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Developmental and Comparative Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642050/the-drosophila-thioester-containing-protein-4-participates-in-the-induction-of-the-cellular-immune-response-to-the-pathogen-photorhabdus
#1
Upasana Shokal, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The function of thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) in the immune defense of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is yet mostly unexplored. Recently, we showed the involvement of TEP4 in the activation of humoral and phenoloxidase immune responses of Drosophila against the pathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens and Photorhabdus asymbiotica. Here, we investigated the participation of Tep4 in the cellular defense of Drosophila against the two pathogens. We report significantly lower numbers of live and dead plasmatocytes in the tep4 mutants compared to control flies in response to Photorhabdus infection...
June 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633932/%C3%AE-2-adrenoreceptor-stimulation-dampens-the-lps-induced-m1-polarization-in-pig-macrophages
#2
Elodie Bacou, Karine Haurogné, Marie Allard, Grégoire Mignot, Jean-Marie Bach, Julie Hervé, Blandine Lieubeau
The cross-talk between sympatho-adreno-medullar axis and innate immunity players was mainly studied in rodents. In intensive husbandry, pigs are exposed to multiple stressors inducing repeated releases of catecholamines that bind to adrenoreceptors (AR) on target cells. Among adrenoreceptors, the β2-AR is largely expressed by immune cells including macrophages. We report herein on the effects of catecholamines, through β2-AR stimulation, on pig macrophage functions activated by LPS. β2-AR stimulation of porcine macrophages prevented the LPS-induced increase in TNFα and IL-8 secretion while increasing IL-10 secretion...
June 17, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625747/molecular-identification-and-characterization-of-haptoglobin-in-teleosts-revealed-an-important-role-on-fish-viral-infections
#3
Héctor Cordero, Chang Hong Li, Elena Chaves-Pozo, María Ángeles Esteban, Alberto Cuesta
Haptoglobin (Hp) molecule has been cloned and characterized in two marine teleosts (gilthead seabream and European sea bass), obtaining putative proteins of 319 residues encoded by an ORF of 960 bp in both species. However, the matrix of similarity revealed low identities among bony fish species 78.9% (seabream-sea bass), 43% (seabream/seabass-zebrafish) and lower than 20% with sharks and human. The protein sequences showed a signal peptide from the position 1 to 23, a trypsin domain from 47 to 297, and several predicted disulfide bridges and glycosylation sites...
June 16, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625746/the-fragmentation-mechanism-and-immune-protective-effect-of-cftep-in-the-scallop-chlamys-farreri
#4
Zhuang Xue, Leilei Wang, Zhaoqun Liu, Weilin Wang, Chang Liu, Xiaorui Song, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs), characterized by a unique intrachain β-cysteinyl-γ-glutamyl thioester bond, form an ancient and diverse family of secreted proteins that play central roles in the innate immune response. But the existence form and immune protection mechanism of TEP in invertebrates still remain unclear, especially in the mollusks. The fragmentation and the immune-protective effect of thioester bond in CfTEP, a previously identified thioester-containing protein in scallop Chlamys farreri, were characterized in the present study...
June 15, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624491/the-first-report-of-cathepsin-a-gene-in-a-teleost-rock-bream-oplegnathus-fasciatus-an-investigation-of-immune-functions-upon-infection-with-several-pathogens
#5
Ju-Won Kim, Hee Jeong Kong, Bo-Hye Nam, Jung Youn Park, Do-Hyung Kim, Ji-Min Jeong, Chan-Il Park
We isolated and characterised a cDNA encoding the lysosomal protective protein (serine protease) cathepsin A (CTSA) from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). The full-length rock bream CTSA (RbCTSA) cDNA (1814 bp) contains an open reading frame of 1419 bp that encodes 472 amino acids. Alignment of multiple CTSA protein sequences revealed that the active site serine and histidine residues were well-conserved among the other CTSA sequences. RbCTSA is highly expressed in the peripheral blood leukocytes, kidney, spleen, liver, intestine, gill, heart, brain, stomach, and eye...
June 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619282/the-first-cub-domain-containing-serine-protease-from-chlamys-farreri-which-might-be-involved-in-larval-development-and-immune-response
#6
Chuanyan Yang, Leilei Wang, Huan Zhang, Qilin Yi, Lingling Wang, Hao Wang, Linsheng Song
Serine proteases (SPs) are one of the most well understood enzyme families, which play an important role in regulating many physiological events. In the present study, one CUB-domain containing serine protease was identified from Chlamys farreri (designated as CfCUBSP). The full-length cDNA of CfCUBSP was of 3181 bp with an open reading frame of 2688 bp encoding a polypeptide of 896 amino acids. CfCUBSP shared closer phylogenetic relationship with those multi-domain SPs which consisted of one SP domain, and different numbers of CUB domain and LDLa domain than other SPs...
June 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606801/molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-b-cell-lymphoma-2-bcl-2-in-the-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides
#7
Sheng-Wei Luo, Huan Kang, Jing-Rong Kong, Ren-Chong Xie, Yuan Liu, Wei-Na Wang, Fu-Xing Xie, Cong Wang, Zuo-Ming Sun
Bcl-2 is a pro-survival member of Bcl-2 like superfamily, playing an important role in regulating the apoptotic process. In this study, the full-length Bcl-2 (EcBcl-2) was obtained, consisting of a 5'UTR of 290 bp, an ORF of 699 bp and a 3'UTR of 920 bp. EcBcl-2 gene encoded a polypeptide of 232 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 26.12 KDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.93. The deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed that EcBcl-2 consisted of the conserved residues and characteristic domains known to the critical functionality for Bcl-2...
June 9, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595972/17%C3%AE-ethynylestradiol-alters-the-peritoneal-immune-response-of-gilthead-seabream
#8
N E Gómez González, I Cabas, M C Rodenas, M Arizcun, V Mulero, A García Ayala
17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen used in most oral contraceptives pills and hormone replacement therapies, is found in many water bodies, where it can modulate the fish immune response. EE2 acts as an endocrine disruptor in gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata L., a marine teleost fish of great economic value in Mediterranean aquaculture, as it induces hepatic vitellogenin gene (vtg) expression. Moreover, EE2 also alters the capacity of gilthead seabream to appropriately respond to infection although it does not behave as an immunosuppressor...
June 9, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587861/evolutionary-dynamics-of-an-expressed-mhc-class-ii%C3%AE-locus-in-the-ranidae-anura-uncovered-by-genome-walking-and-high-throughput-amplicon-sequencing
#9
Kevin P Mulder, Maria Cortazar-Chinarro, D James Harris, Angelica Crottini, Evan H Campbell Grant, Robert C Fleischer, Anna E Savage
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a genomic region encoding immune loci that are important and frequently used markers in studies of adaptive genetic variation and disease resistance. Given the primary role of infectious diseases in contributing to global amphibian declines, we characterized the hypervariable exon 2 and flanking introns of the MHC Class IIβ chain for 17 species of frogs in the Ranidae, a speciose and cosmopolitan family facing widespread pathogen infections and declines. We find high levels of genetic variation concentrated in the Peptide Binding Region (PBR) of the exon...
June 3, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587860/the-oyster-immunity
#10
Lingling Wang, Xiaorui Song, Linsheng Song
Oysters, the common name for a number of different bivalve molluscs, are the worldwide aquaculture species and also play vital roles in the function of ecosystem. As invertebrate, oysters have evolved an integrated, highly complex innate immune system to recognize and eliminate various invaders via an array of orchestrated immune reactions, such as immune recognition, signal transduction, synthesis of antimicrobial peptides, as well as encapsulation and phagocytosis of the circulating haemocytes. The hematopoietic tissue, hematopoiesis, and the circulating haemocytes have been preliminary characterized, and the detailed annotation of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas genome has revealed massive expansion and functional divergence of innate immune genes in this animal...
June 3, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587859/characterization-and-function-of-a-tachylectin-5-like-immune-molecule-in-penaeus-monodon
#11
Pacharaporn Angthong, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Padermsak Jarayabhand, Pikul Jiravanichpaisal
Tachylectin5A and its homolog, tachylectin5B both contain a fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) and have been studied in horseshoe crabs, Tachypleus tridentatus and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and shown to be involved in host defense. Here, we demonstrate the presence of tachylectin5-like genes in shrimp, Penaeus monodon, designated as Penlectin5-1 (PL5-1) and Penlectin5-2 (PL5-2), which both contain a signal peptide and a single FReD with an acetyl group and a calcium binding sites and they are both structurally similar to horseshoe crab tachylectin/carcinolectin5...
June 3, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579079/ontogenetic-changes-in-the-expression-of-immune-related-genes-in-response-to-immunostimulants-and-resistance-against-white-spot-syndrome-virus-in-litopenaeus-vannamei
#12
T Rajkumar, G Taju, S Abdul Majeed, M Sinwan Sajid, S Santhosh Kumar, S Sivakumar, S Thamizhvanan, S Vimal, A S Sahul Hameed
In recent years, researchers have focused on viral and plant immunostimulants which could have beneficial effects in disease prevention and control in shrimp culture. At present, the application of the recombinant VP28 protein (r-VP28) and herbal immunostimulant has been considered as a more effective approach to prevent white spot syndrome (WSS) by enhancing the immune response in shrimp. In the present study, expression of selected immune related genes in response to r-VP28 and herbal immunostimulant mix (HIM) were separately studied qualitatively and quantitatively by RT-PCR and real time PCR, respectively during ontogenetic development from nauplius to juvenile stage in Litopenaeus vannamei...
June 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577760/the-occurrence-of-three-d-j-c-clusters-within-the-dromedary-trb-locus-highlights-a-shared-evolution-in-tylopoda-ruminantia-and-suina
#13
Rachele Antonacci, Mariagrazia Bellini, Angela Pala, Micaela Mineccia, Mohamed S Hassanane, Salvatrice Ciccarese, Serafina Massari
The αβ T cells are important components of the adaptive immune system and can recognize a vast array of peptides presented by MHC molecules. The ability of these T cells to recognize the complex depends on the diversity of the αβ TR, which is generated by a recombination of specific Variable, Diversity and Joining genes for the β chain, and Variable and Joining genes for the α chain. In this study, we analysed the genomic structure and the gene content of the TRB locus in Camelus dromedarius, which is a species belonging to the Tylopoda suborder...
May 31, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564581/identification-characterization-and-function-analysis-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-repressing-factor-nkrf-gene-from-litopenaeus-vannamei
#14
Wei Qiu, Jian-Hui He, Hongliang Zuo, Shengwen Niu, Chaozheng Li, Shuang Zhang, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He, Xiaopeng Xu
The NF-κB family transcription factors regulate a wide spectrum of biological processes, in particular immune responses. The studies in human suggest that the NF-κB repressing factor (NKRF) negatively regulates the activity of NF-κB through a direct protein-protein interaction. However, the function of NKRF has not been studied outside mammals up to now. The current study identified a NKRF gene (LvNKRF) from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, which showed homology with NKRFs from insects, fishes and mammals...
May 28, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559111/pattern-recognition-receptors-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-i-organization-and-expression-analysis-of-tlrs-and-rlrs
#15
Zhiwei Liao, Quanyuan Wan, Hang Su, Changsong Wu, Jianguo Su
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play indispensable roles in the immune responses against invading pathogens. In the present study, we systematically identified and characterized Toll-like receptors (TLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) as well as their adaptors in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A comprehensive analysis of BLAST and other bioinformatics methods showed that C. idella TLR family consist of 21 members and their adaptors contain four members. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of six TLR subfamilies (TLR1, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 11 subfamily) in C...
May 27, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549733/divergent-roles-of-three-cytochrome-c-in-ctsb-modulating-coelomocyte-apoptosis-in-apostichopus-japonicus
#16
Huahui Chen, Miao Lv, Zhimeng Lv, Chenghua Li, Weiwei Zhang, Xuelin Zhao, Xuemei Duan, Chunhua Jin, Jinbo Xiong, Feng Xu, Ye Li
Cytochrome c plays crucial roles in apoptosis and the immune response. We previously demonstrated that cathepsin B from Apostichopus japonicus (AjCTSB) induces coelomocyte apoptosis. However, the mechanistic explanation and the regulation of this process have not been investigated. In the present study, we identified three cytochrome c cDNAs from A. japonicus (designated Ajcytc1, Ajcytc-1, and Ajcytc-2) using expressed sequence tag- (EST) and RACE-based approaches. The deduced amino acid sequences of the three cytochrome isoforms contained conserved CXXCH motifs, which are involved in binding heme and maintaining proteolytic activity...
May 24, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545960/vaccination-with-multimeric-recombinant-vp28-induces-high-protection-against-white-spot-syndrome-virus-in-shrimp
#17
Suparat Taengchaiyaphum, Hideki Nakayama, Jiraporn Srisala, Ratny Khiev, Diva January Aldama-Cano, Siripong Thitamadee, Kallaya Sritunyalucksana
To improve the efficacy of WSSV protection, multimeric (tetrameric) recombinant VP28 (4XrVP28) was produced and tested in comparison with those of monomeric VP28 (1XrVP28). In vitro binding of either 1XrVP28 or 4XrVP28 to shrimp hemocyte surface was evident as early as 10 min after protein inoculation. Similar results were obtained in vivo when shrimp were injected with recombinant proteins that the proteins bound to the hemocyte surface could be detected since 5 min after injection. Comparison of the WSSV protection efficiencies of 1XrVP28 or 4XrVP28 were performed by injection the purified 1XrVP28 or 4XrVP28 (22...
May 22, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545959/serpin-14-negatively-regulates-prophenoloxidase-activation-and-expression-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-chinese-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#18
Saima Kausar, Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Cen Qian, Baojian Zhu, Yu Sun, Yuxuan Sun, Lei Wang, Guoqing Wei, Iram Maqsood, Chao-Liang Liu
Genes encoding proteins of serpins superfamily are widely distributed in invertebrates. In insects, serpins play important roles in regulating immune responses and other physiological processes. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of cDNA of Apserpin-14 from Chinese oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi). The Apserpin-14 gene contains 1206 bp open reading frame, encoding a predicted 401 amino acid residue protein. We expressed the recombinant Apserpin-14 protein in Escherichia coli and then purified protein was used to prepare rabbit anti-Apserpin-14 polyclonal antibodies...
May 22, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528959/role-of-astakine1-in-regulating-transglutaminase-activity
#19
Ratchanok Sirikharin, Kingkamon Junkunlo, Kenneth Söderhäll, Irene Söderhäll
Transglutaminase (TGase) has been implicated in maintaining the undifferentiated stage of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. TGase activity has been reported to be regulated by astakine1, an essential crayfish cytokine for inducing new hemocyte synthesis in hematopoietic tissue (HPT). Here, the role of astakine1 in TGase activity regulation and clotting protein (CP) cross-linking was characterized. A reduction in TGase activity was observed by the addition of purified astakine1 in vitro for both endogenous crayfish TGase and a commercial purified guinea pig liver TGase...
May 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526442/comparative-study-of-interleukin-17c-il-17c-and-il-17d-in-large-yellow-croaker-larimichthys-crocea-reveals-their-similar-but-differential-functional-activity
#20
Yang Ding, Jingqun Ao, Xinhua Chen
Interleukin 17 (IL-17) family members are key players in regulating the immune response in mammals. Here, we identified the IL-17C and IL-17D homologs from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), named LcIL-17C and LcIL-17D, respectively. The deduced LcIL-17C and LcIL-17D proteins possessed the typical IL-17 domain and shared a conserved arrangement of eight cysteine residues. Both LcIL-17C and LcIL-17Dc genes were constitutively expressed in all tissues examined, although at different levels. After challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila, the expression of LcIL-17C and LcIL-17D was significantly increased in gills, head kidney, and spleen...
May 16, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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