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Developmental and Comparative Immunology

Wanwan Zhang, Zelin Li, Peng Jia, Wei Liu, Meisheng Yi, Kuntong Jia
Interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a major regulator contributing to the host away from viral infection. Here, an IRF3 gene from sea perch (LjIRF3) was identified and its role in regulating early apoptosis signaling and IFN response was investigated during red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection. The cDNA of LjIRF3 encoded a putative 465 amino acids protein, containing a DNA binding domain, an IRF association domain and a serine-rich domain. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that LjIRF3 shared the closest genetic relationship with Epinephelus coioides IRF3...
July 14, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Janet Velázquez, Jannel Acosta, Juana María Lugo, Eduardo Reyes, Fidel Herrera, Osmany González, Antonio Morales, Yamila Carpio, Mario Pablo Estrada
Immunoglobulin molecules play an important role in the immune defense system in all jawed vertebrates, by protecting the organism from a wide variety of pathogens. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is extensively cultivated worldwide, with a strong established market demand. It constitutes one of the model species for the study of fish immunology and its genome is currently fully sequenced. The presence of the immunoglobulin M gene in this species is well documented, as well as its major role in systemic immunity...
July 13, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ruo-Nan Zhang, Fei-Fei Ren, Cheng-Bo Zhou, Jun-Feng Xu, Hui-Yu Yi, Ming-Qiang Ye, Xiao-Juan Deng, Yang Cao, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Wan-Ying Yang
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a common component of the outermost cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria. In mammals, LPS serves as an endotoxin that can be recognized by a receptor complex of TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) and MD-2 (myeloid differentiation-2) and subsequently induce a strong immune response to signal the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In Drosophila melanogaster, no receptors for LPS have been identified, and LPS cannot activate immune responses. Here, we report a protein, BmEsr16, which contains an ML (MD-2-related lipid-recognition) domain, may function as an LPS receptor in the silkworm Bombyx mori...
July 13, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jun Xiao, Yongming Fu, Wei Zhou, Lingzhi Peng, Jun Xiao, Shaojun Liu, Hao Feng
Triploid hybrid (3n = 150) of red crucian carp (♀, 2n = 100) and allotetraploid (♂, 4n = 200) display improved disease resistance and stress resistance than their parents. In order to elucidate their innate immune mechanisms, three novel cell lines from the caudal fin of red crucian carp, triploid hybrid and allotetraploid (named 2nFC, 3nFC and 4nFC accordingly) were established and characterized respectively. 2nFC, 3nFC and 4nFC showed fibroblast-like morphology and characteristics. They have been subcultured for more than 100 passages since the initial primary culture...
July 12, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Hui Yang, Xixi Li, Weijia Song, Jiaojun Ji, Fenggang Li, Yingying Zhang, Xiaojun Zhang, Lixin Wang
PGRPs (Peptidoglycan recognition proteins) could recognize peptidoglycan and play vital roles in innate immunity among different animals. Till present, the functions of PGRP have been studied in various animals, but few reports have studied the amphibian PGRPs. In the current research, a short type PGRP was identified from Chinese giant salamander and its involvement in the innate immunity was studied. The ORF of AdPGRP-SC2 cDNA was 573 bp, which encoded 190 amino acids, and contained a PGRP and an amidase_2 domain...
July 12, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Xu Wang, Xuejiao Song, Xinchi Xie, Wanzhen Li, Liang Lu, Song Chen, Hui Wu, Hao Feng
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) is a main regulator of antiviral and anti-inflammatory pathways in mammals, which is considered to induce type I interferon (IFN) activation and negatively regulate the activation of the canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways. To elucidate its function in teleost fish, TRAF3 homologue of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) has been cloned and characterized in this study. The open reading frame (ORF) of black carp TRAF3 (bcTRAF3) consists of 1722 nucleotides and bcTRAF3 contains 574 amino acids...
July 12, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yehfang Hu, Kevin Maisey, Parasuraman Aiya Subramani, Fuguo Liu, Camila Flores-Kossack, Mónica Imarai, Christopher J Secombes, Tiehui Wang
Rapid and high quality preparation of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) is important in fish immunology research and in particular for fish vaccine development, where multiple immune parameters can be monitored on the same fish over time. Fish PBL are currently prepared by density separation using Percoll or Hispaque-1.077, which is time consuming, costly and prone to erythrocyte contamination. We present here a modified PBL preparation method that includes a 20 s hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes and a subsequent separation of PBL from cell debris by a cell strainer...
July 12, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Hong Shi, Lingwei Ruan, Irene Söderhäll, Kenneth Söderhäll, Xun Xu
Transfection is a powerful tool useful for studying gene function. Establishing transfection methods that enable highly efficient DNA uptake has become increasingly important. The crayfish hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cell cultures have been proved to be suitable for studies on immunity and cell differentiation in crustaceans including shrimps, but no efficient gene transfer and expression method is available for these cells. Here we report that a novel and highly efficient DNA transfection system based on electroporation...
July 9, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Xiaohui Xu, Hu Duan, Yingli Shi, Shijun Xie, Zhan Song, Songjun Jin, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang
Various known and unknown viral diseases can threaten crustacean aquaculture. To develop prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against viruses, crustacean cell lines are urgently needed for immunology and virology studies. However, there are currently no permanent crustacean cell lines available. In this study, we developed a new method for preparing crayfish plasma (CP) and found that CP enhanced the proliferative capacity of haematopoietic tissue (hpt) cells from Cherax quadricarinatus by an EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) assay...
July 9, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yongsheng Cao, Di Wang, Shaowu Li, Liming Xu, Jingzhuang Zhao, Hongbai Liu, Tongyan Lu, Qiya Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of regulators essential for numerous biological processes. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in salmon and trout. In this study, the miRNA expression profiles of rainbow trout upon IHNV infection were explored. In total, 392 known miRNAs and 936 novel miRNAs were identified. Twelve known and 13 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between infected and uninfected fish. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that certain miRNA target genes were associated with biological regulation, the immune system, and signal transduction...
July 7, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yunxia Liu, Yuqiang Cheng, Wenya Shan, Jingjiao Ma, Hengan Wang, Jianhe Sun, Yaxian Yan
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) is an important family for IFN expression regulating while viral infection. IRF1, IRF3, and IRF7 are the primary regulators that trigger type I IFN response in mammals. However, IRF3, which has been identified as the most critical regulator in mammals, is absent in chickens, and it is unknown whether IRF1 is involved in type I IFN signaling pathways in IRF3-deficient chicken cells. Here, we identified chicken IRF1 (chIRF1) as a critical IFN-β mediator in response to viral infection...
July 4, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Letian Xu, Yiqiu Zhang, Shihan Zhang, Jundan Deng, Min Lu, Longwa Zhang, Jiang Zhang
Dendroctonus valens LeConte is one of the most economically important forest pest in China. Leptographium procerum, a mutualistic fungus can assist the host beetle in overcoming the pine's chemical defenses, and Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus has shown high beetle killing efficiency. Considering that the D. valens immune system remains unknown at the genomic level, a mutualistic and antagonistic fungus associated with the beetle provides an ideal model for studying immune interactions between the insect and associated fungi...
July 3, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Barbara Małgorzata Kalenik, Anna Góra-Sochacka, Anna Stachyra, Maria Pietrzak, Edyta Kopera, Anna Fogtman, Agnieszka Sirko
Highly pathogenic avian influenza causes severe economic losses and is a potential threat to public health. Better knowledge of the mechanisms of chicken response to the novel types of vaccines against avian influenza might be helpful in their successful implementation into poultry vaccination programs in different countries. This work presents a comprehensive analysis of gene expression response elicited in chicken spleens by a combined DNA/recombinant protein prime/boost vaccination compared to DNA/DNA and protein/protein regimens...
July 3, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yipeng Ren, Jiaqing Zhang, Wenhao Dong, Huanhuan Yang, Baoping Pan, Wenjun Bu
The transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) plays an essential and critical role in the regulation of numerous downstream genes involved in various physiological and chemical responses. In this study, we identified a full-length cDNA of the c-Jun AP-1 gene (termed Csc-Jun) from the transcriptome library in Cyclina sinensis. The cDNA contains an 825-bp open reading frame that encodes a 274-amino acid protein sequence, including a characteristic Jun transcription factor domain and a highly conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) signature that shares 90% identity to that of Ruditapes philippinarum...
July 3, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Congjing Feng, Ya Zhao, Kangkang Chen, Huifeng Zhai, Zhenying Wang, Haobo Jiang, Yingjuan Wang, Libao Wang, Yiqiang Zhang, Tai Tang
The prophenoloxidase (PPO) activating system in insects plays an important role in defense against microbial invasion. In this paper, we identified a PPO activating protease (designated OfPAP) containing a 1203 bp open reading frame encoding a 400-residue protein composed of two clip domains and a C-terminal serine protease domain from Ostrinia furnacalis. SignalP analysis revealed a putative signal peptide of 18 residues. The mature OfPAP was predicted to be 382 residues long with a calculated Mr of 44.8 kDa and pI of 6...
July 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Phornphan Sornchuer, Wisarut Junprung, Warumporn Yingsunthonwattana, Anchalee Tassanakajon
Heat shock factors (HSFs) participate in the response to environmental stressors and regulate heat shock protein (Hsp) expression. This study describes the molecular characterization and expression of PmHSF1 in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon under heat stress. PmHSF1 expression was detected in several shrimp tissues: the highest in the lymphoid organ and the lowest in the eyestalk. Significant up-regulation of PmHSF1 expression was observed in hemocytes (p < 0.05) following thermal stress. The expression of several PmHsps was rapidly induced following heat stress...
July 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Scott V Dindot, Ryan N Doan, Kyle R Kuskie, Paul R Hillman, Canaan M Whitfield, Cole C McQueen, Angela I Bordin, Jessica R Bourquin, Noah D Cohen
Neonates of all species, including foals, are highly susceptible to infection, and neutrophils play a crucial role in innate immunity to infection. Evidence exists that neutrophils of neonatal foals are functionally deficient during the first weeks of life, including expression of cytokine genes such as IFNG. We hypothesized that postnatal epigenetic changes were likely to regulate the observed age-related changes in foal neutrophils. Using ChIP-Seq, we identified significant differences in trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4, an epigenetic modification associated with active promoters and enhancers, in neutrophils in foals at 30 days of age relative to 1 day of age...
June 26, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Qiang Sun, Liang Jiang, Huizhen Guo, Fei Xia, Bingbing Wang, Yumei Wang, Qingyou Xia, Ping Zhao
Bombyx mori bidensovirus (BmBDV) causes fatal flacherie disease leading to severe economic losses in sericultures. The BmDNV-Z genome contains two single-stranded DNA molecules, VD1 and VD2. For generating silkworm lines with antiviral properties, two transgenic RNA interference (RNAi) vectors were constructed. Open reading frames (ORFs) 1-4 of VD1 were knockdown by vector pb-BDV1 while ORF1a, ORF1b, and ORF3 of VD2 were knockdown by vector pb-BDV2. Transgenic silkworm lines BDV1-I and BDV2-I were generated via RNAi microinjection...
June 23, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Li-Ling Yang, Ming-Yue Zhan, Yu-Li Zhuo, Yue-Min Pan, Yang Xu, Xiu-Hong Zhou, Pei-Jin Yang, Hong-Li Liu, Zi-Hao Liang, Xiao-Dan Huang, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Xiang-Jun Rao
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are produced by the stimulated humoral immune system. Most mature AMPs contain less than 50 amino acid residues. Some of them are generated from proproteins upon microbial challenges. Here, we report the antimicrobial activities of a proline-rich proprotein, named SlLebocin1 (SlLeb1), from the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura. SlLebocin1 cDNA contains a 477-bp open reading frame (ORF). It is mainly expressed in hemocytes and the midgut in naïve larvae. The transcript level was significantly induced in hemocytes but repressed in the midgut and fat body by bacterial challenges...
June 21, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
V Blanco-Abad, M Noia, A Valle, F Fontenla, I Folgueira, A P De Felipe, P Pereiro, J Leiro, J Lamas
Many studies have shown that coagulation systems play an important role in the defence against pathogens in invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, particularly in mammals, it has been established that the coagulation system participates in the entrapment of pathogens and activation of the early immune response. However, functional studies investigating the importance of the fish coagulation system in host defence against pathogens are scarce. In the present study, injection of turbot (Scopthalamus maximus) with the pathogenic ciliate Philasterides dicentrarchi led to the formation of macroscopic intraperitoneal clots in the fish...
June 20, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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