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Developmental and Comparative Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30659854/teleost-antimicrobial-peptide-hepcidin-contributes-to-host-defense-of-goldfish-carassius-auratus-l-against-trypanosoma-carassii
#1
Jiasong Xie, Victory Obiefuna, Jordan W Hodgkinson, Mark McAllister, Miodrag Belosevic
Hepcidin is an antimicrobial peptide and an iron regulatory protein that prevents the release of excess iron in the blood. There is evidence suggesting that teleost hepcidin is a major player in antimicrobial defense against various bacteria species, but little is known regarding the effects of teleost hepcidin in protozoan parasitic infections. We examined the role of hepcidin during the course of infection of goldfish with Trypanosoma carassii. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine the expression of hepcidin in goldfish immune organs during the course of T...
January 16, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30648602/the-transcriptional-response-of-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-under-simultaneous-bacterial-and-heat-stresses
#2
Huan Zhang, Hao Wang, Hao Chen, Mengqiang Wang, Zhi Zhou, Limei Qiu, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Bacterial infection and heat stress are considered as two major environmental threats for the aquaculture industry of oyster Crassostrea gigas. In the present study, the expression profiles of mRNA transcripts in the hemocytes of oysters under bacterial challenge and heat stress were examined by next-generation sequencing. There were 21,095, 21,957 and 21,141 transcripts identified in the hemocytes of oysters from three groups, respectively, including control group (designated as Con group), Vibrio splendidus challenge group (Bac group), and bacterial and heat stress combined treatment group (BacHeat group)...
January 12, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30641118/characterization-of-the-scghc1q-1-gene-in-sinonovacula-constricta-and-its-role-in-innate-immune-responses
#3
Yan Li, Donghong Niu, Yuqi Bai, Tianyi Lan, Maoxiao Peng, Zhiguo Dong, Jiale Li
C1q is an important immune gene that can mediate a variety of immune regulatory functions, and is involved in complement pathway activation. In the present study, a ghC1q gene from the razor clam Sinonovacula constricta was identified and named ScghC1q-1. The complete ScghC1q-1 gene is 692 bp in length, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 489 bp encoding a protein of 162 amino acids. ScghC1q-1 mRNA was widely expressed in various tissues, and transcript levels in the hemolymph were significantly up-regulated following Staphylococcus aureus or Vibrio anguillarum challenge...
January 11, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30630003/immune-responses-of-fish-to-ichthyophthirius-multifiliis-ich-a-model-for-understanding-immunity-against-protozoan-parasites
#4
REVIEW
Qingchao Wang, Yongyao Yu, Xiaoting Zhang, Zhen Xu
The parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), which infects almost all freshwater fish species, provides an optimal model for the study of immunity against extracellular protozoa. Ich invades the epithelia of mucosal tissues, forms white spots covering the whole body, and induces high mortality, while survivor fish develop both innate and adaptive immunity against Ich attack in systemic and mucosal tissues. Besides the protective roles of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated innate immune response, the critical immune functions of novel IgT in the skin, gut, gill, and olfactory organ of teleosts have been demonstrated in recent years, and all this information contributes to the ontogeny of the mucosal immune response in vertebrates...
January 7, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30630002/quantitative-serum-proteomics-analyses-reveal-shrimp-responses-against-wssv-infection
#5
Mengyuan Tao, Haoxian Zhou, Kaiwen Luo, Juan Lu, Yueling Zhang, Fan Wang
For the past decades, quantitative serum proteomics in mammals have been widely applied in biomarker screening. Various serum protein removal methods have been developed to effectively sequester serum abundant proteins. However, few methods have been found for the removal of arthropod serum abundant proteins. Here, gel filtration chromatography and ultracentrifugation methods were applied to remove hemocyanin from Litopeaneus vannamei serum. When shrimps were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a total of 486 serum proteins were identified using mass spectrometry, and 18 upregulated WSSV responsive proteins were identified with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)...
January 7, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30590066/investigating-the-potential-immune-role-of-il-35-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#6
Xiang-Yang Zhang, Zheng-Wei Cui, Nan Wu, Xiao-Bing Lu, Long-Feng Lu, Dan-Dan Chen, Hui Geng, Yong-An Zhang
Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is a member of the IL-12 cytokine family and a heterodimeric protein formed by Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) and IL-12p35. Emerging evidence showed that IL-35 is a key player in the regulation of cellular communication, differentiation, and inflammation. To date, no studies on fish IL-35 have been documented. In this work, we first identify two splicing isoforms of EBI3, EBI3a and EBI3b, from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). EBI3a is composed of 299 amino acid residues and possesses an immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain and a fibronectin type 3 (FN3) domain that is a conservative domain in vertebrate EBI3...
December 24, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30590065/hccub-lec-a-newly-identified-c-type-lectin-that-contains-a-distinct-cub-domain-and-participates-in-the-immune-defense-of-hyriopsis-cumingii
#7
Ying Huang, Qian Ren
As pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), C-type lectins (CTLs) play crucial roles in recognizing and eliminating pathogens in innate immunity. In this study, a novel CTL (HcCUB-Lec) was identified from the triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii. The full-length of HcCUB-Lec cDNA was 1558 bp with an open reading frame of 1281 bp that encodes a putative protein of 426 amino acid residues, including an N-terminal signal peptide, a complement Uegf Bmp1 (CUB) domain, a single carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), and a transmembrane domain...
December 24, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30582949/microrna-expression-profiling-of-plutella-xylostella-after-challenge-with-b-thuringiensis
#8
Shuzhong Li, Xiaoxia Xu, Zhihua Zheng, Jinlong Zheng, Muhammad Shakeel, Fengliang Jin
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, the main pest of brassica crops, has developed resistance to almost all major classes of insecticides as the farmers rely on insecticides to control this pest. An extensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against P. xylostella promotes the selection of insecticide resistance, destroy natural enemies, and pollute the environment. In this scenario, it is imperative to use genetic methods such as gene silencing technology as an alternate approach against this pest...
December 21, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30582948/the-aedes-aegypti-imd-pathway-is-a-critical-component-of-the-mosquito-antifungal-immune-response
#9
José L Ramirez, Ephantus J Muturi, Ana B F Barletta, Alejandro P Rooney
Successful infection of the insect body by entomopathogenic fungi is the result of complex molecular interactions between the host and the invading pathogenic fungi. The mosquito antifungal response is multifaceted and is regulated in part by the Toll and Jak-STAT pathways. Here, we assessed the role of the IMD pathway in the mosquito Ae. aegypti antifungal immune response when challenged with one of two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Isaria javanica. IMD pathway components of the mosquito immune system were elicited in response to infection with both entomopathogenic fungi, primarily in the fat body of mosquitoes...
December 21, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30579936/generation-of-virus-specific-cd8-t-cells-by-vaccination-with-inactivated-virus-in-the-intestine-of-ginbuna-crucian-carp
#10
Seisuke Tajimi, Masakazu Kondo, Teruyuki Nakanishi, Takahiro Nagasawa, Miki Nakao, Tomonori Somamoto
Although a previous study using ginbuna crucian carp suggested that cell-mediated immunity can be induced by the oral administration of inactivated viruses, which are exogenous antigens, there is no direct evidence that CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) in teleost fish are generated by vaccination with exogenous antigens. In the present study, we investigated whether antigen-specific CD8+ CTLs in ginbuna crucian carp can be elicited by intestinal immunization with an exogenous antigen without any adjuvant. The IFNγ-1 and T-bet mRNA expressions were up-regulated in intestinal leukocytes following the administration of formalin-inactivated crucian hematopoietic necrosis virus (FI-CHNV), whereas the down-regulation of these genes was observed in kidney leukocytes...
December 21, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30579935/selective-breeding-for-high-natural-antibody-level-increases-resistance-to-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-apec-in-chickens
#11
T V L Berghof, M G R Matthijs, J A J Arts, H Bovenhuis, R M Dwars, J J van der Poel, M H P W Visker, H K Parmentier
Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-binding natural antibody (NAb) titers in chickens are heritable, and higher levels have previously been associated with a higher survival. This suggests that selective breeding for higher NAb levels might increase survival by means of improved general disease resistance. Chickens were divergently selected and bred for total NAb levels binding KLH at 16 weeks of age for six generations, resulting in a High NAb selection line and a Low NAb selection line. To for test differences in disease resistance, chickens were challenged with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) in two separate experiments...
December 20, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30571995/the-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea-is-a-new-model-to-study-host-pathogen-interactions-during-fungal-infections
#12
Eli Isael Maciel, Cen Jiang, Paul G Barghouth, Clarissa J Nobile, Néstor J Oviedo
Candida albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogens of humans. Currently, there are limitations in the evaluation of C. albicans infection in existing animal models, especially in terms of understanding the influence of specific infectious stages of the fungal pathogen on the host. We show that C. albicans infects, grows and invades tissues in the planarian flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea, and that the planarian responds to infection by activating components of the host innate immune system to clear and repair host tissues...
December 17, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557581/goose-mavs-functions-in-rig-i-mediated-ifn-%C3%AE-signaling-activation
#13
Yingjie Sun, Xuming Mao, Hang Zheng, Wei Wu, Zaib Ur Rehman, Ying Liao, Chunchun Meng, Xusheng Qiu, Lei Tan, Cuiping Song, Lei Xu, Shengqing Yu, Chan Ding
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) is an essential adaptor protein in retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-mediated antiviral innate immunity in mammals. In this study, the goose MAVS gene (goMAVS) was identified. The 2,019 bp-long goMAVS exhibits 96.2% amino acid similarity compared to the predicted goMAVS. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions showed that goMAVS mRNA was widely expressed in different tissues. The overexpression of goMAVS in goose embryo fibroblast cells up-regulated the mRNA levels of goose interferon-stimulated genes...
December 14, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550777/age-related-distribution-and-dynamics-of-t-cells-in-blood-and-lymphoid-tissues-of-goats
#14
Mariona Baliu-Piqué, Henry Kurniawan, Lars Ravesloot, Myrddin Verheij, Julia Drylewicz, Karianne Lievaart-Peterson, José A M Borghans, Ad Koets, Kiki Tesselaar
Neonatal mammals have increased disease susceptibility and sub-optimal vaccine responses. This raises problems in both humans and farm animals. The high prevalence of paratuberculosis in goats and the lack of an effective vaccine against it have a strong impact on the dairy sector, and calls for vaccines optimized for the neonatal immune system. We characterized the composition of the T-cell pool in neonatal kids and adult goats and quantified their turnover rates using in vivo deuterium labelling. From birth to adulthood, CD4+ T-cells were the predominant subset in the thymus and lymph nodes, while spleen and bone marrow contained mainly CD8+ lymphocytes...
December 11, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30528488/the-role-of-bombyx-mori-bmtutl-519-protein-in-the-infection-of-bmn-cells-by-nosema-bombycis
#15
Feng Zhu, Xudong Tang, Shengyan Xiao, Hongliang Wang, Yonghong Zhang, Yulan Shao, Fenfen Tang, Shiliang Chen, Xingrong Bai
Bmtutl-519 is an isoform of the Bombyx Turtle protein and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). The relative expression level of Bmtutl-519 was significantly upregulated when BmN cells were infected by Nosema bombycis. The subcellular localization of Bmtutl-519 was studied using an indirect immunoinfluscent assay (IFA), Co-localization assay, Western blotting, and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion constructs expressed in BmN cells transfected with a Bmtutl-519 expression plasmid...
December 5, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30521838/a-xenopus-tadpole-alternative-model-to-study-innate-like-t-cell-mediated-anti-mycobacterial-immunity
#16
REVIEW
Rhoo Kun Hyoe, Jacques Robert
Owing to the high incidence of multi-drug resistance and challenges posed by the complex and long duration of treatments, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections remain a significant clinical burden, which would benefit from development of novel immuno-therapeutic-based treatment strategies. Among early immune effectors, invariant or innate-like (i)T cells are attracting attention because of their potential regulatory activity, which can shape anti-mycobacterial immune responses. Unlike conventional T cells, iT cells express a semi-invariant T cell receptor, and respond rapidly and robustly to molecular patterns presented by MHC class I-like molecules...
December 3, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517845/vegf-like-protein-from-apostichopus-japonicus-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-migration
#17
Zhimeng Lv, Ming Guo, Chenghua Li, Yina Shao, Xuelin Zhao, Weiwei Zhang
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key conservative regulator of inflammation response by promoting cell proliferation, migration, and vascular permeability. It also induces the release of inflammatory factors in vertebrates. We previously characterized NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 and HMGB3 homology in Apostichopus japonicus, providing the occurrence of inflammation in this species. However, to our knowledge, other inflammation-related molecules, such as VEGF, have rarely been investigated...
December 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513304/comparative-models-for-human-nasal-infections-and-immunity
#18
REVIEW
Elisa Casadei, Irene Salinas
The human olfactory system is a mucosal surface and a major portal of entry for respiratory and neurotropic pathogens into the body. Understanding how the human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) halts the progression of pathogens into the lower respiratory tract or the central nervous system is key for developing effective cures. Although traditionally mice have been used as the gold-standard model for the study of human nasal diseases, mouse models present important caveats due to major anatomical and functional differences of the human and murine olfactory system and NALT...
December 1, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503359/imaging-flow-cytometry-and-confocal-microscopy-based-examination-of-f-actin-and-phosphoinositide-dynamics-during-leukocyte-immune-type-receptor-mediated-phagocytic-events
#19
Lena O Jones, James L Stafford
Cells of the innate immune system rapidly detect and eliminate invading microbes using surface-expressed immunoregulatory receptors that translate extracellular binding events into potent effector responses. Channel catfish leukocyte immune-type receptors (IpLITRs) are a family of immunoregulatory proteins that have been shown to regulate several innate immune cell effector responses including the phagocytic process. The mechanisms by which these receptors regulate phagocytosis are not entirely understood but we have previously shown that different IpLITR-types use ITAM-dependent as well as ITAM-independent pathways for controlling target engulfment...
November 29, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503358/from-the-raw-bar-to-the-bench-bivalves-as-models-for-human-health
#20
REVIEW
José A Fernández Robledo, Raghavendra Yadavalli, Bassem Allam, Emmanuelle Pales-Espinosa, Marco Gerdol, Samuele Greco, Rebecca J Stevick, Marta Gómez-Chiarri, Ying Zhang, Cynthia A Heil, Adrienne N Tracy, David Bishop-Bailey, Michael J Metzger
Bivalves, from raw oysters to steamed clams, are popular choices among seafood lovers and once limited to the coastal areas. The rapid growth of the aquaculture industry and improvement in the preservation and transport of seafood have enabled them to be readily available anywhere in the world. Over the years, oysters, mussels, scallops, and clams have been the focus of research for improving the production, managing resources, and investigating basic biological and ecological questions. During this decade, an impressive amount of information using high-throughput genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic technologies has been produced in various classes of the Mollusca group, and it is anticipated that basic and applied research will significantly benefit from this resource...
November 29, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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