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Psychiatric Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098663/neuromodulation
#1
EDITORIAL
Scott T Aaronson, Noah S Philip
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098662/the-future-of-brain-stimulation-treatments
#2
REVIEW
Kevin A Caulfield, Mark S George
Trends in brain stimulation include becoming less invasive, more focal, and more durable with less toxicity. Several of the more interesting new potentially disruptive technologies that are just making their way through basic and sometimes clinical research studies include low-intensity focused ultrasound and temporally interfering electric fields. It is possible, and even likely, that noninvasive brain stimulation may become the dominant form of brain treatments over the next 20 years. The future of brain stimulation therapeutics is bright...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098661/noninvasive-focused-ultrasound-for-neuromodulation-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Paul Bowary, Benjamin D Greenberg
This article covers noninvasive focused ultrasound (FUS) and its potential for neuromodulation. Although diagnostic uses of ultrasound are well known, its potential to noninvasively alter brain activity is a relatively new subject of research. Low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) is a potential future alternative modality to other noninvasive neuromodulation techniques. This article aims at providing an updated review of the literature related to the role of LIFU in neuromodulation and the progress of animal as well as human research done on this topic...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098660/clinical-usefulness-of-therapeutic-neuromodulation-for-major-depression-a-systematic-meta-review-of-recent-meta-analyses
#4
REVIEW
Alexander McGirr, Marcelo T Berlim
The authors conducted a meta-review of meta-analyses published in the past decade on therapeutic neuromodulation (ie, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation and deep brain stimulation) for major depression. Active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation have been generally associated with small to moderate effect sizes vis-à-vis their efficacy and with similar acceptability compared with sham...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098659/therapeutic-applications-of-invasive-neuromodulation-in-children-and-adolescents
#5
REVIEW
Deniz Doruk Camsari, Melissa Kirkovski, Paul E Croarkin
Although the application of noninvasive brain stimulation methods to children and adolescents has been frequently studied in depression, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, invasive methods such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) have received less attention. DBS and VNS have demonstrated utility in young patients especially for dystonia and epilepsy. VNS has FDA clearance for intractable epilepsy in patients aged 4 years and older...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098658/therapeutic-applications-of-noninvasive-neuromodulation-in-children-and-adolescents
#6
REVIEW
Deniz Doruk Camsari, Melissa Kirkovski, Paul E Croarkin
Recent advances and growing evidence supporting the safety and efficacy of noninvasive neuromodulatory techniques in adults have facilitated the study of neuromodulation applications in children and adolescents. Noninvasive brain stimulation methods such as transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation have been considered in children with depression, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, current clinical applications of neuromodulation techniques in children and adolescents are nascent...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098657/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-psychiatric-disorders-a-comprehensive-review
#7
REVIEW
Adriano H Moffa, Andre R Brunoni, Stevan Nikolin, Colleen K Loo
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been gaining favor as a viable tool in Psychiatry. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence of tDCS as a treatment of disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Current findings indicate that tDCS is probably effective in non-treatment-resistant depressive patients. Regarding schizophrenia and OCD, present evidence is not robust enough, although preliminary results indicate that tDCS is a promising technique...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098656/clinical-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder
#8
REVIEW
F Andrew Kozel
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is being investigated for psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and both phases of bipolar disorder. Case series, open trials, and randomized controlled studies have demonstrated preliminary support for treating PTSD with rTMS alone as well as with rTMS combined with psychotherapy. Similarly, there is some evidence that GAD can be treated with rTMS. The results for treating either phase of bipolar disorder are mixed with most of the current studies showing lack of benefit over sham...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098655/updates-on-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-therapy-for-major-depressive-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Sarah L Garnaat, Shiwen Yuan, Haizhi Wang, Noah S Philip, Linda L Carpenter
Transcranial magnetic stimulation has emerged as a treatment option for treatment-resistant depression. While existing data largely support efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depressive disorder, ongoing research aims to optimize treatment parameters and identify biomarkers of treatment response. In this article, the authors describe data from controlled trials and ongoing efforts to enhance transcranial magnetic stimulation outcomes for major depressive disorder. Findings from preliminary research aimed at identifying neuroimaging and neurophysiological biomarkers of transcranial magnetic stimulation effects are discussed...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098654/vagus-nerve-stimulation-changing-the-paradigm-for-chronic-severe-depression
#10
REVIEW
Scott T Aaronson, Charles R Conway
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been studied for its effect on treatment-resistant depression. Open-label studies have shown a significant positive effect in an especially treatment-resistant depressive population. Insurance company support for VNS has been limited but may be reviewed given recent positive open-label data. Coming developments in novel external ways to stimulate the vagus nerve may revive interest in this area. This article reviews the clinical development of VNS starting with the first recognition of its potential for treating depression, parses the results of several large clinical trials, and suggests a future path for optimal clinical development and use...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098653/the-mechanism-of-action-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-treatment-resistant-depression-current-conceptualizations
#11
REVIEW
Charles R Conway, Willa Xiong
Stimulation of the left cervical vagus nerve, or vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), brings about an antidepressant response in a subset of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) patients. How this occurs is poorly understood; however, knowledge of the neuroanatomic vagal pathways, in conjunction with functional brain imaging studies, suggests several brain regions associated with mood regulation are critical: brainstem nuclei (locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe, and ventral tegmental area), thalamus, and insular and prefrontal cortex...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098652/deep-brain-stimulation-clinical-applications
#12
REVIEW
Darin D Dougherty
Deep brain stimulation has been used for decades in neurology to treat movement disorders. More recent work has focused on developing applications for deep brain stimulation in psychiatric illness. Initial studies have demonstrated positive results for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Initial open-label studies of deep brain stimulation at targets for treatment-resistant depression have been encouraging. However, the only 2 published controlled trials that were conducted for potential FDA approval for treatment-resistant depression were both negative...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098651/deep-brain-stimulation-in-psychiatry-mechanisms-models-and-next-generation-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Mustafa Taha Bilge, Aishwarya K Gosai, Alik S Widge
Deep brain stimulation has preliminary evidence of clinical efficacy, but has been difficult to develop into a robust therapy, in part because its mechanisms are incompletely understood. We review evidence from movement and psychiatric disorder studies, with an emphasis on how deep brain stimulation changes brain networks. From this, we argue for a network-oriented approach to future deep brain stimulation studies. That network approach requires methods for identifying patients with specific circuit/network deficits...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098650/when-all-else-fails-the-use-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-for-conditions-other-than-major-depressive-episode
#14
REVIEW
Peter B Rosenquist, Nagy A Youssef, Sandarsh Surya, William V McCall
The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for those suffering from major depressive disorder is well-evidenced, time-honored, and recognized by most treatment guidelines. However, since its inception ECT has been used by practitioners for a broader range of neuropsychiatric conditions. This article reviews the highly variable evidence supporting the use of ECT in conditions other than depression, such as schizophrenia, bipolar manic states, catatonia, Parkinson disease, and post-traumatic stress disorder.
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098649/electroconvulsive-therapy-in-depression-current-practice-and-future-direction
#15
REVIEW
Adriana P Hermida, Oliver M Glass, Hadia Shafi, William M McDonald
The current practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has evolved over several decades with the implementation of safer equipment and advancement of techniques. In addition, modifications in the delivery of ECT, such as the utilization of brief and ultrabrief pulse widths and individualization of treatment parameters, have improved the safety of ECT without sacrificing efficacy. This article aims to provide psychiatrists with a balanced, in-depth look into the recent advances in ECT technique as well as the evidence of ECT for managing depression in special populations and patients with comorbid medical problems...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739532/psychodynamic-psychiatry-clinical-practical-patient-centered-and-evidence-based
#16
EDITORIAL
Thomas N Franklin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739531/psychodynamic-psychiatry
#17
EDITORIAL
Harsh K Trivedi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739530/engineering-neurobiological-systems-addiction
#18
REVIEW
Brian Johnson
Neurobiological engineering is the process of making models of brain function and psychoanalytic psychology as these interact in a social environment to hide complexity while remaining true to science. One-fourth of Americans are killed by drugs. The engineering model described is applied to psychodynamic therapy of addicted patients. It helps us understand why addiction is ubiquitous, hostile, malicious, and intractable. Drugs take over the will by changing the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system...
June 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739529/where-is-the-evidence-for-evidence-based-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Jonathan Shedler
The term evidence-based therapy is a de facto code word for manualized therapy, most often brief cognitive behavior therapy and its variants. It is widely asserted that "evidence-based" therapy is scientifically proven, superior to other forms of psychotherapy, and the gold standard of care. Research findings do not support such assertions. Research on evidence-based therapies demonstrates that they are weak treatments. They have not shown superiority to other forms of psychotherapy, few patients get well, and treatment benefits do not last...
June 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739528/innovative-educational-initiatives-to-train-psychodynamic-psychiatrists-in-underserved-areas-of-the-world
#20
REVIEW
César A Alfonso, Marco Christian Michael, Sylvia Detri Elvira, Hazli Zakaria, Rasmon Kalayasiri, Aida Syarinaz A Adlan, Mahdieh Moinalghorabaei, Petrin Redayani Lukman, Mohammad San'ati, Katerina Duchonova, Timothy B Sullivan
Psychodynamic psychiatry remains a challenging subject to teach in underserved areas, where enthusiasm to learn is substantial. Besides logistical and psychiatric workforce shortcomings, sensible cultural adaptations to make psychodynamic psychiatry relevant outside of high-income countries require creative effort. Innovative pedagogical methods that include carefully crafted mentoring and incorporate videoconferencing in combination with site visits can be implemented through international collaborations. Emphasis on mentoring is essential to adequately train future psychodynamic psychotherapy supervisors...
June 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
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