journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cognitive Science

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685848/learning-object-names-at-different-hierarchical-levels-using-cross-situational-statistics
#1
Chi-Hsin Chen, Yayun Zhang, Chen Yu
Objects in the world usually have names at different hierarchical levels (e.g., beagle, dog, animal). This research investigates adults' ability to use cross-situational statistics to simultaneously learn object labels at individual and category levels. The results revealed that adults were able to use co-occurrence information to learn hierarchical labels in contexts where the labels for individual objects and labels for categories were presented in completely separated blocks, in interleaved blocks, or mixed in the same trial...
July 7, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685842/two-models-of-moral-judgment
#2
Shane Bretz, Ron Sun
This paper compares two theories and their two corresponding computational models of human moral judgment. In order to better address psychological realism and generality of theories of moral judgment, more detailed and more psychologically nuanced models are needed. In particular, a motivationally based theory of moral judgment (and its corresponding computational model) is developed in this paper that provides a more accurate account of human moral judgment than an existing emotion-reason conflict theory...
July 7, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675496/knowing-when-help-is-needed-a-developing-sense-of-causal-complexity
#3
Jonathan F Kominsky, Anna P Zamm, Frank C Keil
Research on the division of cognitive labor has found that adults and children as young as age 5 are able to find appropriate experts for different causal systems. However, little work has explored how children and adults decide when to seek out expert knowledge in the first place. We propose that children and adults rely (in part) on "mechanism metadata," information about mechanism information. We argue that mechanism metadata is relatively consistent across individuals exposed to similar amounts of mechanism information, and it is applicable to a wide range of causal systems...
July 4, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671314/no-evidence-that-sleep-deprivation-effects-and-the-vigilance-decrement-are-functionally-equivalent-comment-on-veksler-and-gunzelmann-2017
#4
LETTER
Erik M Altmann
Veksler and Gunzelmann (2017) make an extraordinary claim, which is that sleep deprivation effects and the vigilance decrement are functionally equivalent. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence, which is missing from Veksler and Gunzelmann's study. Their behavioral data offer only weak theoretical constraint, and to the extent their modeling exercise supports any position, it is that these two performance impairments involve functionally distinct underlying mechanisms.
July 3, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656679/sculptors-architects-and-painters-conceive-of-depicted-spaces-differently
#5
Claudia Cialone, Thora Tenbrink, Hugo J Spiers
Sculptors, architects, and painters are three professional groups that require a comprehensive understanding of how to manipulate spatial structures. While it has been speculated that they may differ in the way they conceive of space due to the different professional demands, this has not been empirically tested. To achieve this, we asked architects, painters, sculptors, and a control group questions about spatially complex pictures. Verbalizations elicited were examined using cognitive discourse analysis. We found significant differences between each group...
June 27, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653447/dividing-attention-between-tasks-testing-whether-explicit-payoff-functions-elicit-optimal-dual-task-performance
#6
George D Farmer, Christian P Janssen, Anh T Nguyen, Duncan P Brumby
We test people's ability to optimize performance across two concurrent tasks. Participants performed a number entry task while controlling a randomly moving cursor with a joystick. Participants received explicit feedback on their performance on these tasks in the form of a single combined score. This payoff function was varied between conditions to change the value of one task relative to the other. We found that participants adapted their strategy for interleaving the two tasks, by varying how long they spent on one task before switching to the other, in order to achieve the near maximum payoff available in each condition...
June 27, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649757/visual-complexity-and-its-effects-on-referring-expression-generation
#7
Micha Elsner, Alasdair Clarke, Hannah Rohde
Speakers' perception of a visual scene influences the language they use to describe it-which objects they choose to mention and how they characterize the relationships between them. We show that visual complexity can either delay or facilitate description generation, depending on how much disambiguating information is required and how useful the scene's complexity can be in providing, for example, helpful landmarks. To do so, we measure speech onset times, eye gaze, and utterance content in a reference production experiment in which the target object is either unique or non-unique in a visual scene of varying size and complexity...
June 26, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608488/sensitivity-to-shared-information-in-social-learning
#8
Andrew Whalen, Thomas L Griffiths, Daphna Buchsbaum
Social learning has been shown to be an evolutionarily adaptive strategy, but it can be implemented via many different cognitive mechanisms. The adaptive advantage of social learning depends crucially on the ability of each learner to obtain relevant and accurate information from informants. The source of informants' knowledge is a particularly important cue for evaluating advice from multiple informants; if the informants share the source of their information or have obtained their information from each other, then their testimony is statistically dependent and may be less reliable than testimony from informants who do not share information...
June 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585747/a-biologically-plausible-action-selection-system-for-cognitive-architectures-implications-of-basal-ganglia-anatomy-for-learning-and-decision-making-models
#9
Andrea Stocco
Several attempts have been made previously to provide a biological grounding for cognitive architectures by relating their components to the computations of specific brain circuits. Often, the architecture's action selection system is identified with the basal ganglia. However, this identification overlooks one of the most important features of the basal ganglia-the existence of a direct and an indirect pathway that compete against each other. This characteristic has important consequences in decision-making tasks, which are brought to light by Parkinson's disease as well as genetic differences in dopamine receptors...
June 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585737/a-new-measure-of-hallucinatory-states-and-a-discussion-of-rem-sleep-dreaming-as-a-virtual-laboratory-for-the-rehearsal-of-embodied-cognition
#10
Clemens Speth, Jana Speth
Hallucinatory states are experienced not only in connection with drugs and psychopathologies but occur naturally and spontaneously across the human circadian cycle: Our nightly dreams bring multimodal experiences in the absence of adequate external stimuli. The current study proposes a new, tighter measure of these hallucinatory states: Sleep onset, REM sleep, and non-REM sleep are shown to differ with regard to (a) motor imagery indicating interactions with a rich imaginative world, and (b) cognitive agency that could enable sleepers to recognize their hallucinatory state...
June 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585702/consistent-belief-in-a-good-true-self-in-misanthropes-and-three-interdependent-cultures
#11
Julian De Freitas, Hagop Sarkissian, George E Newman, Igor Grossmann, Felipe De Brigard, Andres Luco, Joshua Knobe
People sometimes explain behavior by appealing to an essentialist concept of the self, often referred to as the true self. Existing studies suggest that people tend to believe that the true self is morally virtuous; that is deep inside, every person is motivated to behave in morally good ways. Is this belief particular to individuals with optimistic beliefs or people from Western cultures, or does it reflect a widely held cognitive bias in how people understand the self? To address this question, we tested the good true self theory against two potential boundary conditions that are known to elicit different beliefs about the self as a whole...
June 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574609/an-actor-s-knowledge-and-intent-are-more-important-in-evaluating-moral-transgressions-than-conventional-transgressions
#12
Carly Giffin, Tania Lombrozo
An actor's mental states-whether she acted knowingly and with bad intentions-typically play an important role in evaluating the extent to which an action is wrong and in determining appropriate levels of punishment. In four experiments, we find that this role for knowledge and intent is significantly weaker when evaluating transgressions of conventional rules as opposed to moral rules. We also find that this attenuated role for knowledge and intent is partly due to the fact that conventional rules are judged to be more arbitrary than moral rules; whereas moral transgressions are associated with actions that are intrinsically wrong (e...
June 2, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574602/na%C3%A3-ve-and-robust-class-conditional-independence-in-human-classification-learning
#13
Jana B Jarecki, Björn Meder, Jonathan D Nelson
Humans excel in categorization. Yet from a computational standpoint, learning a novel probabilistic classification task involves severe computational challenges. The present paper investigates one way to address these challenges: assuming class-conditional independence of features. This feature independence assumption simplifies the inference problem, allows for informed inferences about novel feature combinations, and performs robustly across different statistical environments. We designed a new Bayesian classification learning model (the dependence-independence structure and category learning model, DISC-LM) that incorporates varying degrees of prior belief in class-conditional independence, learns whether or not independence holds, and adapts its behavior accordingly...
June 2, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503811/the-interactive-origin-of-iconicity
#14
Mónica Tamariz, Seán G Roberts, J Isidro Martínez, Julio Santiago
We investigate the emergence of iconicity, specifically a bouba-kiki effect in miniature artificial languages under different functional constraints: when the languages are reproduced and when they are used communicatively. We ran transmission chains of (a) participant dyads who played an interactive communicative game and (b) individual participants who played a matched learning game. An analysis of the languages over six generations in an iterated learning experiment revealed that in the Communication condition, but not in the Reproduction condition, words for spiky shapes tend to be rated by naive judges as more spiky than the words for round shapes...
May 15, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503806/distinctiveness-benefits-novelty-and-not-familiarity-but-only-up-to-a-limit-the-prior-knowledge-perspective
#15
Niv Reggev, Reut Sharoni, Anat Maril
Novelty is a pivotal player in cognition, and its contribution to superior memory performance is a widely accepted convention. On the other hand, mnemonic advantages for familiar information are also well documented. Here, we examine the role of experimental distinctiveness as a potential explanation for these apparently conflicting findings. Across two experiments, we demonstrate that conceptual novelty, an unfamiliar combination of familiar constituents, is sensitive to its experimental proportions: Improved memory for novelty was observed when novel stimuli were relatively rare...
May 15, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481420/anthropocentric-by-default-attribution-of-familiar-and-novel-properties-to-living-things
#16
Melanie Arenson, John D Coley
Humans naturally and effortlessly use a set of cognitive tools to reason about biological entities and phenomena. Two such tools, essentialist thinking and teleological thinking, appear to be early developmental cognitive defaults, used extensively in childhood and under limited circumstances in adulthood, but prone to reemerge under time pressure or cognitive load. We examine the nature of another such tool: anthropocentric thinking. In four experiments, we examined patterns of property attribution to a wide range of living and non-living objects, manipulating time pressure, response type, and property (either novel or familiar) in a total of 471 participants...
May 8, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481418/blind-speakers-show-language-specific-patterns-in-co-speech-gesture-but-not-silent-gesture
#17
Şeyda Özçalışkan, Ché Lucero, Susan Goldin-Meadow
Sighted speakers of different languages vary systematically in how they package and order components of a motion event in speech. These differences influence how semantic elements are organized in gesture, but only when those gestures are produced with speech (co-speech gesture), not without speech (silent gesture). We ask whether the cross-linguistic similarity in silent gesture is driven by the visuospatial structure of the event. We compared 40 congenitally blind adult native speakers of English or Turkish (20/language) to 80 sighted adult speakers (40/language; half with, half without blindfolds) as they described three-dimensional motion scenes...
May 8, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474738/no-harm-still-foul-concerns-about-reputation-drive-dislike-of-harmless-plagiarizers
#18
Ike Silver, Alex Shaw
Across a variety of situations, people strongly condemn plagiarizers who steal credit for ideas, even when the theft in question does not appear to harm anyone. Why would people react negatively to relatively harmless acts of plagiarism? In six experiments, we predict and find that these negative reactions are driven by people's aversion toward agents who attempt to falsely improve their reputations. In Studies 1-3, participants condemn plagiarism cases that they agree are harmless (i.e., stealing credit from an anonymous source)...
May 5, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523653/vocabulary-grammar-sex-and-aging
#19
Fermín Moscoso Del Prado Martín
Understanding the changes in our language abilities along the lifespan is a crucial step for understanding the aging process both in normal and in abnormal circumstances. Besides controlled experimental tasks, it is equally crucial to investigate language in unconstrained conversation. I present an information-theoretical analysis of a corpus of dyadic conversations investigating how the richness of the vocabulary, the word-internal structure (inflectional morphology), and the syntax of the utterances evolves as a function of the speaker's age and sex...
May 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500675/counterfactual-plausibility-and-comparative-similarity
#20
Matthew L Stanley, Gregory W Stewart, Felipe De Brigard
Counterfactual thinking involves imagining hypothetical alternatives to reality. Philosopher David Lewis (1973, 1979) argued that people estimate the subjective plausibility that a counterfactual event might have occurred by comparing an imagined possible world in which the counterfactual statement is true against the current, actual world in which the counterfactual statement is false. Accordingly, counterfactuals considered to be true in possible worlds comparatively more similar to ours are judged as more plausible than counterfactuals deemed true in possible worlds comparatively less similar...
May 2017: Cognitive Science
journal
journal
27168
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"