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Medical Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816525/global-side-effects-counter-clinics-in-mental-health-care
#1
Elizabeth Anne Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799805/british-pakistani-muslim-masculinity-in-fertility-and-the-clinical-encounter
#2
Mwenza Blell
The experiences of men facing fertility disruptions are understudied. For British Pakistanis, the impact of infertility is heightened for women because of normative pressures to bear children. But what of men? I present data from in-depth interviews in North East England with infertile British Pakistani Muslims and relevant health professionals. British Pakistani men's level of participation in clinical encounters and responses to diagnoses of male factor infertility must be understood in the context of kinship, the construction of Pakistani ethnicity in the UK, and the subordinated forms of masculinity which accompany this identity...
August 11, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777660/moral-adherence-hiv-treatment-undetectability-and-stigmatized-viral-loads-among-haitians-in-south-florida
#3
Chelsea Cormier McSwiggin
In the United States, HIV is rendered a chronic condition, and viral transmission is minimized through strict adherence to pharmaceutical treatment. Treatment reduces viral loads to untraceable levels in the blood, a status known as 'undetectable', as determined by laboratory testing. For Haitians living with HIV in South Florida, 'undetectable' has become more than a viral status; it is a means to know and govern themselves as moral actors and to survey and stigmatize others who remain 'detectable'. The ethnographic evidence I present here suggests that Haitians adopt novel forms of subjectivity based on undetectability, producing identities entangled in biotechnical categorizations and dominant narratives of responsibility, morality, and health...
August 4, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777656/affect-and-the-really-real-the-politics-of-hiv-aids-framing-in-south-african-theater
#4
Jessica S Ruthven
Funding in South Africa privileges HIV prevention campaigns underpinned by individual behavior change goals, despite over two decades of intervention but little reduction in national HIV prevalence. In response, civil society has begun calling for innovative interventions and ways of speaking about the epidemic. Employing framing theory, I analyze differences in how HIV/AIDS is characterized in public media and interrogate the knowledge politics underpinning a group of artists' emerging attention to the nexus of affect, intersubjectivity, and epidemics within performance...
August 4, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768116/on-reproductive-work-in-spain-transnational-adoption-egg-donation-surrogacy
#5
Diana Marre, Beatriz San Román, Diana Guerra
Spain's plummeting fertility since the late twentieth century may seem to reflect a waning desire for children. Nevertheless, reproductive disappointments resulting from gender inequalities cause many Spanish women to postpone motherhood and experience age-related fertility problems. For them, creating a family often becomes possible only through the reproductive labor of other women. Our analysis of transnational adoption, egg donation, and surrogacy in Spain shows how anonymity and altruism play out in these three strategies, with implications for the valuation of women's reproductive work and relationships among reproductive providers, intermediaries, recipients, and the resulting children...
August 2, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759267/the-infernal-alternatives-of-corporate-pharmaceutical-research-abandoning-psychiatry
#6
Joseph Dumit
What happens when health research is measured by market size, how does this change the dynamics of medical research, and how is it growth envisioned and managed? Building on my arguments in Drugs for Life: How Pharmaceutical Companies Define our Health, which focused primarily on the development and marketing of mass medications for heart disease, in this article I examine the market dynamics that are used to drive research into and out of psychiatric and other neuromedicines, such as the closing of mental health research at most major pharmaceutical companies...
July 31, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759265/from-lemongrass-to-ivermectin-ethnomedical-management-of-chagas-disease-in-tropical-bolivia
#7
Colin Forsyth
Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease; the only viable drugs are outdated and produce frequent side effects, and the overwhelming majority of cases are undiagnosed and untreated. Globally, people encounter numerous impediments to accessing biomedical treatment for Chagas disease. However, little is known about how people with Chagas disease manage their health outside the biomedical system. In this article, I discuss knowledge of ethnomedical treatments among marginalized patients in an endemic area of Bolivia...
July 31, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753036/political-therapeutics-dialogues-and-frictions-around-care-and-cure
#8
Cristiana Giordano
In 1978, Italy passed a law establishing the abolition of the mental hospital. Up to that time, the traditional asylums were still governed by the 1904 law that positioned psychiatry within the criminal justice system by assigning it the function of custodia (control, custody) rather than of cura (care). In the 1960s and 1970s, Italian psychiatrist Franco Basaglia initiated a movement of de-institutionalization of the mentally ill that revolutionized psychiatric care in Italy. It also had a deep impact on restructuring the psychiatric system in other European and Latin American countries...
July 28, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704073/transformative-possibilities-politics-and-cosmetic-surgery-in-the-bolivarian-revolution
#9
Lauren E Gulbas
I examine the intersection of politics and aesthetics in a public hospital in Caracas, Venezuela in the first years of the twenty-first century. Given Venezuela's longstanding embrace of physical enhancement and the contradictions of the medical values of cosmetic surgery with those of Bolivarian socialism, the changing surgical practices at a well-established public site offer a significant case for considering how different actors negotiate the dialectics of care. In the face of increasing resource shortages, negotiations of aesthetic care contributed to tensions in the clinical encounter as patients creatively pushed Bolivarian policies to support their pursuits of aesthetic self-improvement...
July 13, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644926/gangnam-style-plastic-surgery-the-science-of-westernized-beauty-in-south-korea
#10
So Yeon Leem
New beauty ideals and particular types of plastic surgery beauty have emerged in South Korea from the early twenty-first century. By defining Gangnam-style plastic surgery as a hybrid of old Westernized beauty ideals and a new science of beauty with variations and contradictions, I intend to twist the simplistic understanding of non-Western plastic surgery as an effort to resemble the white westerner's body. I also draw political implications from a case of monstrous Gangnam-style beauty made by excessive plastic surgery...
June 23, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609127/finding-closure-continuing-bonds-and-codentification-after-the-9-11-attacks
#11
Victor Toom
In this article, I'm interested in the 2750 victims of the 9/11 attacks in New York City. I consider two connected issues. The first regards bereavement journeys of victims' families and the significance of receiving a body to bury vis-à-vis the normative assignment to find closure. The second issue I address is how forensic experts, their technologies, and managing protocols interact with victims' families and their emotions. Using insights from Science and Technology Studies, I articulate some of the goods and bads of identification practices and argue for extensive communication and cooperation between experts and victims' families...
June 13, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586275/good-food-bad-food-and-white-rice-understanding-child-feeding-using-visual-narrative-elicitation
#12
Chelsea Wentworth
Visual-narrative elicitation, a process combining photo elicitation and pile sorting in applied medical anthropology, sheds light on food consumption patterns in urban areas of Vanuatu where childhood malnutrition is a persistent problem. Groups of participants took photographs of the foods they feed their children, and the resources and barriers they encounter in accessing foodstuffs. This revealed how imported and local foods are assigned value as "good" or "bad" foods when contributing to dietary diversity and creating appropriate meals for children, particularly in the context of consuming white rice...
June 6, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586268/biopolitics-and-boundary-work-in-south-africa-s-sutherlandia-clinical-trial
#13
Christopher Morris
Between 2008 and 2011, South African and American investigators carried out a randomized controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of an African traditional medicine in South Africans who were HIV-seropositive but asymptomatic. The medicine was derived from Sutherlandia frutescens, a plant endemic to and widely used to stimulate immune function by people across southern Africa. In this article, I report on the cross-cultural challenges generated by trial investigators' transformation of Sutherlandia into a clinical trial substance and a potential "treatment gap" therapy for persons with HIV...
June 6, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557537/respectable-gentlemen-and-street-savvy-men-hiv-vulnerability-in-sri-lanka
#14
Sandya Hewamanne
In this article, I investigate how particular discourses surrounding class specific understandings of sexual behavior and female morality shape awareness and views of the disease and personal vulnerability. Although both groups belong to the working class, those employed by the transportation board consider themselves government servants and, therefore, "respectable gentlemen." Construction workers identify easily with their class position, recognizing and sometimes trying to live up to the stereotypes of free sexuality...
May 30, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594568/repellents-and-new-spaces-of-concern-in-global-health
#15
Ann H Kelly, Hermione N Boko Koudakossi, Sarah J Moore
Today, malaria prevention hinges upon two domestic interventions: insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying. As mosquitoes grow resistant to these tools, however, novel approaches to vector control have become a priority area of malaria research and development. Spatial repellency, a volumetric mode of action that seeks to reduce disease transmission by creating an atmosphere inimical to mosquitoes, represents one way forward. Drawing from research that sought to develop new repellent chemicals in conversation with users from sub-Saharan Africa and the United States, we consider the implications of a non-insecticidal paradigm of vector control for how we understand the political ecology of malaria...
July 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489420/anthropologists-in-malariaworld
#16
Peter J Brown
The history of anthropological contributions to the study of malaria is reviewed in terms of three additive phases: (1) cultural-historical analyses; (2) applied work aimed at the improvement of malaria control programs; and (3) introduction of critical medical anthropological themes about malaria control. The critical approaches include themes of the cultural construction of reality-the definition of "malaria"; political-economic structures in health inequalities; and an emphasis on social factors as exemplified in the present special issue...
July 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406330/precarity-and-preparedness-non-adherence-as-institutional-work-in-diagnosing-and-treating-malaria-in-uganda
#17
René Umlauf
Access to anti-malarial drugs is increasingly governed by novel regulation technologies like rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, high rates of non-adherence particularly to negative RDT results have been reported, threatening the cost-effectiveness of the two interrelated goals of improving diagnosis and reducing the over-prescription of expensive anti-malarial drugs. Below I set out to reconstruct prior treatment forms like presumptive treatment of malaria by paying particular attention to their institutional groundings...
July 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394640/data-performativity-performing-health-work-malaria-and-labor-in-senegal
#18
Marlee Tichenor
In this article, I investigate the ramifications of health data production in the health fight against malaria in and around Dakar, Senegal. Malaria health development funding at the community level is contingent on performativity; the Global Fund's "performance-based funding," for example, requires that local actors produce certain forms of evidence and that intermediaries synthesize this evidence into citable data. Analyzing the practices of diagnosis and approximation in health clinics and in global malaria documents, I argue that data production in Senegal is conditioned by and reifies preconceived notions of malaria as a problem addressable by the enumeration of technological fixes...
July 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388227/the-social-lives-of-global-policies-against-malaria-conceptual-considerations-past-experiences-and-current-issues
#19
Julian Eckl
While a casual observer might easily get the impression that global policies against malaria have unanimous support, there are strongly divergent perspectives on malaria control. Analyzing ethnographic and historical material through a political science lens, I foreground the social negotiation of malaria both as an illness experience of affected populations and as a disease problem defined by experts. Taking the interrelationship between problems, solutions, and solution providers as a point of departure, I reconstruct recurrent tensions and social mechanisms that can account for the tendency to downplay conflicts and to produce technical-biomedical solutions that seem to be irresistible...
July 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379042/-not-taking-it-will-just-be-like-a-sin-young-people-living-with-hiv-and-the-stigmatization-of-less-than-perfect-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy
#20
Sarah Bernays, Sara Paparini, Janet Seeley, Tim Rhodes
Global health priorities are being set to address questions on adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy in adolescence. Few studies have explored young people's perspectives on the complex host of social and relational challenges they face in dealing with their treatment in secret and their condition in silence. In redressing this, we present findings from a longitudinal qualitative study with young people living with HIV in the UK, Ireland, US, and Uganda, embedded within the BREATHER international clinical trial...
July 2017: Medical Anthropology
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