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Cognitive Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766754/grounding-by-attention-simulation-in-peripersonal-space-pupils-dilate-to-pinch-grip-but-not-big-size-nominal-classifier
#1
Marit Lobben, Agata Bochynska
Grammatical categories represent implicit knowledge, and it is not known if such abstract linguistic knowledge can be continuously grounded in real-life experiences, nor is it known what types of mental states can be simulated. A former study showed that attention bias in peripersonal space (PPS) affects reaction times in grammatical congruency judgments of nominal classifiers, suggesting that simulated semantics may include reenactment of attention. In this study, we contrasted a Chinese nominal classifier used with nouns denoting pinch grip objects with a classifier for nouns with big object referents in a pupil dilation experiment...
August 1, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763111/left-corner-parsing-with-distributed-associative-memory-produces-surprisal-and-locality-effects
#2
Nathan E Rasmussen, William Schuler
This article describes a left-corner parser implemented within a cognitively and neurologically motivated distributed model of memory. This parser's approach to syntactic ambiguity points toward a tidy account both of surprisal effects and of locality effects, such as the parsing breakdowns caused by center embedding. The model provides an algorithmic-level (Marr, 1982) account of these breakdowns: The structure of the parser's memory and the nature of incremental parsing produce a smooth degradation of processing accuracy for longer center embeddings, and a steeper degradation when they are nested, in line with recall observations by Miller and Isard (2003) and speed-accuracy trade-off observations by McElree et al...
August 1, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744914/linguistic-constraints-on-statistical-word-segmentation-the-role-of-consonants-in-arabic-and-english
#3
Itamar Kastner, Frans Adriaans
Statistical learning is often taken to lie at the heart of many cognitive tasks, including the acquisition of language. One particular task in which probabilistic models have achieved considerable success is the segmentation of speech into words. However, these models have mostly been tested against English data, and as a result little is known about how a statistical learning mechanism copes with input regularities that arise from the structural properties of different languages. This study focuses on statistical word segmentation in Arabic, a Semitic language in which words are built around consonantal roots...
July 26, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744902/abstraction-and-the-misnamed-language-familiarity-effect
#4
Elizabeth K Johnson, Laurence Bruggeman, Anne Cutler
Talkers are recognized more accurately if they are speaking the listeners' native language rather than an unfamiliar language. This "language familiarity effect" has been shown not to depend upon comprehension and must instead involve language sound patterns. We further examine the level of sound-pattern processing involved, by comparing talker recognition in foreign languages versus two varieties of English, by (a) English speakers of one variety, (b) English speakers of the other variety, and (c) non-native listeners (more familiar with one of the varieties)...
July 26, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744901/input-and-age-dependent-variation-in-second-language-learning-a-connectionist-account
#5
Marius Janciauskas, Franklin Chang
Language learning requires linguistic input, but several studies have found that knowledge of second language (L2) rules does not seem to improve with more language exposure (e.g., Johnson & Newport, 1989). One reason for this is that previous studies did not factor out variation due to the different rules tested. To examine this issue, we reanalyzed grammaticality judgment scores in Flege, Yeni-Komshian, and Liu's (1999) study of L2 learners using rule-related predictors and found that, in addition to the overall drop in performance due to a sensitive period, L2 knowledge increased with years of input...
July 26, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685848/learning-object-names-at-different-hierarchical-levels-using-cross-situational-statistics
#6
Chi-Hsin Chen, Yayun Zhang, Chen Yu
Objects in the world usually have names at different hierarchical levels (e.g., beagle, dog, animal). This research investigates adults' ability to use cross-situational statistics to simultaneously learn object labels at individual and category levels. The results revealed that adults were able to use co-occurrence information to learn hierarchical labels in contexts where the labels for individual objects and labels for categories were presented in completely separated blocks, in interleaved blocks, or mixed in the same trial...
July 7, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685842/two-models-of-moral-judgment
#7
Shane Bretz, Ron Sun
This paper compares two theories and their two corresponding computational models of human moral judgment. In order to better address psychological realism and generality of theories of moral judgment, more detailed and more psychologically nuanced models are needed. In particular, a motivationally based theory of moral judgment (and its corresponding computational model) is developed in this paper that provides a more accurate account of human moral judgment than an existing emotion-reason conflict theory...
July 7, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675496/knowing-when-help-is-needed-a-developing-sense-of-causal-complexity
#8
Jonathan F Kominsky, Anna P Zamm, Frank C Keil
Research on the division of cognitive labor has found that adults and children as young as age 5 are able to find appropriate experts for different causal systems. However, little work has explored how children and adults decide when to seek out expert knowledge in the first place. We propose that children and adults rely (in part) on "mechanism metadata," information about mechanism information. We argue that mechanism metadata is relatively consistent across individuals exposed to similar amounts of mechanism information, and it is applicable to a wide range of causal systems...
July 4, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671314/no-evidence-that-sleep-deprivation-effects-and-the-vigilance-decrement-are-functionally-equivalent-comment-on-veksler-and-gunzelmann-2017
#9
LETTER
Erik M Altmann
Veksler and Gunzelmann (2017) make an extraordinary claim, which is that sleep deprivation effects and the vigilance decrement are functionally equivalent. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence, which is missing from Veksler and Gunzelmann's study. Their behavioral data offer only weak theoretical constraint, and to the extent their modeling exercise supports any position, it is that these two performance impairments involve functionally distinct underlying mechanisms.
July 3, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656679/sculptors-architects-and-painters-conceive-of-depicted-spaces-differently
#10
Claudia Cialone, Thora Tenbrink, Hugo J Spiers
Sculptors, architects, and painters are three professional groups that require a comprehensive understanding of how to manipulate spatial structures. While it has been speculated that they may differ in the way they conceive of space due to the different professional demands, this has not been empirically tested. To achieve this, we asked architects, painters, sculptors, and a control group questions about spatially complex pictures. Verbalizations elicited were examined using cognitive discourse analysis. We found significant differences between each group...
June 27, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653447/dividing-attention-between-tasks-testing-whether-explicit-payoff-functions-elicit-optimal-dual-task-performance
#11
George D Farmer, Christian P Janssen, Anh T Nguyen, Duncan P Brumby
We test people's ability to optimize performance across two concurrent tasks. Participants performed a number entry task while controlling a randomly moving cursor with a joystick. Participants received explicit feedback on their performance on these tasks in the form of a single combined score. This payoff function was varied between conditions to change the value of one task relative to the other. We found that participants adapted their strategy for interleaving the two tasks, by varying how long they spent on one task before switching to the other, in order to achieve the near maximum payoff available in each condition...
June 27, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649757/visual-complexity-and-its-effects-on-referring-expression-generation
#12
Micha Elsner, Alasdair Clarke, Hannah Rohde
Speakers' perception of a visual scene influences the language they use to describe it-which objects they choose to mention and how they characterize the relationships between them. We show that visual complexity can either delay or facilitate description generation, depending on how much disambiguating information is required and how useful the scene's complexity can be in providing, for example, helpful landmarks. To do so, we measure speech onset times, eye gaze, and utterance content in a reference production experiment in which the target object is either unique or non-unique in a visual scene of varying size and complexity...
June 26, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608488/sensitivity-to-shared-information-in-social-learning
#13
Andrew Whalen, Thomas L Griffiths, Daphna Buchsbaum
Social learning has been shown to be an evolutionarily adaptive strategy, but it can be implemented via many different cognitive mechanisms. The adaptive advantage of social learning depends crucially on the ability of each learner to obtain relevant and accurate information from informants. The source of informants' knowledge is a particularly important cue for evaluating advice from multiple informants; if the informants share the source of their information or have obtained their information from each other, then their testimony is statistically dependent and may be less reliable than testimony from informants who do not share information...
June 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585747/a-biologically-plausible-action-selection-system-for-cognitive-architectures-implications-of-basal-ganglia-anatomy-for-learning-and-decision-making-models
#14
Andrea Stocco
Several attempts have been made previously to provide a biological grounding for cognitive architectures by relating their components to the computations of specific brain circuits. Often, the architecture's action selection system is identified with the basal ganglia. However, this identification overlooks one of the most important features of the basal ganglia-the existence of a direct and an indirect pathway that compete against each other. This characteristic has important consequences in decision-making tasks, which are brought to light by Parkinson's disease as well as genetic differences in dopamine receptors...
June 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585737/a-new-measure-of-hallucinatory-states-and-a-discussion-of-rem-sleep-dreaming-as-a-virtual-laboratory-for-the-rehearsal-of-embodied-cognition
#15
Clemens Speth, Jana Speth
Hallucinatory states are experienced not only in connection with drugs and psychopathologies but occur naturally and spontaneously across the human circadian cycle: Our nightly dreams bring multimodal experiences in the absence of adequate external stimuli. The current study proposes a new, tighter measure of these hallucinatory states: Sleep onset, REM sleep, and non-REM sleep are shown to differ with regard to (a) motor imagery indicating interactions with a rich imaginative world, and (b) cognitive agency that could enable sleepers to recognize their hallucinatory state...
June 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585702/consistent-belief-in-a-good-true-self-in-misanthropes-and-three-interdependent-cultures
#16
Julian De Freitas, Hagop Sarkissian, George E Newman, Igor Grossmann, Felipe De Brigard, Andres Luco, Joshua Knobe
People sometimes explain behavior by appealing to an essentialist concept of the self, often referred to as the true self. Existing studies suggest that people tend to believe that the true self is morally virtuous; that is deep inside, every person is motivated to behave in morally good ways. Is this belief particular to individuals with optimistic beliefs or people from Western cultures, or does it reflect a widely held cognitive bias in how people understand the self? To address this question, we tested the good true self theory against two potential boundary conditions that are known to elicit different beliefs about the self as a whole...
June 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574609/an-actor-s-knowledge-and-intent-are-more-important-in-evaluating-moral-transgressions-than-conventional-transgressions
#17
Carly Giffin, Tania Lombrozo
An actor's mental states-whether she acted knowingly and with bad intentions-typically play an important role in evaluating the extent to which an action is wrong and in determining appropriate levels of punishment. In four experiments, we find that this role for knowledge and intent is significantly weaker when evaluating transgressions of conventional rules as opposed to moral rules. We also find that this attenuated role for knowledge and intent is partly due to the fact that conventional rules are judged to be more arbitrary than moral rules; whereas moral transgressions are associated with actions that are intrinsically wrong (e...
June 2, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574602/na%C3%A3-ve-and-robust-class-conditional-independence-in-human-classification-learning
#18
Jana B Jarecki, Björn Meder, Jonathan D Nelson
Humans excel in categorization. Yet from a computational standpoint, learning a novel probabilistic classification task involves severe computational challenges. The present paper investigates one way to address these challenges: assuming class-conditional independence of features. This feature independence assumption simplifies the inference problem, allows for informed inferences about novel feature combinations, and performs robustly across different statistical environments. We designed a new Bayesian classification learning model (the dependence-independence structure and category learning model, DISC-LM) that incorporates varying degrees of prior belief in class-conditional independence, learns whether or not independence holds, and adapts its behavior accordingly...
June 2, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766666/can-infinitival-to-omissions-and-provisions-be-primed-an-experimental-investigation-into-the-role-of-constructional-competition-in-infinitival-to-omission-errors
#19
Minna Kirjavainen, Elena V M Lieven, Anna L Theakston
An experimental study was conducted on children aged 2;6-3;0 and 3;6-4;0 investigating the priming effect of two WANT-constructions to establish whether constructional competition contributes to English-speaking children's infinitival to omission errors (e.g., *I want ___ jump now). In two between-participant groups, children either just heard or heard and repeated WANT-to, WANT-X, and control prime sentences after which to-infinitival constructions were elicited. We found that both age groups were primed, but in different ways...
July 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503811/the-interactive-origin-of-iconicity
#20
Mónica Tamariz, Seán G Roberts, J Isidro Martínez, Julio Santiago
We investigate the emergence of iconicity, specifically a bouba-kiki effect in miniature artificial languages under different functional constraints: when the languages are reproduced and when they are used communicatively. We ran transmission chains of (a) participant dyads who played an interactive communicative game and (b) individual participants who played a matched learning game. An analysis of the languages over six generations in an iterated learning experiment revealed that in the Communication condition, but not in the Reproduction condition, words for spiky shapes tend to be rated by naive judges as more spiky than the words for round shapes...
May 15, 2017: Cognitive Science
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