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Developmental and Comparative Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155013/3-4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde-synthase-and-cuticle-formation-in-insects
#1
Chenghong Liao, Archana Upadhyay, Jing Liang, Qian Han, Jianyong Li
Cuticle is the most important structure that protects mosquitoes and other insect species from adverse environmental conditions and infections of microorganism. The physiology and biochemistry of insect cuticle formation have been studied for many years and our understanding of cuticle formation and hardening has increased considerably. This is especially true for flexible cuticle. The recent discovery of a novel enzyme that catalyzes the production of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) in insects provides intriguing insights concerning the flexible cuticle formation in insects...
November 15, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155012/litopenaeus-vannamei-notch-affects-lipopolysaccharides-induced-reactive-oxygen-species
#2
Pei Ning, Zhihong Zheng, Jude Juventus Aweya, Defu Yao, Shengkang Li, Hongyu Ma, Fan Wang, Yueling Zhang
Notch signaling pathway was originally discovered in the development stage of drosophila but has recently been found to play essential roles in innate immunity. Most previous studies on Notch have focused on mammals, whereas, in this study, we employed the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei as a model to study the functions of Notch in invertebrate innate immune system. Our results showed that LvNotch was highly expressed in hemocytes and could be strongly induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) injection. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of LvNotch could significantly increase LPS induced L...
November 15, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154857/astakines-in-arthropods-phylogeny-and-gene-structure
#3
Lena Ericsson, Irene Söderhäll
Astakine1 was isolated as a hematopoietic cytokine in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. In this study we detect and compare 79 sequences in GenBank, which we consider to be possible astakine orthologs, among which eleven are crustacean, sixteen are chelicerate and 52 are from insect species. Available arthropod genomes are searched for astakines, and in conclusion all astakine sequences in the current study have a similar exon containing CCXX(X), thus potentially indicating that they are homologous genes with the structure of this exon highly conserved...
November 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154856/comparative-study-of-two-immunity-related-gtpase-genes-in-chinese-soft-shell-turtle-reveals-their-molecular-characteristics-and-functional-activity-in-immune-defense
#4
Yan Shi, Sixian Shen, Sufei Hu, Tie Ding, Xiaoyou Hong, Chen Chen, Xinping Zhu, Zhe Zhao
The immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) are a family of proteins that play critical roles in innate resistance to intracellular pathogens. The number and diversity of IRG genes differ greatly in different species. Although IRG proteins have been well studies in mammals, they remain poorly characterized in lower vertebrates. In this study, we cloned two IRG genes, PsIRG5 and PsIRG8, from the Chinese soft-shelled turtle and compared their characterization and functional activity with mammalian IRGs. The PsIRG5 is a gene of 1896 bp that encodes a protein of 413 amino acid and PsIRG8 is 1543 bp in length encoding another 413 aa protein...
November 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154855/identification-and-characterization-of-a-calcium-dependent-lily-type-lectin-from-black-rockfish-sebastes-schlegelii-molecular-antennas-are-involved-in-host-defense-via-pathogen-recognition
#5
Roopasingam Kugapreethan, Qiang Wan, Jehanathan Nilojan, Jehee Lee
Lily-type lectins (LTLs) are soluble pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) that contain one or more characteristic carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs), through which LTLs bind reversibly and specifically to cognate sugar moieties present on the invading pathogen membrane and trigger the host innate immune responses. In this study, we identified a LTL homolog (SsLTL) from black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) transcriptome database and its functional roles in innate immunity was investigated in vitro and in vivo...
November 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154854/chicken-il-17a-is-expressed-in-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-subsets-and-binds-to-a-receptor-present-on-macrophages-and-t-cells
#6
Isabelle Walliser, Thomas W Göbel
IL-17A as important cytokine in host defense has been analysed intensively and various homologous have been identified. To further gain insight into the functional properties of chicken (gg) IL-17A its expression profile was analysed by intracellular cytokine staining. In splenocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells gg IL-17A was detected in subsets of CD4(+) T cells and γδ T cells. In contrast the gg IL-17A producing populations in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes were characterized as either CD3(+)CD25(+) cells or γδ T cells...
November 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146454/beyond-immunity-the-imd-pathway-as-a-coordinator-of-host-defense-organismal-physiology-and-behavior
#7
Zongzhao Zhai, Xiaoshan Huang, Yulong Yin
The humoral arm of host defense in Drosophila relies on two evolutionarily conserved NFκB signaling cascades, the Toll and the immune deficiency (Imd) pathways. The Imd signaling pathway senses and neutralizes Gram-negative bacteria. Its activity is tightly adjusted, allowing the host to simultaneously prevent infection by pathogenic bacteria and tolerate beneficial gut microbiota. Over-activation of Imd signaling is detrimental at least in part by causing gut dysbiosis that further exacerbates intestinal pathologies...
November 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146453/cellular-and-biochemical-parameters-following-autotomy-and-ablation-mediated-cheliped-loss-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#8
Xiao-Zhen Yang, Cong Zhang, Gen-Yong Huang, Min-Jie Xu, Yong-Xu Cheng, Zhi-Gang Yang, Qian Zhang, Yi-Yue Wang
In the pond culture of juvenile Eriocheir sinensis, various factors have frequently led to a high rate of autotomy and limb impairments. This study evaluated the differential effects of cheliped loss with autotomy and ablation on the short-term cellular and biochemical parameters of juvenile E. sinensis. In this study, compared with the crabs before treatment, the total hemocyte counts (THC), granulocyte counts (GC), hemocyte agglutination, phosphatase activity and glucose metabolism levels were significantly increased, while hyalinocyte counts (HC) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were significantly decreased within 3 h...
November 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133063/octopamine-enhances-the-immune-responses-of-freshwater-giant-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii-via-octopamine-receptors
#9
Hsin-Wei Kuo, Winton Cheng
Octopamine (OA) is known to play an important role in regulating insect immune responses. In Macrobrachium rosenbergii (18.0 ± 1.7 g), OA at 25.0 and 250.0 pmol/prawn significantly increased THC, semigranular cells (SGCs) and PO activity in hemocytes per 50 μL hemolymph, hyaline cells, granular cells (GCs) and RBs in hemocytes per 10 μL hemolymph, and RBs per hemocyte, and however, significantly decreased PO activity per granulocyte (GC + SGC), which returned to control levels after 4 h of injection...
November 10, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126991/rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-adipose-tissue-undergoes-major-changes-in-immune-gene-expression-following-bacterial-infection-or-stimulation-with-pro-inflammatory-molecules
#10
Kimberly A Veenstra, Eakapol Wangkahart, Tiehui Wang, Lincoln Tubbs, Juliette Ben Arous, Christopher J Secombes
In mammals, visceral adipose is increasingly seen as playing an important role in immune function with numerous pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating proteins and peptides being identified in adipocytes. Adipose is also now known as a tissue that has an important role in the regulation of peritoneal immune responses. Despite this, only lately has consideration been given to visceral adipose as an important immune tissue in fish, especially in the context of intraperitoneal vaccination. The present study demonstrates that fish visceral adipose is capable of expressing a large range of immune molecules in response to stimulation with a live bacterium (A...
November 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122634/development-of-molecular-and-cellular-tools-to-decipher-the-type-i-ifn-pathway-of-the-common-vampire-bat
#11
Sarkis Sarkis, Marie-Claude Lise, Edith Darcissac, Stéphanie Dabo, Marcel Falk, Laura Chaulet, Christine Neuveut, Eliane F Meurs, Anne Lavergne, Vincent Lacoste
Though the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, is known as the main rabies virus reservoir in Latin America, no tools are available to investigate its antiviral innate immune system. To characterize the IFN-I pathway, we established an immortalized cell line from a D. rotundus fetal lung named FLuDero. Then we molecularly characterized some of the Toll-like receptors (TLR3, 7, 8 and 9), the three RIG-I-like receptor members, as well as IFNα1 and IFNβ. Challenging the FLuDero cell line with poly (I:C) resulted in an up-regulation of both IFNα1 and IFNβ and the induction of expression of the different pattern recognition receptors characterized...
November 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100917/a-novel-c1q-domain-containing-protein-from-razor-clam-sinonovacula-constricta-mediates-g-bacterial-agglutination-as-a-pattern-recognition-receptor
#12
Yi Cui, Zhixin Wei, Yaoyao Shen, Chenghua Li, Yina Shao, Weiwei Zhang, Xuelin Zhao
Complement component 1q (C1q) with a characteristic C1q globular domain is an important pattern recognition molecule in the classical complement systems and plays a major role in the crosslinking between innate immunity and specific immunity in vertebrates. In this study, a homologous gene encoding typically C1q domains was obtained from the razor clam Sinonovacula constricta (designated ScC1qDC) by rapid amplification of the cDNA end. The full-length cDNA of ScC1qDC was 1225 bp in length with a 5'UTR of 258 bp, a 3'UTR of 223 bp, and an open reading frame of 744 bp encoding a polypeptide of 247 amino acids containing a typical C1q globular domain...
November 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102705/a-laminin-receptor-like-protein-regulates-white-spot-syndrome-virus-infection-by-binding-to-the-viral-envelope-protein-vp28-in-red-claw-crayfish-cherax-quadricarinatus
#13
Ling-Ke Liu, Wei-Dong Li, Yan Gao, Rong-Yuan Chen, Xiao-Lu Xie, Heng Hong, Ke-Jian Wang, Hai-Peng Liu
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a lethal pathogen of shrimp and many other crustaceans, which has been causing huge economic losses in global aquaculture. Laminin receptor (LR) is a cell surface receptor which participates in the interactions between cells as well as cells and extracellular matrix. Previously, we found that a CqLR-like gene was responsive to WSSV infection in the hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cells from red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. To further reveal the role of CqLR-like gene involved in WSSV infection, the full-length cDNA of CqLR-like gene was cloned with 1000 bp, and the open reading frame encoded 308 amino acids with a conserved laminin-binding domain...
November 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100916/molecular-characterization-ontogeny-and-expression-profiling-of-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-adapter-mavs-from-asian-seabass-lates-calcarifer-bloch-1790
#14
Rahul Krishnan, P Girish Babu, K Jeena, Gayathri Tripathi, Kurcheti Pani Prasad
Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), an innate immune signaling adapter coordinates the signals received from two independent cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors (RIG-1 and MDA5) to induce antiviral genes. In the present study the MAVS gene of Lates calcarifer (LcMAVS) was cloned and characterized. The complete cDNA sequence of LcMAVS was 3160 bp and encodes a poly peptide of 577 amino acids. Structural analysis of LcMAVS revealed an N-terminal CARD-like domain, central proline-rich domain and a C-terminal transmembrane domain...
October 31, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097236/haemophilus-parasuis-infection-activates-nod1-2-rip2-signaling-pathway-in-pk-15%C3%A2-cells
#15
Bin Ma, Kexin Hua, Shanshan Zhou, Hufeng Zhou, Yushan Chen, Rui Luo, Dingren Bi, Rui Zhou, Qigai He, Hui Jin
Haemophilus parasuis, an important swine pathogen, was recently proven able to invade into endothelial or epithelial cell in vitro. NOD1/2 are specialized NLRs that participate in the recognition of pathogens able to invade intracellularly and therefore, we assessed that the contribution of NOD1/2 to inflammation responses during H. parasuis infection. We observed that H. parasuis infection enhanced NOD2 expression and RIP2 phosphorylation in porcine kidney 15 cells. Our results also showed that knock down of NOD1/2 or RIP2 expression respectively significantly decreased H...
October 31, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097235/unc93b1-is-essential-for-cytokine-activation-of-five-pamps-in-the-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides
#16
Yaosi Liang, Yu Wang, Liangge He, Jianan He, Wan Peng, Libin Zhou, Yong Zhang, Haifa Zhang, Herong Shi, Haoran Lin, Danqi Lu
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important innate immune receptors that recognize multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and activate the immune responses to resist the invasion of pathogens. Many TLRs need assistance from trafficking chaperones to transport to the specific cell compartments and then are processed before they are activated. In this study, we identified an important trafficking chaperone, Unc-93 homolog B1 (unc93b1), from the Epinephelus coioides (orange-spotted grouper). The deduced protein sequence of Eco...
October 31, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103899/perturbation-of-the-t-cell-receptor-repertoire-occurs-with-increasing-age-in-dogs
#17
Angela Holder, Samantha M Mirczuk, Robert C Fowkes, Donald B Palmer, Richard Aspinall, Brian Catchpole
Immunosenescence is the gradual deterioration in immune system function associated with ageing. This decline is partly due to involution of the thymus, which leads to a reduction in the output of naive T cells into the circulating lymphocyte pool. Expansion of existing naive and memory T cell populations, to compensate for the reduction in thymic output, can lead to reduced diversity in the T cell repertoire with increasing age, resulting in impairment of immune responses to novel antigenic challenges, such as during infection and vaccination...
October 28, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106988/trans-generational-immune-priming-in-the-mealworm-beetle-protects-eggs-through-pathogen-dependent-mechanisms-imposing-no-immediate-fitness-cost-for-the-offspring
#18
Julien Dhinaut, Manon Chogne, Yannick Moret
Immune-challenged mothers can improve their offspring immunity through trans-generational immune priming (TGIP). In insects, TGIP endows the offspring with lifetime immunity, including the eggs, which are likely exposed soon after maternal infection. Egg protection may rely on the transfer of maternal immune effectors to the egg or/and the induction of egg immune genes. These respective mechanisms are assumed to have early-life fitness costs of different magnitude for the offspring. We provide evidence in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor that enhanced egg immunity following a maternal immune challenge is achieved by both of these mechanisms but in a pathogen-dependent manner...
October 26, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080785/a-conserved-toll-like-receptor-to-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-the-endangered-coral-orbicella-faveolata
#19
Leah M Williams, Lauren E Fuess, Joseph J Brennan, Katelyn M Mansfield, Erick Salas-Rodriguez, Julianne Welsh, Jake Awtry, Sarah Banic, Cecilia Chacko, Aarthia Chezian, Donovan Dowers, Felicia Estrada, Yu-Hsuan Hsieh, Jiawen Kang, Wanwen Li, Zoe Malchiodi, John Malinowski, Sean Matuszak, Thomas McTigue, David Mueller, Brian Nguyen, Michelle Nguyen, Phuong Nguyen, Sinead Nguyen, Ndidi Njoku, Khusbu Patel, William Pellegrini, Tessa Pliakas, Deena Qadir, Emma Ryan, Alex Schiffer, Amber Thiel, Sarah A Yunes, Kathryn E Spilios, Jorge H Pinzón C, Laura D Mydlarz, Thomas D Gilmore
Herein, we characterize the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-to-NF-κB innate immune pathway of Orbicella faveolata (Of), which is an ecologically important, disease-susceptible, reef-building coral. As compared to human TLRs, the intracellular TIR domain of Of-TLR is most similar to TLR4, and it can interact in vitro with the human TLR4 adapter MYD88. Treatment of O. faveolata tissue with lipopolysaccharide, a ligand for mammalian TLR4, resulted in gene expression changes consistent with NF-κB pathway mobilization...
October 26, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079148/trypsin-of-litopenaeus-vannamei-is-required-for-the-generation-of-hemocyanin-derived-peptides
#20
Changping Li, Fan Wang, Jude Juventus Aweya, Defu Yao, Zhou Zheng, He Huang, Shengkang Li, Yueling Zhang
Hemocyanin is a copper containing respiratory glycoprotein in arthropods and mollusks, which also have multiple functions in vivo. Recent studies have shown that hemocyanin could generate several peptides, which play important roles in shrimp innate immunity. However, how these hemocyanin-derived peptides are generated is still largely unknown. In this study, we report for the first time that the generation of hemocyanin-derived peptides was closely correlated with trypsin expression in shrimp hepatopancreas following infection with different bacteria...
October 24, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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