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Medical Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704073/transformative-possibilities-politics-and-cosmetic-surgery-in-the-bolivarian-revolution
#1
Lauren E Gulbas
I examine the intersection of politics and aesthetics in a public hospital in Caracas, Venezuela in the first years of the twenty-first century. Given Venezuela's longstanding embrace of physical enhancement and the contradictions of the medical values of cosmetic surgery with those of Bolivarian socialism, the changing surgical practices at a well-established public site offer a significant case for considering how different actors negotiate the dialectics of care. In the face of increasing resource shortages, negotiations of aesthetic care contributed to tensions in the clinical encounter as patients creatively pushed Bolivarian policies to support their pursuits of aesthetic self-improvement...
July 13, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644926/gangnam-style-plastic-surgery-the-science-of-westernized-beauty-in-south-korea
#2
So Yeon Leem
New beauty ideals and particular types of plastic surgery beauty have emerged in South Korea from the early twenty-first century. By defining Gangnam-style plastic surgery as a hybrid of old Westernized beauty ideals and a new science of beauty with variations and contradictions, I intend to twist the simplistic understanding of non-Western plastic surgery as an effort to resemble the white westerner's body. I also draw political implications from a case of monstrous Gangnam-style beauty made by excessive plastic surgery...
June 23, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609127/finding-closure-continuing-bonds-and-codentification-after-the-9-11-attacks
#3
Victor Toom
In this article, I'm interested in the 2750 victims of the 9/11 attacks in New York City. I consider two connected issues. The first regards bereavement journeys of victims' families and the significance of receiving a body to bury vis-à-vis the normative assignment to find closure. The second issue I address is how forensic experts, their technologies, and managing protocols interact with victims' families and their emotions. Using insights from Science and Technology Studies, I articulate some of the goods and bads of identification practices and argue for extensive communication and cooperation between experts and victims' families...
June 13, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586275/good-food-bad-food-and-white-rice-understanding-child-feeding-using-visual-narrative-elicitation
#4
Chelsea Wentworth
Visual-narrative elicitation, a process combining photo elicitation and pile sorting in applied medical anthropology, sheds light on food consumption patterns in urban areas of Vanuatu where childhood malnutrition is a persistent problem. Groups of participants took photographs of the foods they feed their children, and the resources and barriers they encounter in accessing foodstuffs. This revealed how imported and local foods are assigned value as "good" or "bad" foods when contributing to dietary diversity and creating appropriate meals for children, particularly in the context of consuming white rice...
June 6, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586268/biopolitics-and-boundary-work-in-south-africa-s-sutherlandia-clinical-trial
#5
Christopher Morris
Between 2008 and 2011, South African and American investigators carried out a randomized controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of an African traditional medicine in South Africans who were HIV-seropositive but asymptomatic. The medicine was derived from Sutherlandia frutescens, a plant endemic to and widely used to stimulate immune function by people across southern Africa. In this article, I report on the cross-cultural challenges generated by trial investigators' transformation of Sutherlandia into a clinical trial substance and a potential "treatment gap" therapy for persons with HIV...
June 6, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557537/respectable-gentlemen-and-street-savvy-men-hiv-vulnerability-in-sri-lanka
#6
Sandya Hewamanne
In this article, I investigate how particular discourses surrounding class specific understandings of sexual behavior and female morality shape awareness and views of the disease and personal vulnerability. Although both groups belong to the working class, those employed by the transportation board consider themselves government servants and, therefore, "respectable gentlemen." Construction workers identify easily with their class position, recognizing and sometimes trying to live up to the stereotypes of free sexuality...
May 30, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541713/dissecting-images-multimodal-medical-anthropology
#7
Elizabeth Cartwright, Jerome W Crowder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532205/displayed-wounds-encrypted-messages-hyper-realism-and-imagination-in-medical-moulages
#8
Cristiana Bastos
Moulages are three-dimensional colorful replicas of body parts with particular expressions of ailments. Historically, by operating a transition between illness and disease, moulages were a powerful tool in the consolidation of the medical specialty of dermatovenereology. Yet, moulages are not solely an objectification of biological processes suitable for medical teaching; they also activate non-medical cognitions and emotions about life, death, behavior, and morality that are rooted in the history of the art of wax modeling...
May 22, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494167/-my-whole-life-is-ethics-ordinary-ethics-and-gene-therapy-clinical-trials
#9
Courtney Addison, Jesper Lassen
What and where is ethics in gene therapy? Historical debates have identified a set of ethical issues with the field, and current regulatory systems presume a discrete ethics that can be achieved or protected. Resisting attempts at demarcation or resolution, we use the notions of "ordinary" or "everyday" ethics to develop a better understanding of the complexities of experimental gene therapy for patients, families, and practitioners and create richer imaginings of ethics in the gene therapy sphere. Drawing on ethnographic research in several clinical trials, we show that patients/parents can acquire some control in difficult medical situations, and practitioners can attune their care to their patients' needs...
May 11, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471249/men-s-everyday-health-care-practices-tensions-and-paradoxes-and-masculinities-in-denmark
#10
Nina Nissen
My interest is in how masculinities are enacted and implicated in different care repertoires. Drawing on Mol's notion of "logic of care," I illustrate that in Denmark some men's care practices are an integral part of their life projects, and so they target both the human body, and sociality and relationality, as everyday care. In this way, men enact, embody, and weave together a self- and other-directed "caring masculinity" with practices of autonomy, self-discipline and the aestheticization of male bodies...
May 4, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453300/psychiatry-sex-and-science-the-making-of-adolescent-motherhood-in-southern-brazil
#11
Dominique P Béhague
Research linking teen motherhood to psychoneurodevelopmental causes and pathologies has proliferated in the past two decades. In Brazil, a psychodevelopmental project of teen motherhood has gained traction despite many experts' long-standing commitment to psychodynamic psychiatry and social epidemiology, generating epistemic tension rather than substitution. Drawing on historical ethnography conducted in Southern Brazil, I explore how this project materialized through the co-production of epistemic struggles, remedial interventions, and ontological politics...
April 28, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448161/peaches-for-lunch-creating-and-using-visual-variables
#12
Elizabeth Cartwright, Adam Clegg
In this article, I describe the process of systematically including nonverbal data in medical anthropology research. I demonstrate the process of visualizing and coding videotaped moments of life and show how we can analyze what is being done along with what is being said. I ground my discussion in toddler language socialization and then expand my observations to the realm of language pathologies. Aphasia from strokes, speech difficulties in neurologically based illnesses like Lou Gehrig's disease, and the variety of communication challenges that face those on the autism spectrum can all be studied in interesting ways by including precise descriptions of nonverbal actions...
April 27, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594568/repellents-and-new-spaces-of-concern-in-global-health
#13
Ann H Kelly, Hermione N Boko Koudakossi, Sarah J Moore
Today, malaria prevention hinges upon two domestic interventions: insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying. As mosquitoes grow resistant to these tools, however, novel approaches to vector control have become a priority area of malaria research and development. Spatial repellency, a volumetric mode of action that seeks to reduce disease transmission by creating an atmosphere inimical to mosquitoes, represents one way forward. Drawing from research that sought to develop new repellent chemicals in conversation with users from sub-Saharan Africa and the United States, we consider the implications of a non-insecticidal paradigm of vector control for how we understand the political ecology of malaria...
July 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489420/anthropologists-in-malariaworld
#14
Peter J Brown
The history of anthropological contributions to the study of malaria is reviewed in terms of three additive phases: (1) cultural-historical analyses; (2) applied work aimed at the improvement of malaria control programs; and (3) introduction of critical medical anthropological themes about malaria control. The critical approaches include themes of the cultural construction of reality-the definition of "malaria"; political-economic structures in health inequalities; and an emphasis on social factors as exemplified in the present special issue...
July 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406330/precarity-and-preparedness-non-adherence-as-institutional-work-in-diagnosing-and-treating-malaria-in-uganda
#15
René Umlauf
Access to anti-malarial drugs is increasingly governed by novel regulation technologies like rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, high rates of non-adherence particularly to negative RDT results have been reported, threatening the cost-effectiveness of the two interrelated goals of improving diagnosis and reducing the over-prescription of expensive anti-malarial drugs. Below I set out to reconstruct prior treatment forms like presumptive treatment of malaria by paying particular attention to their institutional groundings...
July 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394640/data-performativity-performing-health-work-malaria-and-labor-in-senegal
#16
Marlee Tichenor
In this article, I investigate the ramifications of health data production in the health fight against malaria in and around Dakar, Senegal. Malaria health development funding at the community level is contingent on performativity; the Global Fund's "performance-based funding," for example, requires that local actors produce certain forms of evidence and that intermediaries synthesize this evidence into citable data. Analyzing the practices of diagnosis and approximation in health clinics and in global malaria documents, I argue that data production in Senegal is conditioned by and reifies preconceived notions of malaria as a problem addressable by the enumeration of technological fixes...
July 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388227/the-social-lives-of-global-policies-against-malaria-conceptual-considerations-past-experiences-and-current-issues
#17
Julian Eckl
While a casual observer might easily get the impression that global policies against malaria have unanimous support, there are strongly divergent perspectives on malaria control. Analyzing ethnographic and historical material through a political science lens, I foreground the social negotiation of malaria both as an illness experience of affected populations and as a disease problem defined by experts. Taking the interrelationship between problems, solutions, and solution providers as a point of departure, I reconstruct recurrent tensions and social mechanisms that can account for the tendency to downplay conflicts and to produce technical-biomedical solutions that seem to be irresistible...
July 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379042/-not-taking-it-will-just-be-like-a-sin-young-people-living-with-hiv-and-the-stigmatization-of-less-than-perfect-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
Sarah Bernays, Sara Paparini, Janet Seeley, Tim Rhodes
Global health priorities are being set to address questions on adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy in adolescence. Few studies have explored young people's perspectives on the complex host of social and relational challenges they face in dealing with their treatment in secret and their condition in silence. In redressing this, we present findings from a longitudinal qualitative study with young people living with HIV in the UK, Ireland, US, and Uganda, embedded within the BREATHER international clinical trial...
July 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318308/the-anthropology-of-malaria-locating-the-social
#19
Clare I R Chandler, Uli Beisel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300433/eating-in-the-panopticon-surveillance-of-food-and-weight-before-and-after-bariatric-surgery
#20
Sarah Trainer, Amber Wutich, Alexandra Brewis
In this article, we explore the processes by which surveillance of eating and weight is coupled with popular and medical ideas about discipline, responsibility, and moral worth for individuals identified as fat/obese. We then follow these individuals through bariatric surgery and weight loss, paying attention to what discourses and practices shift and what remain unchanged. We argue that weight loss does not temper the intensity and constancy of surveillance, because it is at the core of ideas concerning good citizenship and personal responsibility...
July 2017: Medical Anthropology
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