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Developmental and Comparative Immunology

Anutosh Paria, M Makesh, Aparna Chaudhari, C S Purushothaman, K V Rajendran
MDA5 is the pivotal member of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) and is reported to play a crucial role in type I IFN-mediated responses against pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), especially nucleic acids. In this study, we have identified and cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of MDA5, which comprises 3398 nucleotides and encodes for a putative protein of 978 AA length, in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer. From the putative amino acid sequence of AsMDA5, four different conserved domains could be predicted: two N-terminal CARD domains, a DExDc domain, a HELICc domain and a C-terminal RIG-1_C-RD domain...
September 15, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Kyoung-Eun Park, Seong Han Jang, Junbeom Lee, Seung Ah Lee, Yoshitomo Kikuchi, Young-Su Seo, Bok Luel Lee
Recently, we have reported the structural determination of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as riptocin, rip-defensin, and rip-thanatin, from Riptortus pedestris. However, the biological roles of AMPs in the host midgut remain elusive. Here, we compared the expression levels of AMP genes in apo-symbiotic insects with those of symbiotic insects. Interestingly, the expression level of rip-thanatin was only significantly increased in the posterior midgut region of symbiotic insects. To further determine the role of rip-thanatin, we checked antimicrobial activity in vitro...
September 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
John DeFilippo, John Ebersole, Gregory Beck
In 1983 large numbers of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum unexplainably began showing signs of illness and dying in the Caribbean, and over the next year they came close to extinction, making it one of the worst mass mortality events on record. Present evidence suggests a water-borne pathogen as the etiological agent. Decades later Diadema densities remain low, and its near extinction has been a major factor in transforming living coral reefs in the Caribbean to barren algae-covered rock. In the ensuing decades, no solid explanation has been found to the questions: what killed Diadema; why did Diadema succumb while other species of urchins on the same reefs did not; and why has Diadema still not recovered? A recent hypothesis posited by our lab as to Diadema's vulnerability was directed at possible compromised immunity in Diadema, and experimental results found a significantly impaired humoral response to a key component of gram-negative bacteria...
September 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Liqiang Wang, Zhen Wu, Qingli Huang, Keyi Huang, Guoqin Qi, Chuxin Wu, Huiling Mao, Xiaowen Xu, Haizhou Wang, Chengyu Hu
In mammals, STAT3 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) plays an important role in growth, multiplication, differentiation and participates in inflammation, tumorigenesis, metabolic disorders and immune response. STAT3 is a protein that shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Compared to the STAT3 in cell nucleus, we did not know the function of STAT3 in cytoplasm for a long time. Some recent studies have shown that cytoplasmic STAT3 regulates autophagy through the interaction with the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), which plays an important role in cellular antiviral response...
September 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Hong Jo Lee, Kyung Youn Lee, Kyung Min Jung, Kyung Je Park, Ko On Lee, Jeong-Yong Suh, Yongxiu Yao, Venugopal Nair, Jae Yong Han
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), first isolated in the late 1980s, has caused economic losses to the poultry industry in many countries. As all chicken lines studied to date are susceptible to ALV infection, there is enormous interest in developing resistant chicken lines. The ALV-J receptor, chicken Na(+)/H(+) exchange 1 (chNHE1) and the critical amino acid sequences involved in viral attachment and entry have already been characterized. However, there are no reported attempts to induce resistance to the virus by targeted genome modification of the receptor sequences...
September 9, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Wei Qian, Xiaoqin Wei, Yongtao Li, Kelei Guo, Zhong Zou, Hongbo Zhou, Meilin Jin
In mammals, IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 1 can activates cellular genes and promotes viral resistance against some DNA and RNA viruses. Most IRFs have been identified as critical regulators in the IFN responses in both mammals and fish. In ducks, however, the functional role of IRF1 remains unknown. Here, we identified duck IRF1 (duIRF1) is essential to counteract viral invasion. duIRF1 is most abundant in duck spleen, and virus infection or poly(I:C) stimulation significantly induced duIRF1 expression in vivo and in vitro...
September 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Guangxia Lu, Zichao Yu, Mengmeng Lu, Dongyang Liu, Feifei Wang, Yichen Wu, Yu Liu, Chao Liu, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Executioner caspases play important roles in apoptotic pathway and immune defense, which is considered to coordinate the execution phase of apoptosis by cleaving multiple structural and repair proteins. However, the knowledge about the activation mechanism and function of executioner caspases in mollusks, especially marine bivalves is limited. In the present study, the full-length cDNA sequence of caspase-1 was cloned from oyster Crassostrea gigas, which encoded a predicted protein containing a small subunit (p10) and large subunit (p20) with a conserved caspase active site QACRG similar to that of human executioner caspase-3/7...
September 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zhao Lv, Limei Qiu, Weilin Wang, Zhaoqun Liu, Zhuang Xue, Zichao Yu, Xiaorui Song, Hao Chen, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is well known as a key enzyme involved in the metabolic pathway of gluconeogenesis in organisms, but the information about its involvement in immune response is still very limited. In the present study, a novel PEPCK homolog named CgPEPCK was identified from oyster Crassostrea gigas. The deduced amino acid sequence of CgPEPCK shared 52%-74% similarities with those from other known PEPCKs. There were one conserved guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding site, one substrate binding site, one metal binding site and one active site in CgPEPCK...
September 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Tomás Cárdenas-Reyna, Carlos Angulo, Crystal Guluarte, Sawako Hori-Oshima, Martha Reyes-Becerril
This study attempts to describe the immunostimulatory effects of three fungal glucans on innate immunity responses in an in vitro assays using Pacific red snapper leukocytes. First, the yield glucans obtained was higher in Aspergillus niger, follow by Aspergillus ochraceus and Alternaria botrytis (40, 20 and 10%, respectively). Structural characterization of these fungal glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-β-D-glucan. The immunostimulatory activity of fungal glucans were assessed in head-kidney leukocytes at 24 h using colorimetric assays and molecular gene expression...
September 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Diego Valenzuela-Miranda, Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz, Rodolfo Farlora, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as key regulators in diverse biological processes across taxa. However, despite the importance of these transcripts, little is known about their role during the immune response in salmonids. Because of this, we use deep sequencing technologies to explore the microRNA-based transcriptomic response of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to the intracellular bacteria Piscirickettsia salmonis, one of the main threats to salmon aquaculture in Chile. Hence, 594 different miRNAs were identified from head kidney and spleen transcriptomic data...
September 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Sasha E Greenspan, Deborah S Bower, Rebecca J Webb, Lee Berger, Donna Rudd, Lin Schwarzkopf, Ross A Alford
Temperature variability, and in particular temperature decreases, can increase susceptibility of amphibians to infections by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). However, the effects of temperature shifts on the immune systems of Bd-infected amphibians are unresolved. We acclimated frogs to 16 °C and 26 °C (baseline), simultaneously transferred them to an intermediate temperature (21 °C) and inoculated them with Bd (treatment), and tracked their infection levels and white blood cell profiles over six weeks...
September 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Eunyoung Jo, Don Anushka Sandaruwan Elvitigala, Qiang Wan, Minyoung Oh, Chulhong Oh, Jehee Lee
Dendritic-cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) is a C-type lectin that functions as a pattern recognition receptor by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). It is also involved in various events of the dendritic cell (DC) life cycle, such as DC migration, antigen capture and presentation, and T cell priming. In this study, a DC-SIGN-like gene from the big belly seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis (designated as ShDCS-like) was identified and molecularly characterized. The putative, complete ORF was found to be 1368 bp in length, encoding a protein of 462 amino acids with a molecular mass of 52...
September 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Qiang Fu, Yujia Yang, Chao Li, Qifan Zeng, Tao Zhou, Ning Li, Yang Liu, Shikai Liu, Zhanjiang Liu
Chemokines are vital regulators of cell mobilization for immune surveillance, inflammation, and development. Chemokines signal through binding to their receptors that are a superfamily of seven-transmembrane domain G-coupled receptors. Recently, a complete repertoire of both CC and CXC chemokines have been identified in channel catfish, but nothing is known about their receptors. In this study, a set of 29 CC chemokine receptor (CCR) genes and 8 CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) genes were identified and annotated from the channel catfish genome...
August 29, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Md Sadekuzzaman, Neelam Gautam, Yonggyun Kim
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) catalyzes hydrolysis of ester linkage at sn-2 position of phospholipids. At least 15 groups (I-XV) of PLA2 gene superfamily are associated with various physiological processes such as digestion, secretion, immunity, and maintenance of membrane integrity. This study suggests that various insects encode putative Group VI PLA2s representing intracellular and calcium-independent PLA2s (iPLA2). These insect iPLA2s are separated into at least two subgroups: iPLA2A (Group VIA-like) and iPLA2B (non-Group VIA)...
August 26, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Maxwell E Chappell, Lidia Epp, Patty Zwollo
The Immunological Imprinting Hypothesis proposes that juvenile anadromous fish respond to the pathogen fingerprint specific to their natal site by producing protective long lived plasma cells (LLPCs) that constitutively produce antibodies against those pathogens. Hence, fish returning to their natal streams have immunological protection from pathogens at that specific location. Here, we tested the hypothesis through analysis of antibody composition and usage in sockeye salmon populations in Alaska. Spleen and anterior kidney were sampled from salmon from six sites, and relative usage levels of six different Immunoglobulin VH gene families determined using RT-qPCR...
August 25, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Daniela Huhle, Sieglinde Hirmer, Thomas W Göbel
CD45 isoforms have been identified in a variety of different species and mab against various isoforms have been instrumental to define cellular subsets. In the process of generating novel mab against chicken γδ T cells two mab with specificity for CD45 were identified and characterized. The analysis of the chicken CD45 genomic structure suggested three exons being involved in alternative splicing. We cloned and expressed the full length CD45 isoform and three shorter isoforms. While the 7D12 mab reacted with all of these isoforms, the 8B1 mab selectively reacted with two short isoforms lacking either exons 3 and 5 or exons 3, 5 and 6...
August 24, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yuqiang Cheng, Jingjiao Ma, Yunxia Liu, Quanxin Gao, Yaxian Yan, Hengan Wang, Chan Ding, Jianhe Sun
TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is an essential serine/threonine-protein kinase required for the Toll-like receptor (TLR)- and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) -mediated induction of type I IFN. Through endogenous Co-IP and LC-MS/MS, we identified chicken TBK1 (chTBK1) as a chSTING-interactive protein. Through exogenous Co-IP assay in transfected cells, we confirmed the interaction between chSTING and chTBK1. To better understand the biological role of chTBK1 in the chSTING-mediated IFN pathway, we cloned the chTBK1 and investigated its biological functions...
August 22, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Daihua Wen, Hao Luo, Tienan Li, Chunfu Wu, Jinghai Zhang, Xialu Wang, Rong Zhang
Apolipoproteins are protein components of lipoprotein particles, and are increasingly recognized to be functioning in the innate immune systems of both insects and mammals. Mammalian apolipoprotein B (apoB) is associated with a diverse range of innate immune defenses including suppression of bacterial pathogenesis, virus toxicity neutralization, and inhibition of cytokine releases from immune cells. However, little is known about apoB homologous insect apolipophorin-II/I (apoLp-II/I) in controlling of specific pathogen-host encounters such as microbial infections...
August 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Kui Zhang, Juan Tan, Jingjing Su, Hanghua Liang, Li Shen, Chongyang Li, Guangzhao Pan, Liqun Yang, Hongjuan Cui
Integrins are transmembrane receptors that play essential roles in many physiological and pathological processes through cell-to-cell and cell-to-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. In the current study, a 2653-bp full-length cDNA of a novel integrin β subunit (designated Bmintegrin β3) was obtained from silkworm hemocytes. Bmintegrin β3 has the typical conserved structure of the integrin β family. The qRT-PCR results showed that Bmintegrin β3 was specifically expressed in the hematological system and that its expression was significantly increased after challenge with different types of PAMPs and bacteria...
August 18, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Shengjie Li, Jiao Xu, Lianjie Sun, Ruimin Li, Ping Jin, Fei Ma
Recent studies suggest that microRNA (miRNA) plays important roles in the control of immune response and tolerance. We previously found that the expression level of antimicrobial peptide gene Drosomycin (Drs) is decreased in miR-964 overexpressing flies. Here, we further verified that miR-964 deficiency leads to hyper-activation of Drs. In addition, we employed three widely-used bioinformatic algorithms to screen potential miR-964 targets. Finally, we identified that miR-964 modulates Toll signaling pathway, at least in part, by repressing the expression of Drs...
August 16, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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