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Early Human Development

Adomas Bunevicius, Sarunas Tamasauskas, Vytenis Pranas Deltuva, Arimantas Tamasauskas, Albertas Sliauzys, Robertas Bunevicius
BACKGROUND: The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) reflects prenatal estrogen and testosterone exposure, and is established in utero. Sex steroids are implicated in development and progression of primary brain tumors. AIMS: To investigate whether there is a link between 2D:4D ratio and primary brain tumors, and age at presentation. METHODS: Digital images of the right and left palms of 85 primary brain tumor patients (age 56.96±13.68years; 71% women) and 106 (age 54...
October 14, 2016: Early Human Development
Michael L Rigby
Major congenital or acquired heart disease in neonates presents with cyanosis, hypoxia, acute circulatory failure or cardiogenic shock. Antenatal diagnosis is made in up to 50% but heart disease is unanticipated in the remainder. The presence of significant heart disease in premature infants is also frequently not suspected at first; in general, whatever the underling cardiac anomaly, the clinical condition is worse, deteriorates more quickly and carries a poorer prognosis in premature and low birth weight infants...
October 13, 2016: Early Human Development
Mirthe J Mebius, Michelle E van der Laan, Elise A Verhagen, Marcus Tr Roofthooft, Arend F Bos, Elisabeth Mw Kooi
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in infants with congenital heart disease already occurs during early life. The aim of our study was, therefore, to assess the course of regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rcSO2) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) during the first 72h after birth in infants with prenatally diagnosed duct-dependent congenital heart disease. In addition, we identified clinical parameters that were associated with rcSO2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 56 infants with duct-dependent congenital heart disease...
October 11, 2016: Early Human Development
Laura Martínez-Rodríguez, Javier Estañ, Jose D Bermudez, Agustin Molina, Veronica Hortelano, Cecilia Martinez-Costa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Early Human Development
Lei Cao-Lei, Kelsey N Dancause, Guillaume Elgbeili, David P Laplante, Moshe Szyf, Suzanne King
We determined the extent to which DNA methylation mediates the effects of maternal cognitive appraisal of a natural disaster during pregnancy on offspring growth at age 13. Negative maternal cognitive appraisal predicted both lower BMI and central adiposity via DNA methylation of diabetes-related genes, suggesting a protective role of epigenetics.
October 5, 2016: Early Human Development
Karen Lidzba, Susanne Rodemann, Rangmar Goelz, Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann, Andrea Bevot
BACKGROUND: The contribution of growth parameters to the cognitive outcome of very low birth weight (VLBW)/very preterm (VP) infants is difficult to disentangle from other preterm-birth related factors. AIMS: We hypothesized that long-term cognitive and motor outcome of VLBW/VP infants is most strongly associated with growth in head circumference after hospital discharge. STUDY DESIGN: Single-centre prospective longitudinal study: anthropometric measures at different time points (birth, discharge, school-age)...
October 4, 2016: Early Human Development
Rafaela Guilherme Monte Cassiano, Claudia Maria Gaspardo, Guilherme Cordaro Bucker Furini, Francisco Eulogio Martinez, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares
Children born preterm are at risk for later developmental disorders. The present study examined the predictive effects of neonatal, sociodemographic, and temperament characteristics on behavioral outcomes at toddlerhood, in children born preterm. The sample included 100 toddlers born preterm and with very-low-birth-weight, and their mothers. Neonatal characteristics were evaluated using medical records. The mothers were interviewed using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire for temperament assessment, and the Child Behavior Checklist for behavioral assessment...
October 1, 2016: Early Human Development
Britta Kühne, Bernd Genser, Freia De Bock
BACKGROUND: In children, autonomic nervous function is related to various highly prevalent health problems and might therefore represent an early indicator of ill health. AIMS: We aimed to investigate the role of early-life exposures and physical activity (PA) as potential determinants of autonomic function at preschool age. STUDY DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: We used an existing longitudinal data set of repeated vagal tone measurements (assessed via heart rate recovery (HRR)) and retrospectively assessed early-life exposures in 1052 children (mean age: 59...
September 28, 2016: Early Human Development
Ze D Jiang, Cui Wang
AIM: To examine brainstem auditory function at 36-37weeks of postconceptional age in preterm infants who are diagnosed to have neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD). STUDY DESIGN: Preterm infants, born at 31 and less weeks of gestation, were studied at 36-37weeks of postconceptional age when they were diagnosed to have neonatal CLD. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) was recorded and analyzed at different click rates. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls at the same postconceptional age, the CLD infants showed a slightly increase in BAER wave V latency...
September 28, 2016: Early Human Development
Eva van de Weijer-Bergsma, Lex Wijnroks, Ingrid C van Haastert, Jan Boom, Marian J Jongmans
OBJECTIVE: Problems in early development of executive functioning may underlie the vulnerability and individual variability of infants born preterm for behavioral and learning problems. Parenting behaviors may aggravate or temper this increased risk for dysfunction. This study assessed how maternal parenting behaviors predict individual differences in early development of executive functioning in infants born preterm, and whether this varies with infant temperament, i.e., self-regulation...
September 27, 2016: Early Human Development
Anna Karin Andersson, Lene Martin, Katarina Strand Brodd, Lena Almqvist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2016: Early Human Development
Dan Shen, Zhanbing Ma, Lu Wang, Zhenghao Huo, Hong Lu, Junli Zhao, Wenli Qian
BACKGROUND: In humans, the relative lengths of the index finger to the ring finger (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait which correlated with prenatal sex steroids and has been increasingly used as a promising tool to evaluate the impact of prenatal hormone exposure in some traits, such as physical performance. Handgrip strength (HGS) is one potent index of physical ability and its relationship with 2D:4D ratio has been discussed in several ethnic groups. AIMS: To investigate whether there is a correlation between 2D:4D ratio and HGS in Chinese college students of Ningxia Han ethnicity...
September 26, 2016: Early Human Development
Malcolm G Coulthard
Most babies with chronic renal failure are identified antenatally, and over half that are treated with peritoneal dialysis receive kidney transplants before school age. Most infants that develop acute renal failure have hypotension following cardiac surgery, or multiple organ failure. Sometimes the falls in glomerular filtration and urine output are physiological and reversible, and sometimes due to kidney injury, but (illogically) it is now common to define them all as having 'acute kidney injury'. Contrary to widespread opinion, careful interpretation of the plasma creatinine concentrations can provide sensitive evidence of early acute renal failure...
September 25, 2016: Early Human Development
S Herbert, R Tulloh
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in infants remains a serious concern and continues to cause significant morbidity despite improvements in both quality of life and survival for patients. One of the potential agents that might help is sildenafil citrate, a phosphodiesterase-V inhibitor used a first line therapy for idiopathic PH. However, only limited evidence exists for its use as either monotherapy or part of a combination approach towards the management of PH in BPD...
September 21, 2016: Early Human Development
Anouk Bokslag, Mirjam van Weissenbruch, Ben Willem Mol, Christianne J M de Groot
Preeclampsia is a common pregnancy specific disease, that presents with hypertension and a variety of organ failures, including malfunction of kidneys, liver and lungs. At present, the only definitive treatment of preeclampsia is end the pregnancy and deliver the neonate and placenta. For women with mild preeclampsia in the preterm phase of pregnancy, expectant management is generally indicated to improve fetal maturity, often requiring maternal medical treatment. Last decades, more evidence is available that the underlying mechanism of preeclampsia, endothelial disease, is not limited to pregnancy but increases cardiovascular risk in later life...
September 19, 2016: Early Human Development
Raffael Liegl, Chatarina Löfqvist, Ann Hellström, Lois E H Smith
The retina is part of the central nervous system and both the retina as well as the brain can suffer from severe damage after very preterm birth. Retinopathy of prematurity is one of the major causes of blindness in these children and brain neuronal impairments including cognitive defects, cerebral palsy and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) are also complications of very preterm birth. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) acts to promote proliferation, maturation, growth and survival of neural cells. Low levels of circulating IGF-1 are associated with ROP and defects in the IGF-1 gene are associated with CNS disorders including learning deficits and brain growth restriction...
September 17, 2016: Early Human Development
Nariae Baik, Berndt Urlesberger, Bernhard Schwaberger, Georg M Schmölzer, Martin Köstenberger, Alexander Avian, Gerhard Pichler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2016: Early Human Development
J S McGrath, C C Roehr, D J C Wilkinson
It is rare for newborn infants to require prolonged resuscitation at birth. While there are detailed national and international guidelines on when and how to provide resuscitation to newborns, there is little existing guidance on when newborn resuscitation should be stopped. In this paper we review current guidance surrounding adult, paediatric and neonatal resuscitation as well as recent evidence of outcome for newborn infants requiring prolonged resuscitation. We discuss the ethical principles that can potentially guide decisions surrounding resuscitation and post-resuscitation care...
September 14, 2016: Early Human Development
D M Burge
Bilious vomiting is synonymous with intestinal obstruction, be it functional or anatomical. In the neonate it may be due to congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract or develop due to acquired conditions, particularly intestinal complications associated with prematurity. This review considers the congenital malformations that may present with bilious vomiting and explores the diagnostic dilemmas faced in the preterm infant. The difficult issue of the need to exclude malrotation in term infants with bilious vomiting and the consequences of time-critical transfer is discussed...
September 12, 2016: Early Human Development
Andrew Davidson
Pre-clinical studies have consistently found that most general anaesthetics produce accelerated apoptosis in the developing brain. The effect has been seen in species ranging from the nematode to the non-human primate. A variety of other effects are also seen. There is also some evidence that animals exposed to anaesthesia are at increased risk of deficits in memory and learning. The effects are only seen with prolonged exposure. There are numerous problems in translating these findings to human clinical scenarios...
September 10, 2016: Early Human Development
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