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Developmental and Comparative Immunology

Xiao-Xiao Chen, Yan-Yao Li, Xue-Jiao Chang, Xiao-Lu Xie, Yu-Ting Liang, Ke-Jian Wang, Wen-Yun Zheng, Hai-Peng Liu
It is well known that iron is an essential element for all living organism. The intracellular iron availability is also important for the host's innate immune response to various pathogens, in which the iron homeostasis can be regulated by ferritin due to its iron storage property. In this study, a full-length cDNA sequence of ferritin (named as CqFerritin) was identified with 1410 bp from red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, which contained an open reading frame of 513 bp, encoding 170 amino acids with a conserved ferritin domain...
January 13, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ina Herrmann, Jelena Gotovina, Judit Fazekas-Singer, Michael B Fischer, Karin Hufnagl, Rodolfo Bianchini, Erika Jensen-Jarolim
The M2a subtype of macrophages plays an important role in human immunoglobulin E (IgE-mediated allergies) and other Th2 type immune reactions. In contrast, very little is known about these cells in the dog. Here we describe an in-vitro method to activate canine histiocytic DH82 cells and primary canine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) toward the M2a macrophages using human cytokines. For a side-by-side comparison, we compared the canine cells to human MDMs, and the human monocytic cell line U937 activated towards M1-and M2a cells on the cellular and molecular level...
January 9, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Chuanjie Qin, Quan Gong, Zhengyong Wen, Dengyue Yuan
Complement factor I (CFI) is a novel regulatory serine protease that plays an important role in resistance to pathogen infection. In this study, the CFI gene of Pelteobagrus vachellii (Pv-CFI) was sequenced and characterized. The full-length cDNA of 2320 bp includes a 155 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 164 bp 3'-UTR, and a 2001 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 667 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignment revealed five highly conserved domains with a typical modular architecture and identical active sites in vertebrates, indicating a conserved function...
January 9, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zhiwei Liao, Quanyuan Wan, Xun Xiao, Jianfei Ji, Jianguo Su
Chemokines are a superfamily of small cytokines and characterized based on their ability to induce directional migration of cells along a concentration gradient by binding to chemokine receptors, which have important roles in immunology and development. Due to the numerous and diverse members, systematic identifications of chemokine superfamily genes are difficult in many species. To that end, a comprehensive analysis of BLAST and scripting language was conducted to systematically identify and characterize chemokine system in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)...
January 8, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Lan-Lan Chen, Jin Xie, Dong-Dong Cao, Ning Jia, Ya-Juan Li, Hui Sun, Wei-Fang Li, Bing Hu, Yuxing Chen, Cong-Zhao Zhou
Following the Aeromonas hydrophila aerolysin, various aerolysin-like pore-forming proteins have been identified from bacteria to vertebrates. We have recently reported the mechanism of receptor recognition and in vitro pore-formation of a zebrafish aerolysin-like protein Dln1/Aep1. However, the physiological function of Aep1 remains unknown. Here we detected that aep1 gene is constitutively expressed in various immune-related tissues of adult zebrafish; and moreover, its expression is significantly up-regulated upon bacterial challenge, indicating its involvement in antimicrobial infection...
January 6, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Xiaorui Song, Xiaoyu Xin, Miren Dong, Weilin Wang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Hemocytes, the cellular component of invertebrate hemolymph, are essential for invertebrate immunity, but the hematopoiesis and regulation mechanism are still largely unknown. In the present study, a conserved hematopoietic transcription factor Cg-GATA2/3 was identified in Pacific oyster Crassotrea gigas, which was evolutionarily close to the vertebrate GATA1/2/3. Cg-GATA2/3 was mainly distributed in the immune organs, such as gill, hemocytes, and mantle. After Cg-GATA2/3 was interferenced by dsRNA, the mRNA expressions of hemocytes specific gene (EcSOD) and hematopoietic transcription factor (C-Myb) were all significant down-regulated, and the hemocyte renewal rates also decreased both in hemolymph and gill...
January 6, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zhihao Jia, Mengqiang Wang, Xiudan Wang, Lingling Wang, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in vivo during various electron transfer reactions are generally kept at a certain level since they are harmful to cells. However, it can sensitize hematopoietic progenitors to differentiation, and plays a signaling role in the regulation of hematopoietic cell fate. In the present study, the transcriptomes of crab HPT and hemocytes were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Proton sequencing platform. A total of 51,229,690 single end reads were obtained from six single-end libraries, which were assembled into 31346 unireads as reference...
January 4, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Teun Guichelaar, Elisabeth A van Erp, Jeroen Hoeboer, Noortje A M Smits, Cécile A C M van Els, Daan K J Pieren, Willem Luytjes
Susceptibility and declined resistance to human pathogens like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) at old age is well represented in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Despite providing a preferred model of human infectious diseases, little is known about aging of its adaptive immune system. We aimed to define aging-related changes of the immune system of this species. Concomitantly, we asked whether the rate of immunological alterations may be stratified by physiological aberrations encountered during aging...
January 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yunke Jia, Bin Yang, Wenjing Dong, Zhaoqun Liu, Zhao Lv, Zhihao Jia, Limei Qiu, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Serotonin receptors, including ligand-gated ion channel (LGICs) and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), play vital roles in modulating physiological processes and immunoreaction. In the present study, a homologue of serotonin (5-HT) receptor was identified from oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated Cg5-HTR-1). Its open reading frame (ORF) was of 1239 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 412 amino acids with a seven transmembrane region. Cg5-HTR-1 shared high similarity with the 5-HTRs from other animals. The cAMP contents in HEK293T cells decreased significantly after Cg5-HTR-1 transfection and 5-HT incubation (p < ...
January 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yi-Qun Li, Li Sun, Jun Li
Increasing evidence has demonstrated support for the endocytic capacities of teleost B cells. In the present study, the ability of turbot IgM+ B cells to ingest microspheres of different sizes and the corresponding internalization pathways were investigated. The results showed that IgM+ B cells exhibited relatively high endocytic capacities for 0.5 μm and 1 μm latex beads, and that different mechanisms were employed for IgM+ and IgM- cells to uptake 0.5 μm and 1 μm beads. For 0.5 μm beads, IgM+ B cells apparently employed macropinocytosis-dependent endocytic pathway, whereas IgM- cells utilized a different process involving both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated pathways...
January 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jianfei Lu, Dan Xu, Zhaoyuan Shen, Liqun Lu
miRNAs (microRNAs), a small endogenous non-coding RNAs, play crucial roles in post-transcriptional regulator of genes expression in various biological processes. Cyprinid Herpesvirus-2 (CyHV-2) is a highly pathogenic member of the alloherpesviridae that causes acute mass mortalities in populations of Carassius auratus gibelio and Carassius auratus auratus. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of CyHV-2 have not been fully determined. Here, miRNA expression profiles were identified via high-throughput sequencing in the kidney of Carassius auratus gibelio infected or uninfected with CyHV-2...
January 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Tong Liu, Ye Xu, Xiaoming Wang, Jinbao Gu, Guiyun Yan, Xiao-Guang Chen
Mosquito-borne viral diseases represent a major challenge to human public health. As natural vectors of arboviruses, mosquitoes can be infected by a virus, but they have evolved multiple mechanisms to tolerate constant infection and restrict viral replication via their antiviral immune system. In a state of continuous infection, a mosquito can transmit an arbovirus while obtaining a blood meal from a mammalian host. During infection, the virus is mainly inhibited through a small RNA-mediated interference mechanism...
December 30, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Kangkang Chen, Zhiqiang Lu
The silkworm Bombyx mori, an economically important insect that is usually reared indoors, is susceptible to various pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and microsporidia. As with other insects, the silkworm lacks an adaptive immune system and relies solely on innate immunity to defend itself against infection. Compared to other intensively studied insects, such as the fruit fly and tobacco hornworm, the principal immune pathways in the silkworm remain unclear. In this article, we review the literature concerning silkworm immune responses to bacteria and fungi and present our perspectives on future research into silkworm immunity...
December 28, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Marco Rozas-Serri, Andrea Peña, Lucerina Maldonado
Piscirickettsiosis is the main bacterial disease affecting the Chilean salmon farming industry and is responsible for high economic losses. The development of effective strategies to control piscirickettsiosis has been limited in part by insufficient knowledge of the host response. The aim of this study was to use RNA sequencing to describe the transcriptional profiles of the responses of post-smolt Atlantic salmon infected with LF-89-like or EM-90-like Piscirickettsia salmonis. Enrichment and pathway analyses of the differentially expressed genes revealed several central signatures following infection, including positive regulation of DC-SIGN and TLR5 signalling, which converged at the NF-κB level to modulate the pro-inflammatory cytokine response, particularly in the PS-EM-90-infected fish...
December 27, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yan Gao, Shu-Cheng Zheng, Chao-Qun Zheng, Yue-Chen Shi, Xiao-Lu Xie, Ke-Jian Wang, Hai-Peng Liu
The gradual increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, absorbed by the ocean surface water through air to sea equilibration termed ocean acidification (OA), leads to the decline of pH in seawater. It is not clear so far how the composition of fatty acids, particular the immune-related, in marine crustacean and the subsequent energy supply in marine ecosystem are affected by OA. The brine shrimp Artemia sinica is an open and common feed that provide essential fatty acids for mariculture. In this study, the fatty acids profiles of brine shrimp cultured under different lower pH levels of CO2 driven seawater were investigated...
December 26, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Marco Gerdol, Yi-Jyun Luo, Noriyuki Satoh, Alberto Pallavicini
The extension of comparative immunology to non-model systems, such as mollusks and annelids, has revealed an unexpected diversity in the complement of immune receptors and effectors among evolutionary lineages. However, several lophotrochozoan phyla remain unexplored mainly due to the lack of genomic resources. The increasing accessibility of high-throughput sequencing technologies offers unique opportunities for extending genome-wide studies to non-model systems. As a result, the genome-based study of the immune system in brachiopods allows a better understanding of the alternative survival strategies developed by these immunologically neglected phyla...
December 23, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Whasun Lim, Hyocheol Bae, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Chemokines and atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs; also known as chemokine decoy receptors) play an important role in reproductive immunology by recruiting leukocytes during early pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and ACKRs in the endometrium during estrous cycle and early pregnancy, and to investigate the functional effects of CCL2 on porcine uterine luminal epithelial (pLE) cells. Our results indicated that CCL2, ACKR1, ACKR3, and ACKR4 were strongly detected in the glandular and luminal epithelium of the endometrium during early pregnancy compared to that in non-pregnant pigs...
December 23, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yulin Jin, Tao Zhou, Ning Li, Shikai Liu, Xiaoyan Xu, Ying Pan, Suxu Tan, Huitong Shi, Yujia Yang, Zihao Yuan, Wenwen Wang, Jian Luo, Dongya Gao, Rex Dunham, Zhanjiang Liu
The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway is one of the main pleiotropic cascades used to transmit information from extracellular receptors to the nucleus, which results in DNA transcription and expression of genes involved in immunity, proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, and cell survival. Members of JAK family and STAT family have been extensively studied in different mammalian species because of their important roles in innate and adaptive immune responses...
December 21, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Feifei Yang, Shihao Li, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major viral pathogen in global shrimp farming, causing huge economic damage. Through penetrating the outer surface of the target tissues, WSSV enters into the cells of the target tissue to complete the replication process in the host. In the present study, a cuticle protein gene from Litopenaeus vannamei, designated as LvAMP13.4, was identified and proved to be involved in WSSV invasion. The deduced amino acid sequence of LvAMP13.4 contained a signal peptide and a conserved chitin-binding domain type 4 (ChBD4)...
December 21, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jingwen Wang, Xiumei Song, Mengfei Wang
Hematophagous arthropods are medically important disease vectors that transmit a variety of pathogens. Unlike mammals that employ both innate and adaptive immunity to clear invading pathogens, these vectors rely mainly on an innate immune system to combat pathogens. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are important components of innate immune signaling pathways and are responsible for recognizing microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), thus regulating host immune interactions with both harmful and helpful microbes...
December 18, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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