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Developmental and Comparative Immunology

Wei Yu, Yanzhi Luo, Yongyao Yu, Shuai Dong, Yaxing Yin, Zhenyu Huang, Zhen Xu
In vertebrates, the T cell receptor (TCR) plays a crucial role in immune system. To date, the roles of fish TCRs in response to pathogen infection are still poorly understood. In the present study, we firstly cloned and identified the TCRα and TCRβ from dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) by RACE approaches. The full-length cDNAs of Ma-TCRα and Ma-TCRβ include an open reading frame (ORF) of 723 and 879 bp encoding a polypeptide of 241 and 293 amino acids, respectively. Structural analysis indicated that Ma-TCRα and Ma-TCRβ had a signal peptide, IgV domain, IgC domain, a connecting peptide (CPS), a transmembrane region (TM) and a cytoplasmic (CYT), which are similar to their counterparts described in other teleost...
September 8, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Børre Robertsen, Linn Greiner-Tollersrud, Lars Gaute Jørgensen
Mx proteins are antiviral GTPases, which are induced by type I IFN and virus infection. Analysis of the Atlantic salmon genome revealed the presence of 9 Mx genes localized to three chromosomes. A cluster of three Mx genes (SsaMx1 - SsaMx3), which includes previously cloned Mx genes, is present on chromosome (Chr) 12. A cluster of five Mx genes (SsaMx4-SsaMx8) is present on Chr25 while one Mx gene (SsaMx9) is present on Chr9. Phylogenetic and gene synteny analyses showed that SsaMx1-SsaMx3 are most closely related to the main group of teleost Mx proteins...
September 6, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Min Yang, Qing Wang, Shaowen Wang, Yuxing Wang, Qinglu Zeng, Qiwei Qin
In this study, the transcriptional response of grouper to Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) stimulation was characterized using RNA sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing of three test groups in the grouper was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The three test groups were a control group, which was injected with PBS buffer; a high-susceptible (HS) group, which died shortly after the SGIV injection; and a high-resistance (HR) group, which survived the SGIV injection. In total, 38,253 unigenes were generated...
September 6, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Shanshan Huo, Jianlou Zhang, Fengyang Wu, Yuzhu Zuo, Dan Cui, Xiujin Li, Zhenyu Zhong, Fei Zhong
Human and mouse CD83 have been well characteized, however, the other mammalian CD83 genes have not been cloned and characterized. In this study, the porcine CD83 (pCD83) was cloned, expressed and characterized, and showed that the pCD83 gene has 81% and 74% homologies with humans and mice, respectively, which was identified to be glycosylated when expressed in eukaryotic cells, existing naturally in two forms: membrance-bound CD83 (mCD83) and soluble CD83 (sCD83), the latter was identified to be generated mainly from mCD83 by proteolytic shedding...
September 5, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Kornélia Bodó, Ákos Boros, Éva Rumpler, László Molnár, Katalin Böröcz, Péter Németh, Péter Engelmann
Lumbricin and its orthologue antimicrobial peptides were typically isolated from annelids. In this report, mRNA for lumbricin and -serendipitously- a novel lumbricin-related mRNA sequence were identified in Eisenia andrei earthworms. The determined mRNA sequences of E. andrei lumbricin and lumbricin-related peptide consist of 477 and 575 nucleotides. The precursors of proline-rich E. andrei lumbricin and the related peptide contain 63 and 59 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated close relationship with other annelid lumbricins...
September 1, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Catherine Moore, Erin Hennessey, Meaghan Smith, Lidia Epp, Patty Zwollo
Phenotypes of myeloid-lineage cells remain poorly understood in the rainbow trout, and were the focus of this study, including effects of in vivo challenge to Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp), the cause of Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD). A genetic line was used that is highly resistant to BCWD (R-line) as well as a susceptible control line (S-line). Using flow cytometry, we describe two Pax5-negative, myeloid-lineage populations: Population 1 consisted of small cells with high SSC and strong staining for Q4E, MPO, Pu1, EBF, and IL- 1β, which we named "neutrophil-like" cell...
August 30, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jianping Fu, Shannan Chen, Xin Zhao, Zhang Luo, Pengfei Zou, Yi Liu
The reduction of disulfide bonds of exogenous antigens is crucial to the MHC-II class antigen processing and presenting pathway and is catalysed by interferon-γ-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT). In this study, a reptile GILT gene from Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis (PsGILT), was identified. The full-length cDNA of PsGILT is 1631 nucleotides (nt), including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 3 nt, a 3'-UTR of 860 nt and an open reading frame (ORF) of 768 nt encoding 255 amino acids (aa)...
August 30, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Siwen Li, Yu Wang, Hongjing Zhao, Yizhi Shao, Juanjuan Liu, Mingwei Xing
The regulation of interferon-α signaling pathways is essential to protect the host from infection with a broad range of viruses. However, information regarding antiviral response and the specific molecular mechanism of Columba livia interferon-α (CoIFN-α) has not been reported to date. In this study, we cloned a 723bp complete ORF of CoIFN-α gene. The specific antiviral activity of CoIFN-α in VSV (TCID50  = 10-5.87 /100 μL)-infected CEFs reached 5.5 × 105 U/mg. Moreover, our result indicated that the anti-VSV efficient of CoIFN-α might depend on the expression of NF-κB...
August 28, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ting Tang, Wenqian Li, Xiaofen Wang, Yinjian Wu, Fengsong Liu
In mammals, the TNF family is important inflammatory cytokines. Eiger, the invertebrate ortholog of TNF identified firstly in Drosophila, has been implicated in immune response with an unknown molecular mechanism. The present work reports a novel eiger like gene (Mdeiger) from Musca domestica. Mdeiger was significantly up-regulated upon challenge with either Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus. Silencing Mdeiger led to higher mortalities of larvae post either E. coli or S. aureus infection, enhanced the expressions of attacin and diptericin, but blocked the induction of ceropin and muscin, and inhibited the activation of phenoloxidase following bacterial challenge...
August 27, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Qing Wang, Shaowen Wang, Yong Zhang, Yepin Yu, Huihong Zhao, Huirong Yang, Leyun Zheng, Min Yang, Qiwei Qin
Chemokines comprise a group of small molecular weight (6-14 kDa) cytokines; chemokine receptors are a superfamily of seven transmembrane domain G-coupled receptors. Both chemokines and their receptors have important roles in immune surveillance, inflammation, and development. Recently, 9 CXC chemokine ligands (CXCLs) and 8 CXC chemokine receptors (CXCRs) were identified and cloned from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and annotated by phylogenetic and syntenic analyses. We detected mRNA transcripts for CXCLs and CXCRs in healthy tissues of E...
August 27, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yun-Shiang Chang, Jian-Nan Chen, Kun-Hung Chang, Yi-Ming Chang, Ying-Jang Lai, Wang-Jing Liu
Lectin is a protein with multiple functions. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the Agrocybe aegerita lectin (AAL) gene was cloned, recombinant AAL (AAL-His) was expressed, and the activities of AAL-His were analyzed. Northern blot analysis showed that the major AAL transcript is approximately 900 bp. Sequence analysis showed that the coding region of AAL is 489 bp with a transcription start site located 39 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon. In an agglutination test, AAL-His agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes at 12...
July 19, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zhao Lv, Limei Qiu, Zhaoqun Liu, Weilin Wang, Hao Chen, Yunke Jia, Zhihao Jia, Shuai Jiang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Cathepsin L1 (CTSL1) is a lysosomal cysteine protease with a papain-like structure. It is known to be implicated in multiple processes of immune response against pathogen infection based on the proteolytic activity. In the present study, a CTSL1 homologue (designated as CgCTSL1) was identified from Crassostrea gigas. It contained a typically single Pept_C1 domain with three conserved catalytically essential residues (Gln25 , His135 and Asn178 ). The mRNA of CgCTSL1 was ubiquitously expressed in oyster tissues with the highest expression level in important immune tissues such as gill and hemocytes...
December 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Xiufang Wei, Bingxi Li, Liting Wu, Xiaoxue Yin, Xiaofang Zhong, Yuan Li, Yuhong Wang, Zheng Guo, Jianmin Ye
Interleukin 6 (IL-6), a pleiotropic cytokine, plays an important role in humoral immune response, not only inducing the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells, but also promoting antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) to produce antibodies. In this study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) IL-6 (OnIL-6) was identified and characterized at expression level in response to bacterial infection and promotion of antibody production. The open reading frame of OnIL-6 ORF is consisted of 663 bp encoding a polypeptide of 220 amino acids...
December 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Gefeng Xu, Tianqing Huang, Wei Gu, Yuyong Zhang, Zuochun Yao, Cheng Zhao, Bingqian Wang
Hepcidin, a cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide, is an important effector molecule in the innate immune system. Recently, Brachymystax lenok has become to be a valuable cold-water fish in China, particularly as the wild resources are rapidly declining. In this study, the hepcidin gene of Brachymystax lenok (Blhepc) has been cloned. The 870-bp mRNA contains a coding sequence (CDS) of 267 bp that encodes 88 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence identities of Blhepc with hepcidin in Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo salar, and Hucho taimen were found to be 93...
December 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ke-Yi Zhang, Wen-Jie Yuan, Ji-Dong Xu, Jin-Xing Wang
The cation-dependent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR) is a member of the P-type lectin family. As a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, it functions in the delivery of newly synthesized acid hydrolases from the trans-Golgi network to endosomes for their subsequent transfer to the lysosome by binding the mannose-6-phosphate receptor-recognition moieties in the hydrolases. However, the functions of CD-MPR in immune responses are seldom reported. In the present study, we identified a CD-MPR-like molecule in Marsupenaeus japonicus and designed it as MjCD-MPR...
December 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
S L Semple, N T K Vo, S J Poynter, M Li, D D Heath, S J DeWitte-Orr, B Dixon
Despite increased global interest in Chinook salmon aquaculture, little is known of their viral immune defenses. This study describes the establishment and characterization of a continuous cell line derived from Chinook salmon spleen, CHSS, and its use in innate immune studies. Optimal growth was seen at 14-18 °C when grown in Leibovitz's L-15 media with 20% fetal bovine serum. DNA analyses confirmed that CHSS was Chinook salmon and genetically different from the only other available Chinook salmon cell line, CHSE-214...
December 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Mohammad Vatanparast, Shabbir Ahmed, Salvador Herrero, Yonggyun Kim
Eicosanoids are oxygenated C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids that mediate various physiological processes in insects. Eicosanoid biosynthesis begins with a C20 precursor, arachidonic acid (5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid: AA). AA is usually released from phospholipids at sn-2 position by catalytic activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ). Although various PLA2 s classified into 16 gene families (= Groups) are known in various biological systems, few PLA2 s are known in insects. Only two PLA2 s involved in intracellular calcium independent PLA2 (iPLA2 ) group have been identified in lepidopteran insects with well known eicosanoid physiology...
December 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zaiqiao Sun, Shufeng Hao, Yi Gong, Ming Zhang, Jude Juventus Aweya, Ngoc Tuan Tran, Yueling Zhang, Hongyu Ma, Shengkang Li
Dual oxidases (DUOXs) were originally identified as NADPH oxidases (NOXs), found to be associated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) production at the plasma membrane and crucial in host biological processes. In this study, SpDUOX1 and SpDUOX2 of mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) were identified and studied. Both SpDUOX1 and SpDUOX2 are transmembrane proteins, including an N-signal peptide region and a peroxidase homology domain in the extracellular region, transmembrane regions, and three EF (calcium-binding region) domains, a FAD-binding domain, and a NAD binding domain in the intracellular region...
December 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Xu-Jie Zhang, Xiang-Yang Zhang, Peng Wang, Yong-An Zhang
In mammals, the binding of distinct costimulatory ligands CD80 and CD86 to their receptors is essential for optimal T cell activation. Previous studies have shown that only a single CD80/86 gene exists in rainbow trout (termed rtCD80/86A) and other teleost fish, suggesting that CD80 and CD86 arose by gene duplication in the tetrapod branch, after the separation of fish and tetrapods. However, in this study, another CD80/86 gene has been cloned from rainbow trout, termed rtCD80/86B. The sequence identity between trout CD80/86 is significantly higher than that between CD80 and CD86 in tetrapods, indicating that CD80 and CD86 underwent divergent evolution in vertebrates, especially in tetrapods...
December 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Tian Huang, Zheya Sheng, Xiaoxing Guan, Linyun Guo, Gengsheng Cao
Previous studies on immunoglobulin light chain (IgL) genes in avian species are limited to Galloanseres, and few studies have investigated IgL genes in Neoaves, which includes most living birds. Based on published genome data, we demonstrate that the pigeon (Columba livia) IgL locus spans approximately 24 kb of DNA and contains twenty Vλ segments located upstream of a single pair of Jλ-Cλ. Among the identified Vλ gene segments, four segments are structurally intact and all four segments are able to recombine with Jλ...
December 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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