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Psychiatric Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080599/the-evolution-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-anxiety-and-depression
#1
EDITORIAL
Stefan G Hofmann, Jasper A J Smits
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080598/acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-as-a-treatment-for-anxiety-and-depression-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Michael P Twohig, Michael E Levin
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a modern form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on a distinct philosophy and basic science of cognition. This article reviews the core features of ACT's theoretic model of psychopathology and treatment and its therapeutic approach. It provides a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating ACT for depression and anxiety disorders. Summarizing 36 RCTs, ACT appears to be more efficacious than waitlist conditions and treatment-as-usual, with largely equivalent effects relative to traditional cognitive behavioral therapy...
December 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080597/mindfulness-based-interventions-for-anxiety-and-depression
#3
REVIEW
Stefan G Hofmann, Angelina F Gómez
This article reviews the ways in which mindfulness practices have contributed to cognitive and behavioral treatments for depression and anxiety. Research on mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) has increased rapidly in the past decade. The most common include mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. MBIs are effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptom severity in a range of individuals. MBIs consistently outperform non-evidence-based treatments and active control conditions, such as health education, relaxation training, and supportive psychotherapy...
December 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080596/can-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-anxiety-and-depression-be-improved-with-pharmacotherapy-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
David F Tolin
The present meta-analysis examined controlled trials of pharmacologic augmentation of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for patients with anxiety or depressive disorders. The additive effect of medications was small for both anxiety and depressive disorders at posttreatment, and there was no additive benefit after medications were discontinued. A small body of evidence suggested that antidepressant medications are an efficacious second-line treatment for patients failing to respond to CBT alone. In anxiety disorders, novel agents thought to potentiate the biological mechanisms of CBT showed small effects at posttreatment; after discontinuation, some of these agents were associated with an increasing effect...
December 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080595/cultural-adaptations-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Devon E Hinton, Anushka Patel
In increasingly multicultural societies, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) must be made appropriate for diverse groups. This article examines cultural adaptations of CBT, focusing on anxiety and depressive disorders. The article presents a culturally informed, transdiagnostic model of how anxious-depressive distress is generated and culturally shaped. Guided by this model, it discusses how interventions can be designed to decrease anxiety-type and depressive-type psychopathology in a culturally sensitive way...
December 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080594/internet-assisted-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Gerhard Andersson, Per Carlbring
Internet-assisted cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) is a way to deliver cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) that has been found to generate similar effects as face-to-face CBT in some studies. Results have been replicated by different research groups. This article presents the treatment format and reviews evidence for mood and anxiety disorders. Future developments are discussed, including the lack of theories specific for the treatment format and ways to handle comorbidity. Although some programs have been implemented there is a need for further studies in clinical settings...
December 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080593/transdiagnostic-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Peter J Norton, Pasquale Roberge
Transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral (CBT) therapy is a modified form of CBT designed to be applicable with patients across the range of anxiety and related emotional disorders. Based on emerging genetic, neurologic, developmental, cognitive, and behavioral science, transdiagnostic CBT may alleviate barriers to dissemination and accessibility by providing a single treatment approach across diagnoses. Data from clinical trials and metaanalyses suggest treatment efficacy that is comparable with traditional CBT approaches, with possibly superior efficacy among patients with multiple comorbid anxiety and emotional diagnoses...
December 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080592/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-anxiety-and-depression-in-children-and-adolescents
#8
REVIEW
Ella L Oar, Carly Johnco, Thomas H Ollendick
Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent disorders in youth. Assessments for these disorders in young people typically include clinician-administered instruments such as diagnostic interviews and parent- and youth-report questionnaires. Cognitive behavioral therapy is considered a well-established treatment for both anxiety and depression. Latest research in the field is exploring innovative methods to enhance treatment outcome and improve access to evidence-based treatments.
December 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080591/the-effect-of-cognitive-behavioral-interventions-on-depression-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Sandra M Opoka, Tania M Lincoln
Depression and anxiety are prominent comorbid disorders in psychosis and relevant to psychotic symptom formation and maintenance. This poses the question of whether psychological interventions are effective in improving symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with psychosis. A systematic review of the literature identified 14 studies evaluating a broad range of interventions targeting depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with psychosis. The reviewed studies support the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral interventions in improving the target symptoms...
December 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080590/homework-in-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-a-systematic-review-of-adherence-assessment-in-anxiety-and-depression-2011-2016
#10
REVIEW
Nikolaos Kazantzis, Nicole R Brownfield, Livia Mosely, Alexsandra S Usatoff, Andrew J Flighty
Treatment adherence has posed a substantial challenge not only for patients but also for the health profession for many decades. The last 5 years has witnessed significant attention toward adherence with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) homework for anxiety and depressive disorders, and adherence assessment methods have diversified. However, there remains a large component of the adherence process not assessed in CBT, with patient effort, engagement, and the known role for treatment appraisals and beliefs necessitating the pursuit of improved adherence assessment methods...
December 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080589/core-mechanisms-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-anxiety-and-depression-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Mark B Powers, Rianne A de Kleine, Jasper A J Smits
This article reviews the extant literature on mediators of change in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety and depression. The authors briefly discuss the efficacy of CBT for anxiety and depression and methods of mediation analysis and detection. Then the authors discuss fear extinction in anxiety treatment and cognitive change in depression treatment.
December 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080588/basic-strategies-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Amy Wenzel
Cognitive behavioral therapy's main strategies are active, problem-focused, and collaborative. Cognitive restructuring is a strategy in which clinicians help patients to identify, evaluate, and modify inaccurate or otherwise unhelpful thinking associated with emotional distress. Behavioral activation provides a framework for patients, particularly those who are depressed, to increase engagement in activities that provide a sense of accomplishment or pleasure. The goal of exposure is for anxious patients to experience an extinction of fear by having planned contact with feared stimuli and situations...
December 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800813/emergency-psychiatry-ten-years-later
#13
EDITORIAL
Nidal Moukaddam, Veronica Theresa Tucci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800812/highlight-in-telepsychiatry-and-behavioral-health-emergencies
#14
REVIEW
James Rachal, Wayne Sparks, Christine Zazzaro, Terri Blackwell
Carolinas HealthCare System is one of the largest freestanding psychiatric emergency departments in the country. It has grown from a small community mental health center in the 1930s, to one of the largest providers of emergency mental health services in the country. It offers services in person and via telepsychiatry to other emergency departments and primary care clinics. It decreased emergency room wait times and revolutionized where and how patients get their care. This has been the work of several groups from many disciplines...
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800811/violence-in-the-emergency-department-a-global-problem
#15
REVIEW
Allison Tadros, Christopher Kiefer
Violence against health care workers is an unfortunately common event. Because of several inherent factors, emergency departments are particularly vulnerable. Once an incident occurs, it often goes unreported and leads to both physical and mental trauma. Health care workers should learn to recognize the cues that patients are escalating toward violence and be familiar with various options for sedating agitated patients. If sedation is not successful, physical restraint may become necessary. There are measures that can be taken that may help minimize the likelihood of violence toward health care workers...
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800810/international-emergency-psychiatry-challenges-disaster-medicine-war-human-trafficking-displaced-persons
#16
REVIEW
Michael Jaung, Suni Jani, Sophia Banu, Joy M Mackey
Mental health disorders are a major cause of morbidity and a growing burden in low-income and middle-income countries; but there is little existing literature on the detailed epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment in low-resource settings. Special situations with vulnerable populations, such as those created by international humanitarian emergencies, refugees or internally displaced people, and victims of human trafficking, are increasing in prevalence. These victims are often resettled in developed countries and come to the emergency department seeking care...
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800809/legal-and-ethical-challenges-in-emergency-psychiatry-part-2-management-of-inmates
#17
REVIEW
Andrew Foote, Britta Ostermeyer
Psychiatrists and clinicians encounter unique situations, challenges, and requirements in the treatment of jail and prison inmates in the emergency department. This article reviews the historical legal highlights pertaining to medical and psychiatric care of inpatients, as well as the professional, ethical, and legal aspects that allow clinicians to evaluate, treat, and properly disposition their inmate patients. In particular, this article discusses the specific suicide risk factors related to inmates and correctional facilities that should be ascertained and managed in a clinician's suicide risk assessment and intervention planning in this special high suicide risk patient population...
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800808/legal-and-ethical-challenges-part-1-general-population
#18
REVIEW
Britta Ostermeyer, Anim N Shoaib, Swapna Deshpande
Several federal and state laws and regulations, as well as ethical medical principles, govern the emergency clinician's practice of care. Although some common legal-medical and ethical principles are shared with other medical specialties, emergency medicine and emergency psychiatry have unique legal and ethical challenges. This article presents and discusses these challenges, including the physician-patient relationship, malpractice, confidentiality and privilege, duty to report, decision-making capacity and vicarious decision-making, the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act, right to treatment, hospital admissions, involuntary commitment, forced medication administration, and child and elder abuse...
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800807/the-changing-health-policy-environment-and-behavioral-health-services-delivery
#19
REVIEW
Laura N Medford-Davis, Rakel C Beall
Deinstitutionalization has left an inadequate supply of inpatient psychiatric beds. Simultaneous cuts to public funding and insurance coverage for outpatient mental health treatment have increased the frequency of acute psychiatric crises. The resulting lack of available options has shifted the burden of treatment to emergency departments and the criminal justice system. Recent legislation has improved insurance access, but rules are not always enforced and there are still few options for care. Discussion of mental health care delivery must acknowledge that many emergent behavioral health crises arise in the context of acute substance intoxication, withdrawal, or dependence...
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800806/toxicologic-emergencies-in-patients-with-mental-illness-when-medications-are-no-longer-your-friends
#20
REVIEW
Spencer Greene, Erin AufderHeide, Lindsay French-Rosas
Patients with psychiatric disorders are at risk for toxicologic emergencies. Psychotropic medications have numerous effects on the neurologic, cardiac, and other organ systems and interact with other medications, potentially leading to further side effects. It is important to become familiar with accepted psychiatric practice guidelines, common toxidromes, medical sequelae associated with prescribed medications, and the specific workup and treatment of overdoses of frequently prescribed psychotropics.
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
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