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Annals of the ICRP

M Hayakawa
In Fukushima Prefecture, disaster-related death is a social problem for individuals who were forced to leave their hometowns as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Disaster-related death is caused by stress, exhaustion, and worsening of pre-existing illnesses due to evacuation. The number of disaster-related deaths has reached almost 2000, and continues to rise. Prolonged uncertainty and deteriorating living conditions suggest no end to such deaths, although response measures have been taken to improve the situation...
October 4, 2016: Annals of the ICRP
M Ohmori
The accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake received considerable media coverage. However, a leaning towards sensationalism and a proclivity for denouncing those in power resulted in articles that were, in several instances, scientifically inaccurate, causing anxiety among disaster victims and delaying recovery efforts. Individuals working for the local media in Fukushima had the task of reporting the disaster while being victims of the disaster at the same time...
October 3, 2016: Annals of the ICRP
F Rollinger, J Lochard, T Schneider
Since November 2011, Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire (IRSN) experts have participated in the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) dialogue initiative for the rehabilitation of living conditions after the Fukushima accident. In 2013, IRSN and Centre d'étude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucléaire (CEPN) launched a study to identify the main lessons that can be learned from these dialogues, and benefit French IRSN experts in the event of a postaccident situation...
October 3, 2016: Annals of the ICRP
T Hara, S Anzai, M Saito, Y Fijiwara
In 2014, a team of high school students and teachers measured individual exposure doses using D-Shuttle dosimeters. In total, 216 students and teachers participated in the project, with the cooperation of 12 high schools in Japan (six from Fukushima Prefecture), four from France, eight from Poland, and two from Belarus. The participants wore the dosimeters for 2 weeks and recorded their locations in diary charts. The distribution of annual exposure doses for each school and region, estimated from the measured results, overlapped...
September 27, 2016: Annals of the ICRP
T Lazo
Between September 2011 and August 2015, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) organised a series of 12 stakeholder dialogue workshops with residents of Fukushima Prefecture. Discussions focused on recovery, addressing topics such as protection of children, management of contaminated food, monitoring, and self-help measures. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) supported, and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) Secretariat attended, all 12 meetings to listen directly to the concerns of affected individuals and draw lessons for CRPPH...
September 20, 2016: Annals of the ICRP
M Otsuki
Before the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, I never thought about radiation. After the accident, I originally evacuated with my two sons, but we returned home a few weeks later to be with my husband and parents-in-law as I felt that life with my family was what mattered and the very basis of my happiness. Today, 5 years after the accident, some people are able to think positively about the situation, and some remain uncertain. This article offers my experience and thoughts as a mother to help enable others to feel less stressed about eating food produced in Fukushima, and suggests ideas to help lift their spirits...
September 16, 2016: Annals of the ICRP
A Goto
This article examines postdisaster public health activities (focusing primarily on parenting support) through collaboration between universities and local government, and reports on the support provided to public health nurses, who are the gatekeepers of community health. For a year after the Fukushima disaster, discussions were held on the short- and long-term measures for responding to the concerns of parents, who face difficulty interpreting risks. Child health checkup data and mothers' counselling sessions with public health nurses were analysed to gather evidence to reinforce the health system over the long term...
September 14, 2016: Annals of the ICRP
S Katsumi
On 19 April 2011, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology designated 13 elementary schools, including Tominari Elementary School in Date city, as high-dose schools that needed to restrict outdoor activities due to the effects of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Approximately 1 week later, the municipal government took action to remove the topsoil from the school grounds, and the prohibition of outdoor activities at Tominari Elementary School was lifted. The school staff continued to work on decontaminating the surrounding areas using high-pressure washers and brushes...
September 14, 2016: Annals of the ICRP
R Hayano
The accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant contaminated the soil of densely populated regions in Fukushima Prefecture with radiocaesium, which poses risks of internal and external exposure to the residents. However, extensive whole-body-count surveys have shown that internal exposure levels of residents are negligible. In addition, data from personal dosimeters have shown that external exposure levels have decreased, so the estimated annual external dose of the majority of people is <1 mSv in most areas of Fukushima...
September 14, 2016: Annals of the ICRP
M Tsubokura
Various reports have shown that internal and external exposure levels of local residents after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant were very low. However, there are serious postdisaster health effects in the form of increased prevalence of diabetes and other chronic conditions. Stress, changes in the social environment and in living arrangements, and disruption in healthcare support provided by a network of people have resulted in increasing the cost of care and changing patients' behaviour, such as delay in visiting a hospital...
September 14, 2016: Annals of the ICRP
J Lochard, D T Bartlett, W Rühm, H Yasuda, J-F Bottollier-Depois
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of the ICRP
W E Bolch, N Petoussi-Henss, F Paquet, J Harrison
Major current efforts within Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) involve the development of dose coefficients for inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides, and those for exposure to environmental radiation fields. These efforts build upon changes in radiation and tissue weighting factors (Publication 103), radionuclide decay schemes (Publication 107), computational phantoms of the adult reference male and female (Publication 110), external dose coefficients for adult reference workers for idealised radiation fields (Publication 116), models of radionuclide intake (Publications 66, 100 and 130), and models of radionuclide systemic biokinetics (Publication 130)...
June 2016: Annals of the ICRP
D H Oughton
Assessing the potential ecological impact of ionising radiation raises a number of ethical questions. These include fundamental questions such as what exactly constitutes harming the environment, and how the environment should be valued, as well as links to political protection principles such as sustainability and biodiversity. Starting from developments within ecological risk assessment, this paper summarises some of the ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation. Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of different philosophical and cultural world views on valuing the environment in a context of radiation risk...
June 2016: Annals of the ICRP
G Meskens
Due to the specific character of the radiological risk, judgements on whether the use of nuclear technology would be justified in society have to consider knowledge-related uncertainties and value pluralism. The justice of justification not only informs the right of the potentially affected to participate in decision making, but also implies the responsibility of concerned actors to give account of the way they rationalise their own position, interests, hopes, hypotheses, beliefs, and concerns in knowledge generation and decision making...
June 2016: Annals of the ICRP
Christopher Clement
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of the ICRP
G Desmaris
Cosmic radiation in aviation has been a concern since the 1960s, and measurements have been taken for several decades by Air France. Results show that aircraft crew generally receive 3-4 mSv y(-1) for 750 boarding hours. Compliance with the trigger level of 6 mSv y(-1) is achieved by route selection. Work schedules can be developed for pregnant pilots to enable the dose to the fetus to be kept below 1 mSv. Crew members are informed of their exposition and the potential health impact. The upcoming International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report on cosmic radiation in aviation will provide an updated guidance...
June 2016: Annals of the ICRP
F Paquet, M R Bailey, R W Leggett, J D Harrison
Internal doses are calculated on the basis of knowledge of intakes and/or measurements of activity in bioassay samples, typically using reference biokinetic and dosimetric models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). These models describe the behaviour of the radionuclides after ingestion, inhalation, and absorption to the blood, and the absorption of the energy resulting from their nuclear transformations. They are intended to be used mainly for the purpose of radiological protection: that is, optimisation and demonstration of compliance with dose limits...
June 2016: Annals of the ICRP
K-H Do, S E Jung
Radiation exposure from diagnostic medical imaging has increased in Korea. Radiological societies play a key role in radiation safety issues in Korea, including guidelines, accreditation, advocacy, scientific activity, and education. Any medical radiation exposure must be justified, and examinations using ionising radiation must be optimised. Education of referring physicians and radiologists is also important for justification. Medical physicists and radiographers have an important role to play in quality management and optimisation...
June 2016: Annals of the ICRP
S Demeter, K E Applegate, M Perez
The purpose of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Committee 3 Working Party was to update the 2001 web-based module 'Radiation and your patient: a guide for medical practitioners' from ICRP. The key elements of this task were: to clearly identify the target audience (such as healthcare providers with an emphasis on primary care); to review other reputable sources of information; and to succinctly publish the contribution made by ICRP to the various topics. A 'question-and-answer' format addressing practical topics was adopted...
June 2016: Annals of the ICRP
T Schneider, J Lochard, L Vaillant
The concepts of tolerability and reasonableness are at the core of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) system of radiological protection. Tolerability allows the definition of boundaries for implementing ICRP principles, while reasonableness contributes to decisions regarding adequate levels of protection, taking into account the prevailing circumstances. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts to find theoretical foundations in risk comparisons for tolerability and cost-benefit analysis for reasonableness failed...
June 2016: Annals of the ICRP
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