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Developmental and Comparative Immunology

Jingjing Han, Yuena Sun, Weihua Song, Tianjun Xu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that participate in diverse biological processes via degrading the target mRNAs or repressing translation. In this study, the regulation of miRNA to the RLR (RIG-I-like receptor) signaling pathway by degrading the target mRNAs was researched in miiuy croaker. MDA5, a miR-145-5p putative target gene, was predicted by bioinformatics, and the target sites from the 3'untranslated region of MDA5 transcripts were confirmed using luciferase reporter assays. Pre-miR-145 was more effective in inhibiting MDA5 than miR-145-5p mimic, and the effect was dose- and time-dependent...
November 25, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Haining Yu, Xuelian Liu, Hui Wang, Lan Feng, Xue Qiao, Shasha Cai, Nannan Shi, Yipeng Wang
Defensins are a group of host defense peptides that play a central role in host innate immune responses. Here, 26 genes encoding β-defensin-like peptides have been identified for the first time in Pelodiscus sinensis using database mining approach. Phylogenetic study confirmed that β-defensins are fast evolving genes with high rates of sequence substitutions. The expression level of several selected genes in different tissues was examined by RT-PCR. Ps-BDs mainly adopt β-strands and/or α-helix conformations homology modeled by Rosetta program...
November 24, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jun Wang, Tiehui Wang, Ottavia Benedicenti, Catherine Collins, Kaiyu Wang, Christopher J Secombes, Jun Zou
ZBTB46 and DC-SCRIPT/ZNF366 are two zinc finger transcription factors that play important roles in regulating differentiation of dendritic cells in mammals. In this study, the ZBTB46 and DC-SCRIPT/ZNF366 homologues were identified in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and their expression analysed in vivo and in vitro. As transcription factors, they are well conserved in sequence, genomic organisation and gene synteny. Their expression was differentially modulated by bacterial and viral PAMPs in the monocyte/macrophage like cell line RTS-11, in primary head kidney (HK) macrophages, and in HK macrophages cultured with IL-4/13A...
November 23, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Audrey C Bergeron, Sarah E Barker, Kimberly M Brothers, Brinda C Prasad, Robert T Wheeler
Fungal infections are a major cause of animal and plant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Effective biological therapeutics could complement current antifungal drugs, but understanding of their in vivo mechanisms has been hampered by technical barriers to intravital imaging of host-pathogen interactions. Here we characterize the fungal infection of zebrafish as a model to understand the mechanism-of-action for biological antifungal therapeutics through intravital imaging of these transparent animals. We find that non-specific human IgG enhances phagocytosis by zebrafish phagocytes in vivo...
November 21, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Kai Yuan, Feng-Hua Yuan, Shao-Ping Weng, Jian-Guo He, Yi-Hong Chen
Shrimp innate immunity is the first line of resistance against pathogenic bacteria. The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-NF-κB pathway is vital in this immunity process. In this study, a novel Spätzle gene (LvSpz4) of Litopenaeus vannamei was cloned and functionally characterized. The open reading frame of LvSpz4 was 918 bp, which encoded a putative protein with 305 amino acids. LvSpz4 was most expressed in the gills of L. vannamei. This expression was induced by Vibrio alginolyticus or Staphylococcus aureus infection or lipopolysaccharide stimulation...
November 21, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Xiao Man Wu, Yi Wei Hu, Na Na Xue, Shi Si Ren, Shan Nan Chen, Pin Nie, Ming Xian Chang
Intracellular NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are emerging as critical regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses. Although the NLR family member NLRC5 is functionally defined, the role of NLRC5 in regulating innate immune signaling has been controversial in mammals, and is poorly understood in teleost fish. In the present study, we report the functional characterization of zebrafish NLRC5. The cloned NLRC5 consists of 6435 bp which encodes 1746 amino acids. The N-terminal effector-binding domain of zebrafish NLRC5 is absent which is different from all other human NLRs...
November 20, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yao Li, Shengjie Li, Ruimin Li, Jiao Xu, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Although innate immunity mediated by Toll signaling has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster, the role of miRNAs in regulating the Toll-mediated immune response remains largely unknown. In this study, following Gram-positive bacterial challenge, we identified 93 differentially expressed miRNAs via genome-wide miRNA screening. These miRNAs were regarded as immune response related (IRR). Eight miRNAs were confirmed to be involved in the Toll-mediated immune response upon Gram-positive bacterial infection through genetic screening of 41 UAS-miRNA lines covering 60 miRNAs of the 93 IRR miRNAs...
November 18, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Sandeep K Gupta, Brendan J Haigh, Hans-Martin Seyfert, Frank J Griffin, Thomas T Wheeler
Activation of innate immune receptors by exogenous substances is crucial for the detection of microbial pathogens and a subsequent inflammatory response. The inflammatory response to microbial lipopolysaccharide via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is facilitated by soluble accessory proteins, but the role of such proteins in the activation of other pathogen recognition receptors for microbial nucleic acid is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that RNase4 and RNase5 purified from bovine milk bind to Salmonella typhimurium DNA and stimulate pro-inflammatory responses induced by nucleic acid mimetics and S...
November 18, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Melbourne Rio Talactac, Yurika Yada, Kentaro Yoshii, Emmanuel Pacia Hernandez, Kodai Kusakisako, Maeda Hiroki, Remil Linggatong Galay, Kozo Fujisaki, Masami Mochizuki, Tetsuya Tanaka
Tick defensins are antimicrobial peptides that play a major role in the innate immunity of ticks by providing a direct antimicrobial defense. In this study, we identified and characterized a defensin-like encoding gene, HEdefensin, from the expressed sequence tags (EST) database of hemolymph from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. Expression of the gene in whole adult ticks and in different organs was upregulated during blood feeding, though not after Langat virus (LGTV) challenge. A synthetic HEdefensin peptide demonstrated significant virucidal activity against LGTV but not against an adenovirus in co-incubation virucidal assays...
November 18, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Alison J Hodgkinson, Julie Cakebread, Megan Callaghan, Paul Harris, Rachel Brunt, Rachel C Anderson, Kelly M Armstrong, Brendan Haigh
Secretory IgA (SIgA) from milk contributes to early colonization and maintenance of commensal/symbiotic bacteria in the gut, as well as providing defence against pathogens. SIgA binds bacteria using specific antigenic sites or non-specifically via its glycans attached to α-heavy-chain and secretory component. In our study, we tested the hypothesis that human and bovine SIgA have similar innate-binding activity for bacteria. SIgAs, isolated from human and bovine milk, were incubated with a selection of commensal, pathogenic and probiotic bacteria...
November 11, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Mayumi I Nonaka, Tokio Terado, Hiroshi Kimura, Masaru Nonaka
The complement C4 is a thioester-containing protein, and a histidine (H) residue catalyzes the cleavage of the thioester to allow covalent binding to carbohydrates on target cells. Some mammalian and teleost species possess an additional isotype where the catalytic H is replaced by an aspartic acid (D), which binds preferentially to proteins. We found the two C4 isotypes in many other jawed vertebrates, including sharks and birds/reptiles. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that C4 gene duplication occurred in the early days of the jawed vertebrate evolution...
November 10, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
R Craig Findly, Frank D Niagro, Harry W Dickerson
We analyzed by high-throughput sequencing T cell receptor beta CDR3 repertoires expressed by αβ T cells in outbred channel catfish before and after an immunizing infection with the parasitic protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. We compared CDR3 repertoires in caudal fin before infection and at three weeks after infection, and in skin, PBL, spleen and head kidney at seven and twenty-one weeks after infection. Public clonotypes with the same CDR3 amino acid sequence were expressed by αβ T cells that underwent clonal expansion following development of immunity...
November 10, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Shun Maekawa, Takashi Aoki, Han-Ching Wang
In fish, as well as vertebrates, type I interferons (IFNs) are important cytokines that help to provide innate, antiviral immunity. Although low amounts of IFN are constitutively secreted under normal physiological conditions, long-term and excessive IFN stimulation leads to reduced sensitivity to the IFN signal. This provides a negative feedback mechanism that prevents inappropriate responses and autoimmunity. At present, however, neither IFN desensitization nor the normal physiological role of constitutive IFN are well characterized in fish...
November 5, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Fufa Qu, Zhiming Xiang, Shu Xiao, Fuxuan Wang, Jun Li, Yang Zhang, Yuehuan Zhang, Yanping Qin, Ziniu Yu
c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a universal and essential subgroup of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily, which is highly conserved from yeast to mammals and functions in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we report the first oyster JNK gene homolog (ChJNK) and its biological functions in the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. The ChJNK protein consists of 383 amino acids and contains a conserved serine/threonine protein kinase (S_TKc) domain with a typical TPY motif...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Miao Lv, Huahui Chen, Yina Shao, Chenghua Li, Wei Xu, Weiwei Zhang, Xuelin Zhao, Xuemei Duan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators in the host immune response and play a pivotal role in host-pathogen interactions by suppressing the transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of target genes. miR-137, a well-documented tumor repressor, was previously found by high-throughput sequencing to be differentially expressed in diseased specimens of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. In this study, we identified 14-3-3ζ protein (Aj14-3-3ζ) as a novel target of miR-137 using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and transcriptome screening...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Qing Chu, Yuena Sun, Dekun Bi, Junxia Cui, Tianjun Xu
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of pattern-recognition receptors which play vital roles in ligand recognition and activation of the innate immune response. As an important member of TLRs family, TLR1 is mainly responsible for PAMPs from bacteria and play a pivotal role in sensing microbial products. Recent studies revealed that TLR1 could perceive LPS stimulation and transfer signals to activate the NF-κB pathway, whereas ligands and signaling pathway of TLR1 are still unclear in fish. Growing evidence has shown that miRNAs (microRNAs) play as negative regulators in controlling the diverse of biophysical and biochemical processes at the post-transcriptional level...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Aiti Vizzini, Parisi Maria Giovanna, Laura Cardinale, Lelia Testasecca, Matteo Cammarata
Although the Tumor necrosis factor gene superfamily seems to be very conserved in vertebrates, phylogeny, tissue expression, genomic and gene organization, protein domains and polymorphism analyses showed that a strong change has happened mostly in invertebrates in which protochordates were a constraint during the immune-molecules history and evolution. RT PCR was used to investigate differential gene expression in different tissues. The expression shown was greater in the pharynx. Single-nucleotide polymorphism has been investigated in Ciona intestinalis Tumor necrosis factor alpha (CiTNFα) mRNA isolated from the pharynx of 30 ascidians collected from Licata, Sicily (Italy), by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ho Am Jang, Eun Sil Seo, Min Young Seong, Bok Luel Lee
Riptortus pedestris, a common pest in soybean fields, harbors a symbiont Burkholderia in a specialized posterior midgut region of insects. Every generation of second nymphs acquires new Burkholderia cells from the environment. We compared in vitro cultured Burkholderia with newly in vivo colonized Burkholderia in the host midgut using biochemical approaches. The bacterial cell envelope of in vitro cultured and in vivo Burkholderia differed in structure, as in vivo bacteria lacked lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ratchaneegorn Mapanao, Chin-Chyuan Chang, Winton Cheng
Catecholamines (CAs) play a crucial role in maintaining physiological and immune homeostasis in invertebrates and vertebrates under stressful conditions. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in CA synthesis. To develop an effective CA-related immunological defense system against stress and pathogen infection, various criteria, were evaluated in TH double-stranded (ds) RNA-injected white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Specifically, the relative transcript quantification of TH, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), and other immune-related genes; TH activity in the haemolymph; and the estimation of l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), glucose, and lactate levels in the haemolymph were examined...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Mehrdad Sobhkhez, Lisbeth L Joensen, Linn Greiner Tollersrud, Guro Strandskog, Hanna L Thim, Jorunn B Jørgensen
The SOCS proteins are regulators of JAK/STAT signaling. A number of viral infections has been associated with SOCS upregulation. Here we report that SOCS1 mRNA expression is up-regulated in salmon alphavirus (SAV3) infected TO cells, while infectious pancreatic necrosis virus infection has a negligible effect. SAV3 infected salmon showed increased SOCS1 mRNA levels in heart correlating with increased viral transcripts. Together, the in vitro and in vivo data suggests that SAV3-induced SOCS1 expression may affect the outcome of the virus infection...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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