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Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144544/effects-of-nicotine-on-alcohol-drinking-in-female-mice-selectively-bred-for-high-or-low-alcohol-preference
#1
Marcus M Weera, Molly A Fields, Danielle N Tapp, Nicholas J Grahame, Julia A Chester
BACKGROUND: Studies show that repeated nicotine use associates with high alcohol consumption in humans, and that nicotine exposure sometimes increases alcohol consumption in animal models. However, the relative roles of genetic predisposition to high alcohol consumption, the alcohol drinking patterns, and the timing of nicotine exposure both with respect to alcohol drinking and developmental stage remain unclear. The studies here manipulated all these variables, using mice selectively bred for differences in free-choice alcohol consumption to elucidate the role of genetics and nicotine exposure in alcohol consumption behaviors...
November 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139560/the-mammalian-circadian-clock-exhibits-chronic-ethanol-tolerance-and-withdrawal-induced-glutamate-hypersensitivity-accompanied-by-changes-in-glutamate-and-trkb-receptor-proteins
#2
Jonathan H Lindsay, Rebecca A Prosser
BACKGROUND: Alcohol tolerance and withdrawal-induced effects are criteria for alcohol use disorders listed by the DSM-V. Although tolerance and withdrawal have been studied over many decades, there is still uncertainty regarding mechanistic distinctions that characterize these different forms of ethanol (EtOH)-induced plasticity. Previously, we demonstrated that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian clock develops both acute and rapid tolerance to EtOH inhibition of glutamate-induced circadian phase shifts...
November 15, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131352/grik1-and-gabra2-variants-have-distinct-effects-on-the-dose-related-subjective-response-to-intravenous-alcohol-in-healthy-social-drinkers
#3
Bao-Zhu Yang, Albert J Arias, Richard Feinn, John H Krystal, Joel Gelernter, Ismene L Petrakis
BACKGROUND: The heritable risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) is expressed partly through alterations in subjective alcohol response. In this study, we investigated the effects of 2 AUD-risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms, GABRA2 rs279858 and GRIK1 rs2832407, on the subjective response to alcohol administered intravenously to healthy social drinkers in a laboratory setting. METHODS: In total, 93 self-identified European American social drinkers underwent 3 blinded laboratory sessions in which they received intravenous infusions of ethanol at 3 target blood alcohol levels (0...
November 13, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125625/low-inherent-sensitivity-to-the-intoxicating-effects-of-ethanol-in-rhesus-monkeys-with-low-csf-concentrations-of-the-serotonin-metabolite-5-hydroxyindoleacetic-acid
#4
Elizabeth K Wood, Ryno Kruger, Angus Bennion, Bradley M Cooke, Stephen Lindell, Melanie Schwandt, David Goldman, Christina S Barr, Stephen J Suomi, J Dee Higley
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 Alcoholism is characterized by low serotonin system functioning and has a high degree of heritability, with offspring of alcoholics often showing a reduced response to the intoxicating effects of ethanol, which is thought to be marker for future alcohol use disorders (AUDs). As such, an important aim of studies investigating the origins of AUDs is understanding the relationship between serotonin system functioning and level of intoxication. A nonhuman primate model was used to evaluate observational ratings of sensitivity to ethanol and to further investigate the relationship between central serotonin activity and behavioral response to ethanol...
November 10, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121402/incorporating-functional-genomic-information-to-enhance-polygenic-signal-and-identify-variants-involved-in-gene-by-environment-interaction-for-young-adult-alcohol-problems
#5
Jessica E Salvatore, Jeanne E Savage, Peter Barr, Aaron R Wolen, Fazil Aliev, Eero Vuoksimaa, Antti Latvala, Lea Pulkkinen, Richard J Rose, Jaakko Kaprio, Danielle M Dick
BACKGROUND: Characterizing aggregate genetic risk for alcohol misuse and identifying variants involved in gene-by-environment interaction (G×E) effects has so far been a major challenge. We hypothesized that functional genomic information could be used to enhance detection of polygenic signal underlying alcohol misuse, and to prioritize identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) most likely to exhibit G×E effects. METHODS: We examined these questions in the young adult FinnTwin12 sample (n=1170)...
November 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121399/alcohol-drinking-and-blood-alcohol-concentration-revisited
#6
Julian E Dilley, Emily Nicholson, Stephen M Fischer, Robin Zimmer, Janice C Froehlich
BACKGROUND: It is widely assumed that the amount of alcohol in the blood reflects the amount of alcohol consumed. However, several factors in addition to amount of alcohol consumed can influence blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The current study examines the effect of alcohol dose, concentration, and volume on BAC in rats with a high alcohol drinking (HAD) phenotype. METHODS: Study one examined the relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and BAC. Alcohol-naïve, male, HAD rats (N=7) were given access to alcohol for 2 hrs/day for 9 consecutive days with food and water ad libitum...
November 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121396/role-of-gut-derived-endotoxin-on-type-i-collagen-production-in-the-rat-pancreas-after-chronic-alcohol-exposure
#7
Hongyan Li, Ming Xiu, Shuhua Wang, David R Brigstock, Li Sun, Limei Qu, Runping Gao
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic fibrosis is a key pathological feature of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP). Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is considered as an important cofactor in the fibrogenesis of ACP. However, there are limitations in the use of exogenous LPS for evaluating the role of endotoxin in ACP pathogenesis. In this study we determined the relationship between the concentration of LPS in the portal vein and pancreatic type I collagen (Col1) content in chronic alcohol-fed rats...
November 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121392/ethanol-and-the-cardiovascular-system-friend-or-enemy
#8
Alireza Shirpoor
Alcohol as an old drug and popular beverage has attracted human interest since the beginning of the recorded history. However, in all societies concurrent with alcohol consumption, scientific debates on its risks and benefits have also been generated and continue to this date ((Kloner and Rezkalla,2007). Because of the major role of cardiovascular disease (CAD) in mortality rates This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120493/carcinogenic-etheno-dna-adducts-in-alcoholic-liver-disease-correlation-with-cytochrome-p-4502e1-and-fibrosis
#9
Sebastian Mueller, Teresa Peccerella, Hua Qin, Katharina Glassen, Rüdiger Waldherr, Christa Flechtenmacher, Beate K Straub, Gunda Millonig, Felix Stickel, Thomas Bruckner, Helmut Bartsch, Helmut Karl Seitz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: One mechanism by which alcoholic liver disease (ALD) progresses is oxidative stress and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), among others due to the induction of cytochrome P-4502E1 (CYP2E1). Experimental data underline the key role of CYP2E1 since ALD could be partially prevented in rats by the administration of the specific CYP2E1 inhibitor chlormethiazole. Since CYP2E1 is linked to the formation of carcinogenic etheno DNA-adducts in ALD patients, a causal role of alcohol induced CYP2E1 in hepatocarcinogenesis is implicated...
November 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120490/determination-of-moca-cutoff-score-in-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorders
#10
V Ewert, S Pelletier, R Alarcon, B Nalpas, Hélène Donnadieu-Rigole, R Trouillet, P Perney
BACKGROUND: The MoCA score is a convenient and promising tool for estimating alcoholic patients' global cognitive functioning, a major challenge for all specialized alcohol treatment centers. However, whether or not the score should be corrected for education level and whether the proposed cutoff is relevant in patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) should be determined. DESIGN: We compared the MoCA scores in patients hospitalized for AUD with and without cognitive impairment (CI) assessed by a battery of neuropsychological tests...
November 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112774/neuroactive-steroid-3%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one-3%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-thp-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-mcp-1-levels-in-hippocampus-ca1-are-correlated-with-voluntary-ethanol-consumption-in-cynomolgus-monkey
#11
Matthew C Beattie, Christopher S Reguyal, Patrizia Porcu, James B Daunais, Kathleen A Grant, A Leslie Morrow
BACKGROUND: Neuroactive steroids such as (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP, allopregnanolone) are potent neuromodulators that enhance GABAergic neurotransmission and produce inhibitory neurobehavioral and anti-inflammatory effects. Chronic ethanol consumption reduces 3α,5α-THP levels in human plasma, but has brain-region and species-specific effects on CNS levels of 3α,5α-THP. We explored the relationship between 3α,5α-THP levels in the hippocampus and voluntary ethanol consumption in the cynomolgus monkey following daily self-administration of ethanol for 12 months and further examined the relationship to HPA axis function prior to ethanol exposure...
November 7, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112285/alcohol-induced-impairment-of-balance-is-antagonized-by-energy-drinks
#12
Cecile A Marczinski, Mark T Fillmore, Amy L Stamates, Sarah F Maloney
BACKGROUND: The acute administration of alcohol reliably impairs balance and motor coordination. While it is common for consumers to ingest alcohol with other stimulant drugs (e.g., caffeine, nicotine), little is known whether prototypical alcohol-induced balance impairments are altered by stimulant drugs. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the coadministration of a high-caffeine energy drink with alcohol can antagonize expected alcohol-induced increases in body sway. METHODS: Sixteen social drinkers (of equal gender) participated in 4 separate double-blind dose administration sessions that involved consumption of alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination...
November 7, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105118/v1b-receptor-antagonist-ssr149415-and-naltrexone-synergistically-decrease-excessive-alcohol-drinking-in-male-and-female-mice
#13
Yan Zhou, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm Low, Mary Jeanne Kreek
BACKGROUND: A recent clinical trial found that pharmacological blockade of V1b receptors reduces alcohol relapse in alcohol-dependent patients. SSR149415 is a selective V1b receptor antagonist that has potential for development as an alcohol dependency treatment. In this study, we investigated whether SSR149415 alone or in combination with the mu-opioid receptor [MOP-r] antagonist naltrexone (NTN) would alter excessive alcohol drinking in mice. METHODS: Both sexes of C57BL/6J (B6) mice were subjected to a chronic intermittent access (IA) drinking paradigm (two-bottle choice, 24-h access every other day) for 3 weeks...
November 3, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105114/cortical-thickness-in-adolescents-with-a-family-history-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#14
Kate E Henderson, Jatin G Vaidya, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, Douglas R Langbehn, Daniel S O'Leary
BACKGROUND: Individuals with a family history (FH+) of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have a higher risk for developing an AUD than those with no family history (FH-) of AUD. In addition, FH+ individuals tend to perform worse on neuropsychological measures and show heightened impulsivity, which may be due to underlying differences in brain structure such as cortical thickness. The primary aim of this study was to investigate differences in cortical thickness in FH+ compared to FH- adolescents...
November 3, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094768/how-do-self-assessment-of-alexithymia-and-sensitivity-to-bodily-sensations-relate-to-alcohol-consumption
#15
Sophie Betka, Gaby Pfeifer, Sarah Garfinkel, Hielke Prins, Rod Bond, Henrique Sequeira, Theodora Duka, Hugo Critchley
BACKGROUND: Alexithymia describes an abnormality of emotional experience that is commonly expressed among individuals with addiction and alcohol abuse disorders. Alexithymic individuals are characterized by difficulties in identifying and describing their emotions. This impairment is linked to the development and maintenance of addiction. Moreover, an emergent theory suggests alexithymia is itself secondary to a failure of interoception (sensitivity to internal bodily signals, including physiological arousal states)...
November 2, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087584/changing-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-heavy-drinking-trajectories-through-young-adulthood-a-comparative-cohort-study
#16
Edwina Williams, Nina Mulia, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Camillia K Lui
BACKGROUND: There is evidence of racial/ethnic differences in the age at which young adults age-out of heavy drinking. Some studies have found Black and Hispanic drinkers engage in more frequent heavy drinking than Whites beyond adulthood. Yet, the alcohol-related disparities literature has produced contradictory findings on whether an age-crossover effect is evident among racial/ethnic groups; that is, whether racial/ethnic minorities' drinking levels or trajectories are lower than Whites' at young ages but later exceed (or crossover) those of Whites...
October 31, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083505/developmental-etiologies-of-alcohol-use-and-their-relations-to-parent-and-peer-influences-over-adolescence-and-young-adulthood-a-genetically-informed-approach
#17
Arielle R Deutsch, Phillip K Wood, Wendy S Slutske
BACKGROUND: Distinct changes in alcohol use etiologies occur during adolescence and young adulthood. Additionally, measured environments known to influence alcohol use such as peers and parenting practice can interact or be associated with this genetic influence. However, change in genetic and environmental influences over age, as well as how associations with measured environments change over age, is understudied. METHODS: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) sibling subsample was used to examine data-driven biometric models of alcohol use over ages 13 to 27...
October 30, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083495/earlier-alcohol-use-onset-predicts-poorer-neuropsychological-functioning-in-young-adults
#18
Tam T Nguyen-Louie, Georg E Matt, Joanna Jacobus, Irene Li, Claudia Cota, Norma Castro, Susan F Tapert
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopment may be shaped by environmental factors such as alcohol intake. Over 20% of U.S. high school students begin drinking before age 14, and those who initiated drinking before age 14 are 4 times more likely to develop psychosocial, psychiatric, and substance use difficulties than those who began drinking after turning 20. Little is known, however, about how the age of alcohol use onset influences brain development. METHODS: This study prospectively examined the effects of alcohol use onset age on neurocognitive functioning in healthy adolescent drinkers (N = 215)...
October 30, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080351/phosphatidylethanol-peth-in-comparison-to-self-reported-alcohol-consumption-among-hiv-infected-women-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-naltrexone-for-reducing-hazardous-drinking
#19
Yan Wang, Xinguang Chen, Judith A Hahn, Babette Brumback, Zhi Zhou, Maria J Miguez, Robert L Cook
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers can play a key role in supplementing self-report information in alcohol research. In this study, we examined phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in comparison to self-reported alcohol use over time in a randomized controlled trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were women living with HIV enrolled in a randomized placebo controlled trial of naltrexone for reducing hazardous drinking. Drinking behavior was measured using Timeline Followback (TLFB), and PEth as a biomarker using dried blood spots...
October 28, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072778/regulation-of-kisspeptin-synthesis-and-release-in-the-preoptic-anterior-hypothalamic-region-of-prepubertal-female-rats-actions-of-igf-1-and-alcohol
#20
Jill K Hiney, Vinod K Srivastava, Danielle N Vaden Anderson, Nicole L Hartzoge, William L Dees
Alcohol (ALC) causes suppressed secretion of prepubertal luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and kisspeptin (Kp) are major regulators of LHRH and are critical for puberty. IGF-1 may be an upstream mediator of Kp in the preoptic area and rostral hypothalamic area (POA/RHA) of the rat brain, a region containing both Kp and LHRH neurons. We investigated the ability of IGF-1 to stimulate prepubertal Kp synthesis and release in POA/RHA, and the potential inhibitory effects of ALC METHODS: Immature female rats were administered either ALC (3g/Kg) or water via gastric gavage at 0730 h...
October 26, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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