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Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

Samuel F Acuff, Kathryn E Soltis, Ashley A Dennhardt, Kristoffer S Berlin, James G Murphy
Heavy drinking among college students is a significant public health concern that can lead to profound social and health consequences, including alcohol use disorder. Behavioral economics posits that low future orientation and high valuation of alcohol (alcohol demand) combined with deficits in alternative reinforcement increase the likelihood of alcohol misuse (Bickel et al., 2011). Despite this, no study has examined the incremental utility of all three variables simultaneously in a comprehensive model METHOD: The current study uses structural equation modeling to test the associations between behavioral economic variables - alcohol demand (latent), future orientation (measured with a delay discounting task and the Consideration of Future Consequences (CFC) scale), and proportionate substance-related reinforcement - and alcohol consumption and problems among 393 heavy drinking college students...
May 14, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Brian Suffoletto, Steve Scaglione
Alcohol abstinence is the most important therapeutic goal for individuals with advanced liver disease (ALD), but commonly co-occurring alcohol use disorders (AUD) make it difficult to achieve (DiMartini et a, 2004). This challenge is perhaps best documented in the pre- and post-liver transplant period: around 30% of patients on a liver transplant list relapse with alcohol (Carboneau et al., 2010), and up to 50% can relapse in the first 10 years post-transplant (DiMartini et al., 2010). Tools to assist patients with ALD and AUD in initiating and maintaining abstinence have been limited: safe, tolerable, and effective pharmacotherapies for AUD are not widely used and treatment is often complicated by medical issues including malnourishment, physically debility, covert or overt hepatic encephalopathy, sleep and fatigue disorders, comorbid depression, and anxiety disorders...
May 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Sandra W Jacobson, R Colin Carter, Christopher D Molteno, Mark E Stanton, Jane Herbert, Nadine M Lindinger, Catherine E Lewis, Neil C Dodge, H Eugene Hoyme, Steven H Zeisel, Ernesta M Meintjes, Christopher P Duggan, Joseph L Jacobson
BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated the acceptability and feasibility of a randomized, double-blind choline supplementation intervention for heavy drinking women during pregnancy. In this paper, we report our results relating to the efficacy of this intervention in mitigating adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on infant growth and cognitive function. METHODS: 69 Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) heavy drinkers in Cape Town, South Africa, recruited in mid-pregnancy, were randomly assigned to receive a daily oral dose of either 2 g of choline or placebo from time of enrollment until delivery...
May 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Sandra W Jacobson, R Colin Carter, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Marjanne Senekal, Nadine M Lindinger, Neil C Dodge, Steven H Zeisel, Christopher P Duggan, Joseph L Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Choline, an essential nutrient, serves as a methyl-group donor for DNA methylation and is a constituent of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and a precursor to major components of cell membranes. Findings from animal studies suggest that choline supplementation during pregnancy may mitigate adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on growth and neurocognitive function. We conducted a randomized, double-blind exploratory trial to examine feasibility and acceptability of a choline supplementation intervention during pregnancy...
May 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Suzanne M Colby, Lindsay Orchowski, Molly Magill, James G Murphy, Linda A Brazil, Timothy R Apodaca, Christopher W Kahler, Nancy P Barnett
BACKGROUND: While there is a substantial literature on the efficacy of brief motivational intervention (BMI) for college student drinkers, research has focused less on young adults who do not attend a four-year college, despite their elevated risk for excessive alcohol use and associated harmful consequences. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial (NCT01546025) compared the efficacy of BMI to a time-matched attention control intervention (Relaxation Training; REL) for reducing alcohol consumption and related negative consequences in an underage young adult sample...
May 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Karen Ingersoll, Christina Frederick, Kirsten MacDonnell, Lee Ritterband, Holly Lord, Brogan Jones, Lauren Truwit
BACKGROUND: Preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEPs) could reduce the incidence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Previous face-to-face interventions significantly reduced risk for AEP, but a scalable intervention is needed to reach more women at risk. METHODS: This study compared a 6 Core automated, interactive, and tailored Internet intervention, the Contraception and Alcohol Risk Reduction Internet Intervention (CARRII), to a static patient education (PE) website for its effect on AEP risk...
May 9, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Graeme Knibb, Andrew Jones, Paul Christiansen
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that people are poor at estimating the amount of alcohol they have served themselves. Glass shape, the presence of ice, and alcohol consumption may influence the amount of alcohol people pour and estimate they have poured. The aim of these studies was to examine whether these factors would affect pouring behaviour, in the laboratory and in real world environments. METHODS: Across four studies, one laboratory study and three conducted during public engagement events, we tested the effect of glass shape (straight sided highball and tumbler glasses) and, using an ice substitute (whiskey stones), the effect of ice on pouring and estimating a self-defined typical drink...
April 30, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Colin T Shearn, Casey F Pulliam, Kim Pedersen, Kyle Meredith, Kelly E Mercer, Laura M Saba, David J Orlicky, Martin J Ronis, Dennis R Petersen
BACKGROUND: Glutathione-S-transferase A4-4 (GSTA4) is a key enzyme for removal of toxic lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). In the current study, we examined the potential role of GSTA4 on protein carbonylation and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) by examining the development of liver injury in male wild type SV/J mice (WT) and SV/J mice lacking functional GSTA4 (GSTA4-/- mice). METHODS: Adult male WT and GSTA4-/- mice were fed chow (N = 10-12) or high fat Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing up to 28% calories as ethanol (EtOH) (N = 18-20) for 116 days...
April 30, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Michael J Duryee, Anand Dusad, Carlos D Hunter, Kusum K Kharbanda, Joseph D Bruenjes, Karen C Easterling, Justin C Siebler, Geoffrey M Thiele, Dennis A Chakkalakal
BACKGROUND: Fracture healing in alcoholics is delayed and often associated with infections resulting in prolonged rehabilitation. It has been reported that binge drinking of alcohol increases oxidative stress and delays fracture healing in rats, which is prevented by treatment with the antioxidant n-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Oxidative stress is a significant factor in pathologies of various organs resulting from chronic alcoholism. Therefore, we hypothesize that treatment with NAC reduces oxidative stress and restores fracture healing in chronic alcoholics...
April 26, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Michael Windle, Rebecca C Windle
BACKGROUND: This study used prospective data from 706 young adults to evaluate the impact of parental divorce and family history of alcoholism (FH+) on the outcomes of offspring alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships with parents. METHODS: Assessments of parental divorce were based on parent reports, and young adult outcomes were collected from an offspring cohort (n = 706; X age = 33.25 years; females = 53%) via computer-based individual interviews (CAPI and ACASI)...
April 25, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Vinod K Srivastava, Jill K Hiney, William L Dees
BACKGROUND: Because alcohol (ALC) delays signs of pubertal development, we assessed the time course of events associated with the synthesis of critical hypothalamic peptides that regulate secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), the peptide that drives the pubertal process. METHODS: Immature female rats were administered either lab chow or Bio-Serve isocaloric control or ALC liquid diets from 27 through 33 days of age. On days 28, 29, 31 and 33 animals were killed by decapitation and tissue blocks containing the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) and the rostral hypothalamic area (RHA) were isolated and stored frozen until assessed by Western blot analysis...
April 24, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Ryan Lusk, Laura M Saba, Lauren A Vanderlinden, Vaclav Zidek, Jan Silhavy, Michal Pravenec, Paula L Hoffman, Boris Tabakoff
BACKGROUND: A statistical pipeline was developed and used for determining candidate genes and candidate gene co-expression networks involved in two alcohol (i.e., ethanol) metabolism phenotypes, namely alcohol clearance and acetate area under the curve (AUC) in a recombinant inbred (HXB/BXH) rat panel. The approach was also used to provide an indication of how ethanol metabolism can impact the normal function of the identified networks. METHODS: RNA was extracted from alcohol-naïve liver tissue of 30 strains of HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rats...
April 24, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Christopher A Varnon, Christopher W Dinges, Tim E Black, Harrington Wells, Charles I Abramson
BACKGROUND: Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning is a highly specialized form of conditioning found across taxa that leads to avoidance of an initially neutral stimulus, such as taste or odor, that is associated with, but is not the cause of, a detrimental health condition. The present study examines if honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) develop ethanol-induced CTA. METHODS: Restrained bees were first administered a sucrose solution that was cinnamon scented, lavender scented, or unscented, and contained either 0%, 2...
April 24, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Harpreet Sidhu, Max Kreifeldt, Candice Contet
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are characterized by a complex behavioral symptomatology, which includes the loss of control over alcohol consumption and the emergence of a negative affective state when alcohol is not consumed. Some of these symptoms can be recapitulated in rodent models, for instance following chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor inhalation (CIE). However, the detection of negative affect in mice withdrawn from CIE has proven challenging and variable between strains...
April 24, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Xiaowei Zou, Timothy C Durazzo, Dieter J Meyerhoff
BACKGROUND: Widespread brain atrophy in alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) has been consistently documented in pathological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Longitudinal MRI studies have shown that the regional brain volume losses in ALC are partially reversible during abstinence from alcohol. The goal of this study was to determine volume reductions in cortical and subcortical regions functionally important to substance use behavior and their changes during short-term (1 week to 1 month) and long-term abstinence (1 month to 7 months) from alcohol...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Robert Lipton, William R Ponicki, Paul J Gruenewald, Andrew Gaidus
OBJECTIVES: Past research has linked alcohol outlet densities to drinking, drunken driving and alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). Because impaired drivers travel some distances from drinking places to crash locations, spatial relationships between outlets and crashes are complex. We investigate these relationships at three geographic levels: Census block groups (CBGs), adjacent (nearby) areas, and whole cities. METHODS: We examined risks for all injury MVCs as well as 'had been drinking' (HBD) and single-vehicle nighttime (SVN) subgroups using data from the Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS) across CBGs among 50 California cities from 2001 to 2008...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Anna N Bukiya, Alex M Dopico
Alcohol (ethanol) is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances worldwide. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy may result in a wide range of morphological and neurodevelopmental abnormalities termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), with the most severe cases diagnosed as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS and FASD are not readily curable and currently represent the leading preventable causes of birth defect and neurodevelopmental delay in the US. The etiology of FAS/FASD remains poorly understood...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Shane M Huebner, Kaylee K Helfrich, Nipun Saini, Sharon E Blohowiak, Adrienne A Cheng, Pamela J Kling, Susan M Smith
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) causes neurodevelopmental disability. Clinical and animal studies show gestational iron deficiency exacerbates PAE's behavioral and growth deficits. In rat, PAE manifests an inability to establish iron homeostasis, increasing hepcidin (maternal and fetal) and fetal liver iron while decreasing brain iron and promoting anemia. Here, we hypothesize dietary iron fortification during pregnancy may mitigate alcohol's disruption of fetal iron homeostasis...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Natasha Reid, Christie L M Petrenko
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can be associated with significant difficulties in self-regulatory abilities. As such, interventions have been developed that focus on improving varying aspects of self-regulation for this population. The application of a multi-level theoretical framework that describes the development of self-regulation during early childhood could further advance the field. First, this framework could assist in elucidating mechanisms in the trajectories of early adjustment problems in this population and second, informing the development of more precise assessment and interventions for those affected by PAE...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Kush Purohit, Puja K Parekh, Joseph Kern, Ryan W Logan, Zheng Liu, Yanhua Huang, Colleen A McClung, John C Crabbe, Angela R Ozburn
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol intake leads to long-lasting changes in reward- and stress-related neuronal circuitry. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is an integral component of this circuitry. Here, we investigate the effects of DREADDs (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) on neuronal activity in the NAc and binge-like drinking. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were stereotaxically injected with AAV2 hSyn-HA hM3Dq, -hM4Di, or -eGFP bilaterally into NAc [core + shell, core or shell]...
April 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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