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Cognitive Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503811/the-interactive-origin-of-iconicity
#1
Mónica Tamariz, Seán G Roberts, J Isidro Martínez, Julio Santiago
We investigate the emergence of iconicity, specifically a bouba-kiki effect in miniature artificial languages under different functional constraints: when the languages are reproduced and when they are used communicatively. We ran transmission chains of (a) participant dyads who played an interactive communicative game and (b) individual participants who played a matched learning game. An analysis of the languages over six generations in an iterated learning experiment revealed that in the Communication condition, but not in the Reproduction condition, words for spiky shapes tend to be rated by naive judges as more spiky than the words for round shapes...
May 15, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503806/distinctiveness-benefits-novelty-and-not-familiarity-but-only-up-to-a-limit-the-prior-knowledge-perspective
#2
Niv Reggev, Reut Sharoni, Anat Maril
Novelty is a pivotal player in cognition, and its contribution to superior memory performance is a widely accepted convention. On the other hand, mnemonic advantages for familiar information are also well documented. Here, we examine the role of experimental distinctiveness as a potential explanation for these apparently conflicting findings. Across two experiments, we demonstrate that conceptual novelty, an unfamiliar combination of familiar constituents, is sensitive to its experimental proportions: Improved memory for novelty was observed when novel stimuli were relatively rare...
May 15, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481420/anthropocentric-by-default-attribution-of-familiar-and-novel-properties-to-living-things
#3
Melanie Arenson, John D Coley
Humans naturally and effortlessly use a set of cognitive tools to reason about biological entities and phenomena. Two such tools, essentialist thinking and teleological thinking, appear to be early developmental cognitive defaults, used extensively in childhood and under limited circumstances in adulthood, but prone to reemerge under time pressure or cognitive load. We examine the nature of another such tool: anthropocentric thinking. In four experiments, we examined patterns of property attribution to a wide range of living and non-living objects, manipulating time pressure, response type, and property (either novel or familiar) in a total of 471 participants...
May 8, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481418/blind-speakers-show-language-specific-patterns-in-co-speech-gesture-but-not-silent-gesture
#4
Şeyda Özçalışkan, Ché Lucero, Susan Goldin-Meadow
Sighted speakers of different languages vary systematically in how they package and order components of a motion event in speech. These differences influence how semantic elements are organized in gesture, but only when those gestures are produced with speech (co-speech gesture), not without speech (silent gesture). We ask whether the cross-linguistic similarity in silent gesture is driven by the visuospatial structure of the event. We compared 40 congenitally blind adult native speakers of English or Turkish (20/language) to 80 sighted adult speakers (40/language; half with, half without blindfolds) as they described three-dimensional motion scenes...
May 8, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474738/no-harm-still-foul-concerns-about-reputation-drive-dislike-of-harmless-plagiarizers
#5
Ike Silver, Alex Shaw
Across a variety of situations, people strongly condemn plagiarizers who steal credit for ideas, even when the theft in question does not appear to harm anyone. Why would people react negatively to relatively harmless acts of plagiarism? In six experiments, we predict and find that these negative reactions are driven by people's aversion toward agents who attempt to falsely improve their reputations. In Studies 1-3, participants condemn plagiarism cases that they agree are harmless (i.e., stealing credit from an anonymous source)...
May 5, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397342/syntactic-complexity-effects-in-sentence-production-a%C3%A2-reply-to-macdonald-montag-and-gennari-2016
#6
LETTER
Gregory Scontras, William Badecker, Evelina Fedorenko
In our article, "Syntactic complexity effects in sentence production" (Scontras, Badecker, Shank, Lim, & Fedorenko, ), we reported two elicited production experiments and argued that there is a cost associated with planning and uttering syntactically complex, object-extracted structures that contain a non-local syntactic dependency. MacDonald et al. () have argued that the results of our investigation provide little new information on the topic. We disagree. Examining the production of subject versus object extractions in two constructions across two experimental paradigms-relative clauses in Experiment 1 and wh-questions in Experiment 2-we found a strikingly similar pattern: reliable differences in latency and word durations, as well as in rates of disfluencies, signaling a greater cost associated with planning and uttering the syntactically more complex object extractions...
April 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397290/the-semantic-drift-of-quotations-in-blogspace-a-case-study-in-short-term-cultural-evolution
#7
Sébastien Lerique, Camille Roth
We present an empirical case study that connects psycholinguistics with the field of cultural evolution, in order to test for the existence of cultural attractors in the evolution of quotations. Such attractors have been proposed as a useful concept for understanding cultural evolution in relation with individual cognition, but their existence has been hard to test. We focus on the transformation of quotations when they are copied from blog to blog or media website: by coding words with a number of well-studied lexical features, we show that the way words are substituted in quotations is consistent (a) with the hypothesis of cultural attractors and (b) with known effects of the word features...
April 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397287/a-multi-factor-account-of-degrees-of-awareness
#8
Peter Fazekas, Morten Overgaard
In this paper we argue that awareness comes in degrees, and we propose a novel multi-factor account that spans both subjective experiences and perceptual representations. At the subjective level, we argue that conscious experiences can be degraded by being fragmented, less salient, too generic, or flash-like. At the representational level, we identify corresponding features of perceptual representations-their availability for working memory, intensity, precision, and stability-and argue that the mechanisms that affect these features are what ultimately modulate the degree of awareness...
April 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382639/adaptive-anchoring-model-how-static-and-dynamic-presentations-of-time-series-influence-judgments-and-predictions
#9
Petko Kusev, Paul van Schaik, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Asgeir Juliusson, Nick Chater
When attempting to predict future events, people commonly rely on historical data. One psychological characteristic of judgmental forecasting of time series, established by research, is that when people make forecasts from series, they tend to underestimate future values for upward trends and overestimate them for downward ones, so-called trend-damping (modeled by anchoring on, and insufficient adjustment from, the average of recent time series values). Events in a time series can be experienced sequentially (dynamic mode), or they can also be retrospectively viewed simultaneously (static mode), not experienced individually in real time...
April 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370159/a-priori-true-and-false-conditionals
#10
Ana Cristina Quelhas, Célia Rasga, Philip N Johnson-Laird
The theory of mental models postulates that meaning and knowledge can modulate the interpretation of conditionals. The theory's computer implementation implied that certain conditionals should be true or false without the need for evidence. Three experiments corroborated this prediction. In Experiment 1, nearly 500 participants evaluated 24 conditionals as true or false, and they justified their judgments by completing sentences of the form, It is impossible that A and ___ appropriately. In Experiment 2, participants evaluated 16 conditionals and provided their own justifications, which tended to be explanations rather than logical justifications...
March 29, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345795/is-the-lateralized-categorical-perception-of-color-a-situational-effect-of-language-on-color-perception
#11
Weifang Zhong, You Li, Yulan Huang, He Li, Lei Mo
This study investigated whether and how a person's varied series of lexical categories corresponding to different discriminatory characteristics of the same colors affect his or her perception of colors. In three experiments, Chinese participants were primed to categorize four graduated colors-specifically dark green, light green, light blue, and dark blue-into green and blue; light color and dark color; and dark green, light green, light blue, and dark blue. The participants were then required to complete a visual search task...
March 27, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342239/cultural-differences-in-visual-search-for-geometric-figures
#12
Yoshiyuki Ueda, Lei Chen, Jonathon Kopecky, Emily S Cramer, Ronald A Rensink, David E Meyer, Shinobu Kitayama, Jun Saiki
While some studies suggest cultural differences in visual processing, others do not, possibly because the complexity of their tasks draws upon high-level factors that could obscure such effects. To control for this, we examined cultural differences in visual search for geometric figures, a relatively simple task for which the underlying mechanisms are reasonably well known. We replicated earlier results showing that North Americans had a reliable search asymmetry for line length: Search for long among short lines was faster than vice versa...
March 25, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328113/functional-equivalence-of-sleep-loss-and-time-on-task-effects-in-sustained-attention
#13
Bella Z Veksler, Glenn Gunzelmann
Research on sleep loss and vigilance both focus on declines in cognitive performance, but theoretical accounts have developed largely in parallel in these two areas. In addition, computational instantiations of theoretical accounts are rare. The current work uses computational modeling to explore whether the same mechanisms can account for the effects of both sleep loss and time on task on performance. A classic task used in the sleep deprivation literature, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), was extended from the typical 10-min duration to 35 min, to make the task similar in duration to traditional vigilance tasks...
March 22, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294387/ownership-dilemmas-the-case-of-finders-versus-landowners
#14
Peter DeScioli, Rachel Karpoff, Julian De Freitas
People sometimes disagree about who owns which objects, and these ownership dilemmas can lead to costly disputes. We investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying people's judgments about finder versus landowner cases, in which a person finds an object on someone else's land. We test psychological hypotheses motivated directly by three major principles that govern these cases in the law. The results show that people are more likely to favor the finder when the object is in a public space compared to a private space...
March 14, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295571/further-tests-of-a-dynamic-adjustment-account-of-saccade-targeting-during-the-reading-of-chinese
#15
Yanping Liu, Ren Huang, Dingguo Gao, Erik D Reichle
There are two accounts of how readers of unspaced writing systems (e.g., Chinese) know where to move their eyes: (a) saccades are directed toward default targets (e.g., centers of words that have been segmented in the parafovea); or (b) saccade lengths are adjusted dynamically, as a function of ongoing parafoveal processing. This article reports an eye-movement experiment supporting the latter hypothesis by demonstrating that the slope of the relationship between the saccade launch site on word N and the subsequent fixation landing site on word N + 1 is > 1, suggesting that saccades are lengthened from launch sites that afford more parafoveal processing...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295485/maternal-socioeconomic-status-influences-the-range-of-expectations-during-language-comprehension-in%C3%A2-adulthood
#16
Melissa Troyer, Arielle Borovsky
In infancy, maternal socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with real-time language processing skills, but whether or not (and if so, how) this relationship carries into adulthood is unknown. We explored the effects of maternal SES in college-aged adults on eye-tracked, spoken sentence comprehension tasks using the visual world paradigm. When sentences ended in highly plausible, expected target nouns (Exp. 1), higher SES was associated with a greater likelihood of considering alternative endings related to the action of the sentence...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295482/what-am-i-looking-at-interpreting-dynamic-and-static-gaze-displays
#17
Margot van Wermeskerken, Damien Litchfield, Tamara van Gog
Displays of eye movements may convey information about cognitive processes but require interpretation. We investigated whether participants were able to interpret displays of their own or others' eye movements. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants observed an image under three different viewing instructions. Then they were shown static or dynamic gaze displays and had to judge whether it was their own or someone else's eye movements and what instruction was reflected. Participants were capable of recognizing the instruction reflected in their own and someone else's gaze display...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294384/learning-the-structure-of-social-influence
#18
Samuel J Gershman, Hillard Thomas Pouncy, Hyowon Gweon
We routinely observe others' choices and use them to guide our own. Whose choices influence us more, and why? Prior work has focused on the effect of perceived similarity between two individuals (self and others), such as the degree of overlap in past choices or explicitly recognizable group affiliations. In the real world, however, any dyadic relationship is part of a more complex social structure involving multiple social groups that are not directly observable. Here we suggest that human learners go beyond dyadic similarities in choice behaviors or explicit group memberships; they infer the structure of social influence by grouping individuals (including themselves) based on choices, and they use these groups to decide whose choices to follow...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523653/vocabulary-grammar-sex-and-aging
#19
Fermín Moscoso Del Prado Martín
Understanding the changes in our language abilities along the lifespan is a crucial step for understanding the aging process both in normal and in abnormal circumstances. Besides controlled experimental tasks, it is equally crucial to investigate language in unconstrained conversation. I present an information-theoretical analysis of a corpus of dyadic conversations investigating how the richness of the vocabulary, the word-internal structure (inflectional morphology), and the syntax of the utterances evolves as a function of the speaker's age and sex...
May 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500675/counterfactual-plausibility-and-comparative-similarity
#20
Matthew L Stanley, Gregory W Stewart, Felipe De Brigard
Counterfactual thinking involves imagining hypothetical alternatives to reality. Philosopher David Lewis (1973, 1979) argued that people estimate the subjective plausibility that a counterfactual event might have occurred by comparing an imagined possible world in which the counterfactual statement is true against the current, actual world in which the counterfactual statement is false. Accordingly, counterfactuals considered to be true in possible worlds comparatively more similar to ours are judged as more plausible than counterfactuals deemed true in possible worlds comparatively less similar...
May 2017: Cognitive Science
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