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Cognitive Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608488/sensitivity-to-shared-information-in-social-learning
#1
Andrew Whalen, Thomas L Griffiths, Daphna Buchsbaum
Social learning has been shown to be an evolutionarily adaptive strategy, but it can be implemented via many different cognitive mechanisms. The adaptive advantage of social learning depends crucially on the ability of each learner to obtain relevant and accurate information from informants. The source of informants' knowledge is a particularly important cue for evaluating advice from multiple informants; if the informants share the source of their information or have obtained their information from each other, then their testimony is statistically dependent and may be less reliable than testimony from informants who do not share information...
June 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585747/a-biologically-plausible-action-selection-system-for-cognitive-architectures-implications-of-basal-ganglia-anatomy-for-learning-and-decision-making-models
#2
Andrea Stocco
Several attempts have been made previously to provide a biological grounding for cognitive architectures by relating their components to the computations of specific brain circuits. Often, the architecture's action selection system is identified with the basal ganglia. However, this identification overlooks one of the most important features of the basal ganglia-the existence of a direct and an indirect pathway that compete against each other. This characteristic has important consequences in decision-making tasks, which are brought to light by Parkinson's disease as well as genetic differences in dopamine receptors...
June 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585737/a-new-measure-of-hallucinatory-states-and-a-discussion-of-rem-sleep-dreaming-as-a-virtual-laboratory-for-the-rehearsal-of-embodied-cognition
#3
Clemens Speth, Jana Speth
Hallucinatory states are experienced not only in connection with drugs and psychopathologies but occur naturally and spontaneously across the human circadian cycle: Our nightly dreams bring multimodal experiences in the absence of adequate external stimuli. The current study proposes a new, tighter measure of these hallucinatory states: Sleep onset, REM sleep, and non-REM sleep are shown to differ with regard to (a) motor imagery indicating interactions with a rich imaginative world, and (b) cognitive agency that could enable sleepers to recognize their hallucinatory state...
June 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585702/consistent-belief-in-a-good-true-self-in-misanthropes-and-three-interdependent-cultures
#4
Julian De Freitas, Hagop Sarkissian, George E Newman, Igor Grossmann, Felipe De Brigard, Andres Luco, Joshua Knobe
People sometimes explain behavior by appealing to an essentialist concept of the self, often referred to as the true self. Existing studies suggest that people tend to believe that the true self is morally virtuous; that is deep inside, every person is motivated to behave in morally good ways. Is this belief particular to individuals with optimistic beliefs or people from Western cultures, or does it reflect a widely held cognitive bias in how people understand the self? To address this question, we tested the good true self theory against two potential boundary conditions that are known to elicit different beliefs about the self as a whole...
June 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574609/an-actor-s-knowledge-and-intent-are-more-important-in-evaluating-moral-transgressions-than-conventional-transgressions
#5
Carly Giffin, Tania Lombrozo
An actor's mental states-whether she acted knowingly and with bad intentions-typically play an important role in evaluating the extent to which an action is wrong and in determining appropriate levels of punishment. In four experiments, we find that this role for knowledge and intent is significantly weaker when evaluating transgressions of conventional rules as opposed to moral rules. We also find that this attenuated role for knowledge and intent is partly due to the fact that conventional rules are judged to be more arbitrary than moral rules; whereas moral transgressions are associated with actions that are intrinsically wrong (e...
June 2, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574602/na%C3%A3-ve-and-robust-class-conditional-independence-in-human-classification-learning
#6
Jana B Jarecki, Björn Meder, Jonathan D Nelson
Humans excel in categorization. Yet from a computational standpoint, learning a novel probabilistic classification task involves severe computational challenges. The present paper investigates one way to address these challenges: assuming class-conditional independence of features. This feature independence assumption simplifies the inference problem, allows for informed inferences about novel feature combinations, and performs robustly across different statistical environments. We designed a new Bayesian classification learning model (the dependence-independence structure and category learning model, DISC-LM) that incorporates varying degrees of prior belief in class-conditional independence, learns whether or not independence holds, and adapts its behavior accordingly...
June 2, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503811/the-interactive-origin-of-iconicity
#7
Mónica Tamariz, Seán G Roberts, J Isidro Martínez, Julio Santiago
We investigate the emergence of iconicity, specifically a bouba-kiki effect in miniature artificial languages under different functional constraints: when the languages are reproduced and when they are used communicatively. We ran transmission chains of (a) participant dyads who played an interactive communicative game and (b) individual participants who played a matched learning game. An analysis of the languages over six generations in an iterated learning experiment revealed that in the Communication condition, but not in the Reproduction condition, words for spiky shapes tend to be rated by naive judges as more spiky than the words for round shapes...
May 15, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503806/distinctiveness-benefits-novelty-and-not-familiarity-but-only-up-to-a-limit-the-prior-knowledge-perspective
#8
Niv Reggev, Reut Sharoni, Anat Maril
Novelty is a pivotal player in cognition, and its contribution to superior memory performance is a widely accepted convention. On the other hand, mnemonic advantages for familiar information are also well documented. Here, we examine the role of experimental distinctiveness as a potential explanation for these apparently conflicting findings. Across two experiments, we demonstrate that conceptual novelty, an unfamiliar combination of familiar constituents, is sensitive to its experimental proportions: Improved memory for novelty was observed when novel stimuli were relatively rare...
May 15, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481420/anthropocentric-by-default-attribution-of-familiar-and-novel-properties-to-living-things
#9
Melanie Arenson, John D Coley
Humans naturally and effortlessly use a set of cognitive tools to reason about biological entities and phenomena. Two such tools, essentialist thinking and teleological thinking, appear to be early developmental cognitive defaults, used extensively in childhood and under limited circumstances in adulthood, but prone to reemerge under time pressure or cognitive load. We examine the nature of another such tool: anthropocentric thinking. In four experiments, we examined patterns of property attribution to a wide range of living and non-living objects, manipulating time pressure, response type, and property (either novel or familiar) in a total of 471 participants...
May 8, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481418/blind-speakers-show-language-specific-patterns-in-co-speech-gesture-but-not-silent-gesture
#10
Şeyda Özçalışkan, Ché Lucero, Susan Goldin-Meadow
Sighted speakers of different languages vary systematically in how they package and order components of a motion event in speech. These differences influence how semantic elements are organized in gesture, but only when those gestures are produced with speech (co-speech gesture), not without speech (silent gesture). We ask whether the cross-linguistic similarity in silent gesture is driven by the visuospatial structure of the event. We compared 40 congenitally blind adult native speakers of English or Turkish (20/language) to 80 sighted adult speakers (40/language; half with, half without blindfolds) as they described three-dimensional motion scenes...
May 8, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474738/no-harm-still-foul-concerns-about-reputation-drive-dislike-of-harmless-plagiarizers
#11
Ike Silver, Alex Shaw
Across a variety of situations, people strongly condemn plagiarizers who steal credit for ideas, even when the theft in question does not appear to harm anyone. Why would people react negatively to relatively harmless acts of plagiarism? In six experiments, we predict and find that these negative reactions are driven by people's aversion toward agents who attempt to falsely improve their reputations. In Studies 1-3, participants condemn plagiarism cases that they agree are harmless (i.e., stealing credit from an anonymous source)...
May 5, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397342/syntactic-complexity-effects-in-sentence-production-a%C3%A2-reply-to-macdonald-montag-and-gennari-2016
#12
LETTER
Gregory Scontras, William Badecker, Evelina Fedorenko
In our article, "Syntactic complexity effects in sentence production" (Scontras, Badecker, Shank, Lim, & Fedorenko, ), we reported two elicited production experiments and argued that there is a cost associated with planning and uttering syntactically complex, object-extracted structures that contain a non-local syntactic dependency. MacDonald et al. () have argued that the results of our investigation provide little new information on the topic. We disagree. Examining the production of subject versus object extractions in two constructions across two experimental paradigms-relative clauses in Experiment 1 and wh-questions in Experiment 2-we found a strikingly similar pattern: reliable differences in latency and word durations, as well as in rates of disfluencies, signaling a greater cost associated with planning and uttering the syntactically more complex object extractions...
April 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397290/the-semantic-drift-of-quotations-in-blogspace-a-case-study-in-short-term-cultural-evolution
#13
Sébastien Lerique, Camille Roth
We present an empirical case study that connects psycholinguistics with the field of cultural evolution, in order to test for the existence of cultural attractors in the evolution of quotations. Such attractors have been proposed as a useful concept for understanding cultural evolution in relation with individual cognition, but their existence has been hard to test. We focus on the transformation of quotations when they are copied from blog to blog or media website: by coding words with a number of well-studied lexical features, we show that the way words are substituted in quotations is consistent (a) with the hypothesis of cultural attractors and (b) with known effects of the word features...
April 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397287/a-multi-factor-account-of-degrees-of-awareness
#14
Peter Fazekas, Morten Overgaard
In this paper we argue that awareness comes in degrees, and we propose a novel multi-factor account that spans both subjective experiences and perceptual representations. At the subjective level, we argue that conscious experiences can be degraded by being fragmented, less salient, too generic, or flash-like. At the representational level, we identify corresponding features of perceptual representations-their availability for working memory, intensity, precision, and stability-and argue that the mechanisms that affect these features are what ultimately modulate the degree of awareness...
April 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382639/adaptive-anchoring-model-how-static-and-dynamic-presentations-of-time-series-influence-judgments-and-predictions
#15
Petko Kusev, Paul van Schaik, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Asgeir Juliusson, Nick Chater
When attempting to predict future events, people commonly rely on historical data. One psychological characteristic of judgmental forecasting of time series, established by research, is that when people make forecasts from series, they tend to underestimate future values for upward trends and overestimate them for downward ones, so-called trend-damping (modeled by anchoring on, and insufficient adjustment from, the average of recent time series values). Events in a time series can be experienced sequentially (dynamic mode), or they can also be retrospectively viewed simultaneously (static mode), not experienced individually in real time...
April 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370159/a-priori-true-and-false-conditionals
#16
Ana Cristina Quelhas, Célia Rasga, Philip N Johnson-Laird
The theory of mental models postulates that meaning and knowledge can modulate the interpretation of conditionals. The theory's computer implementation implied that certain conditionals should be true or false without the need for evidence. Three experiments corroborated this prediction. In Experiment 1, nearly 500 participants evaluated 24 conditionals as true or false, and they justified their judgments by completing sentences of the form, It is impossible that A and ___ appropriately. In Experiment 2, participants evaluated 16 conditionals and provided their own justifications, which tended to be explanations rather than logical justifications...
March 29, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345795/is-the-lateralized-categorical-perception-of-color-a-situational-effect-of-language-on-color-perception
#17
Weifang Zhong, You Li, Yulan Huang, He Li, Lei Mo
This study investigated whether and how a person's varied series of lexical categories corresponding to different discriminatory characteristics of the same colors affect his or her perception of colors. In three experiments, Chinese participants were primed to categorize four graduated colors-specifically dark green, light green, light blue, and dark blue-into green and blue; light color and dark color; and dark green, light green, light blue, and dark blue. The participants were then required to complete a visual search task...
March 27, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523653/vocabulary-grammar-sex-and-aging
#18
Fermín Moscoso Del Prado Martín
Understanding the changes in our language abilities along the lifespan is a crucial step for understanding the aging process both in normal and in abnormal circumstances. Besides controlled experimental tasks, it is equally crucial to investigate language in unconstrained conversation. I present an information-theoretical analysis of a corpus of dyadic conversations investigating how the richness of the vocabulary, the word-internal structure (inflectional morphology), and the syntax of the utterances evolves as a function of the speaker's age and sex...
May 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500675/counterfactual-plausibility-and-comparative-similarity
#19
Matthew L Stanley, Gregory W Stewart, Felipe De Brigard
Counterfactual thinking involves imagining hypothetical alternatives to reality. Philosopher David Lewis (1973, 1979) argued that people estimate the subjective plausibility that a counterfactual event might have occurred by comparing an imagined possible world in which the counterfactual statement is true against the current, actual world in which the counterfactual statement is false. Accordingly, counterfactuals considered to be true in possible worlds comparatively more similar to ours are judged as more plausible than counterfactuals deemed true in possible worlds comparatively less similar...
May 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27059812/is-a-pink-cow-still-a-cow-individual-differences-in-toddlers-vocabulary-knowledge-and-lexical-representations
#20
Lynn K Perry, Jenny R Saffran
When a toddler knows a word, what does she actually know? Many categories have multiple relevant properties; for example, shape and color are relevant to membership in the category banana. How do toddlers prioritize these properties when recognizing familiar words, and are there systematic differences among children? In this study, toddlers viewed pairs of objects associated with prototypical colors. On some trials, objects were typically colored (e.g., Holstein cow and pink pig); on other trials, colors were switched (e...
May 2017: Cognitive Science
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