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Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425123/a-5-year-follow-up-of-a-cohort-of-italian-alcoholics-hospital-admissions-and-overall-survival
#1
Gabriele Bardazzi, Ines Zanna, Marco Ceroti, Benedetta Bendinelli, Adriana Iozzi, Saverio Caini, Gabriella Nesi, Calogero Saieva
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-use disorders (AUDs), including alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse defined according to specific DSM-IV and ICD-X criteria, can be potentially lethal, since they are associated with several medical and psychiatric conditions. This study aims to describe the causes of hospitalization of a large cohort of subjects with alcohol dependence (alcoholics) enrolled in Florence (Italy) over a 5-year follow-up period and to evaluate the effect of hospitalization on overall survival...
April 20, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425121/role-of-the-dynorphin-kappa-opioid-receptor-system-in-the-motivational-effects-of-ethanol
#2
Rachel I Anderson, Howard C Becker
Evidence has demonstrated that dynorphin (DYN) and the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system contribute to various psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, and addiction. More recently, this endogenous opioid system has received increased attention as a potential therapeutic target for treating alcohol use disorders. In this review, we provide an overview and synthesis of preclinical studies examining the influence of alcohol (ethanol) exposure on DYN/KOR expression and function, as well as studies examining the effects of DYN/KOR manipulation on ethanol's rewarding and aversive properties...
April 20, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425109/alcoholic-cardiomyopathy-disrupted-protein-balance-and-impaired-cardiomyocyte-contractility
#3
Jennifer L Steiner, Charles H Lang
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) can develop after consumption of relatively large amounts of alcohol over time or from acute binge drinking. Of the many factors implicated in the etiology of ACM, chronic perturbation in protein balance has been strongly implicated. This review focuses on recent contributions (since 2010) in the area of protein metabolism and cardiac function related to ACM. Data reviewed include that from in vitro and preclinical in vivo animal studies where alcohol or an oxidative metabolite was studied and outcome measures in either cardiomyocytes or whole heart pertaining to protein synthesis or degradation were reported...
April 20, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423479/does-a-crossover-age-effect-exist-for-african-american-and-hispanic-binge-drinkers-findings-from-the-2010-to-2013-national-study-on-drug-use-and-health
#4
Tamika C B Zapolski, Patrick Baldwin, Devin E Banks, Timothy E Stump
BACKGROUND: Among general population studies, lower rates of binge drinking tend to be found among African Americans and Hispanics compared to Whites. However, among older adult populations, minority groups have been shown to be at higher risk for binge drinking, suggesting the presence of a crossover effect from low to high risk as a function of age. To date, limited research has examined the crossover effect among African American and Hispanic populations compared to non-Hispanic Whites across large developmental time frames or explored variation in risk based on income or gender...
April 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423476/dietary-patterns-and-alcohol-consumption-during-pregnancy-secondary-analysis-of-avon-longitudinal-study-of-parents-and-children
#5
Victoria Coathup, Kate Northstone, Ron Gray, Simon Wheeler, Lesley Smith
BACKGROUND: Large general population surveys show that heavy regular and episodic alcohol consumption are associated with lower intakes of fruits and vegetables, and higher intakes of processed and fried meat. This is of particular concern regarding pregnant women, as both alcohol intake and inadequate maternal nutrition are independently associated with adverse fetal outcomes. The current study aimed to determine associations between maternal dietary patterns and alcohol consumption during pregnancy...
April 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421623/a-preliminary-investigation-of-the-effect-of-acute-alcohol-on-dopamine-transmission-as-assessed-by-11-c-phno
#6
Thulasi Thiruchselvam, Alan A Wilson, Isabelle Boileau, Bernard Le Foll
BACKGROUND: Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies exploring the effect of acute alcohol on dopamine (DA) levels have yielded inconsistent results, with only some studies suggesting increased synaptic DA levels after an alcohol challenge. The D2 /D3 agonist radiotracer, [(11) C]-(+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin ([(11) C]-(+)-PHNO), has greater sensitivity to synaptic DA fluctuation than previously used antagonist radiotracers and is in principle more suitable for imaging alcohol-induced changes in DA...
April 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421617/eveningness-and-later-sleep-timing-are-associated-with-greater-risk-for-alcohol-and-marijuana-use-in-adolescence-initial-findings-from-the-ncanda-study
#7
Brant P Hasler, Peter L Franzen, Massimiliano de Zambotti, Devin Prouty, Sandra A Brown, Susan F Tapert, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Kilian M Pohl, Edith V Sullivan, Michael D De Bellis, Bonnie J Nagel, Fiona C Baker, Ian M Colrain, Duncan B Clark
BACKGROUND: Abundant cross-sectional evidence links eveningness (a preference for later sleep-wake timing) and increased alcohol and drug use among adolescents and young adults. However, longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether eveningness is a risk factor for subsequent alcohol and drug use, particularly during adolescence, which is marked by parallel peaks in eveningness and risk for the onset of alcohol use disorders. The present study examined whether eveningness and other sleep characteristics were associated with concurrent or subsequent substance involvement in a longitudinal study of adolescents...
April 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421616/the-validity-of-the-montgomery-asberg-depression-rating-scale-in-an-inpatient-sample-with-alcohol-dependence
#8
Breanne Hobden, Melanie L Schwandt, Mariko Carey, Mary R Lee, Mehdi Farokhnia, Sofia Bouhlal, Christopher Oldmeadow, Lorenzo Leggio
BACKGROUND: The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is commonly used to examine depressive symptoms in clinical settings, including facilities treating patients for alcohol addiction. No studies have examined the validity of the MADRS compared to an established clinical diagnostic tool of depression in this population. This study aimed to examine: 1) the validity of the MADRS compared to a clinical diagnosis of a depressive disorder (using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID)) in patients seeking treatment for alcohol dependence (AD); 2) whether the validity of the MADRS differs by type of SCID-based diagnosis of depression; and 3) which items contribute to the optimal predictive model of the MADRS compared to a SCID diagnosis of a depressive disorder...
April 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421613/intoxication-related-amed-alcohol-mixed-with-energy-drink-expectancies-scale-initial-development-and-validation
#9
Kathleen E Miller, Kurt H Dermen, Joseph F Lucke
BACKGROUND: Young adult use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) has been linked with elevated risks for a constellation of problem behaviors. These risks may be conditioned by expectancies regarding the effects of caffeine in conjunction with alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to describe the construction and psychometric evaluation of the Intoxication-Related AmED Expectancies Scale (AmED_EXPI), 15 self-report items measuring beliefs about how the experience of AmED intoxication differs from the experience of noncaffeinated alcohol (NCA) intoxication...
April 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414868/protective-effects-of-diallyl-sulphide-against-ethanol-induced-injury-in-rat-adipose-tissue-and-primary-human-adipocytes
#10
Venkata Harini Kema, Imran Khan, Reshma Jamal, Sandeep Kumar Vishwakarma, Chandrakala Lakki Reddy, Kirti Parwani, Farhin Patel, Dhara Patel, Aleem A Khan, Palash Mandal
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is the fourth leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Several cellular pathways contribute to alcohol mediated tissue injury. Adipose tissue apart from being functioning as an endocrine organ secretes several hormones and cytokines known as adipokines that are known to play a significant role in alcohol induced tissue damage. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to test the efficacy of diallyl sulphide (DAS) in regulating the alcohol induced outcomes on adipose tissue...
April 17, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401985/alcohol-demand-future-orientation-and-craving-mediate-the-relation-between-depressive-and-stress-symptoms-and-alcohol-problems
#11
Kathryn E Soltis, Meghan McDevitt-Murphy, James G Murphy
Elevated depression and stress have been linked to greater levels of alcohol problems among young adults even after taking into account drinking level. The current study attempts to elucidate variables that might mediate the relation between symptoms of depression and stress and alcohol problems, including alcohol demand, future time orientation, and craving METHODS: Participants were 393 undergraduates (60.8% female, 78.9% White/Caucasian) who reported at least 2 binge drinking episodes (4/5+ drinks for women/men, respectively) in the previous month...
April 12, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401564/a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-oral-naltrexone-for-heavy-drinking-smokers-seeking-smoking-cessation-treatment
#12
Christopher W Kahler, Patricia A Cioe, Golfo K Tzilos, Nichea S Spillane, Lorenzo Leggio, Susan E Ramsey, Richard A Brown, Stephanie S O'Malley
BACKGROUND: Post hoc analyses of two randomized controlled trials suggest naltrexone may reduce alcohol use and improve smoking cessation outcomes among heavy drinkers receiving smoking cessation treatment. However, no studies have been conducted specifically to examine naltrexone for this purpose or to test whether naltrexone has benefit when added to smoking cessation counseling that explicitly addresses heavy drinking. METHODS: We recruited heavy drinking smokers from the community and randomized them to receive 10 weeks of either (a) 50 mg naltrexone [n = 75] or (b) placebo [n = 75] daily...
April 12, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391598/parental-monitoring-and-alcohol-use-across-adolescence-in-black-and-white-girls-a-cross-lagged-panel-mixture-model
#13
Shawn J Latendresse, Feifei Ye, Tammy Chung, Alison Hipwell, Carolyn E Sartor
BACKGROUND: The link between parental monitoring and adolescent alcohol use is well established, but the directionality of this relationship is somewhat elusive. The literature suggests that parental engagement serves a protective function with respect to alcohol use, but that parental monitoring may also diminish in response to recurrent risk behavior. The lower rate of alcohol use despite evidence of lower levels of parental monitoring in Black vs. White youth raises the question of for whom and under what conditions parental monitoring and alcohol use are associated...
April 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387007/preventing-alcohol-exposed-pregnancies-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-self-administered-version-of-project-choices-with-college-students-and-nonstudents
#14
Linda Carter Sobell, Mark B Sobell, Kenneth Johnson, Nicholas Heinecke, Sangeeta Agrawal, Burt Bolton
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEPs) are a preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities for which many women are at risk. The initial 5-session Project CHOICES intervention was found to prevent AEPs. In the ensuing decade, there have been several additional CHOICES-like studies. The present study, Project Healthy CHOICES, had two objectives: (a) to compare outcomes for students vs. nonstudents; and (b) to test a self-administered mail-based version of the Project CHOICES intervention...
April 7, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376280/independent-and-interactive-effects-of-oprm1-and-dat1-polymorphisms-on-alcohol-consumption-and-subjective-responses-in-social-drinkers
#15
Elise M Weerts, Gary S Wand, Brion Maher, Xiaoqiang Xu, Mary Ann Stephens, Xiaoju Yang, Mary E McCaul
BACKGROUND: The current study examined independent and interactive effects of polymorphisms of the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1, A118G) and variable number tandem repeats of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1, SLC6A3) on alcohol consumption and subjective responses to alcohol in 127 young, healthy, social drinkers. METHODS: Participants completed an in-person assessment, which included self-reported alcohol drinking patterns and blood sampling for DNA, and in a second visit, a cumulative alcohol dosing procedure with subjective ratings across multiple time points and breath alcohol concentrations (0...
April 4, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372021/drinker-types-harm-and-policy-related-variables-results-from-the-2011-international-alcohol-control-study-in-new-zealand
#16
Martin Wall, Sally Casswell
BACKGROUND: The aim was to identify a typology of drinkers in New Zealand based on alcohol consumption, beverage choice, and public versus private drinking locations and investigate the relationship between drinker types, harms experienced, and policy-related variables. METHODS: Model-based cluster analysis of male and female drinkers including volumes of alcohol consumed in the form of beer, wine, spirits, and ready-to-drinks (RTDs) in off- and on-premise settings...
April 3, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370023/-this-treatment-can-really-help-me-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-treatment-readiness-and-its-predictors-in-patients-undergoing-alcohol-and-drug-rehabilitation-treatment
#17
Daniela Piontek, Stefan Kurktschiev, Ludwig Kraus, Stefan Hölscher, Fred Rist, Thomas Heinz, Norbert Scherbaum, Stefan Bender, Angela Buchholz
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that patients entering alcohol or drug treatment have different levels of treatment readiness and change their motivation differently over time. Nonetheless, existing studies mainly use single measures of motivation and do not consider individual differences. The present study addresses two questions: (1) How does treatment readiness change in patients with alcohol and drug use dependence over the course of an in-patient rehabilitation treatment; (2) Can changes in treatment readiness be explained by sociodemographic and substance use related characteristics? METHODS: Data from n=177 alcohol dependent patients and n=152 drug dependent patients were collected in two in-patient rehabilitation centers in Germany...
April 3, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370022/the-public-stigma-of-birth-mothers-of-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#18
Patrick W Corrigan, Juana Lorena Lara, Binoy Biren Shah, Kathleen T Mitchell, Diana Simmes, Kenneth L Jones
BACKGROUND: Stigma affects not only the person with a stigmatizing condition such as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), but also their family members. The present study examined whether there are stigmatizing attitudes about biological mothers of children with FASD in a crowdsourced sample. METHODS: Three hundred and eighty-nine participants were asked to rate levels of difference, disdain, and responsibility on four conditions: serious mental illness (SMI), substance use disorder (SUD), jail experience, and FASD...
March 30, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369960/chronic-alcohol-exposure-differentially-alters-one-carbon-metabolism-in-rat-liver-and-brain
#19
James Auta, Huaibo Zhang, Subhash C Pandey, Alessandro Guidotti
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation play an important role in regulating the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Chronic alcohol exposure leads to behavioral changes as well as decreased expression of genes associated with synaptic plasticity. In the liver, it has been documented that chronic alcohol exposure impairs methionine synthase (Ms) activity leading to a decrease in SAM/SAH ratio which results in DNA hypomethylation; however it is not known whether similar alterations of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) levels are also produced in brain...
March 30, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340502/trends-in-alcohol-consumption-among-older-americans-national-health-interview-surveys-1997-to-2014
#20
Rosalind A Breslow, I-Jen P Castle, Chiung M Chen, Barry I Graubard
BACKGROUND: The majority of U.S. older adults consume alcoholic beverages. The older population is projected to almost double by 2050. Substantially more drinkers are likely. PURPOSE: To describe gender-specific trends (1997 to 2014) in prevalence of drinking status (lifetime abstention, former drinking, current drinking [including average volume], and binge drinking) among U.S. adults ages 60+ by age group and birth cohort. METHODS: In the 1997 to 2014 National Health Interview Surveys, 65,303 respondents ages 60+ (31,803 men, 33,500 women) were current drinkers; 6,570 men and 1,737 women were binge drinkers...
March 24, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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