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Cognitive Therapy and Research

Laren R Conklin, Daniel R Strunk, Andrew A Cooper
Homework assignments are an integral part of cognitive therapy (CT) for depression, though facilitating homework engagement in patients with depression can be a challenge. We sought to examine three classes of therapist behaviors as predictors of homework engagement in early sessions of CT: therapist behaviors related to the review of homework, the assignment of homework, and efforts to help patients overcome obstacles to completing homework. In a sample of 66 depressed outpatients participating in CT, therapist behaviors involved in assigning homework predicted both CT-specific homework engagement and more general homework engagement...
February 2018: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Kristen E Riley, Jasper S Lee, Steven A Safren
Depression in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is highly prevalent and related to worse adherence to antiretroviral therapy, but is amenable to change via CBT. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) specifically addresses negative automatic thoughts (ATs) as one component of the treatment. There is little research on the temporal nature of the relation between ATs and depression. HIV-positive adults with depression (N=240) were randomized to CBT-AD, information/supportive psychotherapy for adherence and depression (ISP-AD), or one session of adherence counseling alone (ETAU)...
October 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Simona C Kaplan, Amanda S Morrison, Philippe R Goldin, Thomas M Olino, Richard G Heimberg, James J Gross
Cognitive distortions are thought to be central to the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders and are a widely acknowledged treatment target in cognitive-behavioral interventions. However, little research has focused on the measurement of cognitive distortions. The Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CD-Quest; de Oliveira, 2015), a brief, 15-item questionnaire, assesses the frequency and intensity of cognitive distortions. The CD-Quest has been shown to have sound psychometric properties in American, Australian, and Brazilian undergraduate samples and one Turkish-speaking outpatient clinical sample...
August 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
June Gruber, Anna Van Meter, Kirsten E Gilbert, Eric A Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos Youngstrom, Norah C Feeny, Robert L Findling
Research on positive emotion disturbance has gained increasing attention, yet it is not clear which specific positive emotions are affected by mood symptoms, particularly during the critical period of adolescence. This is especially pertinent for identifying potential endophenotypic markers associated with mood disorder onset and course. The present study examined self-reported discrete positive and negative emotions in association with clinician-rated manic and depressive mood symptoms in a clinically and demographically diverse group of 401 outpatient adolescents between 11-18 years of age...
June 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Kari M Eddington, Chris J Burgin, Paul J Silvia, Niloofar Fallah, Catherine Majestic, Thomas R Kwapil
Experience sampling methodology (ESM) was used in a randomized controlled trial of short-term therapy to examine changes in daily affect and reactivity to daily event appraisals among depressed patients. Fifty-five depressed adults (mean age 37 years, 80% female) were randomly assigned to one of two therapy conditions. Using an interactive voice response system, participants rated activities and emotional functioning eight times per day for seven days. Thirty-one participants completed treatment and repeated ESM post-treatment...
April 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
David H Klemanski, Joshua Curtiss, Katie A McLaughlin, Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
Social anxiety and depression are common mental health problems among adolescents and are frequently comorbid. Primary aims of this study were to (1) elucidate the nature of individual differences in specific emotion regulation deficits among adolescents with symptoms of social anxiety and depression, and (2) determine whether repetitive negative thinking (RNT) functions as a transdiagnostic factor. A diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1065) completed measures assessing emotion regulation and symptoms of social anxiety and depression...
April 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Kenneth A Kobak, Kate Wolitzky-Taylor, Michelle G Craske, Raphael D Rose
This study investigated a technology-enhanced training protocol to facilitate dissemination of therapist training on cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. Seventy community clinicians received an online tutorial followed by live remote observation of clinical skills via videoconference. Impact of training on patient outcomes was also assessed. Training resulted in a significant increase in both trainee knowledge of CBT concepts and techniques and therapist competence in applying these skills...
April 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Kirsten Gilbert, Katherine Luking, David Pagliaccio, Joan Luby, Deanna Barch
Blunted positive affect is characteristic of depression. Altered positive affect regulation may contribute to this blunting, and two regulation strategies, dampening positive affect and positive rumination, have been implicated in depression. However, the conditions under which these strategies impart risk/protective effects prior to onset of depression are unknown. The current study examined 81 healthy children (age 7-10) at low and high risk for depression on the basis of maternal history of depression and tested how dampening and positive rumination interacted with the experience of recent positive life events to predict depressive symptoms...
February 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Taylor A Burke, Brooke A Ammerman, Jessica L Hamilton, Lauren B Alloy
The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Impact of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Scale (INS), a scale developed to assess the social, behavioral, and emotional consequences of engaging in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). University students (N=128) who endorsed a history of NSSI were administered the INS, as well as measures of hypothesized convergent and divergent validity. Results suggested that the INS is best conceptualized as a one-factor scale, and internal consistency analyses indicated excellent reliability...
February 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Kenneth E Freedland, Mariantonia Lemos, Frank Doyle, Brian C Steinmeyer, Iris Csik, Robert M Carney
OBJECTIVES: The Techniques for Overcoming Depression (TOD) questionnaire assesses the frequency with which patients being treated for depression use cognitive-behavioral techniques in daily life. This study examined its latent structure, reliability and concurrent validity in depressed cardiac patients. METHOD: The TOD was administered at the initial and final treatment sessions in three trials of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) (n = 260) for depression in cardiac patients...
February 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Timothy J Strauman, Kari M Eddington
Self-regulation models of psychopathology provide a theory-based, empirically supported framework for developing psychotherapeutic interventions that complement and extend current cognitive-behavioral models. However, many clinicians are only minimally familiar with the psychology of self-regulation. The aim of the present manuscript is twofold. First, we provide an overview of self-regulation as a motivational process essential to well-being and introduce two related theories of self-regulation which have been applied to depression...
February 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Peter L Fisher, Angela Byrne, Peter Salmon
Many adult cancer survivors experience persistent emotional distress after completing cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to test the potential of a brief transdiagnostic psychological intervention-metacognitive therapy (MCT)-in reducing emotional distress in adult cancer survivors. A non-concurrent multiple baseline design with 3- and 6-months follow-up was used to evaluate the effects of MCT in four patients consecutively referred to a psycho-oncology service. Each patient received six 1-h sessions of MCT...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Philip Spinhoven, Albert M van Hemert, Brenda W J H Penninx
To investigate (a) the incremental predictive validity of experiential avoidance over and above bordering psychological constructs (i.e., rumination, worry, neuroticism and anxiety sensitivity) in predicting onset, relapse and maintenance of anxiety disorders; and (b) whether these related constructs can be represented by a single, higher-order latent factor with similar predictive power as the separate psychological constructs while offering a more parsimonious predictive model. Longitudinal cohort study with repeated assessments after 4 years in a sample of 2157 adults aged 18-65, consisting of 1614 persons with past or current anxiety disorder (Panic Disorder with or without Agoraphobia, Social Anxiety Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Agoraphobia without panic) according to the Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument (CIDI) and 543 controls...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Maria Panagioti, Ioannis Angelakis, Nicholas Tarrier, Patricia Gooding
Inconsistent findings have been reported by previous cross-sectional studies regarding the association between specific posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters and suicidality. To advance the understanding of the role of specific PTSD symptoms in the development of suicidality, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the predictive effects of the three specific PTSD symptom clusters on suicidal ideation prospectively. Fifty-six individuals diagnosed with PTSD completed a two-stage research design, at baseline and 13-15 months follow-up...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Brynjar Halldorsson, Paul M Salkovskis
Excessive reassurance seeking (ERS) is commonly reported in patients who have OCD or health anxiety. Despite its prevalence and associated risk of ongoing difficulties, little is known about the function of ERS. It has been conceptualised as a type of compulsive checking behaviour, but could also be seen as being a supportive maneuver. This study offers a new approach towards defining ERS and support seeking (SS), and similarities between these two constructs in a sample of OCD and health anxious patients. A semi-structured interview was employed...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Rianne E van Niekerk, Anke M Klein, Esther Allart-van Dam, Jennifer L Hudson, Mike Rinck, Giel J M Hutschemaekers, Eni S Becker
Models of cognitive processing in anxiety disorders state that socially anxious children display several distorted cognitive processes that maintain their anxiety. The present study investigated the role of social threat thoughts and social skills perception in relation to childhood trait and state social anxiety. In total, 141 children varying in their levels of social anxiety performed a short speech task in front of a camera and filled out self-reports about their trait social anxiety, state anxiety, social skills perception and social threat thoughts...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Huw Goodwin, Claire Eagleson, Andrew Mathews, Jenny Yiend, Colette Hirsch
Individuals with high levels of worry are more likely than others to attend to possible threats, although the extent of top-down attentional control processes on this bias is unknown. We compared the performance of high (n = 26) and low worriers (n = 26) on a probe discrimination task designed to assess attention to threat cues, under cognitive load or no-load conditions. The expected difference between groups was confirmed, with high worriers being more likely to attend to threat cues than low worriers...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Barnaby D Dunn
The importance of developing a better understanding of positive emotion regulation in both healthy and clinical populations is now recognised. This special edition brings together leading figures in the positive emotion regulation field and has contributions characterizing positive phenomena, differentiating them from negative phenomena, and evaluating underlying psychological mechanisms that drive these phenomena. This commentary reviews these articles to highlight challenges and opportunities for this emerging field, including the need to better characterize positive phenomena, to be more explicit about how the links between negative and positive phenomena are conceptualised, to evaluate more robustly underlying mechanisms, to standardize measurement of positive constructs, and to ensure that these scientific findings lead to meaningful changes in real-world policy and practice...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Hester R Trompetter, Elian de Kleine, Ernst T Bohlmeijer
Growing evidence suggests that positive mental health or wellbeing protects against psychopathology. How and why those who flourish derive these resilient outcomes is, however, unknown. This exploratory study investigated if self-compassion, as it continuously provides a friendly, accepting and situational context for negative experiences, functions as a resilience mechanism and adaptive emotion regulation strategy that protects against psychopathology for those with high levels of positive mental health. Participants from the general population (n = 349) provided measures at one time-point on positive mental health (MHC-SF), self-compassion (SCS-SF), psychopathology (HADS) and negative affect (mDES)...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Fritz Renner, Julie L Ji, Arnaud Pictet, Emily A Holmes, Simon E Blackwell
Depression is associated with decreased engagement in behavioural activities. A wide range of activities can be promoted by simulating them via mental imagery. Mental imagery of positive events could thus provide a route to increasing adaptive behaviour in depression. The current study tested whether repeated engagement in positive mental imagery led to increases in behavioural activation in participants with depression, using data from a randomized controlled trial (Blackwell et al. in Clin Psychol Sci 3(1):91-111, 2015...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
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