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Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340502/trends-in-alcohol-consumption-among-older-americans-national-health-interview-surveys-1997-to-2014
#1
Rosalind A Breslow, I-Jen P Castle, Chiung M Chen, Barry I Graubard
BACKGROUND: The majority of U.S. older adults consume alcoholic beverages. The older population is projected to almost double by 2050. Substantially more drinkers are likely. PURPOSE: To describe gender-specific trends (1997 to 2014) in prevalence of drinking status (lifetime abstention, former drinking, current drinking [including average volume], and binge drinking) among U.S. adults ages 60+ by age group and birth cohort. METHODS: In the 1997 to 2014 National Health Interview Surveys, 65,303 respondents ages 60+ (31,803 men, 33,500 women) were current drinkers; 6,570 men and 1,737 women were binge drinkers...
March 24, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340498/academic-difficulties-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-presence-profile-and-neural-correlates
#2
Leila Glass, Eileen M Moore, Natacha Akshoomoff, Kenneth Lyons Jones, Edward P Riley, Sarah N Mattson
BACKGROUND: Academic achievement was evaluated in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure to determine potential strengths and weaknesses, evaluate the utility of different definitions for identifying low academic performance, and explore the neural correlates that may underlie academic performance. METHODS: Children (8 to 16 years) were assessed using the WIAT-II. Patterns of performance were examined in 2 subject groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 67) and controls (n = 61)...
March 24, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324915/alcohol-related-blackouts-negative-alcohol-related-consequences-and-motivations-for-drinking-reported-by-newly-matriculating-transgender-college-students
#3
Larry A Tupler, Daniel Zapp, William DeJong, Maryam Ali, Sarah O'Rourke, John Looney, H Scott Swartzwelder
BACKGROUND: Many transgender college students struggle with identity formation and other emotional, social, and developmental challenges associated with emerging adulthood. A potential maladaptive coping strategy employed by such students is heavy drinking. Prior literature has suggested greater consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences (ARCs) in transgender students compared with their cisgender peers, but little is known about their differing experiences with alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs)...
March 21, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299793/foxo1-ampk-ulk1-regulates-ethanol-induced-autophagy-in-muscle-by-enhanced-atg14-association-with-the-becn1-pik3c3-complex
#4
Ly Q Hong-Brown, C Randell Brown, Maithili Navaratnarajah, Charles H Lang
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol (EtOH) consumption causes imbalances in protein metabolism. EtOH impairs protein synthesis in C2C12 myoblasts via a FoxO1-AMPK-TSC2-mTORC1 pathway and also induces degradation. As the underlying regulatory signaling cascades for these processes are currently poorly defined, we tested the hypothesis that alcohol-induced autophagy is mediated via activation of the PIK3C3 complex that is regulated by FoxO1-AMPK. METHODS: C2C12 myoblasts were incubated with EtOH for various periods of time and autophagy pathway-related proteins were assessed by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation...
March 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294355/conditioned-stimulus-form-does-not-explain-failures-to-see-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer-with-ethanol-paired-conditioned-stimuli
#5
Richard J Lamb, Brett C Ginsburg, Charles W Schindler
BACKGROUND: Pavlovian-Instrumental-Transfer (PIT) examines the effects of associative learning upon instrumental responding. Previous studies examining PIT with ethanol-maintained responding showed increases in responding following presentation of an ethanol-paired Conditioned Stimulus (CS). Recently, we conducted two studies examining PIT with an ethanol-paired CS. One of these found increases in responding, while the other did not. This less robust demonstration of PIT may have resulted from the form of the CS used, as we used a 120-s light stimulus as a CS, while the previous studies used either a 120-s auditory stimulus or a 10-s light stimulus...
March 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294365/prevalence-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-the-state-of-texas-as-assessed-by-phosphatidylethanol-in-newborn-dried-blood-spot-specimens
#6
Ludmila N Bakhireva, Janet Sharkis, Shikhar Shrestha, Tristan J Miranda-Sohrabji, Sonnie Williams, Rajesh C Miranda
BACKGROUND: While 2-5% of school-aged children in the U.S. are estimated to be affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), the prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) might be substantially under-reported. Our objective was to systematically estimate the prevalence of PAE in Texas by measuring a direct ethanol metabolite, phosphatidylethanol (PEth), in 1,000 infant residual dried blood spots (irDBS) in the Texas Newborn Screening Repository. METHODS: All Public Health Regions were represented proportional to their 2014 birth rate (~0...
March 13, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295416/validating-harmful-alcohol-use-as-a-phenotype-for-genetic-discovery-using-phosphatidylethanol-and-a-polymorphism-in-adh1b
#7
Amy C Justice, Kathleen A McGinnis, Jan Tate, Ke Xu, William C Becker, Hongyu Zhao, Joel Gelernter, Henry R Kranzler
BACKGROUND: Although alcohol risk is heritable, few genetic risk variants have been identified. Longitudinal (EHR) data offer a largely untapped source of phenotypic information for genetic studies, but EHR-derived phenotypes for harmful alcohol exposure have yet to be validated. Using a variant of known effect, we used electronic health record (EHR) data to develop and validate a phenotype for harmful alcohol exposure that can be used to identify unknown genetic variants in large samples...
March 11, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295414/temporal-stability-of-heavy-drinking-days-and-drinking-reductions-among-heavy-drinkers-in-the-combine-study
#8
Katie Witkiewitz, Adam D Wilson, Matthew R Pearson, Kevin A Hallgren, Daniel E Falk, Raye Z Litten, Henry R Kranzler, Karl F Mann, Deborah S Hasin, Stephanie S O'Malley, Raymond F Anton
BACKGROUND: Recently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed to expand the options for primary endpoints in the development of medications for alcohol use disorder (AUD) to include either abstinence from alcohol or a non-abstinent outcome: no heavy drinking days (with a heavy drinking day defined as more than 3 drinks per day for women and more than 4 drinks per day for men [>3/>4 cutoff]). The FDA also suggested that 6 months would be the most appropriate length for a clinical trial to demonstrate the stability of this non-abstinent drinking outcome...
March 10, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295407/alcoholic-liver-disease-on-the-rise-interorgan-cross-talk-driving-liver-injury
#9
Srinivasan Dasarathy, J Mark Brown
Advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) represents a substantial public health burden, threatening the lives of more than ten million people in the United States. Although the direct harmful effects of alcohol in the liver are nearly universally recognized, emerging evidence suggests alcohol also adversely affects other organs such as the intestine, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and likely many other tissues. In fact, the extrahepatic effects of alcohol clearly converge to impact the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic alcohol abuse...
March 10, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281290/anxiety-anxiety-sensitivity-and-perceived-stress-as-predictors-of-recent-drinking-alcohol-craving-and-social-stress-response-in-heavy-drinkers
#10
Mary E McCaul, Heidi E Hutton, Mary Ann C Stephens, Xiaoqiang Xu, Gary S Wand
BACKGROUND: Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self-report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, alcohol craving during early withdrawal, as well as laboratory measures of alcohol craving and stress reactivity among heavy drinkers with AUD...
March 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273337/ethanol-tlr3-and-tlr4-agonists-have-unique-innate-immune-responses-in-neuron-like-sh-sy5y-and-microglia-like-bv2
#11
Colleen J Lawrimore, Fulton T Crews
Ethanol (EtOH) consumption leads to an increase of proinflammatory signaling via activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) such as TLR3 and TLR4 that leads to kinase activation (ERK1/2, p38, TBK1), transcription factor activation (NFκB, IRF3) and increased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6. This immune signaling cascade is thought to play a role in neurodegeneration and alcohol use disorders. While microglia are considered to be the primary macrophage in brain, it is unclear what if any role neurons play in ethanol-induced proinflammatory signaling METHODS: Microglia-like BV2 and retinoic acid differentiated neuron-like SH-SY5Y were treated with TLR3 agonist Poly(I:C), TLR4 agonist LPS, or EtOH for 10 or 30 minutes to examine proinflammatory immune signaling kinase and transcription factor activation using western blot, and for 24 hours to examine induction of proinflammatory gene mRNA using RT-PCR RESULTS: In BV2, both LPS and Poly(I:C) increased p-ERK1/2, p-p38, and p-NFκB by 30 minutes, whereas EtOH decreased p-ERK1/2 and increased p-IRF3...
March 8, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273335/a-cis-eqtl-in-oprm1-is-associated-with-subjective-response-to-alcohol-and-alcohol-use
#12
Jacqueline M Otto, Ian R Gizer, Joseph D Deak, Kimberly A Fleming, Bruce D Bartholow
BACKGROUND: A functional polymorphism within the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene, rs1799971 (A118G), previously has been associated with measures of alcohol use and sensitivity to its effects, but findings have been inconclusive. A recent study suggested that a second nearby variant within OPRM1, rs3778150, is robustly associated with heroin dependence, and fully explained a smaller observed association with rs1799971. Given evidence that the rs3778150-C allele is associated with decreased OPRM1 expression levels in the human brain, the current study sought to test the hypothesis that rs3778150 represents a causal variant within OPRM1 that increases risk for a variety of alcohol use phenotypes...
March 8, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253539/social-rejection-and-alcohol-use-in-daily-life
#13
Holly B Laws, Nicole E Ellerbeck, Alyne S Rodrigues, Jessica A Simmons, Emily B Ansell
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have found that social rejection is associated with increases in negative affect, distress, and hostility. Fewer studies, however, have examined the impact of social rejection on alcohol use, and no known studies have tested whether the impact of social rejection by close others differs from social rejection by acquaintances in its association with subsequent drinking. METHODS: Participants completed event-contingent reports of their social interactions and alcohol use for 14 consecutive days on smartphones...
March 2, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247424/two-brief-measures-of-alcohol-use-produce-different-results-audit-c-and-quick-drinking-screen
#14
Brian Letourneau, Linda Carter Sobell, Mark B Sobell, Sangeeta Agrawal, Christopher J Gioia
BACKGROUND: Several psychometrically sound measures of alcohol use have been developed to assess drinking. The AUDIT, and its shorter counterpart the AUDIT-C, which contains the first three AUDIT questions, were developed by the World Health Organization and have become the preferred brief measures for screening and evaluating problem severity. This study compared the first three questions on the AUDIT with another psychometrically sound brief measure of alcohol use, the Quick Drinking Screen (QDS)...
March 1, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247423/using-factor-mixture-models-to-evaluate-the-type-a-b-classification-of-alcohol-use-disorders-in-a-heterogeneous-treatment-sample
#15
Tom Hildebrandt, Elizabeth E Epstein, Robyn Sysko, Donald A Bux
BACKGROUND: The type A/B classification model for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has received considerable empirical support. However, few studies examine the underlying latent structure of this subtyping model, which has been challenged as a dichotomization of a single drinking severity dimension. Type B, relative to type A, alcoholics represent those with early age of onset, greater familial risk, and worse outcomes from alcohol use. METHOD: We examined the latent structure of the type A/B model using categorical, dimensional, and factor mixture models in a mixed gender community treatment-seeking sample of adults with an AUD...
March 1, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247416/heavy-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-is-related-to-smaller-corpus-callosum-in-newborn-mri-scans
#16
Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Christopher M R Warton, Pia Wintermark, H Eugene Hoyme, Greetje De Jong, Paul Taylor, Fleur Warton, Nadine M Lindinger, R Colin Carter, Neil C Dodge, Ellen Grant, Simon K Warfield, Lilla Zöllei, André J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
BACKGROUND: MRI studies have consistently demonstrated disproportionately smaller corpus callosa in individuals with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure but have not previously examined the feasibility of detecting this effect in infants. Tissue segmentation of the newborn brain is challenging because analysis techniques developed for the adult brain are not directly transferable, and segmentation for cerebral morphometry is difficult in neonates, due to the latter's incomplete myelination...
March 1, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226201/genomewide-association-study-of-alcohol-dependence-identifies-risk-loci-altering-ethanol-response-behaviors-in-model-organisms
#17
Amy E Adkins, Laura M Hack, Tim B Bigdeli, Vernell S Williamson, G Omari McMichael, Mohammed Mamdani, Alexis Edwards, Fazil Aliev, Robin F Chan, Poonam Bhandari, Richard C Raabe, Joseph T Alaimo, GinaMari G Blackwell, Arden A Moscati, Ryan S Poland, Benjamin Rood, Diana G Patterson, Dermot Walsh, John B Whitfield, Gu Zhu, Grant W Montgomery, Anjali K Henders, Nicholas G Martin, Andrew C Heath, Pamela A F Madden, Josef Frank, Monika Ridinger, Norbert Wodarz, Michael Soyka, Peter Zill, Marcus Ising, Markus M Nöthen, Falk Kiefer, Marcella Rietschel, Joel Gelernter, Richard Sherva, Ryan Koesterer, Laura Almasy, Hongyu Zhao, Henry R Kranzler, Lindsay A Farrer, Brion S Maher, Carol A Prescott, Danielle M Dick, Silviu A Bacanu, Laura D Mathies, Andrew G Davies, Vladimir I Vladimirov, Mike Grotewiel, M Scott Bowers, Jill C Bettinger, Bradley T Webb, Michael F Miles, Kenneth S Kendler, Brien P Riley
BACKGROUND: Alcohol Dependence (AD) shows evidence for genetic liability, but genes influencing risk remain largely unidentified. METHODS: We conducted a genomewide association study in 706 related AD cases and 1748 unscreened population controls from Ireland. We sought replication in 15,496 samples of European descent. We used model organisms to assess the role of orthologous genes in ethanol response behaviors. We tested one primate-specific gene for expression differences in case/control post-mortem brain tissue...
February 22, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226195/global-transcriptional-response-of-human-liver-cells-to-ethanol-stress-of-different-strength-reveals-hormetic-behavior
#18
Wolfgang Schmidt-Heck, Eva C Wönne, Thomas Hiller, Uwe Menzel, Dirk Koczan, Georg Damm, Daniel Seehofer, Fanny Knöspel, Nora Freyer, Reinhard Guthke, Steven Dooley, Katrin Zeilinger
BACKGROUND: The liver is the major site for alcohol metabolism in the body and therefore, the primary target organ for ethanol-induced toxicity. In this study, we investigated the in vitro response of human liver cells to different ethanol concentrations in a perfused bioartificial liver device that mimics the complex architecture of the natural organ. METHODS: Primary human liver cells were cultured in the bioartificial liver device and treated for 24 hours with medium containing 150 mM (low), 300 mM (medium) or 600 mM (high) ethanol, while a control culture was kept untreated...
February 22, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222488/explaining-counterfeit-alcohol-purchases-in-russia
#19
Zoya Kotelnikova
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account...
February 21, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222224/commentary-on-kerr-et%C3%A2-al-2017-more-evidence-that-social-and-health-limitations-in-childhood-increase-the-risk-of-lifetime-abstention-from-alcohol
#20
Linda Ng Fat
Childhood poverty and work-related health limitations were found to increase the risk of being a lifetime abstainer from alcohol, according to a new study by Kerr and colleagues (Kerr et al., 2017). Findings were based on analyses of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Cohort, a nationally representative prospective study following 6,111 youths aged 14 to 21 in private residences in the US. Strengths of the study include a derivation of lifetime abstention based on successive information from youth up to age 55, meaning lifetime abstention was not subject to validity or recall issues, as has been found with the identification of being a lifetime abstainer at a later time-point (Caldwell et al...
February 21, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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