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Developmental and Comparative Immunology

D Martínez, R Oyarzún, C Vargas-Lagos, J P Pontigo, M Soto-Dávila, J Saravia, A Romero, J J Núñez, A J Yáñez, L Vargas-Chacoff
Ferritin is a major iron storage protein essential not only in the infectious process, but also in any circumstance generating oxidative stress. In this study, the cDNA coding sequence of ferritin-H was obtained from the sub-Antarctic Notothenioid fish Eleginops maclovinus through transcriptomic analysis of the head kidney. This sequence contained a 534 bp open reading frame that coded for a 177 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 20,786.2 Da and a theoretical pI of 5.56. The protein displayed a region of iron putative response elements in the 5'UTR, two putative ferritin iron-binding region signatures, and seven characteristic amino acids with ferroxidase functions...
March 21, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jonathan H Schultz, Coen M Adema
Comparative immunology, studying both vertebrates and invertebrates, provided the earliest descriptions of phagocytosis as a general immune mechanism. However, the large scale of animal diversity challenges all-inclusive investigations and the field of immunology has developed by mostly emphasizing study of a few vertebrate species. In addressing the lack of comprehensive understanding of animal immunity, especially that of invertebrates, comparative immunology helps toward management of invertebrates that are food sources, agricultural pests, pathogens, or transmit diseases, and helps interpret the evolution of animal immunity...
March 18, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Qiang Fu, Yujia Yang, Chao Li, Qifan Zeng, Tao Zhou, Ning Li, Yang Liu, Yun Li, Xiaozhu Wang, Shikai Liu, Daoji Li, Zhanjiang Liu
Chemokines are a superfamily of structurally related chemotactic cytokines exerting significant roles in regulating cell migration and activation. Based on the arrangement of the first four cysteine residues, they are classified into CC, CXC, C and CX3C subfamilies. In this study, a complete set of 64 CC chemokine ligand (CCL) genes was systematically identified, annotated, and characterized from the channel catfish genome. Extensive phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses supported their annotations, allowing establishment of their orthologies, revealing fish-specific CC chemokines and the expansion of CC chemokines in the teleost genomes through lineage-specific tandem duplications...
March 18, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Nick A Ciccone, Lorraine P Smith, William Mwangi, Amy Boyd, Andrew J Broadbent, Adrian L Smith, Venugopal Nair
We propose a model by which an increase in the genomic modification, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), contributes to B cell death within the chicken bursa of Fabricus (BF) infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Our findings indicate that, following an IBDV infection, Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens have fewer surviving B cells and higher levels of 5hmC in the BF than the more resistant 15l line of birds. Elevated genomic 5hmC levels within the RIR BF are associated with markers of immune responses: infiltrating T cells and increased expression of CD40L, FasL and iNOS...
March 17, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Qing Chu, Weihua Song, Junxia Cui, Tianjun Xu
Miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy), as an economically important marine fish is affected by numerous bacterial diseases. Infection by bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum causes high mortality and great economic loss in aquaculture. To understand the immune response of the miiuy croaker to V. anguillarum infection, we analyzed the transcriptomic profile of V. anguillarum-challenged M. miiuy, and two cDNA libraries, namely, the normal library (Ctrl) and V. anguillarum challenged library (Van) were constructed...
March 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zhen Zhang, Zhimeng Lv, Yina Shao, Qiongfen Qiu, Weiwei Zhang, Xuemei Duan, Ye Li, Chenghua Li
Microsomal glutathione transferase (mGST) is a membrane bound glutathione transferase in multifunctional detoxification isoenzymes family and also plays crucial roles in innate immunity. In the present study, a novel microsomal GST homology was identified from Apostichopus japonicus (designated as AjmGST1) by RACE approaches. The full-length cDNA of AjmGST1 was of 1296 bp encoded a protein of 169 amino acids residues. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis together supported that AjmGST1 belonged to a new member in invertebrates mGST family...
March 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ying Zhang, Hui Sun, Huilin Zhao, Xingxing Chen, Jiaojiao Li, Boqing Li
Only a small percentage of people infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) will develop overt chronic gastric diseases. To understand the pathological mechanism, the action of H. pylori on monocyte apoptosis was detected. H. pylori co-culturing with peripheral blood monocytes, THP-1 or U937 cells result in early apoptosis at 6, 12, and 24 h after infection. The phosphorylated Bad and JNK were increased, and Bcl-2 was declined at 6, 12, and 24 h in peripheral blood monocytes after H. pylori infection...
March 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zhiyi Bai, Liting Zhao, Xiajun Chen, Qingqing Li, Jiale Li
Galectins are members of the lectin superfamily. They function as pattern recognition receptors in the innate immune system of vertebrates and invertebrates. A galectin homolog from the triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii (HcGal2) was cloned and characterized. HcGal2 mRNA was expressed in all tissues examined, displaying particular enrichment in mantle tissue. Interestingly, rHcGAL2 protein was only detected in the mantle, hemocytes, and gills, suggesting that post-transcriptional regulation may occur. HcGal2 expression was induced in the mantle, liver, and hemocytes after exposure to lipopolysaccharides, Gram-negative bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila), and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus)...
March 11, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Tomoya Kono, Takanori Ida, Natsumi Kawahara, Fumiya Watanabe, Gouranga Biswas, Takahiro Sato, Kenji Mori, Mikiya Miyazato
In this study, immunoregulatory function of neuromedin U (Nmu) in the teleost fish Fugu (Takifugu rubripes) was characterized. Three splicing variants of nmu mRNA encoding preproNMUs consisting of 164 (Nmu1), 139 (Nmu2), and 129 (Nmu3) amino acid residues were found in Fugu.The biologically active C-terminal region of Fugu Nmu showed high homology among fish and other vertebrate NMUs. The genomic organization of Fugu nmu differed from those of zebrafish and mammals. However, in phylogenetic analysis, Fugu Nmu formed a cluster with NMUs of other vertebrates, in addition to neuromedin S...
March 10, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Isabelle Walliser, Thomas W Göbel
Interleukin 17 (IL-17) cytokines play a crucial role in host defense and inflammatory diseases. Of the six mammalian IL-17 members five are described in the chicken (gg) genome. A novel method that attached cytokines to the surface of cells via a GPI linker was established to generate two chicken IL-17A and one chicken IL-17F specific mab. Recombinant gg IL-17A and gg IL-17F that showed dimerization in Western blot were used to verify the antibodies specificity. The mab could detect gg IL-17 by intracellular cytokine staining as demonstrated on cells expressing recombinant IL-17...
March 8, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zhaoqun Liu, Lingling Wang, Zhi Zhou, Yu Liu, Miren Dong, Weilin Wang, Xiaorui Song, Mengqiang Wang, Qiang Gao, Linsheng Song
Bacterial infection and heat stress, as two major environmental threats of marine molluscs, could affect larval development and dramatically promote mortality of oysters. In the present study, next-generation sequencing, together with determinations of mRNA expression and measurements of enzyme activities, were employed to understand the response patterns of oyster larvae under acute heat and bacterial stress. After RNA-seq, a total of 9472 differentially expressed genes including 4895 significantly up-regulated ones and 4577 significantly down-regulated ones were obtained from 12 transcriptome libraries...
March 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Cristián A Valenzuela, Rodrigo Zuloaga, Matías Poblete-Morales, Tamara Vera-Tobar, Luis Mercado, Ruben Avendaño-Herrera, Juan Antonio Valdés, Alfredo Molina
Skeletal muscle in mammals can express and secrete immune-related molecules during pathogen infection. Despite in fish is known that classical immune tissues participate in innate immunity, the role of skeletal muscle in this function is poorly understood. To determine the immunocompetence of fish skeletal muscle, juvenile fine flounder (Paralichthys adpersus) were challenged with Vibrio ordalii. Different Toll-like receptors, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, Il-1β, and IL-8), and immune-effector molecules (NKEF and the antimicrobial peptides hepcidin and LEAP-2) were analyzed...
March 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yu-Hsuan Chang, Ramya Kumar, Tze Hann Ng, Han-Ching Wang
The possibility of immunological memory in invertebrates is a topic that has recently attracted a lot of attention. Today, even vertebrates are known to exhibit innate immune responses that show memory-like properties, and since these responses are triggered by cells that are involved in the innate immune system, it seems that immune specificity and immune memory do not necessarily require the presence of B cells and T cells after all. This kind of immune response has been called "immune priming" or "trained immunity"...
March 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yali Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Yanping Wu, Baikui Wang, Xi Chen, Xin Xu, Hongliang Chen, Weifen Li, Xiaogang Xu
Dendritic cells (DCs) comprise a system of highly professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) which connect innate and adaptive immunity by undergoing dramatic shift in their maturation state. Phytomedicine Echinacea purpurea extracts (EE) could modulate murine dendritic cell fate and function. However, the underlying mechanism of EE on DCs development and maturation remains limited. In this study, immature DCs were induced phenotypic maturation with up-regulated expression of key accessory molecules and the phagocytic activity was decreased after being treated with EE (400 μg/ml) for 48 h...
March 2, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Anh Duc Truong, Yeojin Hong, Cong Thanh Hoang, Janggeun Lee, Yeong Ho Hong
Chicken interleukin 26 (ChIL-26), a member of the IL-10 family, is expressed in T cells and can induce expression of proinflammatory cytokines. We examined the response of signal transduction pathways to ChIL-26 stimulation in the chicken T (CU91), macrophage (HD11), and fibroblast (OU2) cell lines. ChIL-26 activated JAK2 and TYK2 phosphorylation, as well as activation of STAT1, STAT3, and SHP2 via tyrosine/serine residues. We also showed that ChIL-26 activates the phosphorylation of NF-κB1, TAK1, and MyD88 kinase, which are key regulators of NF-κB signaling pathways...
March 2, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Rosario Castro, Sofie Navelsaker, Aleksei Krasnov, Louis Du Pasquier, Pierre Boudinot
During the last decades, gene and cDNA cloning identified TCR and Ig genes across vertebrates; genome sequencing of TCR and Ig loci in many species revealed the different organizations selected during evolution under the pressure of generating diverse repertoires of Ag receptors. By detecting clonotypes over a wide range of frequency, deep sequencing of Ig and TCR transcripts provides a new way to compare the structure of expressed repertoires in species of various sizes, at different stages of development, with different physiologies, and displaying multiple adaptations to the environment...
March 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jules Petit, Lior David, Ron Dirks, Geert F Wiegertjes
Accelerated by the introduction of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), a number of genomes of cyprinid fish species have been drafted, leading to a highly valuable collective resource of comparative genome information on cyprinids (Cyprinidae). In addition, NGS-based transcriptome analyses of different developmental stages, organs, or cell types, increasingly contribute to the understanding of complex physiological processes, including immune responses. Cyprinids are a highly interesting family because they comprise one of the most-diversified families of teleosts and because of their variation in ploidy level, with diploid, triploid, tetraploid, hexaploid and sometimes even octoploid species...
February 28, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Anaïs Portet, Silvain Pinaud, Guillaume Tetreau, Richard Galinier, Céline Cosseau, David Duval, Christoph Grunau, Guillaume Mitta, Benjamin Gourbal
The fresh water snail Biomphalaria glabrata is one of the vectors of the trematode pathogen Schistosoma mansoni, which is one of the agents responsible of human schistosomiasis. In this host-parasite interaction, co-evolutionary dynamic results into an infectivity mosaic known as compatibility polymorphism. Integrative approaches including large scale molecular approaches have been conducted in recent years to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying compatibility. This review presents the combination of integrated Multi-Omic approaches leading to the discovery of two repertoires of polymorphic and/or diversified interacting molecules: the parasite antigens S...
February 28, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
R Villagra-Blanco, L M R Silva, U Gärtner, H Wagner, K Failing, A Wehrend, A Taubert, C Hermosilla
Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite causing serious reproductive disorders in large and small ruminants worldwide. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) react against multiple invading pathogens through different mechanisms including the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Here, in vitro interactions of caprine PMN and N. caninum tachyzoites were studied. Scanning electron microscopic- and immunofluorescence-analyses demonstrated that caprine PMN undergo NETosis upon contact with tachyzoites of N...
February 28, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Samuel A M Martin, Elżbieta Król
The interplay between nutrition and immune system is well recognised, however the true integration of research between nutrition, animal energy status and immune function is still far from clear. In fish nutrition, especially for species maintained in aquaculture, formulated feeds are significantly different from the natural diet with recent changes in nutrient sources, especially with protein and oil sources now being predominated by terrestrial derived ingredients. Additionally, many feeds are now incorporated to health management and termed functional feeds, which are believed to improve fish health, reduce disease outbreaks and/or improve post-infection recovery...
February 28, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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