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Cognitive Therapy and Research

Kenneth E Freedland, Mariantonia Lemos, Frank Doyle, Brian C Steinmeyer, Iris Csik, Robert M Carney
OBJECTIVES: The Techniques for Overcoming Depression (TOD) questionnaire assesses the frequency with which patients being treated for depression use cognitive-behavioral techniques in daily life. This study examined its latent structure, reliability and concurrent validity in depressed cardiac patients. METHOD: The TOD was administered at the initial and final treatment sessions in three trials of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) (n = 260) for depression in cardiac patients...
February 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Timothy J Strauman, Kari M Eddington
Self-regulation models of psychopathology provide a theory-based, empirically supported framework for developing psychotherapeutic interventions that complement and extend current cognitive-behavioral models. However, many clinicians are only minimally familiar with the psychology of self-regulation. The aim of the present manuscript is twofold. First, we provide an overview of self-regulation as a motivational process essential to well-being and introduce two related theories of self-regulation which have been applied to depression...
February 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
S Burnett Heyes, A Pictet, H Mitchell, S M Raeder, J Y F Lau, E A Holmes, S E Blackwell
Mental imagery has a powerful impact on emotion and cognitive processing in adults, and is implicated in emotional disorders. Research suggests the perspective adopted in mental imagery modulates its emotional impact. However, little is known about the impact of mental imagery in adolescence, despite adolescence being the key time for the onset of emotional dysfunction. We administered computerised positive versus mixed valence picture-word mental imagery training to male adolescent participants (N = 60, aged 11-16 years) across separate field and observer perspective sessions...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Mylien T Duong, Brynn M Kelly, Wren L Haaland, Brandon Matsumiya, Stanley J Huey, Carolyn A McCarty
This study tested potential moderators and mediators of an indicated depression prevention program for middle school students, Positive Thoughts and Actions (PTA). Participants were 120 students randomly assigned to PTA, or a brief, individually administered supportive intervention (Individual Support Program, or ISP). Youths completed measures of depressive symptoms at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-month follow-up. Hierarchical regression was used to test three moderators-ethnic minority status, gender, and baseline depressive symptoms-and three mediators representing functional outcomes targeted by PTA-parent-child communication, attitude towards school, and health behavior...
October 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Nader Amir, Jennie M Kuckertz, Marlene V Strege
An attentional bias toward threat may be one mechanism underlying clinical anxiety. Attention bias modification (ABM) aims to reduce symptoms of anxiety disorders by directly modifying this deficit. However, existing ABM training programs have not consistently modified attentional bias and may not reflect optimal learning needs of participants (i.e., lack of explicit instruction, training goal unclear to participants, lack of feedback, non-adaptive, inability to differentiate or target different components of attentional bias)...
October 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Lillian Polanco-Roman, Judelysse Gomez, Regina Miranda, Elizabeth Jeglic
There is a growing body of literature suggesting that reactions to stressful life events, such as intrusive thoughts, physiological hyperarousal, and cognitive/behavioral avoidance (i.e., stress-related symptoms) may increase risk for thinking about and attempting suicide. Cognitive vulnerability models have identified rumination (i.e., perseverating on a negative mood) as a maladaptive response that may increase risk for suicidal behavior, as it has also been linked to depression. The present study examined the direct and indirect effects of stress-related symptoms on suicidal ideation through rumination and depressive symptoms...
October 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Kathy R Berenson, Wesley Ellen Gregory, Erin Glaser, Aliza Romirowsky, Eshkol Rafaeli, Xiao Yang, Geraldine Downey
This research investigated baseline impulsivity, rejection sensitivity, and reactions to stressors in individuals with borderline personality disorder compared to healthy individuals and those with avoidant personality disorder. The borderline group showed greater impulsivity than the avoidant and healthy groups both in a delay-discounting task with real monetary rewards and in self-reported reactions to stressors; moreover, these findings could not be explained by co-occurring substance use disorders. Distress reactions to stressors were equally elevated in both personality disorder groups (relative to the healthy group)...
August 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Charlotte Heleniak, Jessica L Jenness, Ann Vander Stoep, Elizabeth McCauley, Katie A McLaughlin
Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples...
June 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Saren H Seeley, Douglas S Mennin, Amelia Aldao, Katie A McLaughlin, Jonathan Rottenberg, David M Fresco
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and unipolar depressive disorders (UDD) have been shown to differ from each other in dimensions of affective functioning despite their high rates of comorbidity. We showed emotional film clips to a community sample (n = 170) with GAD, GAD with secondary UDD, or no diagnosis. Groups had comparable subjective responses to the clips, but the GAD group had significantly lower heart rate variability (HRV) during fear and after sadness, compared to controls. While HRV in the GAD and control groups rose in response to the sadness and happiness clips, it returned to baseline levels afterwards in the GAD group, potentially indicating lesser ability to sustain attention on emotional stimuli...
June 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Katya C Fernandez, Hooria Jazaieri, James J Gross
It is widely agreed that emotion regulation plays an important role in many psychological disorders. We make the case that emotion regulation is in fact a key transdiagnostic factor, using the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) as an organizing framework. In particular, we first consider how transdiagnostic and RDoC approaches have extended categorical views. Next, we examine links among emotion generation, emotion regulation, and psychopathology, with particular attention to key emotion regulation stages including identification, strategy selection, implementation, and monitoring...
June 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Annmarie MacNamara, Roman Kotov, Greg Hajcak
The delineation of specific versus overlapping mechanisms in GAD and MDD could shed light on the integrity of these diagnostic categories. For example, negative emotion generation is one mechanism that may be especially relevant to both disorders. Emotional processing abnormalities were examined among 97 outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or major depressive disorder (MDD) and 25 healthy adults, using the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential that is larger for emotional versus neutral stimuli...
June 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Jennifer A Poon, Caitlin C Turpyn, Amysue Hansen, Juliana Jacangelo, Tara M Chaplin
How are emotional processes associated with the increased rates of substance use and psychological disorders commonly observed during adolescence? An index of emotion-related physiological arousal-cortisol reactivity-and subjective emotion regulation have both been independently linked to substance use and psychological difficulties among youth. The current study (N = 134 adolescents) sought to elucidate the interactive effects of cortisol reactivity following a stressful parent-child interaction task and self-reported emotion regulation ability on adolescents' substance use and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems...
June 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Samantha G Farris, Michael J Zvolensky, Norman B Schmidt
There is little knowledge about how emotion regulation difficulties interplay with psychopathology in terms of smoking cessation. Participants (n = 250; 53.2 % female, Mage = 39.5, SD = 13.85) were community-recruited daily smokers (≥8 cigarettes per day) who self-reported motivation to quit smoking; 38.8 % of the sample met criteria for a current (past 12-month) psychological disorder. Emotion regulation deficits were assessed pre-quit using the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer in J Psychopathol Behav Assess 26(1):41-54, 2004) and smoking behavior in the 28 days post-quit was assessed using the Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB; Sobell and Sobell in Measuring alcohol consumption: psychosocial and biochemical methods...
June 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Benjamin G Shapero, Lyn Y Abramson, Lauren B Alloy
Emotion dysregulation has been associated with increases in many forms of psychopathology in adolescents and adults. The development of effective emotion regulation skills is important during adolescence, especially as stressful life events increase during this time. The current study examined two emotion regulation strategies, cognitive reappraisal and affective suppression, in interaction with self-report and biological measures of emotional reactivity as predictors of internalizing symptoms. A community sample of adolescents (n = 127), at an age of risk for depression and anxiety, completed self-report measures of emotional reactivity and internalizing symptoms...
June 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Katherine L Dixon-Gordon, Diana J Whalen, Lori N Scott, Nicole D Cummins, Stephanie D Stepp
The transaction of adolescent's expressed negative affect and parental interpersonal emotion regulation are theoretically implicated in the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Although problem solving and support/validation are interpersonal strategies that foster emotion regulation, little is known about whether these strategies are associated with less BPD severity among adolescents. Adolescent girls (age 16; N = 74) and their mothers completed a conflict discussion task, and maternal problem solving, support/validation, and girls' negative affect were coded...
June 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Stefan G Hofmann, Joseph K Carpenter, Joshua Curtiss
Despite the popularity of emotion regulation in the contemporary literature, research has almost exclusively focused on only intrapersonal processes, whereas much less attention has been placed in interpersonal emotion regulation processes. In order to encourage research on interpersonal emotion regulation, we present a series of 4 studies to develop the Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (IERQ). The final scale consists of 20 items with 4 factors containing 5 items each. The 4 factors are: Enhancing Positive Affect; Perspective Taking; Soothing; and Social Modeling...
June 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Richard J Macatee, Nicholas P Allan, Agnieszka Gajewska, Aaron M Norr, Amanda Medley Raines, Brian J Albanese, Joseph W Boffa, Norman B Schmidt, Jesse R Cougle
Generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder are defined by chronic intrusive thoughts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive (attentional control) and motivational (negative urgency) mechanisms potentially underlying worry and obsessions. Participants (N = 526) completed an online questionnaire battery consisting of self-report measures of worry, OCD symptoms, attentional control (AC), negative urgency (NU), and trait negative affect. After controlling for trait negative affect, self-reported AC was negatively related to worry, repugnant obsessions, and ordering symptoms...
February 1, 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Carol Chu, Jennifer M Buchman-Schmitt, Fallon Moberg, Thomas E Joiner
Fear of negative evaluation has been documented as a mechanism that explains variations in feelings of belongingness. According to the interpersonal theory of suicide (Joiner, 2005), feelings of thwarted belongingness, that one does not belong, can significantly increase desire and risk for suicide. We proposed that differences in thwarted belongingness may explain variations in suicidal ideation and behavior as a function of levels of fear of negative evaluation. This hypothesis was tested by examining self-reported fears of negative evaluation, thwarted belongingness, and suicidal ideation in 107 young adults, many who were explicitly targeted for recruitment due to a history of suicidal ideation and behavior (13...
February 1, 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Carol Chu, Matthew Podlogar, Christopher R Hagan, Jennifer M Buchman-Schmitt, Caroline Silva, Bruno Chiurliza, Jennifer L Hames, Ian H Stanley, Ltc Ingrid C Lim, Thomas E Joiner
Major depressive symptoms represent a significant risk for suicidal ideation and behavior. Given that suicide is fearsome, the interpersonal theory of suicide proposes that individuals who engage in suicidal behavior possess not only the desire to die, but also the acquired capability (AC) for suicide. This study examined whether major depressive episodes (MDEs) may be particularly relevant to suicidal behavior when considered in the context of AC. History of MDEs, AC, and suicide attempt history were examined in a large (n=3,377) sample of military members...
February 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Janna N Vrijsen, Paula T Hertel, Eni S Becker
Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) can yield clinically relevant results. Only few studies have directly manipulated memory bias, which is prominent in depression. In a new approach to CBM, we sought to simulate or oppose ruminative processes by training the retrieval of negative or positive words. Participants studied positive and negative word pairs (Swahili cues with Dutch translations). In the positive and negative conditions, each of the three study trials was followed by a cued-recall test of training-congruent translations; a no-practice condition merely studied the pairs...
2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
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