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Cognitive Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914116/so-it-is-so-it-shall-be-group-regularities-license-children-s-prescriptive-judgments
#1
Steven O Roberts, Susan A Gelman, Arnold K Ho
When do descriptive regularities (what characteristics individuals have) become prescriptive norms (what characteristics individuals should have)? We examined children's (4-13 years) and adults' use of group regularities to make prescriptive judgments, employing novel groups (Hibbles and Glerks) that engaged in morally neutral behaviors (e.g., eating different kinds of berries). Participants were introduced to conforming or non-conforming individuals (e.g., a Hibble who ate berries more typical of a Glerk)...
December 3, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901286/acceptability-of-dative-argument-structure-in-spanish-assessing-semantic-and-usage-based-factors
#2
Florencia Reali
Multiple constraints, including semantic, lexical, and usage-based factors, have been shown to influence dative alternation across different languages. This work explores whether fine-grained statistics and semantic properties of the verb affect the acceptability of dative constructions in Spanish. First, a corpus analysis reveals that verbs of different semantic classes occur naturally in alternative dative constructions, a pattern quite different from English. The fact that dative alternation appears independent of semantic classes challenges traditional semantic-based approaches...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901276/introduction-to-the-special-issue-honoring-the-2013-david-e-rumelhart-prize-recipient-linda-b-smith
#3
EDITORIAL
Larissa K Samuelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882596/core-intuitions-about-persons-coexist-and-interfere-with-acquired-christian-beliefs-about-god
#4
Michael Barlev, Spencer Mermelstein, Tamsin C German
This study tested the hypothesis that in the minds of adult religious adherents, acquired beliefs about the extraordinary characteristics of God coexist with, rather than replace, an initial representation of God formed by co-option of the evolved person concept. In three experiments, Christian religious adherents were asked to evaluate a series of statements for which core intuitions about persons and acquired Christian beliefs about God were consistent (i.e., true according to both [e.g., "God has beliefs that are true"] or false according to both [e...
November 24, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882595/children-s-representation-and-imitation-of-events-how-goal-organization-influences-3-year-old-children-s-memory-for-action-sequences
#5
Jeff Loucks, Christina Mutschler, Andrew N Meltzoff
Children's imitation of adults plays a prominent role in human cognitive development. However, few studies have investigated how children represent the complex structure of observed actions which underlies their imitation. We integrate theories of action segmentation, memory, and imitation to investigate whether children's event representation is organized according to veridical serial order or a higher level goal structure. Children were randomly assigned to learn novel event sequences either through interactive hands-on experience (Study 1) or via storybook (Study 2)...
November 24, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882594/-cuts-in-action-a-high-density-eeg-study-investigating-the-neural-correlates-of-different-editing-techniques-in-film
#6
Katrin S Heimann, Sebo Uithol, Marta Calbi, Maria A Umiltà, Michele Guerra, Vittorio Gallese
In spite of their striking differences with real-life perception, films are perceived and understood without effort. Cognitive film theory attributes this to the system of continuity editing, a system of editing guidelines outlining the effect of different cuts and edits on spectators. A major principle in this framework is the 180° rule, a rule recommendation that, to avoid spectators' attention to the editing, two edited shots of the same event or action should not be filmed from angles differing in a way that expectations of spatial continuity are strongly violated...
November 24, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882587/-pushing-the-button-while-pushing-the-argument-motor-priming-of-abstract-action-language
#7
Franziska Schaller, Sabine Weiss, Horst M Müller
In a behavioral study we analyzed the influence of visual action primes on abstract action sentence processing. We thereby aimed at investigating mental motor involvement during processes of meaning constitution of action verbs in abstract contexts. In the first experiment, participants executed either congruous or incongruous movements parallel to a video prime. In the second experiment, we added a no-movement condition. After the execution of the movement, participants rendered a sensibility judgment on action sentence targets...
November 24, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873349/not-only-size-matters-early-talker-and-late-talker-vocabularies-support-different-word-learning-biases-in-babies-and-networks
#8
Eliana Colunga, Clare E Sims
In typical development, word learning goes from slow and laborious to fast and seemingly effortless. Typically developing 2-year-olds seem to intuit the whole range of things in a category from hearing a single instance named-they have word-learning biases. This is not the case for children with relatively small vocabularies (late talkers). We present a computational model that accounts for the emergence of word-learning biases in children at both ends of the vocabulary spectrum based solely on vocabulary structure...
November 21, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859647/spatial-but-not-oculomotor-information-biases-perceptual-memory-evidence-from-face-perception-and-cognitive-modeling
#9
Andrea L Wantz, Janek S Lobmaier, Fred W Mast, Walter Senn
Recent research put forward the hypothesis that eye movements are integrated in memory representations and are reactivated when later recalled. However, "looking back to nothing" during recall might be a consequence of spatial memory retrieval. Here, we aimed at distinguishing between the effect of spatial and oculomotor information on perceptual memory. Participants' task was to judge whether a morph looked rather like the first or second previously presented face. Crucially, faces and morphs were presented in a way that the morph reactivated oculomotor and/or spatial information associated with one of the previously encoded faces...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859630/does-environmental-experience-shape-spatial-cognition-frames-of-reference-among-ancash-quechua-speakers-peru
#10
Joshua A Shapero
Previous studies have shown that language contributes to humans' ability to orient using landmarks and shapes their use of frames of reference (FoRs) for memory. However, the role of environmental experience in shaping spatial cognition has not been investigated. This study addresses such a possibility by examining the use of FoRs in a nonverbal spatial memory task among residents of an Andean community in Peru. Participants consisted of 97 individuals from Ancash Quechua-speaking households (8-77 years of age) who spoke Quechua and/or Spanish and varied considerably with respect to the extent of their experience in the surrounding landscape...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859582/generative-inferences-based-on-learned-relations
#11
Dawn Chen, Hongjing Lu, Keith J Holyoak
A key property of relational representations is their generativity: From partial descriptions of relations between entities, additional inferences can be drawn about other entities. A major theoretical challenge is to demonstrate how the capacity to make generative inferences could arise as a result of learning relations from non-relational inputs. In the present paper, we show that a bottom-up model of relation learning, initially developed to discriminate between positive and negative examples of comparative relations (e...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859578/incidental-learning-of-melodic-structure-of-north-indian-music
#12
Martin Rohrmeier, Richard Widdess
Musical knowledge is largely implicit. It is acquired without awareness of its complex rules, through interaction with a large number of samples during musical enculturation. Whereas several studies explored implicit learning of mostly abstract and less ecologically valid features of Western music, very little work has been done with respect to ecologically valid stimuli as well as non-Western music. The present study investigated implicit learning of modal melodic features in North Indian classical music in a realistic and ecologically valid way...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859571/my-heart-made-me-do-it-children-s-essentialist-beliefs-about-heart-transplants
#13
Meredith Meyer, Susan A Gelman, Steven O Roberts, Sarah-Jane Leslie
Psychological essentialism is a folk theory characterized by the belief that a causal internal essence or force gives rise to the common outward behaviors or attributes of a category's members. In two studies, we investigated whether 4- to 7-year-old children evidenced essentialist reasoning about heart transplants by asking them to predict whether trading hearts with an individual would cause them to take on the donor's attributes. Control conditions asked children to consider the effects of trading money with an individual...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859566/does-the-body-survive-death-cultural-variation-in-beliefs-about-life-everlasting
#14
Rachel E Watson-Jones, Justin T A Busch, Paul L Harris, Cristine H Legare
Mounting evidence suggests that endorsement of psychological continuity and the afterlife increases with age. This developmental change raises questions about the cognitive biases, social representations, and cultural input that may support afterlife beliefs. To what extent is there similarity versus diversity across cultures in how people reason about what happens after death? The objective of this study was to compare beliefs about the continuation of biological and psychological functions after death in Tanna, Vanuatu (a Melanesian archipelago), and the United States (Austin, Texas)...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859560/seasonal-variations-in-color-preference
#15
Karen B Schloss, Rolf Nelson, Laura Parker, Isobel A Heck, Stephen E Palmer
We investigated how color preferences vary according to season and whether those changes could be explained by the ecological valence theory (EVT). To do so, we assessed the same participants' preferences for the same colors during fall, winter, spring, and summer in the northeastern United States, where there are large seasonal changes in environmental colors. Seasonal differences were most pronounced between fall and the other three seasons. Participants liked fall-associated dark-warm colors-for example, dark-red, dark-orange (brown), dark-yellow (olive), and dark-chartreuse-more during fall than other seasons...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859550/temporal-structure-in-emerging-language-from-natural-data-to-silent-gesture
#16
Marieke Schouwstra
Many human languages have complex grammatical machinery devoted to temporality, but very little is known about how this came about. This paper investigates how people convey temporal information when they cannot use any conventional languages they know. In a laboratory experiment, adult participants were asked to convey information about simple events taking place at a given time, in spoken language and in silent gesture (i.e., using only gesture and no speech). It was shown that in spoken language, participants formed utterances according to the rules of their native language (Dutch), but in silent gesture, the temporal information was presented initially, and structurally separately, from the other information in the utterance...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859536/dual-character-concepts-in-social-cognition-commitments-and-the-normative-dimension-of-conceptual-representation
#17
Guillermo Del Pinal, Kevin Reuter
The concepts expressed by social role terms such as artist and scientist are unique in that they seem to allow two independent criteria for categorization, one of which is inherently normative (Knobe, Prasada, & Newman, 2013). This study presents and tests an account of the content and structure of the normative dimension of these "dual character concepts." Experiment 1 suggests that the normative dimension of a social role concept represents the commitment to fulfill the idealized basic function associated with the role...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859532/limitations-of-trans-species-inferences-the-case-of-spatial-numerical-associations-in-chicks-and-humans
#18
LETTER
Katarzyna Patro, Hans-Christoph Nuerk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859522/reasoning-with-causal-cycles
#19
Bob Rehder
This article assesses how people reason with categories whose features are related in causal cycles. Whereas models based on causal graphical models (CGMs) have enjoyed success modeling category-based judgments as well as a number of other cognitive phenomena, CGMs are only able to represent causal structures that are acyclic. A number of new formalisms that allow cycles are introduced and evaluated. Dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs) represent cycles by unfolding them over time. Chain graphs augment CGMs by allowing the presence of undirected links that model feedback relations between variables...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859521/using-predictability-for-lexical-segmentation
#20
Çağrı Çöltekin
This study investigates a strategy based on predictability of consecutive sub-lexical units in learning to segment a continuous speech stream into lexical units using computational modeling and simulations. Lexical segmentation is one of the early challenges during language acquisition, and it has been studied extensively through psycholinguistic experiments as well as computational methods. However, despite strong empirical evidence, the explicit use of predictability of basic sub-lexical units in models of segmentation is underexplored...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
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