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Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

Walter Roberts, Kelly Moore, MacKenzie R Peltier, Terril L Verplaetse, Lindsay Oberleitner, Robyn Hacker, Sherry A McKee
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is an increasingly common method of nicotine delivery in the general population. It is well-established that tobacco users are at increased risk to engage in hazardous drinking and meet criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD) relative to nonusers. Less is known, however, about risk of harmful alcohol use among people who use e-cigarettes. The current study reports on the association between e-cigarette and alcohol use in the United States population using a nationally representative sample...
September 17, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Sunmin Park, Meiling Liu, Suna Kang
BACKGROUND: Since alcohol intake increases the prevalence of type 2 diabetes(T2DM) in Koreans, we tested the hypothesis that the interactions of genetic variants involved in β-cell function and mass with alcohol intake increase the T2DM risk. METHODS: The SNPs were selected by GWAS for insulin secretion after adjusting for age, gender, area of residence, BMI and alcohol intake(P<1X10-4 ) in 8842 middle-aged adults in the Ansan/Ansung cohorts. Genetic risk scores(GRSs) were calculated by summing the risk alleles of selected 4 SNPs, CDKAL1 rs7754840 and rs9460546, HHEX rs5015480 and OAS3 rs2072134...
September 12, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Justin Knox, Melanie Wall, Katie Witkiewitz, Henry R Kranzler, Daniel Falk, Raye Litten, Karl Mann, Stephanie S O'Malley, Jennifer Scodes, Raymond Anton, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND: Abstinence is often the treatment aim for AUD, but this may deter individuals who prefer drinking-reduction goals from entering treatment, and be an overly restrictive endpoint in alcohol clinical trials. Non-abstinent drinking reductions that predict improvement in how individuals feel or function may be useful clinical trial outcomes, e.g., reductions in the 4-category World Health Organization (WHO) drinking risk levels. To investigate the clinical relevance of these reductions, we examined their relationship to two outcomes of interest to medical providers: liver disease, and positive scores on an alcohol screening measure...
September 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Matthew D McPhee, Eric D Claus, Isabelle Boileau, Andy C H Lee, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Christian S Hendershot
BACKGROUND: Differences in regional brain volumes as a function of family history (FH) of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have been reported, and it has been suggested that these differences might index genetic risk for AUD. However, results have been inconsistent. The aims of the current study were 1) to provide an updated descriptive review of the existing literature; and 2) to examine the association of FH with indices of subcortical volumes and cortical thickness in a sample of youth recruited based on FH status...
September 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Stephanie B Williams, Jordan T Yorgason, Ashley C Nelson, Natalie Lewis, Teresa M Nufer, Jeff G Edwards, Scott C Steffensen
BACKGROUND: Ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA neurons have been heavily implicated in alcohol reinforcement and reward. In animals that self-administer alcohol, VTA GABA neurons exhibit increased excitability that may contribute to alcohol's rewarding effects. The present study investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on glutamate (GLU) synaptic transmission to VTA GABA neurons. METHODS: Whole cell recordings of evoked, spontaneous and miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) were performed on identified GABA neurons in the VTA of GAD67-GFP+ transgenic mice...
September 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Li-Shin Huang, Jason J Yuen, Michael J Trites, Amit Saha, Caleb T Epps, Yungying Hu, Sarahjean Kerolle, Seung-Ah Lee, Hongfeng Jiang, Ira J Goldberg, William S Blaner, Robin D Clugston
BACKGROUND: The first stage of alcoholic liver disease is hepatic steatosis. While alcohol is known to profoundly impact hepatic lipid metabolism, gaps in our knowledge remain regarding the mechanisms leading to alcohol-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. As the sole enzymes catalyzing the final step in triglyceride synthesis, Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 and 2 are potentially important contributors to alcoholic steatosis. Our goal was to study the effects of dietary fat content on alcohol-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and the relative contribution of DGAT1 and DGAT2 to alcoholic steatosis...
September 7, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Mary Beth Miller, Jennifer E Merrill, Angelo M DiBello, Kate B Carey
BACKGROUND: Blackouts-or memory loss for all or part of a drinking event-are reliable predictors of alcohol-related consequences. Studies suggest a distinction between en bloc (complete memory loss) and fragmentary (off-and-on memory loss) blackouts; however, research has not consistently differentiated between these 2 forms of blackout. This study aimed to validate the distinction between en bloc and fragmentary blackouts among young adults. METHODS: Data were collected using qualitative (Study 1) and quantitative (Study 2) research methods...
August 28, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Assaf Oshri, Sihong Liu, Erinn Bernstein Duprey, James MacKillop
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment (CM) is robustly associated with youth risk for addictive behaviors, and recent findings suggest that this may be mediated through impulsive discounting of future rewards. However, research indicates that youth self-regulation (emotional and cognitive), particularly in peer contexts, is critical to consider in the study of decision making. This study aimed to examine the indirect link between CM and alcohol and other drug use problems, through delayed reward discounting (DRD), among a community sample of emerging adults...
August 28, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Ayako Himemiya-Hakucho, Tsubasa Tanaka, Jinyao Liu, Tatsuya Fujimiya
BACKGROUND: Acetaldehyde is causally related to head and neck cancer. Individuals with aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency experience alcohol sensitivity and are referred to as "flushers" because of their skin-flushing response to high blood acetaldehyde levels after alcohol consumption. Acetaldehyde is produced in the oral cavity after local alcohol exposure without alcohol ingestion. However, the relationship between the oral acetaldehyde level after local alcohol exposure and alcohol sensitivity is unclear...
August 24, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Zhi Zhong, John J Lemasters
The pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains poorly understood but is likely a multi-hit pathophysiological process. Here, we propose a hypothesis of how early mitochondrial adaptations for alcohol metabolism lead to ALD pathogenesis. Acutely, ethanol feeding causes a near doubling of hepatic ethanol metabolism and oxygen consumption within 2-3 h. This Swift Increase of Alcohol Metabolism (SIAM) is an adaptive response to hasten metabolic elimination of both ethanol and its more toxic metabolite, acetaldehyde (AcAld)...
August 21, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Karen E Boschen, Henry Gong, Laura B Murdaugh, Scott E Parnell
BACKGROUND: MNS1 (meiosis-specific nuclear structural protein 1) is necessary for motile cilia function, such as sperm flagella or those found in the embryonic primitive node. While little is known regarding the function or expression pattern of MNS1 in the embryo, co-immunoprecipitation experiments in sperm have determined that MNS1 interacts with ciliary proteins also important during development. Establishment of morphogenic gradients is dependent on normal ciliary motion in the primitive node beginning during gastrulation (gestational day (GD) 7 in the mouse, 2nd - 3rd week of pregnancy in humans), a critical window for face, eye, and brain development and particularly susceptible to perturbations of developmental signals...
August 20, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Ursula Föger-Samwald, Christian Knecht, Thomas Stimpfl, Thomas Szekeres, Katharina Kerschan-Schindl, Peter Mikosch, Peter Pietschmann, Wolfgang Sipos
BACKGROUND: Although chronic alcohol consumption in adults is an established risk factor for osteoporotic fractures, there is a huge gap in our knowledge about bone effects of binge drinking in adolescents. The aim of this pilot study was therefore to assess skeletal effects of binge alcohol drinking using prepubescent pigs as a large animal model. METHODS: Piglets aged 2 months were offered alcohol orally as a mixture of hard liquor and apple juice. Those with the highest propensity to drink alcohol were included in the experiment and received 1...
August 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Wolfgang Persyn, Hakim Houchi, Charles-Antoine Papillon, Margaret Martinetti, Johann Antol, Cyrille Guillaumont, Alain Dervaux, Mickael Naassila
BACKGROUND: Data have shown a role of α-synuclein in anxiety and also in addiction, particularly in alcohol use disorders (AUD). Since the comorbidity between AUD and anxiety is very high and because anxiety is an important factor in ethanol (EtOH) relapse, the aim of the present study was to investigate the role of α-synuclein in moderating EtOH intake, the anxiolytic effects of EtOH, and EtOH withdrawal-induced anxiety and convulsions in mice. The study aimed to determine whether SNCA variants moderated anxiety in EtOH-dependent patients...
August 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Pierre Maurage, Séverine Lannoy, Valérie Dormal, Marine Blanco, Jean-Baptiste Trabut
BACKGROUND: Decision-making impairments have been repeatedly evaluated in severe alcohol use disorders (SAUD) using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT, capitalizing on strong theoretical background and ecological significance, allowed identifying large-scale deficits in this population and is now a standard decision-making assessment in therapeutic settings. However, the clinical usefulness of the IGT, particularly regarding its ability to predict relapse and its link with key cognitive-physiological deficits, remains to be clarified...
August 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Ashwini Kumar Pandey, Babak Assai Ardekani, Chella Kamarajan, Jian Zhang, David Balin Chorlian, Kelly Nicole-Helen Byrne, Gayathri Pandey, Jacquelyn Leigh Meyers, Sivan Kinreich, Arthur Stimus, Bernice Porjesz
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is known to have adverse effects on brain structure and function. Multimodal assessments investigating volumetric, diffusion, and cognitive characteristics may facilitate understanding of the consequences of long-term alcohol use on brain circuitry, their structural impairment patterns, and their impact on cognitive function in AUD. METHODS: Voxel- and surface-based volumetric estimations, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and neuropsychological tests were performed on 60 individuals: 30 abstinent individuals with AUD (DSM-IV) and 30 healthy controls...
August 17, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Erica N Peters, Evan S Herrmann, Amy M Cohn, Victoria H Coleman-Cowger, Carson Smith, Bartosz Koszowski, Wallace B Pickworth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Chang You, Bertha J Vandegrift, Huaibo Zhang, Amy W Lasek, Subhash C Pandey, Mark S Brodie
BACKGROUND: The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is important for alcohol-related reward and reinforcement. Mouse VTA neurons are hyposensitive to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during ethanol withdrawal, and GABA responsiveness is normalized by in vitro treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). The present study examined the effect of a systemically-administered HDACi, suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA) on GABA sensitivity and related molecular changes in VTA neurons during withdrawal after chronic ethanol intake in rats...
August 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Veronica L Massey, Liya Qin, Joaquin Cabezas, Juan Caballeria, Pau Sancho-Bru, Ramon Bataller, Fulton Crews
BACKGROUND: Toll like receptor 7 (TLR7) is an endosomal TLR that is activated by ssRNA, including endogenous microRNAs (e.g. let-7b). Increased hepatic expression of TLRs, microRNAs, and inflammatory mediators are linked to ethanol exposure and to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD invovles chronic hepatic inflammation that can progress to alcoholic hepatitis (AH), a particularly severe form of ALD. This study aimed to investigate TLR7 expression in patients with different liver disease phenotypes and in mouse liver following alcohol exposure...
August 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Christina L Ruby, Gerneleh Paye, Jason L Fabi, Jiawen Zhang, Megan O Risinger, Kaitlyn N Palmer, Natalie M Verbanes, Ariana D'Angelo, Tia M Watts, Lauren Mabe, H Scott Swartzwelder
BACKGROUND: Evidence supports a role for the circadian system in alcohol use disorders, but the impact of adolescent alcohol exposure on circadian timing later in life is unknown. Acute ethanol (EtOH) attenuates circadian photic phase-resetting in adult, but not adolescent, rodents. However, nearly all studies have focused on males and it is unknown whether this adolescent-typical insensitivity to EtOH persists into adulthood after adolescent drinking. METHODS: Circadian activity was monitored in C57BL/6J mice receiving adolescent intermittent EtOH (AIE) exposure (15% EtOH and water every other day throughout adolescence) or water alone followed by 24 days wherein EtOH was not available (washout)...
August 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Elizabeth D Nesoff, Adam J Milam, Charles C Branas, Silvia S Martins, Amy R Knowlton, Debra M Furr-Holden
BACKGROUND: Alcohol outlet density has been associated with increased pedestrian injury risk. It is unclear whether this is because alcohol outlets are located in dense retail areas with heavy pedestrian traffic or whether alcohol outlets contribute a unique neighborhood risk. We aimed to compare the pedestrian injury rate around alcohol outlets to the rate around other, similar retail outlets that do not sell alcohol. METHODS: A spatial analysis was conducted on census block groups in Baltimore City...
August 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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