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Cognitive Science

Emily McLaughlin Lyons, Nina Simms, Kreshnik N Begolli, Lindsey E Richland
Stereotype threat-a situational context in which individuals are concerned about confirming a negative stereotype-is often shown to impact test performance, with one hypothesized mechanism being that cognitive resources are temporarily co-opted by intrusive thoughts and worries, leading individuals to underperform despite high content knowledge and ability (see Schmader & Beilock, ). We test here whether stereotype threat may also impact initial student learning and knowledge formation when experienced prior to instruction...
December 1, 2017: Cognitive Science
Alexandra D Twyman, Mark P Holden, Nora S Newcombe
There are several models of the use of geometric and feature cues in reorientation (Cheng, Huttenlocher, & Newcombe, ). The adaptive combination approach posits that people integrate cues with weights that depend on cue salience and learning, or, when discrepancies are large, they choose between cues based on these variables (Cheng, Shettleworth, Huttenlocher, & Rieser, ; Newcombe & Huttenlocher, ). In a new paradigm designed to evaluate integration and choice, disoriented participants attempted to return to a heading direction, in a trapezoidal enclosure in which feature and geometric cues both unambiguously specified a heading, but later the feature was moved...
November 26, 2017: Cognitive Science
Benjamin Pitt, Daniel Casasanto
People implicitly associate different emotions with different locations in left-right space. Which aspects of emotion do they spatialize, and why? Across many studies people spatialize emotional valence, mapping positive emotions onto their dominant side of space and negative emotions onto their non-dominant side, consistent with theories of metaphorical mental representation. Yet other results suggest a conflicting mapping of emotional intensity (a.k.a., emotional magnitude), according to which people associate more intense emotions with the right and less intense emotions with the left - regardless of their valence; this pattern has been interpreted as support for a domain-general system for representing magnitudes...
November 22, 2017: Cognitive Science
Thomas Blanchard, Tania Lombrozo, Shaun Nichols
Occam's razor-the idea that all else being equal, we should pick the simpler hypothesis-plays a prominent role in ordinary and scientific inference. But why are simpler hypotheses better? One attractive hypothesis known as Bayesian Occam's razor (BOR) is that more complex hypotheses tend to be more flexible-they can accommodate a wider range of possible data-and that flexibility is automatically penalized by Bayesian inference. In two experiments, we provide evidence that people's intuitive probabilistic and explanatory judgments follow the prescriptions of BOR...
November 21, 2017: Cognitive Science
Magdalena Ewa Król, Michał Król
We demonstrate "economies of experience" in eye-movement patterns-that is, optimization of eye-movement patterns aimed at more efficient and less costly visual processing, similar to the priming-induced formation of sparser cortical representations or reduced reaction times. Participants looked at Mooney-type, degraded stimuli that were difficult to recognize without prior experience, but easily recognizable after exposure to their undegraded versions. As predicted, eye-movement dispersion, velocity, and the number of fixations decreased with each stimulus presentation...
November 20, 2017: Cognitive Science
Michael C W Yip, Mingjun Zhai
This study examined the time-course of context effects on spoken word recognition during Chinese sentence processing. We recruited 60 native Mandarin listeners to participate in an eye-tracking experiment. In this eye-tracking experiment, listeners were told to listen to a sentence carefully, which ended with a Chinese homophone, and look at different visual probes (Chinese characters or different line-drawing pictures) presented concurrently on the computer screen naturally. Different types of context and probe types were manipulated in the experiment...
November 20, 2017: Cognitive Science
Benjamin D Zinszer, Sebi V Rolotti, Fan Li, Ping Li
Infant language learners are faced with the difficult inductive problem of determining how new words map to novel or known objects in their environment. Bayesian inference models have been successful at using the sparse information available in natural child-directed speech to build candidate lexicons and infer speakers' referential intentions. We begin by asking how a Bayesian model optimized for monolingual input (the Intentional Model; Frank et al., 2009) generalizes to new monolingual or bilingual corpora and find that, especially in the case of the bilingual input, the model shows a significant decrease in performance...
November 20, 2017: Cognitive Science
Takashi Yamauchi, Kunchen Xiao
Affective computing research has advanced emotion recognition systems using facial expressions, voices, gaits, and physiological signals, yet these methods are often impractical. This study integrates mouse cursor motion analysis into affective computing and investigates the idea that movements of the computer cursor can provide information about emotion of the computer user. We extracted 16-26 trajectory features during a choice-reaching task and examined the link between emotion and cursor motions. Participants were induced for positive or negative emotions by music, film clips, or emotional pictures, and they indicated their emotions with questionnaires...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
Erik D Reichle, Lili Yu
Our understanding of the cognitive processes involved in reading has been advanced by computational models that simulate those processes (e.g., see Reichle, 2015). Unfortunately, most of these models have been developed to explain the reading of English and other alphabetic languages, with relatively fewer efforts to examine whether or not the assumptions of these models also explain what has been learned from other languages and, in particular, non-alphabetic writing systems like Chinese (e.g., see Li, Zang, Liversedge, & Pollatsek, 2015)...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
Michael O Vertolli, Matthew A Kelly, Jim Davies
An incoherent visualization is when aspects of different senses of a word (e.g., the biological "mouse" vs. the computer "mouse") are present in the same visualization (e.g., a visualization of a biological mouse in the same image with a computer tower). We describe and implement a new model of creating contextual coherence in the visual imagination called Coherencer, based on the SOILIE model of imagination. We show that Coherencer is able to generate scene descriptions that are more coherent than SOILIE's original approach as well as a parallel connectionist algorithm that is considered competitive in the literature on general coherence...
November 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
Jong-Sung Yoon, K Anders Ericsson, Dario Donatelli
In the mid-1980s, Dario Donatelli (DD) participated in a laboratory study of the effects of around 800 h of practice on digit-span and increased his digit-span from 8 to 104 digits. This study assessed changes in the structure of his memory skill after around 30 years of essentially no practice on the digit-span task. On the first day of testing, his estimated span was only 10 digits, but over the following 3 days of testing it increased to 19 digits. Further analyses of his recall performance and verbal reports identified which mechanisms of the original memory skill he could retrieve or reacquire over the 3 days of practice...
November 3, 2017: Cognitive Science
Matthias S Gobel, Miles R A Tufft, Daniel C Richardson
We are highly tuned to each other's visual attention. Perceiving the eye or hand movements of another person can influence the timing of a saccade or the reach of our own. However, the explanation for such spatial orienting in interpersonal contexts remains disputed. Is it due to the social appearance of the cue-a hand or an eye-or due to its social relevance-a cue that is connected to another person with attentional and intentional states? We developed an interpersonal version of the Posner spatial cueing paradigm...
November 2, 2017: Cognitive Science
Jacqui Hutchison, Sheila J Cunningham, Gillian Slessor, James Urquhart, Kenny Smith, Douglas Martin
We use a transmission chain method to establish how context and category salience influence the formation of novel stereotypes through cumulative cultural evolution. We created novel alien targets by combining features from three category dimensions-color, movement, and shape-thereby creating social targets that were individually unique but that also shared category membership with other aliens (e.g., two aliens might be the same color and shape but move differently). At the start of the transmission chains each alien was randomly assigned attributes that described it (e...
November 2, 2017: Cognitive Science
Maria Otworowska, Mark Blokpoel, Marieke Sweers, Todd Wareham, Iris van Rooij
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2017: Cognitive Science
Irina Danileiko, Michael D Lee
We apply the "wisdom of the crowd" idea to human category learning, using a simple approach that combines people's categorization decisions by taking the majority decision. We first show that the aggregated crowd category learning behavior found by this method performs well, learning categories more quickly than most or all individuals for 28 previously collected datasets. We then extend the approach so that it does not require people to categorize every stimulus. We do this using a model-based method that predicts the categorization behavior people would produce for new stimuli, based on their behavior with observed stimuli, and uses the majority of these predicted decisions...
November 2, 2017: Cognitive Science
Annemarie Kocab, Hannah Lam, Jesse Snedeker
A well-known typological observation is the dominance of subject-initial word orders, SOV and SVO, across the world's languages. Recent findings from gestural language creation paradigms offer possible explanations for the prevalence of SOV. When asked to gesture transitive events with an animate agent and inanimate patient, gesturers tend to produce SOV order, regardless of their native language biases. Interestingly, when the patient is animate, gesturers shift away from SOV to use of other orders, like SVO and OSV...
October 23, 2017: Cognitive Science
Yuri Sato, Yutaro Sugimoto, Kazuhiro Ueda
In this study, Knauff and Johnson-Laird's (2002) visual impedance hypothesis (i.e., mental representations with irrelevant visual detail can impede reasoning) is applied to the domain of external representations and diagrammatic reasoning. We show that the use of real objects and augmented real (AR) objects can control human interpretation and reasoning about conditionals. As participants made inferences (e.g., an invalid one from "if P then Q" to "P"), they also moved objects corresponding to premises. Participants who moved real objects made more invalid inferences than those who moved AR objects and those who did not manipulate objects (there was no significant difference between the last two groups)...
October 19, 2017: Cognitive Science
Aaron S White, Valentine Hacquard, Jeffrey Lidz
Propositional attitude verbs, such as think and want, have long held interest for both theoretical linguists and language acquisitionists because their syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic properties display complex interactions that have proven difficult to fully capture from either perspective. This paper explores the granularity with which these verbs' semantic and pragmatic properties are recoverable from their syntactic distributions, using three behavioral experiments aimed at explicitly quantifying the relationship between these two sets of properties...
October 19, 2017: Cognitive Science
Fritz Günther, Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
Theories of embodied cognition assume that concepts are grounded in non-linguistic, sensorimotor experience. In support of this assumption, previous studies have shown that upwards response movements are faster than downwards movements after participants have been presented with words whose referents are typically located in the upper vertical space (and vice versa for downwards responses). This is taken as evidence that processing these words reactivates sensorimotor experiential traces. This congruency effect was also found for novel words, after participants learned these words as labels for novel objects that they encountered either in their upper or lower visual field...
October 19, 2017: Cognitive Science
Elise Stickles, Tasha N Lewis
Experimental work has shown that spatial experiences influence spatiotemporal metaphor use. In these studies, participants are asked a question that yields different responses depending on the metaphor participants use. It has been claimed that English speakers are equally likely to respond with either variant in the absence of priming. Related studies testing non-spatial experiences demonstrate varied results with a wide range of primes. Here, the effects of eye movement and stimuli presentation modality on comprehension of this question are investigated in different formats...
October 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
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