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Developmental and Comparative Immunology

Chanho Park, Hyocheol Bae, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song, Whasun Lim
The success of implantation and placentation during early pregnancy depends on the intrauterine environment of diverse histotrophs, including nutrients, growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. Here, we determined the functional role and signal transduction of CC-motif chemokine 20 (CCL20) in the porcine endometrium during pregnancy. The expression of CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 was abundant in the glandular epithelium (GE) and luminal epithelium (LE) of the porcine endometrium during early pregnancy. Administration of CCL20 to porcine endometrial LE cells increased cellular proliferation with strong PCNA expression by activation of PI3K and MAPK signaling...
November 7, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Wei Wang, Changkun Pan, Zongliang Huang, Huifang Yuan, Jianming Chen
The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway plays a critical role in host defense against viral infections. Here, we report the use of the Drosophila model system to investigate the modulation of the JAK/STAT pathway by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) protein WSV181. WSV181 overexpression in transgenic flies resulted in the downregulation of STAT92E and STAT92E-targeted genes. This result indicates that WSV181 can suppress JAK/STAT signaling by controlling STAT92E expression...
November 7, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zhiwei Liang, Linwei Yang, Jiefu Zheng, Hongliang Zuo, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He, Xiaopeng Xu
C-type lectins (CTLs) are a group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that contain carbohydrate recognition domains and play important roles in innate immunity. CTLs that contain an additional low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) class A domain (LdlrCTL) have been identified in many crustaceans, but their functions in immune responses are mostly unknown. In this study, a novel LdlrCTL was identified from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvLdlrCTL), which showed high homology with previously reported crustacean LdlrCTLs...
November 5, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Bergljót Magnadóttir, Birkir Þór Bragason, Ian R Bricknell, Timothy Bowden, Anthony P Nicholas, Mariya Hristova, Sigríður Guðmundsdóttir, Alister W Dodds, Sigrun Lange
Post-translational protein deimination is mediated by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), which are calcium dependent enzymes conserved throughout phylogeny with physiological and pathophysiological roles. Protein deimination occurs via the conversion of protein arginine into citrulline, leading to structural and functional changes in target proteins. In a continuous series of early halibut development from 37 to 1050° d, PAD, total deiminated proteins and deiminated histone H3 showed variation in temporal and spatial detection in various organs including yolksac, muscle, skin, liver, brain, eye, spinal cord, chondrocytes, heart, intestines, kidney and pancreas throughout early ontogeny...
November 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yuma Nihashi, Tamao Ono, Hiroshi Kagami, Tomohide Takaya
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of sensory receptors which are capable of recognizing a microbial invasion and activating innate immune system responses, including inflammatory responses, in both immune and non-immune cells. However, TLR functions in chick myoblasts, which are myogenic precursor cells contributing to skeletal muscle development and growth, have not been studied. Here, we report the expression patterns of TLR genes as well as TLR ligand-dependent transcriptions of interleukin (IL) genes in primary-cultured chick myoblasts...
October 30, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Rui Liu, Qi Cheng, Xiaorui Song, Hao Wang, Xiudan Wang, Lingling Wang, Beiwei Zhu, Linsheng Song
As an important post-translational protein modification, ubiquitination has been demonstrated to play a vital role in immune response of vertebrates. Ubiquitin (Ub)-conjugating enzyme E2 is the "heart" of ubiquitination, which is responsible for Ub cellular signaling and substrate modification. In the present study, an Ub-conjugating enzyme E2 (designed as CgUbe2g1) was identified from oyster Crassostrea gigas, and its regulation in the immune response against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation was investigated...
October 30, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yuqi Bai, Donghong Niu, Yan Li, Yulin Bai, Tianyi Lan, Maoxiao Peng, Zhiguo Dong, Fanyue Sun, Jiale Li
Galectins are lectins possessing an evolutionarily conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with affinity for β-galactoside. The key role played by innate immunity in invertebrates has recently become apparent. Herein, a full-length galectin (ScGal) was identified in razor clam (Sinonovacula constricta). The 528 bp open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 176 amino acids with a single CRD and no signal peptide. ScGal mRNA transcripts were mainly expressed in hemolymph and gill, and were significantly up-regulated following bacterial challenge...
October 30, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yan-Yao Li, Xiao-Lu Xie, Xing-Yuan Ma, Hai-Peng Liu
Caspase, an aspartate specific proteinase mediating apoptosis, plays a key role in immune response. In our previous study, the expression of a caspase gene was up-regulated in a transcriptome library from the haematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cells of red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus post white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. To further reveal the effect of caspase on WSSV infection, we cloned this caspase gene (denominated as CqCaspase) with an open reading frame of 1062 bp, which encoded 353 amino acids with a caspase domain (CASc) containing a p20 subunit and a p10 subunit...
October 29, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Goshi Kato, Taichi Kakazu, Mitsuo Yamada, Lik-Ming Lau, Kazue Nakajima, Shoh Sato, Teruyuki Nakanishi, Makoto Endo, Motohiko Sano
In this study, we investigated the immune responses against Mycobacterium gordonae in ginbuna crucian carp. Cumulative mortality of ginbuna injected with 2.0 × 107  CFU of M. gordonae was 50% at 170 days post-infection. CD4-1, CD8α, T-bet and IFNγ2 gene expression levels were significantly upregulated in ginbuna injected with 1.9 × 108  CFU of M. gordonae at 21 and 28 days post-infection. The CD4-2 level did not change during the experiment. Granulomatous responses consisted of central macrophage accumulation and surrounding lymphocytes, and Ziehl-Neelsen-positive bacteria were observed in the trunk kidney of the challenged fish...
October 29, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jiejie Sun, Lingling Wang, Zhaojun Wu, Shuo Han, Liyan Wang, Meijia Li, Zhaoqun Liu, Linsheng Song
P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are serine/threonine protein kinases reportedly involved in the innate immunity of vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, a P38 homolog (CgP38) was characterized from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The full-length cDNA of CgP38 was of 1515 bp containing a 1101 bp open reading frame. A serine/threonine protein kinase (S_TKc) domain with a conserved Thr-Gly-Tyr motif and an ATRW substrate-binding site was found in the deduced amino acid sequence of CgP38...
October 29, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yuming Zhang, Fan Wang, Qin Feng, Hongxin Wang, Ting Tang, Dawei Huang, Fengsong Liu
Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) is responsible for synthesizing trehalose, which is prevalent in crustaceans and insects as blood-sugar. In this paper, a TPS gene from Musca domestica(MdTPS)has been cloned and characterized. MdTPS promoter was analyzed, and its transcriptional activity was verified in vitro by Sf9 cell. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the MdTPS transcription was up-regulated following bacterial challenge by Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus. Meanwhile, trehalose is accumulated in larvae upon bacterial challenge...
October 29, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ying Pan, Li-Bing Zheng, Yong Mao, Jun Wang, Long-Shan Lin, Yong-Quan Su, Yuan Li
Chemical drugs, such as antibiotics, were still important materials to prevent and cure diseases of aquatic organisms. However, antibiotics abuse do not only make the effects little, but also cause other bad problems, such as bacterial resistance and drug residues. Therefore, seeking the effective substitutes of antibiotics was an approach needed to be explored. Antibacterial peptides (AMPs) attracted more and more attention in the recent years. The parasitism and secondary bacterial invasion caused by ectroparasite Cryptocaryon irritans was a disaster to almost all host fish, including Larimichthys crocea...
October 22, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Na Li, Ao Li, Kang Zheng, Xi Liu, Lili Gao, Dongwu Liu, Hongkuan Deng, Weiwei Wu, Baohua Liu, Bosheng Zhao, Qiuxiang Pang
Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), an RNA sensor with a conserved structure, activates the host interferon (IFN) system to produce IFNs and cytokines for eliminating pathogens upon recognizing PAMPs. However, the biological functions and the mechanism by which RIG-I regulates the innate immunity response in invertebrates are still unknown at present. Here we identified an atypical RIG-I in planarian Dugesia japonica. Sequence analysis, 3D structure modeling and phylogenetic analysis showed that this atypical protein was clustered into a single clade at the base of the tree in invertebrates, suggesting that DjRIG-I is an ancient and unique protein of the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs)...
October 22, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Rose G Mage, Pedro J Esteves, Christoph Rader
This review presents some examples of studies using the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that have led to, and continue to, contribute to advancement of understanding of human diseases as well as therapeutics development. In addition, we tabulate FDA-approved rabbit polyclonal and rabbit monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are used for diagnostic applications, as well as an overview of some "humanized" or otherwise altered rabbit mAbs that are in initial phase I, II, or advanced to phase III clinical trials...
October 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Luoling Wang, Huawei Liu, Huanyi Fu, Lu Zhang, Pengchao Guo, Qingyou Xia, Ping Zhao
The extracellular serine protease cascade is an essential component of insect humoral immunity. Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) play an important regulatory role in the process of insect immunity by regulating the serine protease cascade pathway. We aimed to clarify the function of Bmserpin32 in this study. First, we performed homologous sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of Bmserpin32. Bmserpin32 was found to share 64% amino acid sequence identity with Manduca sexta serpin7, an immunomodulatory protein...
October 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Shixiong Zhan, Jude Juventus Aweya, Fan Wang, Defu Yao, Mingqi Zhong, Jiehui Chen, Shengkang Li, Yueling Zhang
Recent studies have shown that hemocyanin plays immune-related functions apart from its canonical respiratory function. While shrimp hemocyanin is found to generate antimicrobial peptides, antiviral related peptides have not been reported. In the present study, the serum of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infected Litopenaeus vannamei analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, revealed 45 consistently down-regulated protein spots and 10 up-regulated protein spots. Five of the significantly up-regulated spots were identified as hemocyanin derived peptides...
October 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zhenhui Wang, Chenghua Li, Ronglian Xing, Yina Shao, Xuelin Zhao, Weiwei Zhang, Ming Guo
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can induce the apoptosis of coelomocytes in Apostichopus japonicus (A. japonicus), and β-integrin serves as an apoptotic inhibitor during this process. However, the underlying mechanism in invertebrates is largely unknown. Integrin/focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway modulates the apoptosis in vertebrates. In this study, a novel FAK was identified from A. japonicus (designated as AjFAK) by β-integrin (designated as AjITGB) -mediated GST-pull down assay. This interaction was further validated in the LPS-exposed coelomocytes through co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence analyses...
October 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ariadne Hernández-Pérez, Jesús Alejandro Zamora-Briseño, Eliel Ruiz-May, Alejandro Pereira-Santana, José Miguel Elizalde-Contreras, Sirenia Pozos-González, Edgar Torres-Irineo, Jorge Hernández-López, Martha Gabriela Gaxiola-Cortés, Rossanna Rodríguez-Canul
To elucidate the proteomic responses of shrimp hemocytes to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection at the proteome level, a quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis was performed to detect differentially synthesized proteins in infected hemocytes of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). We identified 1528 proteins associated to 203 gene ontology (GO) categories. The most representative GO categories were regulation of cellular processes, organic substance metabolic processes and nitrogen compound metabolic processes...
October 15, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jana Cizkova, Zuzana Sinkorova, Kristyna Strnadova, Monika Cervinkova, Vratislav Horak, Jiri Sinkora, Katerina Stepanova, Marek Sinkora
Using a porcine model, we describe Melanoma-Associated CD4+ CD8hi T-lymphocytes (MATL) in peripheral blood that increase during melanoma regression. These MATL possess the CD4+ CD8hi phenotype and they have their direct counterparts in Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL) isolated from melanoma loci. Both MATL and CD4+ CD8hi TIL have a similar expression of selected markers indicating that they represent effector/memory αβ T-cell subset. Moreover, although TIL also contain CD4- CD8+ T-cells, only CD4+ CD8hi TIL expand during melanoma regression...
October 8, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Lingling Wang, Huan Zhang, Mengqiang Wang, Zhi Zhou, Weilin Wang, Rui Liu, Mengmeng Huang, Chuanyan Yang, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are essential in recognizing specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on microbes and triggering responses to eliminate the invading pathogens. Previous genomic studies have revealed a great number of PRR genes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, a sessile and filter-feeder marine bivalve belonging to the phylum Mollusca. On the survey of PRRs in the assembly oyster reference genome version 9, a total of 1084 PRRs were identified, which were composed of at least 12 gene families...
October 1, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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