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Cognitive Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397342/syntactic-complexity-effects-in-sentence-production-a%C3%A2-reply-to-macdonald-montag-and-gennari-2016
#1
LETTER
Gregory Scontras, William Badecker, Evelina Fedorenko
In our article, "Syntactic complexity effects in sentence production" (Scontras, Badecker, Shank, Lim, & Fedorenko, ), we reported two elicited production experiments and argued that there is a cost associated with planning and uttering syntactically complex, object-extracted structures that contain a non-local syntactic dependency. MacDonald et al. () have argued that the results of our investigation provide little new information on the topic. We disagree. Examining the production of subject versus object extractions in two constructions across two experimental paradigms-relative clauses in Experiment 1 and wh-questions in Experiment 2-we found a strikingly similar pattern: reliable differences in latency and word durations, as well as in rates of disfluencies, signaling a greater cost associated with planning and uttering the syntactically more complex object extractions...
April 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397290/the-semantic-drift-of-quotations-in-blogspace-a-case-study-in-short-term-cultural-evolution
#2
Sébastien Lerique, Camille Roth
We present an empirical case study that connects psycholinguistics with the field of cultural evolution, in order to test for the existence of cultural attractors in the evolution of quotations. Such attractors have been proposed as a useful concept for understanding cultural evolution in relation with individual cognition, but their existence has been hard to test. We focus on the transformation of quotations when they are copied from blog to blog or media website: by coding words with a number of well-studied lexical features, we show that the way words are substituted in quotations is consistent (a) with the hypothesis of cultural attractors and (b) with known effects of the word features...
April 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397287/a-multi-factor-account-of-degrees-of-awareness
#3
Peter Fazekas, Morten Overgaard
In this paper we argue that awareness comes in degrees, and we propose a novel multi-factor account that spans both subjective experiences and perceptual representations. At the subjective level, we argue that conscious experiences can be degraded by being fragmented, less salient, too generic, or flash-like. At the representational level, we identify corresponding features of perceptual representations-their availability for working memory, intensity, precision, and stability-and argue that the mechanisms that affect these features are what ultimately modulate the degree of awareness...
April 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382639/adaptive-anchoring-model-how-static-and-dynamic-presentations-of-time-series-influence-judgments-and-predictions
#4
Petko Kusev, Paul van Schaik, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Asgeir Juliusson, Nick Chater
When attempting to predict future events, people commonly rely on historical data. One psychological characteristic of judgmental forecasting of time series, established by research, is that when people make forecasts from series, they tend to underestimate future values for upward trends and overestimate them for downward ones, so-called trend-damping (modeled by anchoring on, and insufficient adjustment from, the average of recent time series values). Events in a time series can be experienced sequentially (dynamic mode), or they can also be retrospectively viewed simultaneously (static mode), not experienced individually in real time...
April 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370159/a-priori-true-and-false-conditionals
#5
Ana Cristina Quelhas, Célia Rasga, Philip N Johnson-Laird
The theory of mental models postulates that meaning and knowledge can modulate the interpretation of conditionals. The theory's computer implementation implied that certain conditionals should be true or false without the need for evidence. Three experiments corroborated this prediction. In Experiment 1, nearly 500 participants evaluated 24 conditionals as true or false, and they justified their judgments by completing sentences of the form, It is impossible that A and ___ appropriately. In Experiment 2, participants evaluated 16 conditionals and provided their own justifications, which tended to be explanations rather than logical justifications...
March 29, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345795/is-the-lateralized-categorical-perception-of-color-a-situational-effect-of-language-on-color-perception
#6
Weifang Zhong, You Li, Yulan Huang, He Li, Lei Mo
This study investigated whether and how a person's varied series of lexical categories corresponding to different discriminatory characteristics of the same colors affect his or her perception of colors. In three experiments, Chinese participants were primed to categorize four graduated colors-specifically dark green, light green, light blue, and dark blue-into green and blue; light color and dark color; and dark green, light green, light blue, and dark blue. The participants were then required to complete a visual search task...
March 27, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342239/cultural-differences-in-visual-search-for-geometric-figures
#7
Yoshiyuki Ueda, Lei Chen, Jonathon Kopecky, Emily S Cramer, Ronald A Rensink, David E Meyer, Shinobu Kitayama, Jun Saiki
While some studies suggest cultural differences in visual processing, others do not, possibly because the complexity of their tasks draws upon high-level factors that could obscure such effects. To control for this, we examined cultural differences in visual search for geometric figures, a relatively simple task for which the underlying mechanisms are reasonably well known. We replicated earlier results showing that North Americans had a reliable search asymmetry for line length: Search for long among short lines was faster than vice versa...
March 25, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328113/functional-equivalence-of-sleep-loss-and-time-on-task-effects-in-sustained-attention
#8
Bella Z Veksler, Glenn Gunzelmann
Research on sleep loss and vigilance both focus on declines in cognitive performance, but theoretical accounts have developed largely in parallel in these two areas. In addition, computational instantiations of theoretical accounts are rare. The current work uses computational modeling to explore whether the same mechanisms can account for the effects of both sleep loss and time on task on performance. A classic task used in the sleep deprivation literature, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), was extended from the typical 10-min duration to 35 min, to make the task similar in duration to traditional vigilance tasks...
March 22, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323353/multimodal-word-meaning-induction-from-minimal-exposure-to-natural-text
#9
Angeliki Lazaridou, Marco Marelli, Marco Baroni
By the time they reach early adulthood, English speakers are familiar with the meaning of thousands of words. In the last decades, computational simulations known as distributional semantic models (DSMs) have demonstrated that it is possible to induce word meaning representations solely from word co-occurrence statistics extracted from a large amount of text. However, while these models learn in batch mode from large corpora, human word learning proceeds incrementally after minimal exposure to new words. In this study, we run a set of experiments investigating whether minimal distributional evidence from very short passages suffices to trigger successful word learning in subjects, testing their linguistic and visual intuitions about the concepts associated with new words...
March 21, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294387/ownership-dilemmas-the-case-of-finders-versus-landowners
#10
Peter DeScioli, Rachel Karpoff, Julian De Freitas
People sometimes disagree about who owns which objects, and these ownership dilemmas can lead to costly disputes. We investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying people's judgments about finder versus landowner cases, in which a person finds an object on someone else's land. We test psychological hypotheses motivated directly by three major principles that govern these cases in the law. The results show that people are more likely to favor the finder when the object is in a public space compared to a private space...
March 14, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295571/further-tests-of-a-dynamic-adjustment-account-of-saccade-targeting-during-the-reading-of-chinese
#11
Yanping Liu, Ren Huang, Dingguo Gao, Erik D Reichle
There are two accounts of how readers of unspaced writing systems (e.g., Chinese) know where to move their eyes: (a) saccades are directed toward default targets (e.g., centers of words that have been segmented in the parafovea); or (b) saccade lengths are adjusted dynamically, as a function of ongoing parafoveal processing. This article reports an eye-movement experiment supporting the latter hypothesis by demonstrating that the slope of the relationship between the saccade launch site on word N and the subsequent fixation landing site on word N + 1 is > 1, suggesting that saccades are lengthened from launch sites that afford more parafoveal processing...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295485/maternal-socioeconomic-status-influences-the-range-of-expectations-during-language-comprehension-in%C3%A2-adulthood
#12
Melissa Troyer, Arielle Borovsky
In infancy, maternal socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with real-time language processing skills, but whether or not (and if so, how) this relationship carries into adulthood is unknown. We explored the effects of maternal SES in college-aged adults on eye-tracked, spoken sentence comprehension tasks using the visual world paradigm. When sentences ended in highly plausible, expected target nouns (Exp. 1), higher SES was associated with a greater likelihood of considering alternative endings related to the action of the sentence...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295482/what-am-i-looking-at-interpreting-dynamic-and-static-gaze-displays
#13
Margot van Wermeskerken, Damien Litchfield, Tamara van Gog
Displays of eye movements may convey information about cognitive processes but require interpretation. We investigated whether participants were able to interpret displays of their own or others' eye movements. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants observed an image under three different viewing instructions. Then they were shown static or dynamic gaze displays and had to judge whether it was their own or someone else's eye movements and what instruction was reflected. Participants were capable of recognizing the instruction reflected in their own and someone else's gaze display...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294384/learning-the-structure-of-social-influence
#14
Samuel J Gershman, Hillard Thomas Pouncy, Hyowon Gweon
We routinely observe others' choices and use them to guide our own. Whose choices influence us more, and why? Prior work has focused on the effect of perceived similarity between two individuals (self and others), such as the degree of overlap in past choices or explicitly recognizable group affiliations. In the real world, however, any dyadic relationship is part of a more complex social structure involving multiple social groups that are not directly observable. Here we suggest that human learners go beyond dyadic similarities in choice behaviors or explicit group memberships; they infer the structure of social influence by grouping individuals (including themselves) based on choices, and they use these groups to decide whose choices to follow...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213928/problem-solving-phase-transitions-during-team-collaboration
#15
Travis J Wiltshire, Jonathan E Butner, Stephen M Fiore
Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving (CPS) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes...
February 18, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139843/metaphorical-accounting-how-framing-the-federal-budget-like-a-household-s-affects-voting-intentions
#16
Paul H Thibodeau, Stephen J Flusberg
Political discourse is saturated with metaphor, but evidence for the persuasive power of this language has been hard to come by. We addressed this issue by investigating whether voting intentions were affected by implicit mappings suggested by a metaphorically framed message, drawing on a real-world example of political rhetoric about the federal budget. In the first experiment, the federal budget was framed as similar to or different from a household budget, though the information participants received was identical in both conditions...
January 31, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422354/auditory-verbal-experience-and-agency-in-waking-sleep-onset-rem-and-non-rem-sleep
#17
Jana Speth, Trevor A Harley, Clemens Speth
We present one of the first quantitative studies on auditory verbal experiences ("hearing voices") and auditory verbal agency (inner speech, and specifically "talking to (imaginary) voices or characters") in healthy participants across states of consciousness. Tools of quantitative linguistic analysis were used to measure participants' implicit knowledge of auditory verbal experiences (VE) and auditory verbal agencies (VA), displayed in mentation reports from four different states. Analysis was conducted on a total of 569 mentation reports from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM sleep, sleep onset, and waking...
April 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914116/so-it-is-so-it-shall-be-group-regularities-license-children-s-prescriptive-judgments
#18
Steven O Roberts, Susan A Gelman, Arnold K Ho
When do descriptive regularities (what characteristics individuals have) become prescriptive norms (what characteristics individuals should have)? We examined children's (4-13 years) and adults' use of group regularities to make prescriptive judgments, employing novel groups (Hibbles and Glerks) that engaged in morally neutral behaviors (e.g., eating different kinds of berries). Participants were introduced to conforming or non-conforming individuals (e.g., a Hibble who ate berries more typical of a Glerk)...
April 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26901571/abstract-conceptual-feature-ratings-predict-gaze-within-written-word-arrays-evidence-from-a-visual-wor-l-d-paradigm
#19
Silvia Primativo, Jamie Reilly, Sebastian J Crutch
The Abstract Conceptual Feature (ACF) framework predicts that word meaning is represented within a high-dimensional semantic space bounded by weighted contributions of perceptual, affective, and encyclopedic information. The ACF, like latent semantic analysis, is amenable to distance metrics between any two words. We applied predictions of the ACF framework to abstract words using eyetracking via an adaptation of the classical "visual word paradigm" (VWP). Healthy adults (n = 20) selected the lexical item most related to a probe word in a 4-item written word array comprising the target and three distractors...
April 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247952/introduction-to-the-special-issue-honoring-the-2014-david-e-rumelhart-prize-recipient-ray-jackendoff
#20
Peter W Culicover
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Cognitive Science
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