Margarita Bidegain
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia reduces the risk of death, or moderate to severe neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Reports of its safety and efficacy in preterm infants are scarce. OBJECTIVE: Report short and long-term outcomes of preterm infants with HIE who received therapeutic hypothermia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis of all preterm infants <36 weeks' gestation with HIE who received whole body hypothermia in a single center from January 2007 to April 2015...
August 22, 2018: Early Human Development
Josanne Vassallo
Critical appraisal of research involves a systematic process which assesses the question/s posed, study design and execution, statistical evaluation, interpretation of the results, and appropriateness of the conclusions. It necessitates identification of conflicts of interest, analyses the strengths and weaknesses of the study and ultimately the validity, reliability and relevance of the reported findings.
August 7, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
When we graduate as doctors, or complete a research degree, we reach important milestones, but these also mark milestones, the potentials for new beginnings since these attainments both regale us with extraordinarily versatile platforms from which to commence novel activities. We are fortunate to have had the opportunities to do this/these but "[h]ow dull it is to pause, to make an end, to rust unburnish'd, not to shine in use! As tho' to breathe were life… yearning in desire. To follow knowledge, like a sinking star, beyond the utmost bound of human thought...
August 4, 2018: Early Human Development
Sarah Cuschieri, Victor Grech, Charles Savona-Ventura
The prospect of writing a thesis is considered daunting by many but the task is a requisite when embarking into reading for any academic degree. A thesis is a written document following personal research. It is performed to obtain an academic degree or qualification, both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. When writing a thesis, it is imperative that the student follows the universal well-acknowledged structure format known as "IMRAD": i.e. Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. A summary of the thesis, known as the 'Abstract', is placed at the beginning of the "IMRAD", while all references cited in the thesis are placed at the very end...
August 4, 2018: Early Human Development
Sarah Cuschieri, Pierre Schembri-Wismayer, Victor Grech
When writing up a grant application, the proposal has to be targeted to the funding source identified and being approached. However, some general rules apply in all cases. Provision of preliminary data may be useful and collaboration with well-known/published colleagues and top centres may also help and may be a prerequisite for some kinds of application. The quality and originality of the science is the main selling point as well as convincing the review board that you/your consortium are the best placed group to do the job...
August 2, 2018: Early Human Development
Pierre Schembri-Wismayer, Sarah Cuschieri, Victor Grech
The academic world revolves around research which is both a requisite to achieve a degree, as well as part of the job description of academics. Obtaining a research grant is often essential in order to cover the running costs of a research project. Once a research proposal has been formulated, with the help of supervisors/collaborators, both tangible costs and non-tangible costs can be calculated. These predicted values are essential when applying for a research grant. Different funding opportunities are available from different sources, often both local and international...
August 2, 2018: Early Human Development
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"