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Annals of the ICRP

C Hoeschen
While many areas of radiation protection have formed so-called 'platforms' in Europe which provide strategic research agendas for their areas of interest, this did not happen for a long while for medical exposure, which is the application of ionising radiation that causes the greatest man-made exposure, at least in first world countries. Finally, in 2015, a European medical radiation protection strategic research agenda was set up, and a corresponding platform was launched in 2016. This was named 'EURAMED' - the European Alliance for Medical Radiation Protection Research...
August 3, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
P Ortiz López, L T Dauer, R Loose, C J Martin, D L Miller, E Vañó, M Doruff, R Padovani, G Massera, C Yoder
In recent publications, such as Publications 117 and 120, the Commission provided practical advice for physicians and other healthcare personnel on measures to protect their patients and themselves during interventional procedures. These measures can only be effective if they are encompassed by a framework of radiological protection elements, and by the availability of professionals with responsibilities in radiological protection. This framework includes a radiological protection programme with a strategy for exposure monitoring, protective garments, education and training, and quality assurance of the programme implementation...
March 2018: Annals of the ICRP
K-W Cho, M-C Cantone, C Kurihara-Saio, B Le Guen, N Martinez, D Oughton, T Schneider, R Toohey, F ZöLzer
Despite a longstanding recognition that radiological protection is not only a matter of science, but also ethics, ICRP publications have rarely addressed the ethical foundations of the system of radiological protection explicitly. The purpose of this publication is to describe how the Commission has relied on ethical values, either intentionally or indirectly, in developing the system of radiological protection with the objective of presenting a coherent view of how ethics is part of this system. In so doing, it helps to clarify the inherent value judgements made in achieving the aim of the radiological protection system as underlined by the Commission in Publication 103...
February 2018: Annals of the ICRP
K A Higley
In 2005, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) decided to create a new committee, Committee 5, to take charge of the Commission's work on environmental radiological protection. Committee 5 was tasked with ensuring that the system for environmental radiological protection would be reconcilable with that for radiological protection of humans, and with the approaches used for protection of the environment from other potential hazards. The task was completed over three consecutive terms, resulting in inclusion of protection of the environment in the 2007 Recommendations; in ICRP Publications 108 and 114 where the concept of Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) and their corresponding data were described; in ICRP Publication 124 on how to apply the system in planned, existing, and emergency exposure situations; and in publications on improved dosimetry (ICRP Publication 136) and ecologically relevant 'weighting factors' for different types of radiation (being finalised for public consultation)...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
(no author information available yet)
Corrigendum to ICRP Publication 137: Occupational intakes of radionuclides: Part 3. [Ann. ICRP 46(3/4), 2017]. DOI: 10.1177/0146645317734963 . The following errors have been identified. ICRP apologises for any inconvenience or confusion caused by these errors. [Table: see text][Table: see text][Table: see text][Table: see text].
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
C Adam-Guillermin, T Hertal-Aas, D Oughton, L Blanchard, F Alonzo, O Armant, N Horemans
The ALLIANCE working group on effects of ionising radiation on wildlife brings together European researchers to work on the topics of radiosensitivity and transgenerational effects in non-human biota. Differences in radiation sensitivity across species and phyla are poorly understood, but have important implications for understanding the overall effects of radiation and for radiation protection; for example, sensitive species may require special attention in monitoring and radiation protection, and differences in sensitivity between species also lead to overall effects at higher levels (community, ecosystem), since interactions between species can be altered...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
L T Dauer, E Yorke, M Williamson, Y Gao, Z L Dauer, D L Miller, E Vañó
Radiation therapy of cancer patients involves a trade-off between a sufficient tumour dose for a high probability of local control and dose to organs at risk that is low enough to lead to a clinically acceptable probability of toxicity. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reviewed epidemiological evidence and provided updated estimates of 'practical' threshold doses for tissue injury, as defined at the level of 1% incidence, in ICRP Publication 118. Particular attention was paid to cataracts and circulatory diseases...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
T Depuydt
The use of proton therapy as a treatment modality is becoming more widespread in conventional radiation therapy practice. Commercialisation and introduction of compact systems has led to embedding of proton therapy facilities in existing hospital environments. In addition, technologically, proton therapy is currently undergoing an important evolution, moving from passive scattering delivery techniques to active pencil beam scanning, adopting image guidance techniques from conventional radiotherapy and introducing various range verification techniques in the clinic...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
C A McMahon, V Smith, K Leonard, R Ryan
Ireland does not have any nuclear installations, but a nuclear accident at a site elsewhere, particularly in Europe, could result in widespread but low-level contamination of the Irish environment. Ireland's National Emergency Plan for Nuclear Accidents was established, following the Chernobyl accident, for the national response to a nuclear accident abroad affecting Ireland. It has since been extended to also cover domestic radiological emergencies for which a national-level input is required to support the local response...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
D L Miller, C J Martin, M M Rehani
The mandate of Committee 3 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is concerned with the protection of persons and unborn children when ionising radiation is used in medical diagnosis, therapy, and biomedical research. Protection in veterinary medicine has been newly added to the mandate. Committee 3 develops recommendations and guidance in these areas. The most recent documents published by ICRP that relate to radiological protection in medicine are 'Radiological protection in cone beam computed tomography' (ICRP Publication 129) and 'Radiological protection in ion beam radiotherapy' (ICRP Publication 127)...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
K Sakai
Six and a half years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, an area of existing exposure situation remains. One of the main concerns of people is the higher level of ionising radiation than before the accident, although this is not expected to have any discernible health effect. Since the accident, several 'abnormalities' in environmental organisms have been reported. It is still not clear if these abnormalities were induced by radiation. It appears that the impact of the released radioactivity has not been sufficient to threaten the maintenance of biological diversity, the conservation of species, or the health and status of natural habitats, which are the focus in environmental protection...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
G A Hirth, M Grzechnik, R Tinker, C M Larsson
Australia's regulatory framework has evolved over the past decade from the assumption that protection of humans implies protection of the environment to the situation now where radiological impacts on non-human species (wildlife) are considered in their own right. In an Australian context, there was a recognised need for specific national guidance on protection of non-human species, for which the uranium mining industry provides the major backdrop. National guidance supported by publications of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (Radiation Protection Series) provides clear and consistent advice to operators and regulators on protection of non-human species, including advice on specific assessment methods and models, and how these might be applied in an Australian context...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
A Kesminiene, E Cardis
The use of computed tomography (CT) imaging is clearly beneficial for millions of patients. However, the potential adverse health effects, particularly cancer, of ionising radiation exposure from CT early in life are an issue of growing concern in the radiological protection, medical, and public health communities. Although efforts to quantify these effects have been conducted, the precision and accuracy of reported risks needs confirmation. EPI-CT, a European collaborative epidemiological study, was set up to quantify risks from paediatric CT to optimise paediatric diagnostic protocol...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
G S Ibbott
The introduction of image guidance in radiation therapy and its subsequent innovations have revolutionised the delivery of cancer treatment. Modern imaging systems can supplement and often replace the historical practice of relying on external landmarks and laser alignment systems. Rather than depending on markings on the patient's skin, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), using techniques such as computed tomography (CT), cone beam CT, MV on-board imaging (OBI), and kV OBI, allows the patient to be positioned based on the internal anatomy...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
H Vandenhove, C Bradshaw, N A Beresford, J Vives I Batlle, A Real, J Garnier-Laplace
Risks posed by the presence of radionuclides in the environment require an efficient, balanced, and adaptable assessment for protecting exposed humans and wildlife, and managing the associated radiological risk. Exposure of humans and wildlife originate from the same sources releasing radionuclides to the environment. Environmental concentrations of radionuclides serve as inputs to estimate the dose to man, fauna, and flora, with transfer processes being, in essence, similar, which calls for a common use of transport models...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
(no author information available yet)
Corrigendum to ICRP Publication 139: Occupational radiological protection in interventional procedures. [Ann. ICRP 47(2), 2018]. DOI: 10.1177/0146645317750356 . The following error has been identified in Annex B, Paragraph B9, p. 116: [Formula: see text] In the effective dose equation, the second summation should be over R rather than T[Formula: see text] ICRP apologises for any inconvenience or confusion caused by this error.
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
M Lassmann, U Eberlein
Systemic or locoregionally administered alpha-particle emitters are highly potent therapeutic agents used in oncology that are fundamentally novel in their mechanism and, most likely, overcome radiation resistance as the alpha particles emitted have a short range and a high linear energy transfer. The use of alpha emitters in a clinic environment requires extra measures with respect to imaging, dosimetry, and radiation protection. This is shown for the example of 223 Ra dichloride therapy. After intravenous injection, 223 Ra leaves the blood and is taken up rapidly in bone and bone metastases; it is mainly excreted via the intestinal tract...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
W Rühm, J F Bottollier-Depois, P Gilvin, R Harrison, Ž Knežević, M A Lopez, R Tanner, A Vargas, C Woda
Since the early 1980s, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been maintaining a network of institutions interested in the dosimetry of ionising radiation. As of 2017, this network includes more than 70 institutions (research centres, dosimetry services, university institutes, etc.), and the EURADOS database lists more than 500 scientists who contribute to the EURADOS mission, which is to promote research and technical development in dosimetry and its implementation into practice, and to contribute to harmonisation of dosimetry in Europe and its conformance with international practices...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
B Breustedt, E Blanchardon, C-M Castellani, G Etherington, D Franck, A Giussani, W Hofmann, A-L Lebacq, W B Li, D Noßke, M A Lopez
European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) Working Group 7 is a network on internal dosimetry that brings together researchers from more than 60 institutions in 21 countries. The work of the group is organised into task groups that focus on different aspects, such as development and implementation of biokinetic models (e.g. for diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid decorporation therapy), individual monitoring and the dose assessment process, Monte Carlo simulations for internal dosimetry, uncertainties in internal dosimetry, and internal microdosimetry...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
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