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Cognitive Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781135/non-adjacent-dependencies-processing-in-human-and-non-human-primates
#1
Raphaëlle Malassis, Arnaud Rey, Joël Fagot
Human and non-human primates share the ability to extract adjacent dependencies and, under certain conditions, non-adjacent dependencies (i.e., predictive relationships between elements that are separated by one or several intervening elements in a sequence). In this study, we explore the online extraction dynamics of non-adjacent dependencies in humans and baboons using a serial reaction time task. Participants had to produce three-target sequences containing deterministic relationships between the first and last target locations...
May 20, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781130/compensating-for-an-inattentive-audience
#2
Nicole N Craycraft, Sarah Brown-Schmidt
The common ground that conversational partners share is thought to form the basic context for language use. According to the classic view, inferences about common ground, or mutual knowledge, are guided by beliefs about the physical, cognitive, and attentional states of one's communicative partners. Here, we provide a first test of the attention assumption for common ground, the proposal that common ground for a co-present entity-such as an object or an utterance-can only be formed if a person has evidence that his or her partner has also attended to it...
May 20, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687466/the-reference-of-proper-names-testing-usage-and-intuitions
#3
Michael Devitt, Nicolas Porot
Experiments on theories of reference have mostly tested referential intuitions. We think that experiments should rather be testing linguistic usage. Substantive Aim (I): to test classical description theories of proper names against usage by "elicited production." Our results count decisively against those theories. Methodological Aim (I): Machery, Olivola, and de Blanc () claim that truth-value judgment experiments test usage. Martí () disagrees. We argue that Machery et al. are right and offer some results that are consistent with that conclusion...
April 24, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687462/stable-causal-relationships-are-better-causal-relationships
#4
Nadya Vasilyeva, Thomas Blanchard, Tania Lombrozo
We report three experiments investigating whether people's judgments about causal relationships are sensitive to the robustness or stability of such relationships across a range of background circumstances. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate that people are more willing to endorse causal and explanatory claims based on stable (as opposed to unstable) relationships, even when the overall causal strength of the relationship is held constant. In Experiment 2, we show that this effect is not driven by a causal generalization's actual scope of application...
April 24, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687463/the-role-of-design-and-training-in-artifact-expertise-the-case-of-the-abacus-and-visual-attention
#5
Mahesh Srinivasan, Katie Wagner, Michael C Frank, David Barner
Previous accounts of how people develop expertise have focused on how deliberate practice transforms the cognitive and perceptual representations and processes that give rise to expertise. However, the likelihood of developing expertise with a particular tool may also depend on the degree to which that tool fits pre-existing perceptual and cognitive abilities. The present studies explored whether the abacus-a descendent of the first human computing devices-may have evolved to exploit general biases in human visual attention, or whether developing expertise with the abacus requires learning special strategies for allocating visual attention to the abacus...
April 23, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630740/the-bursts-and-lulls-of-multimodal-interaction-temporal-distributions-of-behavior-reveal-differences-between-verbal-and-non-verbal-communication
#6
Drew H Abney, Rick Dale, Max M Louwerse, Christopher T Kello
Recent studies of naturalistic face-to-face communication have demonstrated coordination patterns such as the temporal matching of verbal and non-verbal behavior, which provides evidence for the proposal that verbal and non-verbal communicative control derives from one system. In this study, we argue that the observed relationship between verbal and non-verbal behaviors depends on the level of analysis. In a reanalysis of a corpus of naturalistic multimodal communication (Louwerse, Dale, Bard, & Jeuniaux, ), we focus on measuring the temporal patterns of specific communicative behaviors in terms of their burstiness...
April 6, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630722/too-much-of-a-good-thing-how-novelty-biases-and-vocabulary-influence-known-and-novel-referent-selection-in-18-month-old-children-and-associative-learning-models
#7
Sarah C Kucker, Bob McMurray, Larissa K Samuelson
Identifying the referent of novel words is a complex process that young children do with relative ease. When given multiple objects along with a novel word, children select the most novel item, sometimes retaining the word-referent link. Prior work is inconsistent, however, on the role of object novelty. Two experiments examine 18-month-old children's performance on referent selection and retention with novel and known words. The results reveal a pervasive novelty bias on referent selection with both known and novel names and, across individual children, a negative correlation between attention to novelty and retention of new word-referent links...
April 6, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570837/due-process-in-dual-process-model-recovery-simulations-of-decision-bound-strategy-analysis-in-category-learning
#8
Charlotte E R Edmunds, Fraser Milton, Andy J Wills
Behavioral evidence for the COVIS dual-process model of category learning has been widely reported in over a hundred publications (Ashby & Valentin, ). It is generally accepted that the validity of such evidence depends on the accurate identification of individual participants' categorization strategies, a task that usually falls to Decision Bound analysis (Maddox & Ashby, ). Here, we examine the accuracy of this analysis in a series of model-recovery simulations. In Simulation 1, over a third of simulated participants using an Explicit (conjunctive) strategy were misidentified as using a Procedural strategy...
March 23, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570831/combinations-of-simple-mechanisms-explain-diverse-strategies-in-the-freehand-writing-of-memorized-sentences
#9
Peter C-H Cheng, Erlijn van Genuchten
Individual differences in the strategies that control sequential behavior were investigated in an experiment in which participants memorized sentences and then wrote them by hand, in a non-cursive style. Thirty-two participants each wrote eight sentences, which had hierarchical structures with five levels. The dataset included over 31,000 letters. Despite the deliberately constrained nature of the task and stimuli, 23 patterns of behavior were identified from the durations of pauses that occurred before the inscription of letters at four chunk levels, spanning letters, words, phrases, and sentences...
March 23, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566266/a-computational-model-of-the-self-teaching-hypothesis-based-on-the-dual-route-cascaded-model-of-reading
#10
Stephen C Pritchard, Max Coltheart, Eva Marinus, Anne Castles
The self-teaching hypothesis describes how children progress toward skilled sight-word reading. It proposes that children do this via phonological recoding with assistance from contextual cues, to identify the target pronunciation for a novel letter string, and in so doing create an opportunity to self-teach new orthographic knowledge. We present a new computational implementation of self-teaching within the dual-route cascaded (DRC) model of reading aloud, and we explore how decoding and contextual cues can work together to enable accurate self-teaching under a variety of circumstances...
March 22, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537108/the-development-of-invariant-object-recognition-requires-visual-experience-with-temporally-smooth-objects
#11
Justin N Wood, Samantha M W Wood
How do newborns learn to recognize objects? According to temporal learning models in computational neuroscience, the brain constructs object representations by extracting smoothly changing features from the environment. To date, however, it is unknown whether newborns depend on smoothly changing features to build invariant object representations. Here, we used an automated controlled-rearing method to examine whether visual experience with smoothly changing features facilitates the development of view-invariant object recognition in a newborn animal model-the domestic chick (Gallus gallus)...
March 14, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528134/mental-transformation-skill-in-young-children-the-role-of-concrete-and-abstract-motor-training
#12
Susan C Levine, Susan Goldin-Meadow, Matthew T Carlson, Naureen Hemani-Lopez
We examined the effects of three different training conditions, all of which involve the motor system, on kindergarteners' mental transformation skill. We focused on three main questions. First, we asked whether training that involves making a motor movement that is relevant to the mental transformation-either concretely through action (action training) or more abstractly through gestural movements that represent the action (move-gesture training)-resulted in greater gains than training using motor movements irrelevant to the mental transformation (point-gesture training)...
March 12, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524237/compression-in-working-memory-and-its-relationship-with-fluid-intelligence
#13
Mustapha Chekaf, Nicolas Gauvrit, Alessandro Guida, Fabien Mathy
Working memory has been shown to be strongly related to fluid intelligence; however, our goal is to shed further light on the process of information compression in working memory as a determining factor of fluid intelligence. Our main hypothesis was that compression in working memory is an excellent indicator for studying the relationship between working-memory capacity and fluid intelligence because both depend on the optimization of storage capacity. Compressibility of memoranda was estimated using an algorithmic complexity metric...
March 10, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498437/evaluating-the-theoretic-adequacy-and-applied-potential-of-computational-models-of-the-spacing-effect
#14
Matthew M Walsh, Kevin A Gluck, Glenn Gunzelmann, Tiffany Jastrzembski, Michael Krusmark
The spacing effect is among the most widely replicated empirical phenomena in the learning sciences, and its relevance to education and training is readily apparent. Yet successful applications of spacing effect research to education and training is rare. Computational modeling can provide the crucial link between a century of accumulated experimental data on the spacing effect and the emerging interest in using that research to enable adaptive instruction. In this paper, we review relevant literature and identify 10 criteria for rigorously evaluating computational models of the spacing effect...
March 2, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498434/predictive-movements-and-human-reinforcement-learning-of-sequential-action
#15
Roy de Kleijn, George Kachergis, Bernhard Hommel
Sequential action makes up the bulk of human daily activity, and yet much remains unknown about how people learn such actions. In one motor learning paradigm, the serial reaction time (SRT) task, people are taught a consistent sequence of button presses by cueing them with the next target response. However, the SRT task only records keypress response times to a cued target, and thus it cannot reveal the full time-course of motion, including predictive movements. This paper describes a mouse movement trajectory SRT task in which the cursor must be moved to a cued location...
March 2, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517115/influence-of-social-perception-and-social-monitoring-on-structural-priming
#16
Heeju Hwang, Eunjin Chun
Although structural priming has been considered to be an independent cognitive process, recent evidence suggests that structural priming is modulated by sociocognitive factors such as social perception; speakers are more likely to mimic the sentence structure of a socially desirable interlocutor than the structure of a less desirable interlocutor. This study aims to further address the role of sociocognitive factors in language use by investigating how individual differences in social perception and tendency to align with others (i...
May 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349828/further-evidence-that-sleep-deprivation-effects-and-the-vigilance-decrement-are-functionally-equivalent-comment-on-altmann-2018
#17
LETTER
Glenn Gunzelmann, Bella Veksler
Veksler and Gunzelmann (2018) argue that the vigilance decrement and the deleterious effects of sleep loss reflect functionally equivalent degradations in cognitive processing and performance. Our account is implemented in a cognitive architecture, where these factors produce breakdowns in goal-directed cognitive processing that we refer to as microlapses. Altmann (2018) raises a number of challenges to microlapses as a unified account of these deficits. Under scrutiny, however, the challenges do little to discredit the theory or conclusions in the original paper...
March 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194740/stereotype-threat-effects-on-learning-from-a-cognitively-demanding-mathematics-lesson
#18
Emily McLaughlin Lyons, Nina Simms, Kreshnik N Begolli, Lindsey E Richland
Stereotype threat-a situational context in which individuals are concerned about confirming a negative stereotype-is often shown to impact test performance, with one hypothesized mechanism being that cognitive resources are temporarily co-opted by intrusive thoughts and worries, leading individuals to underperform despite high content knowledge and ability (see Schmader & Beilock, ). We test here whether stereotype threat may also impact initial student learning and knowledge formation when experienced prior to instruction...
March 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052255/real-objects-can-impede-conditional-reasoning-but-augmented-objects-do-not
#19
Yuri Sato, Yutaro Sugimoto, Kazuhiro Ueda
In this study, Knauff and Johnson-Laird's (2002) visual impedance hypothesis (i.e., mental representations with irrelevant visual detail can impede reasoning) is applied to the domain of external representations and diagrammatic reasoning. We show that the use of real objects and augmented real (AR) objects can control human interpretation and reasoning about conditionals. As participants made inferences (e.g., an invalid one from "if P then Q" to "P"), they also moved objects corresponding to premises...
March 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052250/semantic-information-and-the-syntax-of-propositional-attitude-verbs
#20
Aaron S White, Valentine Hacquard, Jeffrey Lidz
Propositional attitude verbs, such as think and want, have long held interest for both theoretical linguists and language acquisitionists because their syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic properties display complex interactions that have proven difficult to fully capture from either perspective. This paper explores the granularity with which these verbs' semantic and pragmatic properties are recoverable from their syntactic distributions, using three behavioral experiments aimed at explicitly quantifying the relationship between these two sets of properties...
March 2018: Cognitive Science
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