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Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921619/alcohol-reduces-arterial-remodeling-by-inhibiting-sonic-hedgehog-stimulated-sca1-progenitor-stem-cell-expansion
#1
Emma Fitzpatrick, Xu Han, Weimin Liu, Eoin Corcoran, Denise Burtenshaw, Maryam Alshamrani, David Morrow, Jay-Christian Helt, Paul A Cahill, Eileen M Redmond
BACKGROUND: Cell and molecular mechanisms mediating the cardiovascular effects of alcohol are not fully understood. Our aim was to determine the effect of moderate Ethanol (EtOH) on Sonic Hedgehog (SHh) signaling in regulating possible Sca1(+) progenitor stem cell involvement during pathologic arterial remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Partial ligation or sham-operation of the left carotid artery was performed in transgenic Sca1-eGFP mice gavaged with or without 'daily moderate' EtOH...
September 18, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921654/influence-of-cocaine-related-images-and-alcohol-administration-on-inhibitory-control-in-cocaine-users
#2
Erika Pike, Katherine R Marks, William W Stoops, Craig R Rush
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use and impulsivity, including decreased inhibitory control, predict poor treatment outcomes for individuals with cocaine use disorders. This study sought to determine the effects of alcohol administration on inhibitory control following cocaine-related and neutral cues on the Attentional Bias-Behavioral Activation (ABBA) task in cocaine users. We hypothesized that the proportion of inhibitory failures would increase following cocaine cues compared to neutral cues...
September 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905397/alcohol-advertising-in-magazines-and-underage-readership-are-underage-youth-disproportionately-exposed
#3
Charles King, Michael Siegel, Craig S Ross, David H Jernigan
BACKGROUND: The question of whether underage youth are disproportionately exposed to alcohol advertising lies at the heart of the public health debate about whether restrictions on alcohol advertising are warranted. The aim of this study was to determine whether alcohol brands popular among underage (ages 12 to 20 years) drinkers ("underage brands") are more likely than others ("other brands") to advertise in magazines with high underage readerships. METHODS: We analyze the advertising of 680 alcohol brands in 49 magazines between 2006 and 2011...
September 13, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905388/alcohol-and-road-traffic-injuries-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-a-case-crossover-study
#4
Guilherme Borges, Maristela Monteiro, Cheryl J Cherpitel, Ricardo Orozco, Yu Ye, Vladimir Poznyak, Margie Peden, Flavio Pechansky, Mariana Cremonte, Sandra D Reid, Jesus Mendez
BACKGROUND: This study reports dose-response estimates for the odds ratio (OR) and population attributable risk of acute alcohol use and road traffic injury (RTI). METHODS: Data were analyzed on 1,119 RTI patients arriving at 16 emergency departments (EDs) in Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago. Case-crossover analysis, pair-matching the number of standard drinks consumed within the 6 hours prior to the RTI with 2 control periods (prior d/wk), was performed using fractional polynomial analysis for dose-response...
September 13, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902418/cloninger-s-temperament-and-character-dimensions-of-personality-and-binge-drinking-among-college-students
#5
Fabien Gierski, Farid Benzerouk, Elodie De Wever, Theodora Duka, Arthur Kaladjian, Véronique Quaglino, Mickaël Naassila
BACKGROUND: Temperament and character dimensions of personality remain largely unexplored in young adults exhibiting binge drinking patterns. Moreover, the available studies do not consider gender differences, and dismiss possible personality heterogeneity among binge drinkers. In the present study, we aimed to compare temperament and character dimensions between young binge drinkers and age- and sex-matched social drinkers. We further applied cluster analysis to investigate the potential heterogeneity of personality patterns among binge drinking college students...
September 13, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888052/mir-21-mediated-suppression-of-smad7-induces-tgf%C3%AE-1-and-can-be-inhibited-by-activation-of-nrf2-in-alcohol-treated-lung-fibroblasts
#6
Lucian T Marts, David E Green, Stephen T Mills, Tamara Murphy, Viranuj Sueblinvong
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that chronic alcohol ingestion augments TGFβ1 expression in the lung fibroblast and increases the risk of fibroproliferative disrepair in a mouse model of acute lung injury. The effect of alcohol on TGFβ1 is mitigated by treatment with sulforaphane, which can activate nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). However, the mechanisms by which alcohol amplifies, or SFP attenuates, TGFβ1 expression in the fibroblast are not known. MicroRNA (miR)-21 has been shown to inhibit Smad7, a TGFβ1 signaling inhibitor...
September 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888041/supplementation-with-the-methyl-donor-betaine-prevents-congenital-defects-induced-by-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#7
Ganga Karunamuni, Megan M Sheehan, Yong Qiu Doughman, Shi Gu, Jiayang Sun, Youjun Li, James P Strainic, Andrew M Rollins, Michael W Jenkins, Michiko Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of public education about dire consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, drinking alcohol during pregnancy remains prevalent. As high as 40% of live-born infants exposed to alcohol during gestation and diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome have congenital heart defects that can be life-threatening. In animal models, the methyl donor betaine, found in foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach, ameliorated neurobehavioral deficits associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) but effects on heart development are unknown...
September 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876462/the-causal-role-of-alcohol-use-in-adolescent-externalizing-and-internalizing-problems-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#8
Miao Chao, Xinying Li, Matt McGue
BACKGROUND: The co-occurrence of alcohol use and externalizing/internalizing problems threatens adolescents' mental health. Research on whether alcohol use and these problems are causal and the direction of the potential causal relationships is needed to understand the mechanisms of the co-occurrence. METHOD: A Mendelian randomization analysis was conducted in which the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) rs671 polymorphism was used as an instrumental variable for alcohol use phenotypes...
September 6, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865114/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-leads-to-enhanced-serine-9-phosphorylation-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-gsk-3%C3%AE-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-of-adult-mouse
#9
Lee Anna Cunningham, Jessie Newville, Phillip Tapia, Andrea M Allan, C Fernando Valenzuela
BACKGROUND: The goal of the present study was to evaluate the expression and serine 9 phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β) within the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) in a preclinical mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). GSK-3β is a multifunctional kinase that modulates many hippocampal processes affected by gestational alcohol, including synaptic plasticity and adult neurogenesis. GSK-3β is a constitutively active kinase that is negatively regulated by phosphorylation at the serine-9 residue...
September 1, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858384/reduced-levels-of-mglu2-receptors-within-the-prelimbic-cortex-not-associated-with-elevated-glutamate-transmission-or-high-alcohol-drinking
#10
Zheng-Ming Ding, Cynthia M Ingraham, Sheketha R Hauser, Amy W Lasek, Richard L Bell, William J McBride
BACKGROUND: A Grm2 cys407* stop codon mutation, which results in a loss of the metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptor protein, was identified as being associated with high alcohol drinking by alcohol preferring (P) rats. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the effects of reduced levels of mGlu2 receptors on glutamate transmission and alcohol drinking. METHODS: Quantitative no-net-flux microdialysis was used to test the hypothesis that basal extracellular glutamate levels in the prelimbic (PL) cortex and nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh) will be higher in P than Wistar rats...
August 31, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847041/age-of-drinking-initiation-as-a-risk-factor-for-alcohol-use-disorder-symptoms-is-moderated-by-aldh2-2-and-ethnicity
#11
Susan E Luczak, Tiebing Liang, Tamara L Wall
BACKGROUND: An early age of drinking initiation (ADI) has been associated with increased risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but the consistency of this risk across diverse samples has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the pathway from ADI to AUD symptoms by early adulthood is moderated by ethnicity and possessing an alcohol-metabolizing gene ALDH2*2 variant allele. METHODS: We used multigroup structural equation modeling, including 5 groups split by ethnicity and ALDH2*2, to examine the consistency of the path from ADI to AUD symptoms in 604 Chinese-, Korean-, and White-American college students...
August 28, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835001/maternal-age-and-trajectories-of-risky-alcohol-use-a-prospective-study
#12
Natacha M De Genna, Lidush Goldschmidt, Michael Marshal, Nancy L Day, Marie D Cornelius
BACKGROUND: No prospective study of maternal alcohol use has focused on age at transition to motherhood as a predictor of trajectories of risky drinking. The goal of this study was to examine the impact of maternal age at first birth on trajectories of alcohol use beyond recommended levels over a 17-year span. METHODS: Pregnant women (N = 456) were recruited at an urban prenatal clinic. The women (13 to 42 years old; 64% African American, 36% White) were interviewed about alcohol use during pregnancy and at 6, 10, 14, and 16 years postpartum...
August 23, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833276/analysis-of-the-association-of-non-synonymous-polymorphisms-in-adh-genes-with-hazardous-drinking-in-hiv-1-positive-individuals
#13
Jonas Michel Wolf, Daniel Simon, Jorge Umberto Béria, Daniela Cardoso Tietzmann, Airton Tetelbom Stein, Vagner Ricardo Lunge
BACKGROUND: Hazardous drinking (HD) is a serious health problem in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes have been associated with HD in different populations, but there was no data about this in HIV-1 positive individuals. This study investigated the association of four non-synonymous SNPs in ADH genes (Arg48His and Arg370Cys in ADH1B gene; Arg272Gln and Ile350Val in ADH1C gene) with HD in people living with HIV-1...
August 23, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833270/tailoring-an-alcohol-intervention-for-aian-women-of-childbearing-age-listening-to-the-community
#14
Annika C Montag, Marlené L Dusek, Marina L Ortega, Alexandrea Camp-Mazzetti, Dan J Calac, Christina D Chambers
BACKGROUND: Reduction of risky drinking in women of childbearing age is one strategy that may be employed to prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, a sequela of prenatal alcohol-exposure. Communities differ in risk and protective factors, necessitating culturally informed interventions for maximal efficacy. This manuscript describes the modification of an existing web-based SBIRT intervention to reduce risky drinking among AIAN women of child-bearing age in Southern California into a peer-to-peer based intervention using motivational interviewing...
August 23, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833238/crf1-receptor-dependent-increases-in-irritability-like-behavior-during-abstinence-from-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-vapor-exposure
#15
Adam Kimbrough, Giordano de Guglielmo, Jenni Kononoff, Marsida Kallupi, Eric P Zorrilla, Olivier George
BACKGROUND: In humans, emotional and physical signs of withdrawal from ethanol are commonly seen. Many of these symptoms, including anxiety-like and depression-like behavior, have been characterized in animal models of ethanol dependence. One issue with several current behavioral tests that measure withdrawal in animal models is they are often not repeatable within subjects over time. Additionally, irritability, one of the most common symptoms of ethanol withdrawal in humans, has not been well characterized in animal models...
August 23, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833271/lawrence-lumeng-researcher-clinician-leader-mentor
#16
David W Crabb, William J McBride, Nicholas J Grahame, Richard L Bell, David A Kareken
We sadly note the loss of Dr. Lawrence Lumeng on June 21, 2017 at age 76 years following a long battle against progressive pulmonary fibrosis. As a founding member of the Indiana Alcohol Research Center, he made numerous seminal contributions to the field of the genetics of alcoholism, alcohol metabolism, and alcoholic liver disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 21, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833225/the-glycine-receptor-a-functionally-important-primary-brain-target-of-ethanol
#17
Bo Söderpalm, Helga HöifödtLidö, Mia Ericson
Identification of ethanol's primary molecular brain targets and determination of their functional importance is an ongoing, important quest. Pentameric ligand-gated ion-channels (pLGIC), i.e. the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor, the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 and the glycine receptor (GlyR) are such targets. Here, aspects of the structure and function of these receptors and ethanol's interaction with them are briefly reviewed, with special emphasis on the GlyR and the importance of this receptor and its ligands for ethanol pharmacology...
August 21, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815629/impulsive-decision-making-in-young-adult-social-drinkers-and-detoxified-alcohol-dependent-patients-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-study
#18
Nadine Bernhardt, Stephan Nebe, Shakoor Pooseh, Miriam Sebold, Christian Sommer, Julian Birkenstock, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Andreas Heinz, Michael N Smolka
BACKGROUND: Impulsive decision making relates to problematic substance use. Specifically, altered delay discounting has been suggested as a behavioral marker for addiction, while other relevant facets of choice impulsivity such as probability discounting or loss aversion are clearly understudied. METHODS: Two studies were performed collecting behavioral data on choice impulsivity with a value-based decision-making battery providing estimates of delay discounting, probability discounting for gains and losses, and loss aversion...
August 17, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815635/associations-between-genomic-variants-in-alcohol-dehydrogenase-adh-genes-and-alcohol-symptomatology-in-american-indians-and-european-americans-distinctions-and-convergence
#19
Q Peng, Ian R Gizer, K C Wilhelmsen, C L Ehlers
BACKGROUND: Higher rates of alcohol use disorders (AUD) have been observed in some Native American (NA) populations than other ethnic groups such as Euro-Americans (EA) in the U.S. Previous studies have shown that variation in the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes may affect the risk for development of AUD, and that the prevalence of these variants differs depending on the ancestral origins of a population. METHODS: In the present study, we assessed sequencing variants in the ADH genomic region (ADH1-7) and tested for their associations with AUD phenotypes in two independent populations: an American Indian (AI) community sample and an EA cohort from the San Francisco Family Alcohol Study...
August 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805240/the-role-of-social-familial-and-individual-level-factors-on-multiple-alcohol-use-outcomes-during-the-first-year-of-university
#20
Megan E Cooke, Zoe E Neale, Peter B Barr, John Myers, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler, Alexis C Edwards
BACKGROUND: The first year of university attendance represents a critical time frame for the development of alcohol use and misuse given changes in autonomy and increased access to alcohol. Prior studies have demonstrated that the establishment of drinking patterns during this period is impacted by an array of demographic, environmental, and familial factors. It is critical to consider such factors jointly, and to understand potentially differential effects on stages of alcohol use/misuse, in order to identify robust predictors that may be targeted in prevention and intervention programming...
August 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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