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Developmental and Comparative Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223254/issues-with-rna-seq-analysis-in-non-model-organisms-a-salmonid-example
#1
Arvind Sundaram, Torstein Tengs, Unni Grimholt
High throughput sequencing (HTS) is useful for many purposes as exemplified by the other topics included in this special issue. The purpose of this paper is to look into the unique challenges of using this technology in non-model organisms where resources such as genomes, functional genome annotations or genome complexity provide obstacles not met in model organisms. To describe these challenges, we narrow our scope to RNA sequencing used to study differential gene expression in response to pathogen challenge...
February 18, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223253/development-and-characterization-of-mouse-monoclonal-antibodies-reactive-with-chicken-cxcli2
#2
Woo H Kim, Hyun S Lillehoj, Yeasul Lim, Wongi Min, Yvonne B Sullivan, Laura Kakach, Joanna W LaBresh
Interleukin-8(IL-8)/CXCL8 is a CXC-family chemokine attracts lymphocytes to sites of tissue damage and plays a role in the inflammatory response and wound healing. Chicken chemotactic and angiogenic factor was referred to as chCXCLi2 and has been studied as one of human CXCL8 homologue for more than 20 years. However, no monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically detect chCXCLi2 have been developed. Here, we developed and characterized mouse mAbs against chCXCLi2 to define its immunological properties. Two mouse mAbs against chCXCLi2 were generated and confirmed to display specific binding with not only recombinants, but endogenous chCXCLi2 by Western blot analysis, ELISA, and immunocytochemistry...
February 18, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223252/the-origin-and-evolution-of-basigin-bsg-gene-a-comparative-genomic-and-phylogenetic-analysis
#3
Xinyan Zhu, Shenglan Wang, Mingjie Shao, Jie Yan, Fei Liu
Basigin (BSG), also known as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) or cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147), plays various fundamental roles in the intercellular recognition involved in immunologic phenomena, differentiation, and development. In this study, we aimed to compare the similarities and differences of BSG among organisms and explore possible evolutionary relationships based on the comparison result. We used the extensive BLAST tool to search the metazoan genomes, N-glycosylation sites, the transmembrane region and other functional sites...
February 18, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223161/molecular-characterization-of-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-irak4-gene-and-its-role-in-myd88-dependent-pathway
#4
Xueying Tang, Baoyu Huang, Linlin Zhang, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) play important roles in MyD88-dependent TLR signaling, the crucial innate immune pathway in molluscs. In this study, we examined the full-length IRAK4 genetic sequence in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) by molecular cloning. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CgIRAK4 is most closely related to Mytilus edulis, and forms a clade with other molluscs. CgIRAK4 transcripts are widely expressed in all tissues, with the highest expression observed in the hemocytes and gill...
February 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196779/the-role-of-type-i-interferons-in-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-against-viruses-in-atlantic-salmon
#5
Børre Robertsen
Type I IFNs (IFN-I) are cytokines, which play a crucial role in innate and adaptive immunity against viruses of vertebrates. In essence, IFN-I are induced and secreted upon host cell recognition of viral nucleic acids and protect other cells against infection by inducing antiviral proteins. Atlantic salmon possesses an extraordinary repertoire of IFN-I genes encompassing at least six different classes (IFNa, IFNb, IFNc, IFNd, IFNe and IFNf) most of which are encoded by several genes. This review describes recent research on the functions of salmon IFNa, IFNb, IFNc and IFNd...
February 11, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193450/heat-shock-70%C3%A2-kda-protein-cognate-5-involved-in-wssv-toleration-of-litopenaeus-vannamei
#6
Kai Yuan, Feng-Hua Yuan, Hong-Hui He, Hai-Tao Bi, Shao-Ping Weng, Jian-Guo He, Yi-Hong Chen
The expression levels of 97 unigenes encoding heat shock proteins of Litopenaeus vannamei was scanned, and ten of them were significantly induced by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Among these genes, heat shock 70 kDa protein cognate 5 (LvHSC70-5) was upregulated to the highest extent and subjected to further studies. Subcellular localization assay revealed that LvHSC70-5 was located in the mitochondria. Aside from WSSV infection, unfolded protein response activation and thermal stress could also upregulate LvHSC70-5...
February 11, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193449/histamine-and-mast-cell-activator-compound-48-80-are-safe-but-inefficient-systemic-adjuvants-for-gilthead-seabream-vaccination
#7
N E Gómez González, I Cabas, J Montero, A García Alcázar, V Mulero, A García Ayala
Histamine has a key role in the regulation of inflammatory and innate immune responses in vertebrates. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), a marine hermaphrodite teleost of great commercial value, was the first fish species shown to possess histamine-containing mast cells (MCs) at mucosal tissues. MCs are highly abundant in the peritoneal exudate of gilthead seabream and compound 48/80 (Co 48/80), often used to promote MC activation and histamine release, is able to promote histamine release from gilthead seabream MCs in vitro and in vivo...
February 10, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167074/emerging-pathogens-in-the-fish-farming-industry-and-sequencing-based-pathogen-discovery
#8
Torstein Tengs, Espen Rimstad
The use of large scale DNA/RNA sequencing has become an integral part of biomedical research. Reduced sequencing costs and the availability of efficient computational resources has led to a revolution in how problems concerning genomics and transcriptomics are addressed. Sequencing-based pathogen discovery represents one example of how genetic data can now be used in ways that were previously considered infeasible. Emerging pathogens affect both human and animal health due to a multitude of factors, including globalization, a shifting environment and an increasing human population...
February 3, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163091/a-prokineticin-like-protein-responds-to-immune-challenges-in-the-gastropod-pest-pomacea-canaliculata
#9
Alice Accorsi, Stefania Benatti, Eric Ross, Milena Nasi, Davide Malagoli
The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata is an invasive pest originating from South America. It has already been retrieved in Asia, the southern United States and more recently in the EU. Aiming to target the immune system of the snail as a way to control its spreading, we have developed organ-specific transcriptomes and looked for molecules controlling replication and differentiation of snail hemocytes. The prokineticin domain-containing protein Astakine 1 is the only cytokine known thus far capable of regulating invertebrate hematopoiesis, and we analyzed the transcriptomes looking for molecules containing a prokineticin domain...
February 2, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159592/the-hematopoiesis-in-gill-and-its-role-in-the-immune-response-of-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-against-secondary-challenge-with-vibrio-splendidus
#10
Yiqun Li, Xiaorui Song, Weilin Wang, Lingling Wang, Qilin Yi, Shuai Jiang, Zhihao Jia, Xinyu Du, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
Increasing evidences have demonstrated that the invertebrate gill is a predominant tissue participating in the immune response during pathogen challenge. In the present study, the hematopoiesis and immune activities in gill of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated. Stem-like cells with big nuclei and thin cytoplasm were found in the tubules of gill filaments, where DNA synthesis is active and hemocytes production are exuberant. The oysters primarily stimulated by formaldehyde-killed Vibrio splendidus exhibited stronger immune responses and enhanced cell regeneration in gill when they encountered the secondary challenge of live V...
February 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131767/the-florida-manatee-trichechus-manatus-latirostris-immunoglobulin-heavy-chain-suggests-the-importance-of-clan-iii-variable-segments-in-repertoire-diversity
#11
Breanna Breaux, Thaddeus C Deiss, Patricia L Chen, Maria Paula Cruz-Schneider, Leonardo Sena, Margaret E Hunter, Robert K Bonde, Michael F Criscitiello
Manatees are a vulnerable, charismatic sentinel species from the evolutionarily divergent Afrotheria. Manatee health and resistance to infectious disease is of great concern to conservation groups, but little is known about their immune system. To develop manatee-specific tools for monitoring health, we first must have a general knowledge of how the immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain locus is organized and transcriptionally expressed. Using the genomic scaffolds of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), we characterized the potential IgH segmental diversity and constant region isotypic diversity and performed the first Afrotherian repertoire analysis...
January 25, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131766/a-proto-type-galectin-2-from-rock-bream-oplegnathus-fasciatus-molecular-genomic-and-expression-analysis-and-recognition-of-microbial-pathogens-by-recombinant-protein
#12
William Shanthakumar Thulasitha, Navaneethaiyer Umasuthan, Qiang Wan, Bo-Hye Nam, Tae-Wook Kang, Jehee Lee
A β-galactoside binding lectin, designated as galectin-2, was identified and characterized from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (OfGal-2). The cDNA of OfGal-2 comprised of 692 bp with a coding sequence of 396 bp, encoding a putative polypeptide of 131 amino acids. Gene structure analysis of OfGal-2 revealed a four exon-three intron organization. A single carbohydrate-binding domain containing all seven important residues for carbohydrate binding was located in the third exon, which formed a carbohydrate-binding pocket...
January 25, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130094/a-teleost-complement-factor-ba-possesses-antimicrobial-activity-and-inhibits-bacterial-infection-in-fish
#13
Xue-Peng Li, Li Sun
Complement factor B (Bf) is a component of the complement system. Following activation of the alternative pathway of the complement system, factor B is cleaved into Ba and Bb fragments. In fish, the Bf of rainbow trout is known to act as a C3 convertase, but the function of the Ba fragment is essentially unknown. In this study, we examined the expression patterns of tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis Bf (named CsBf) and the biological activity of the Ba fragment of CsBf (named CsBa). CsBf possesses the conserved domains of Bf and shares 39...
January 24, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126556/debaryomyces-hansenii-up-regulates-superoxide-dismutase-gene-expression-and-enhances-the-immune-response-and-survival-in-pacific-red-snapper-lutjanus-peru-leukocytes-after-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-infection
#14
Carlos Angulo, Minerva Maldonado, Karen Delgado, Martha Reyes-Becerril
Application of yeast is increasing to improve welfare and promotes growth in aquaculture. The halotolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii is normally a non-pathogenic yeast with probiotic properties and potential source of antioxidant enzymes as superoxide dismutase. Here, first, we characterized the sequence features of MnSOD and icCu/ZnSOD from Pacific red snapper, and second, we evaluated the potential antioxidant immune responses of the marine yeast Debaryomyces hansenii strain CBS004 in leukocytes which were then subjected to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection...
January 23, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126555/bactericidal-activity-of-fish-galectin-4-derived-membrane-binding-peptide-tagged-with-oligotryptophan
#15
Abirami Arasu, Venkatesh Kumaresan, Munuswamy-Ramanujam Ganesh, Mukesh Pasupuleti, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Jesu Arockiaraj
Galectins belong to the family of galactoside-binding proteins which act as pathogen recognition receptors by recognizing and binding to the carbohydrate present in the bacterial membranes. In this study, a Galectin-4 sequence was identified from the constructed cDNA library of Channa striatus and its structural features were reported. Gene expression analysis revealed that CsGal4 was highly expressed in liver and strongly induced by Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) causing pathogens such as Aphanomyces invadans, Aeromonas hydrophila and a viral analogue, poly I:C...
January 23, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126554/triosephosphate-isomerase-tpi-facilitates-the-replication-of-wssv-in-exopalaemon-carinicauda
#16
Fei Liu, Shihao Li, Guangxing Liu, Fuhua Li
Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) is a vital enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, which can catalyze the interconversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). DHAP is involved in lipid metabolism and phospholipid synthesis. In order to know the role of TPI in WSSV infection to prawn, we cloned the full length cDNA of triosephosphate isomerase gene (EcTPI) from Exopalaemon carinicauda, and its function during WSSV infection was analyzed. EcTPI transcripts were widely distributed in all tissues, but showed relatively higher expression levels in the gill and epidermis...
January 23, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119019/identification-and-characterization-of-a-protective-antigen-plpb-of-bovine-pasteurella-multocida-strain-lz-pm
#17
Xiaoqin Wei, Yugang Wang, Runbo Luo, Wei Qian, Suolang Sizhu, Hongbo Zhou
The Pasteurella multocida lipoprotein B (PlpB) was cloned from Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) strain LZ-PM (serotype A) and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Sequence analysis showed that PlpB from different strains of P. multocida exhibited 80.8-99.4% sequence identity to each other, suggesting that PlpB might serve as a cross-protective antigen. The purified PCR product of PlpB gene consisting of 831 base pairs was inserted into the pET-32a (+) plasmid, and then transferred into E. coli. The protective immunity conferred by recombinant PlpB (rPlpB) on mice was evaluated...
January 23, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111231/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-improves-tnf%C3%AE-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#18
Zhou Yang, Jian Sun, Hong Ji, Xiao-Chen Shi, Yang Li, Zhen-Yu Du, Li-Qiao Chen
Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), may contribute to hepatic steatosis in the situation of excess lipid accumulation in farmed fish. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory factor and promotes lipolysis. Accordingly, we isolated PEDF from grass carp and investigated its role in TNFα-induced hepatic steatosis. Sequence analysis showed that PEDF gene, which possesses 8 exons and 7 introns, encodes a protein with 409 amino acids. PEDF was a critical determinant of the transcriptional response to nutrient availability in grass carp...
January 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111230/characterization-of-the-irf2-proteins-isolated-from-the-deep-sea-mussel-bathymodiolus-platifrons-and-the-shallow-water-mussel-modiolus-modiolus
#19
Baoyu Huang, Jie Meng, Mei Yang, Fei Xu, Xinzheng Li, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are transcription factors that play important roles in immune defense, stress response, hematopoietic differentiation, and cell apoptosis. IRFs of invertebrate organisms and their functions remain largely unexplored. In the present study, for the first time new IRFs (BpIRF2 and MmIRF2) were identified in the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons and the shallow-water mussel Modiolus modiolus. The open reading frame of BpIRF2 and MmIRF2 encoded putative proteins of 354 and 348 amino acids, respectively...
January 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109746/diversity-and-evolution-of-tir-domain-containing-proteins-in-bivalves-and-metazoa-new-insights-from-comparative-genomics
#20
Marco Gerdol, Paola Venier, Paolo Edomi, Alberto Pallavicini
The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain has a fundamental role in the innate defence response of plants, vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Mostly found in the cytosolic side of membrane-bound receptor proteins, it mediates the intracellular signalling upon pathogen recognition via heterotypic interactions. Although a number of TIR-domain-containing (TIR-DC) proteins have been characterized in vertebrates, their evolutionary relationships and functional role in protostomes are still largely unknown. Due to the high abundance and diversity of TIR-DC proteins in bivalve molluscs, we investigated this class of marine invertebrates as a case study...
January 18, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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