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Developmental and Comparative Immunology

Suxu Tan, Jun Yao, Tao Zhou, Shikai Liu, Zihao Yuan, Changxu Tian, Qi Li, Zhanjiang Liu
The Rho family GTPases are a group of small monomeric G proteins, which are molecular switches in signaling pathways. They have been known to regulate a diverse range of cellular processes including actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and microtubule dynamics. In particular, their participations in immune responses are also significant. However, little information of the Rho GTPases is available in teleost including channel catfish, an economically important species and one of the best teleost models for immune research...
October 17, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Xiaoyuan Du, Xia Wang, Su Wang, Yang Zhou, Yu Zhang, Shicui Zhang
Our understanding of the function of vitellogenin (Vg) in reproduction has undergone a transformation over the past decade in parallel with new insights into the role of Vg in immunity. However, the time when Vg was endowed with immunological activities during animal evolution remains elusive. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the recombinant proteins rVitellogenin_N, rDUF1943, and rVWD from Vg of the basal metazoan coral Euphyllia ancora not only interact with Gram-positive and negative bacteria as well as their conserved surface components LTA and LPS but also enhance phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages...
October 17, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Mei-Mei Gu, Jing-Rong Kong, Di-Huang, Ting Peng, Chen-Ying Xie, Kai-Yuan Yang, Yuan Liu, Wei-Na Wang
Prohibitin2 (PHB2), a potential tumor suppressor protein, plays important roles in inhibition of cell cycle progression, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. To explore its potential roles in crustaceans' immune responses we have identified and characterized LvPHB2, a 891 bp gene encoding a 297 amino acids protein in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Expression analyses showed that LvPHB2 is expressed in all examined tissues, and largely present in cytoplasm, correlating with its known anti-oxidation function in mitochondria...
October 15, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ellen Collisson, Lisa Griggs, Yvonne Drechsler
Resistance to respiratory pathogens, including coronavirus-induced infection and clinical illness in chickens has been correlated with the B (MHC) complex and differential ex vivo macrophage responses. In the current study, in vitro T lymphocyte activation measured by IFNγ release was significantly higher in B2 versus B19 haplotypes. AIV infection of macrophages was required to activate T lymphocytes and prior in vivo exposure of chickens to NP AIV plasmid enhanced responses to infected macrophages. This study suggests that the demonstrated T lymphocyte activation is in part due to antigen presentation by the macrophages as well as cytokine release by the infected macrophages, with B2 haplotypes showing stronger activation...
October 13, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Shun Li, Long-Feng Lu, Scott E LaPatra, Dan-Dan Chen, Yong-An Zhang
The aquatic spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) causes significant mortality in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and TBK1 plays a crucial role in the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) system by phosphorylating its substrates to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and cellular antiviral responses. In this study, we report that zebrafish STAT6 is induced during SVCV infection and reduces IFNφ1 expression by suppressing TBK1 phosphorylation. A typical IFN stimulatory response element (ISRE) motif was found in the promoter region of zebrafish STAT6, and zebrafish STAT6 transcription was significantly upregulated in the early stages of virus infection...
October 12, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Abirami Arasu, Venkatesh Kumaresan, Rajesh Palanisamy, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Munuswamy-Ramanujam Ganesh, Jesu Arockiaraj
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are innate molecules that are found in a wide variety of species ranging from bacteria to humans. In recent years, excessive usage of antibiotics resulted in development of multi-drug resistant pathogens which made researchers to focus on AMPs as potential substitute for antibiotics. Lily type mannose-binding lectin is an extended super-family of structurally and evolutionarily related sugar binding proteins. These lectins are well-known AMPs which play important roles in fish defense mechanism...
October 8, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yongli Guo, Dong An, Ying Liu, Jun Bao, Xiuxin Luo, Xintong Cheng, Yujiao Wang, Mingchun Gao, Junwei Wang
A bovine interferon-kappa (BoIFN-κ) gene was amplified, which encodes a protein of 215 amino acids sharing 63% identity with human IFN-κ. BoIFN-κ was demonstrated to have antiviral and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, BoIFN-κ was shown to be highly sensitive to trypsin, however, it remained stable despite changes in pH and temperature. Result showed that BoIFN-κ can bind with bovine type I IFN receptors, and the antiviral activity can be blocked by antibodies against type I IFN receptors or BoIFN-κ...
September 29, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Weilin Wang, Meijia Li, Lingling Wang, Hao Chen, Zhaoqun Liu, Zhihao Jia, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
Hemocytes comprise diverse cell types with morphological and functional heterogeneity and play indispensable roles in immunological homeostasis of invertebrates. The morphological classification of different hemocytes in mollusk has been studied since the 1970's, yet the involvement of the different sub-populations in immune functions is far from clear. In the present study, three types of hemocytes were morphologically identified and separated as agranulocytes, semi-granulocytes and granulocytes by flow cytometry and Percoll(®) density gradient centrifugation...
September 28, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Heiko Vogel, Henrike Schmidtberg, Andreas Vilcinskas
The spread of the invasive harlequin ladybird (Harmonia axyridis) in Europe is accompanied by the decline of the native and non-invasive two-spotted ladybird (Adalia bipunctata). Here we show that microsporidia carried by H. axyridis can kill A. bipunctata following the oral uptake of spores, suggesting that their horizontal transmission via intraguild predation may help the invader to outcompete its native competitor. The native seven-spotted ladybird (Coccinella septempunctata) is thought to be less susceptible both to the spread of H...
September 28, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Warunthorn Monwan, Piti Amparyup, Anchalee Tassanakajon
Clip domain serine proteinases (ClipSPs) play critical roles in the activation of proteolytic cascade in invertebrate immune systems including the prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system. In this study, we characterized a snake-like serine protease, namely PmSnake, from the shrimp Penaeus monodon which has previously been identified based on the subtractive cDNA library of proPO double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-treated hemocytes. An open reading frame of PmSnake contains 1068 bp encoding a predicted protein of 355 amino acid residues with a putative signal peptide of 22 amino acids and two conserved domains (N-terminal clip domain and C-terminal trypsin-like serine proteinase domain)...
September 28, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Fan-Bin Zhan, Han Liu, Rui-Fang Lai, Ivan Jakovlić, Wei-Min Wang
Interferon regulatory factors (irfs) are a family of genes that encode transcription factors with important roles in regulating the expression of Type I interferons (IFNs) and other genes associated with related pathways. irfs have multitudinous functions in growth, development and regulation of oncogenesis. In this study, three irf family members (irf2, irf7, irf9) were identified and characterized in Megalobrama amblycephala at the mRNA and amino acid levels. M. amblycephala irfs share a high sequence homology with other vertebrate irfs...
September 25, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Sonia Rey, Visila Moiche, Sebastian Boltaña, Mariana Teles, Simon MacKenzie
Behavioural fever has been reported in different species of mobile ectotherms including the zebrafish, Danio rerio, in response to exogenous pyrogens. In this study we report, to our knowledge for the first time, upon the ontogenic onset of behavioural fever in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. For this, zebrafish larvae (from first feeding to juveniles) were placed in a continuous thermal gradient providing the opportunity to select their preferred temperature. The novel thermal preference aquarium was based upon a continuous vertical column system and allows for non-invasive observation of larvae vertical distribution under isothermal (TR at 28 °C) and thermal gradient conditions (TCH: 28-32 °C)...
September 23, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Maria L Simões, Yuemei Dong, Andrew Hammond, Ann Hall, Andrea Crisanti, Tony Nolan, George Dimopoulos
Mosquitoes have a multifaceted innate immune system that is actively engaged in warding off various pathogens, including the protozoan malaria parasite Plasmodium. Various immune signaling pathways and effectors have been shown to mediate a certain degree of defense specificity against different Plasmodium species. A key pattern recognition receptor of the Anopheles gambiae immune system is the fibrinogen domain-containing immunolectin FBN9, which has been shown to be transcriptonally induced by Plasmodium infection, and to mediate defense against both rodent and human malaria parasites and bacteria...
September 22, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Felicia Di Falco, Matteo Cammarata, Aiti Vizzini
Lysozyme is an important defense molecule of the innate immune system. Known for its bactericidal properties, lysozyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of b-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds between the N-acetyl glucosamine and N-acetyl muramic acid in the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. In this study, the complete coding sequence of four g-type lysozymes were identified in Ciona intestinalis. Phylogenetic analysis and modelling supported the hypothesis of a close relationship with the vertebrate g-type lysozymes suggesting that the C...
September 20, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Seongdo Lee, Don Anushka Sandaruwan Elvitigala, Sukkyoung Lee, Hyun Chul Kim, Hae-Chul Park, Jehee Lee
Bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding proteins (LBPs) are well-known proteins that play an indispensable role in host antimicrobial defense. Herein, we report a homolog of BPI/LBP from black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) (designated as RfBPI/LBP) and characterize its structural and functional features at the molecular level. We identified the putative complete open reading frame (1422 bp) of RfLBP that encodes a 474 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of ∼51...
September 20, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Qiujia Li, Xiaolong Dong, Weiwei Zheng, Hongyu Zhang
The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) gene encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids (PLs) from the sn-2 position. However, little is known about its role in humoral immune responses. In this study, we investigated the expression profile of PLA2 in different tissues and developmental stages in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and the results showed that the transcriptional level of PLA2 was high in the egg and mature stage and in the testis tissue. Bacterial infection increased the expression of PLA2, and the highest degree of up-regulation appeared in the fat body...
September 16, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Xiaolin Zhu, Mengchen Zhang, Feng Yao, Yuling Yin, Xiangyang Zou, Lin Hou
Peptidoglycan-recognition protein-SC2 precursor-like protein (PGRP-SC2) is a vital protein in innate immunity with a vita role in response to bacteria challenge in invertebrates. Here, a 678-bp full-length cDNA of pgrp-sc2 from A. sinica was obtained containing a 558-bp open reading frame encoding 185 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19.6 kDa. The predicted protein contains a PGRP and an Amidase2 domain, indicating that PGRP-SC2 is a PGRP family member and has N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase activity...
September 16, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yujia Yang, Qiang Fu, Tao Zhou, Yun Li, Shikai Liu, Qifan Zeng, Xiaozhu Wang, Yulin Jin, Changxu Tian, Zhenkui Qin, Rex Dunham, Zhanjiang Liu
Apolipoproteins are protein component of plasma lipoproteins. They exert crucial roles in lipoprotein metabolism and serve as enzyme cofactors, receptor ligands, and lipid transfer carriers in mammals. In teleosts, apolipoproteins are also involved in diverse processes including embryonic and ontogenic development, liver and digestive system organogenesis, and innate immunity. In this study, we identified a set of 19 apolipoprotein genes in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Phylogenetic analysis and syntenic analysis were conducted to determine their identities and evolutionary relationships...
September 15, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Rui-Fang Lai, Ivan Jakovlić, Han Liu, Fan-Bin Zhan, Jin Wei, Wei-Min Wang
The innate immunity serves as the primary line of defense against pathogen invasion. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in the innate immunity by sensing specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns and activating immune responses. In this study, 14 TLRs (TLR1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8a, 8b, 9, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22) were identified and characterized in a cyprinid fish Megalobrama amblycephala. A majority of MaTLRs possessed the typical structural features of the TLR protein family: LRR domain, TM region and TIR domain...
September 14, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
M J Trites, D R Barreda
Transferrin is an evolutionary conserved protein that in addition to having a critical role in iron transport also has been shown to have a crucial role in host defence, by depriving iron from invading pathogens. Recently cleaved transferrin products was shown to activate macrophages in vitro. We now use an in vivo model of self-resolving peritonitis in goldfish, coupled with gene expression and protein analysis to evaluate the contributions of cleaved transferrin to acute inflammation. We show, for the first time, that cleaved transferrin products are produced in vivo early during an acute inflammatory response...
September 10, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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