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Cognitive Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345795/is-the-lateralized-categorical-perception-of-color-a-situational-effect-of-language-on-color-perception
#1
Weifang Zhong, You Li, Yulan Huang, He Li, Lei Mo
This study investigated whether and how a person's varied series of lexical categories corresponding to different discriminatory characteristics of the same colors affect his or her perception of colors. In three experiments, Chinese participants were primed to categorize four graduated colors-specifically dark green, light green, light blue, and dark blue-into green and blue; light color and dark color; and dark green, light green, light blue, and dark blue. The participants were then required to complete a visual search task...
March 27, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342239/cultural-differences-in-visual-search-for-geometric-figures
#2
Yoshiyuki Ueda, Lei Chen, Jonathon Kopecky, Emily S Cramer, Ronald A Rensink, David E Meyer, Shinobu Kitayama, Jun Saiki
While some studies suggest cultural differences in visual processing, others do not, possibly because the complexity of their tasks draws upon high-level factors that could obscure such effects. To control for this, we examined cultural differences in visual search for geometric figures, a relatively simple task for which the underlying mechanisms are reasonably well known. We replicated earlier results showing that North Americans had a reliable search asymmetry for line length: Search for long among short lines was faster than vice versa...
March 25, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328113/functional-equivalence-of-sleep-loss-and-time-on-task-effects-in-sustained-attention
#3
Bella Z Veksler, Glenn Gunzelmann
Research on sleep loss and vigilance both focus on declines in cognitive performance, but theoretical accounts have developed largely in parallel in these two areas. In addition, computational instantiations of theoretical accounts are rare. The current work uses computational modeling to explore whether the same mechanisms can account for the effects of both sleep loss and time on task on performance. A classic task used in the sleep deprivation literature, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), was extended from the typical 10-min duration to 35 min, to make the task similar in duration to traditional vigilance tasks...
March 22, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323353/multimodal-word-meaning-induction-from-minimal-exposure-to-natural-text
#4
Angeliki Lazaridou, Marco Marelli, Marco Baroni
By the time they reach early adulthood, English speakers are familiar with the meaning of thousands of words. In the last decades, computational simulations known as distributional semantic models (DSMs) have demonstrated that it is possible to induce word meaning representations solely from word co-occurrence statistics extracted from a large amount of text. However, while these models learn in batch mode from large corpora, human word learning proceeds incrementally after minimal exposure to new words. In this study, we run a set of experiments investigating whether minimal distributional evidence from very short passages suffices to trigger successful word learning in subjects, testing their linguistic and visual intuitions about the concepts associated with new words...
March 21, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294387/ownership-dilemmas-the-case-of-finders-versus-landowners
#5
Peter DeScioli, Rachel Karpoff, Julian De Freitas
People sometimes disagree about who owns which objects, and these ownership dilemmas can lead to costly disputes. We investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying people's judgments about finder versus landowner cases, in which a person finds an object on someone else's land. We test psychological hypotheses motivated directly by three major principles that govern these cases in the law. The results show that people are more likely to favor the finder when the object is in a public space compared to a private space...
March 14, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295571/further-tests-of-a-dynamic-adjustment-account-of-saccade-targeting-during-the-reading-of-chinese
#6
Yanping Liu, Ren Huang, Dingguo Gao, Erik D Reichle
There are two accounts of how readers of unspaced writing systems (e.g., Chinese) know where to move their eyes: (a) saccades are directed toward default targets (e.g., centers of words that have been segmented in the parafovea); or (b) saccade lengths are adjusted dynamically, as a function of ongoing parafoveal processing. This article reports an eye-movement experiment supporting the latter hypothesis by demonstrating that the slope of the relationship between the saccade launch site on word N and the subsequent fixation landing site on word N + 1 is > 1, suggesting that saccades are lengthened from launch sites that afford more parafoveal processing...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295485/maternal-socioeconomic-status-influences-the-range-of-expectations-during-language-comprehension-in%C3%A2-adulthood
#7
Melissa Troyer, Arielle Borovsky
In infancy, maternal socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with real-time language processing skills, but whether or not (and if so, how) this relationship carries into adulthood is unknown. We explored the effects of maternal SES in college-aged adults on eye-tracked, spoken sentence comprehension tasks using the visual world paradigm. When sentences ended in highly plausible, expected target nouns (Exp. 1), higher SES was associated with a greater likelihood of considering alternative endings related to the action of the sentence...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295482/what-am-i-looking-at-interpreting-dynamic-and-static-gaze-displays
#8
Margot van Wermeskerken, Damien Litchfield, Tamara van Gog
Displays of eye movements may convey information about cognitive processes but require interpretation. We investigated whether participants were able to interpret displays of their own or others' eye movements. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants observed an image under three different viewing instructions. Then they were shown static or dynamic gaze displays and had to judge whether it was their own or someone else's eye movements and what instruction was reflected. Participants were capable of recognizing the instruction reflected in their own and someone else's gaze display...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294384/learning-the-structure-of-social-influence
#9
Samuel J Gershman, Hillard Thomas Pouncy, Hyowon Gweon
We routinely observe others' choices and use them to guide our own. Whose choices influence us more, and why? Prior work has focused on the effect of perceived similarity between two individuals (self and others), such as the degree of overlap in past choices or explicitly recognizable group affiliations. In the real world, however, any dyadic relationship is part of a more complex social structure involving multiple social groups that are not directly observable. Here we suggest that human learners go beyond dyadic similarities in choice behaviors or explicit group memberships; they infer the structure of social influence by grouping individuals (including themselves) based on choices, and they use these groups to decide whose choices to follow...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247952/introduction-to-the-special-issue-honoring-the-2014-david-e-rumelhart-prize-recipient-ray-jackendoff
#10
Peter W Culicover
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213928/problem-solving-phase-transitions-during-team-collaboration
#11
Travis J Wiltshire, Jonathan E Butner, Stephen M Fiore
Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving (CPS) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes...
February 18, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139843/metaphorical-accounting-how-framing-the-federal-budget-like-a-household-s-affects-voting-intentions
#12
Paul H Thibodeau, Stephen J Flusberg
Political discourse is saturated with metaphor, but evidence for the persuasive power of this language has been hard to come by. We addressed this issue by investigating whether voting intentions were affected by implicit mappings suggested by a metaphorically framed message, drawing on a real-world example of political rhetoric about the federal budget. In the first experiment, the federal budget was framed as similar to or different from a household budget, though the information participants received was identical in both conditions...
January 31, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121017/information-theoretic-properties-of-auditory-sequences-dynamically-influence-expectation-and-memory
#13
Kat Agres, Samer Abdallah, Marcus Pearce
A basic function of cognition is to detect regularities in sensory input to facilitate the prediction and recognition of future events. It has been proposed that these implicit expectations arise from an internal predictive coding model, based on knowledge acquired through processes such as statistical learning, but it is unclear how different types of statistical information affect listeners' memory for auditory stimuli. We used a combination of behavioral and computational methods to investigate memory for non-linguistic auditory sequences...
January 25, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094450/relational-priming-based-on-a-multiplicative-schema-for-whole-numbers-and-fractions
#14
Melissa DeWolf, Ji Y Son, Miriam Bassok, Keith J Holyoak
Why might it be (at least sometimes) beneficial for adults to process fractions componentially? Recent research has shown that college-educated adults can capitalize on the bipartite structure of the fraction notation, performing more successfully with fractions than with decimals in relational tasks, notably analogical reasoning. This study examined patterns of relational priming for problems with fractions in a task that required arithmetic computations. College students were asked to judge whether or not multiplication equations involving fractions were correct...
January 17, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27128822/hand-gesture-and-mathematics-learning-lessons-from-an-avatar
#15
Susan Wagner Cook, Howard S Friedman, Katherine A Duggan, Jian Cui, Voicu Popescu
A beneficial effect of gesture on learning has been demonstrated in multiple domains, including mathematics, science, and foreign language vocabulary. However, because gesture is known to co-vary with other non-verbal behaviors, including eye gaze and prosody along with face, lip, and body movements, it is possible the beneficial effect of gesture is instead attributable to these other behaviors. We used a computer-generated animated pedagogical agent to control both verbal and non-verbal behavior. Children viewed lessons on mathematical equivalence in which an avatar either gestured or did not gesture, while eye gaze, head position, and lip movements remained identical across gesture conditions...
March 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26969018/the-role-of-lexical-frequency-in-the-acceptability-of-syntactic-variants-evidence-from-that-clauses-in-polish
#16
Dagmar Divjak
A number of studies report that frequency is a poor predictor of acceptability, in particular at the lower end of the frequency spectrum. Because acceptability judgments provide a substantial part of the empirical foundation of dominant linguistic traditions, understanding how acceptability relates to frequency, one of the most robust predictors of human performance, is crucial. The relation between low frequency and acceptability is investigated using corpus- and behavioral data on the distribution of infinitival and finite that-complements in Polish...
March 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26901374/balancing-effort-and-information-transmission-during-language-acquisition-evidence-from-word-order-and-case-marking
#17
Maryia Fedzechkina, Elissa L Newport, T Florian Jaeger
Across languages of the world, some grammatical patterns have been argued to be more common than expected by chance. These are sometimes referred to as (statistical) language universals. One such universal is the correlation between constituent order freedom and the presence of a case system in a language. Here, we explore whether this correlation can be explained by a bias to balance production effort and informativity of cues to grammatical function. Two groups of learners were presented with miniature artificial languages containing optional case marking and either flexible or fixed constituent order...
March 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26901251/perceptual-learning-of-intonation-contour-categories-in-adults-and-9-to-11-year-old-children-adults-are-more-narrow-minded
#18
Vsevolod Kapatsinski, Paul Olejarczuk, Melissa A Redford
We report on rapid perceptual learning of intonation contour categories in adults and 9- to 11-year-old children. Intonation contours are temporally extended patterns, whose perception requires temporal integration and therefore poses significant working memory challenges. Both children and adults form relatively abstract representations of intonation contours: Previously encountered and novel exemplars are categorized together equally often, as long as distance from the prototype is controlled. However, age-related differences in categorization performance also exist...
March 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26888051/categories-of-large-numbers-in-line-estimation
#19
David Landy, Arthur Charlesworth, Erin Ottmar
How do people stretch their understanding of magnitude from the experiential range to the very large quantities and ranges important in science, geopolitics, and mathematics? This paper empirically evaluates how and whether people make use of numerical categories when estimating relative magnitudes of numbers across many orders of magnitude. We hypothesize that people use scale words-thousand, million, billion-to carve the large number line into categories, stretching linear responses across items within each category...
March 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26864919/effects-of-manipulation-on-attributions-of-causation-free-will-and-moral-responsibility
#20
Dylan Murray, Tania Lombrozo
If someone brings about an outcome without intending to, is she causally and morally responsible for it? What if she acts intentionally, but as the result of manipulation by another agent? Previous research has shown that an agent's mental states can affect attributions of causal and moral responsibility to that agent, but little is known about what effect one agent's mental states can have on attributions to another agent. In Experiment 1, we replicate findings that manipulation lowers attributions of responsibility to manipulated agents...
March 2017: Cognitive Science
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