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Medical Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929788/the-familial-and-the-familiar-locating-relatedness-in-colombian-donor-conception
#1
Malissa Kay Shaw
In this article, I explore how women undergoing in-vitro fertilization with familial or anonymous egg donors located relatedness with a donor-conceived child through familial and social identities. Recognizing gametes as substances that contain biological and sociocultural/behavioral traits, shaped women's narratives around interconnected notions of the familial and familiar, or the social understanding of biological and social inheritance, and knowledge of the genetic materials involved. Women's narratives of relatedness reflect their relationships with family and society and their desire to reproduce these relationships in their child(ren), a process that reproduces prevailing Colombian social values and notions of ideal citizens...
September 20, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857612/sign-language-as-virus-stigma-and-relationality-in-urban-india
#2
Michele Friedner
Drawing upon ethnographic research conducted in urban locations in India, I consider the relationship between stigma and contagion in the context of deaf peoples' desires for and practices of communication in Indian Sign Language. If sign language can be considered or represented as a virus-and if it spreads between and among deaf people upon exposure-what might cure differentially look like, in a time when cochlear implantation and oral-based early intervention is increasingly becoming normalized? Considering the impact of stigma on multiple forms of relationality, I argue that sign language's viral potentiality lies in its ability to transform and create new relationships and worlds...
August 31, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853953/toilet-talk-eliminating-open-defecation-and-improved-sanitation-in-nepal
#3
Celia McMichael
Globally, 2.4 billion people lack adequate sanitation, and open defecation remains common. In this article, I present the qualitative findings from an evaluation of a water, sanitation, and hygiene intervention in remote, mid-West Nepal. The evaluation, conducted in 2014, involved villagers from eight wards in Kotgaun Village Development Committee. Drawing on the concept of the "toilet tripod," I argue as follows: multi-scalar political will provide an important foundation for construction and sustained use of toilets, proximate social pressures contributed significantly to toilet adoption and efforts to eliminate open defecation, and water insecurity constrained improved sanitation and hygiene...
August 30, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836876/the-limits-of-autonomy-ideals-in-care-for-people-with-learning-disabilities
#4
Jeannette Pols, Brigitte Althoff, Els Bransen
In the Netherlands, autonomy is a key ideal in visions of care for people with learning disability. This ideal can lead to tension when clients, in the opinion of their caregivers, overuse alcohol or drugs. In this article, we analyze how professional caregivers understand the ideal of autonomy in care for people with learning disability, and articulate the tacit attempts of caregivers to provide "good care," which can be understood as care for relationships. This relational view includes caregivers, care recipients, and their networks and infrastructures in the vision of care...
August 24, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816525/global-side-effects-counter-clinics-in-mental-health-care
#5
Elizabeth Anne Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799805/british-pakistani-muslim-masculinity-in-fertility-and-the-clinical-encounter
#6
Mwenza Blell
The experiences of men facing fertility disruptions are understudied. For British Pakistanis, the impact of infertility is heightened for women because of normative pressures to bear children. But what of men? I present data from in-depth interviews in North East England with infertile British Pakistani Muslims and relevant health professionals. British Pakistani men's level of participation in clinical encounters and responses to diagnoses of male factor infertility must be understood in the context of kinship, the construction of Pakistani ethnicity in the UK, and the subordinated forms of masculinity which accompany this identity...
August 11, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777660/moral-adherence-hiv-treatment-undetectability-and-stigmatized-viral-loads-among-haitians-in-south-florida
#7
Chelsea Cormier McSwiggin
In the United States, HIV is rendered a chronic condition, and viral transmission is minimized through strict adherence to pharmaceutical treatment. Treatment reduces viral loads to untraceable levels in the blood, a status known as 'undetectable', as determined by laboratory testing. For Haitians living with HIV in South Florida, 'undetectable' has become more than a viral status; it is a means to know and govern themselves as moral actors and to survey and stigmatize others who remain 'detectable'. The ethnographic evidence I present here suggests that Haitians adopt novel forms of subjectivity based on undetectability, producing identities entangled in biotechnical categorizations and dominant narratives of responsibility, morality, and health...
August 4, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777656/affect-and-the-really-real-the-politics-of-hiv-aids-framing-in-south-african-theater
#8
Jessica S Ruthven
Funding in South Africa privileges HIV prevention campaigns underpinned by individual behavior change goals, despite over two decades of intervention but little reduction in national HIV prevalence. In response, civil society has begun calling for innovative interventions and ways of speaking about the epidemic. Employing framing theory, I analyze differences in how HIV/AIDS is characterized in public media and interrogate the knowledge politics underpinning a group of artists' emerging attention to the nexus of affect, intersubjectivity, and epidemics within performance...
August 4, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768116/on-reproductive-work-in-spain-transnational-adoption-egg-donation-surrogacy
#9
Diana Marre, Beatriz San Román, Diana Guerra
Spain's plummeting fertility since the late twentieth century may seem to reflect a waning desire for children. Nevertheless, reproductive disappointments resulting from gender inequalities cause many Spanish women to postpone motherhood and experience age-related fertility problems. For them, creating a family often becomes possible only through the reproductive labor of other women. Our analysis of transnational adoption, egg donation, and surrogacy in Spain shows how anonymity and altruism play out in these three strategies, with implications for the valuation of women's reproductive work and relationships among reproductive providers, intermediaries, recipients, and the resulting children...
August 2, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759267/the-infernal-alternatives-of-corporate-pharmaceutical-research-abandoning-psychiatry
#10
Joseph Dumit
What happens when health research is measured by market size? How does this change the dynamics of medical research, and how is its growth envisioned and managed? In this article, I build on my arguments in Drugs for Life: How Pharmaceutical Companies Define our Health, which focused primarily on the development and marketing of mass medications for heart disease and I examine the market dynamics that are used to drive research into and out of psychiatric and other neuromedicines, such as the closing of mental health research at most major pharmaceutical companies...
July 31, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759265/from-lemongrass-to-ivermectin-ethnomedical-management-of-chagas-disease-in-tropical-bolivia
#11
Colin Forsyth
Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease; the only viable drugs are outdated and produce frequent side effects, and the overwhelming majority of cases are undiagnosed and untreated. Globally, people encounter numerous impediments to accessing biomedical treatment for Chagas disease. However, little is known about how people with Chagas disease manage their health outside the biomedical system. In this article, I discuss knowledge of ethnomedical treatments among marginalized patients in an endemic area of Bolivia...
July 31, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753036/political-therapeutics-dialogues-and-frictions-around-care-and-cure
#12
Cristiana Giordano
In 1978, Italy passed a law establishing the abolition of the mental hospital. Up to that time, the traditional asylums were still governed by the 1904 law that positioned psychiatry within the criminal justice system by assigning it the function of custodia (control, custody) rather than of cura (care). In the 1960s and 1970s, Italian psychiatrist Franco Basaglia initiated a movement of de-institutionalization of the mentally ill that revolutionized psychiatric care in Italy. It also had a deep impact on restructuring the psychiatric system in other European and Latin American countries...
July 28, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704073/transformative-possibilities-politics-and-cosmetic-surgery-in-the-bolivarian-revolution
#13
Lauren E Gulbas
I examine the intersection of politics and aesthetics in a public hospital in Caracas, Venezuela in the first years of the twenty-first century. Given Venezuela's long-standing embrace of physical enhancement and the contradictions of the medical values of cosmetic surgery with those of Bolivarian socialism, the changing surgical practices at a well-established public site offer a significant case for considering how different actors negotiate the dialectics of care. In the face of increasing resource shortages, negotiations of aesthetic care contributed to tensions in the clinical encounter as patients creatively pushed Bolivarian policies to support their pursuits of aesthetic self-improvement...
October 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644926/gangnam-style-plastic-surgery-the-science-of-westernized-beauty-in-south-korea
#14
So Yeon Leem
New beauty ideals and particular types of plastic surgery beauty have emerged in South Korea from the early twenty-first century. By defining Gangnam-style plastic surgery as a hybrid of old Westernized beauty ideals and a new science of beauty with variations and contradictions, I intend to twist the simplistic understanding of non-Western plastic surgery as an effort to resemble the white westerner's body. I also draw political implications from a case of monstrous Gangnam-style beauty made by excessive plastic surgery...
October 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586268/biopolitics-and-boundary-work-in-south-africa-s-sutherlandia-clinical-trial
#15
Christopher Morris
Between 2008 and 2011, South African and American investigators carried out a randomized controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of an African traditional medicine in South Africans who were HIV-seropositive but asymptomatic. The medicine was derived from Sutherlandia frutescens, a plant endemic to and widely used to stimulate immune function by people across southern Africa. In this article, I report on the cross-cultural challenges generated by trial investigators' transformation of Sutherlandia into a clinical trial substance and a potential "treatment gap" therapy for persons with HIV...
October 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494167/-my-whole-life-is-ethics-ordinary-ethics-and-gene-therapy-clinical-trials
#16
Courtney Addison, Jesper Lassen
What and where is ethics in gene therapy? Historical debates have identified a set of ethical issues with the field, and current regulatory systems presume a discrete ethics that can be achieved or protected. Resisting attempts at demarcation or resolution, we use the notions of "ordinary" or "everyday" ethics to develop a better understanding of the complexities of experimental gene therapy for patients, families, and practitioners and create richer imaginings of ethics in the gene therapy sphere. Drawing on ethnographic research in several clinical trials, we show that patients/parents can acquire some control in difficult medical situations, and practitioners can attune their care to their patients' needs...
October 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350188/formations-of-femininity-science-and-aesthetics-in-facial-feminization-surgery
#17
Eric Plemons
Facial feminization surgery (FFS) is a set of bone and soft tissue reconstructive surgical procedures intended to feminize the faces of trans- women in order to make their identities as women recognizable to others. In this article, I explore how the identification of facial femininity was negotiated in two FFS surgeons' practices. One committed to the metrics of normal skeletal form and the other to aspirational aesthetics of individual optimization; I argue that surgeons' competing clinical approaches illustrate a constitutive tension in the proliferating therapeutic logics of trans- medicine...
October 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328239/normal-modern-reconstructive-surgery-in-a-mexican-public-hospital
#18
Samuel Taylor-Alexander
A growing corpus of anthropological scholarship demonstrates how science and medicine in Mexico are imbued by national concerns with modernization. Drawing on ethnographic research in a public hospital located in the south of Mexico City, I unpack one manifestation of this dynamic, which is the conjugation of the normal and the modern in Mexican reconstructive surgery. The aspiration toward normality underlies everyday clinic practices and relationships in this field, including why parents want surgery for their children and how doctors see their patients and their responsibilities toward them...
October 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586275/good-food-bad-food-and-white-rice-understanding-child-feeding-using-visual-narrative-elicitation
#19
Chelsea Wentworth
Visual-narrative elicitation, a process combining photo elicitation and pile sorting in applied medical anthropology, sheds light on food consumption patterns in urban areas of Vanuatu where childhood malnutrition is a persistent problem. Groups of participants took photographs of the foods they feed their children, and the resources and barriers they encounter in accessing foodstuffs. This revealed how imported and local foods are assigned value as "good" or "bad" foods when contributing to dietary diversity and creating appropriate meals for children, particularly in the context of consuming white rice...
August 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532205/displayed-wounds-encrypted-messages-hyper-realism-and-imagination-in-medical-moulages
#20
Cristiana Bastos
Moulages are three-dimensional colorful replicas of body parts with particular expressions of ailments. Historically, by operating a transition between illness and disease, moulages were a powerful tool in the consolidation of the medical specialty of dermatovenereology. Yet, moulages are not solely an objectification of biological processes suitable for medical teaching; they also activate non-medical cognitions and emotions about life, death, behavior, and morality that are rooted in the history of the art of wax modeling...
August 2017: Medical Anthropology
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