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Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

Tae-Joon Moon, Charles W Mathias, Jillian Mullen, Tara E Karns-Wright, Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak, John D Roache, Donald M Dougherty
BACKGROUND: Social support has been linked to many therapeutic benefits (e.g., treatment retention, reduced posttreatment relapse) for individuals with alcohol use disorder. However, the positive impacts of social support have not been well understood in the context of alcohol-impaired driving. This article examines the role of social support in motivating those with histories of driving while intoxicated (DWI) arrest to reduce alcohol use by testing 3 major models of social support: the Main-Effects model, the Buffering model, and the Optimal Matching model...
November 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Elizabeth A Sneddon, Robert D White, Anna K Radke
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder is characterized by compulsive alcohol intake, or drinking despite negative consequences. Previous studies have shown that female rodents have a heightened vulnerability to drug use across different stages of the addictive cycle, but no previous studies have studied females in a model of aversion-resistant alcohol intake. Here, we investigated sex differences in binge-like and aversion-resistant alcohol drinking in C57BL/6J mice using a modified drinking in the dark (DID) paradigm...
November 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Yuzo Furuta, Jinyao Liu, Ayako Himemiya-Hakucho, Koichi Yoshimura, Tatsuya Fujimiya
BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse and adherence to atherogenic diet (AD; a low-carbohydrate-high-protein diet) have been positively associated with cardiovascular disease. In addition, it has been demonstrated clinically that dietary intake is increased on days when alcohol is consumed. Here, the additive effects of ethanol and AD on atherosclerosis, a major underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, were investigated in apolipoprotein E/low-density lipoprotein receptor double-knockout (KO) mice...
November 14, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jacinta Freeman, Carmen Condon, Sharynne Hamilton, Raewyn C Mutch, Carol Bower, Rochelle E Watkins
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in permanent disability, including physical, neurodevelopmental and cognitive impairments, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Individuals with FASD are more likely to engage with the law, including being placed in detention, than individuals without FASD. Young people who were sentenced to detention participated in a FASD prevalence study in Western Australia (WA). The diagnosis of FASD requires a multidisciplinary assessment and confirmation of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy...
November 14, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
William C Kerr, Yu Ye, Edwina Williams, Camillia K Lui, Thomas K Greenfield, E Anne Lown
BACKGROUND: Studies of the role of alcohol use in diabetes risk have rarely included lifetime alcohol use measures, including the frequency of heavy occasions, or evaluated risks among Black or Hispanic respondents in US samples. METHODS: Data from the 2014-15 National Alcohol Survey of the U.S. population were used to estimate diabetes risk from drinking patterns at the time of onset in Cox proportional hazards models in a retrospective cohort design. Models for the population, males and females and for White, Black and Hispanic respondents of both genders were estimated using two versions of drinking pattern groupings at each age...
November 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Felicia Ahlner, Robert Sigström, Therese Rydberg Sterner, Madeleine Mellqvist Fässberg, Silke Kern, Svante Östling, Margda Waern, Ingmar Skoog
BACKGROUND: The older adult population is increasing worldwide, as is the number of older adults who consume alcohol. Although there is a growing body of research on alcohol consumption among older people, few studies focus on changes in at-risk consumption over time across well-defined birth cohorts of older adults. METHODS: This study used a serial cross-sectional design in order to compare alcohol consumption patterns among birth cohorts of Swedish 70-year-olds (total n = 2,268) examined in 1976 to 1977 (n = 393), 1992 to 1993 (n = 248), 2000 to 2002 (n = 458), and 2014 to 2016 (n = 1,169)...
November 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Ratna Sircar
BACKGROUND: Our laboratory and others have reported that ethanol impairs hippocampus-associated memory formation in prepubertal adolescent rats. Acute alcohol exposure in humans produces a syndrome of memory loss ("blackouts") that is similar to impairments caused by hippocampal damage. The ability to form new long-term explicit memories is affected but not short-term memory storage or recall of information from long-term storage. Alcohol-induced memory impairment, similar to teenage alcohol blackouts, has been shown in prepubertal adolescent rodents...
November 8, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Andrea H Weinberger, Lauren R Pacek, Daniel Giovenco, Sandro Galea, Michael J Zvolensky, Misato Gbedemah, Renee D Goodwin
BACKGROUND: Individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) who smoke cigarettes experience greater health risks than those using either substance alone. Further, disparities exist in AUDs and smoking by race/ethnicity. Although smoking has declined in the general population, it is not known whether the smoking prevalence has changed over time for individuals with AUDs. The current study used representative US data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette use from 2002 to 2016 by AUD status and severity overall and by race/ethnicity...
November 8, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Hui Li, Wen Wen, Hong Xu, Huaxun Wu, Mei Xu, Jacqueline A Frank, Jia Luo
BACKGROUND: Ethanol exposure during pregnancy may result in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). One of the most deleterious consequences of ethanol exposure is neuronal loss in the developing brain. Previously we have shown ethanol exposure induced neuroapoptosis in the brain of postnatal day 4 (PD4) mice but not PD12 mice. This differential susceptibility may result from insufficient cellular stress response system such as unfolded protein response (UPR, also known as ER stress) in PD4 mice...
November 7, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Patrick A Randall, Ryan P Vetreno, Viren H Makhijani, Fulton T Crews, Joyce Besheer
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that neuroimmune signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) alters brain circuitry related to alcohol use disorders. Both ethanol exposure and the TLR3 agonist, poly(I:C), increase brain TLR3 expression in neurons and glia. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that cortical TLR3 expression is correlated with lifetime ethanol intake in humans. METHODS: The current experiments investigated the consequences of poly(I:C) treatment on gene expression in two brain regions contributing to alcohol reinforcement, the insular cortex (IC) and nucleus accumbens (Acb) and on operant ethanol self-administration, in Long Evans rats...
November 7, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Daniel E Falk, Megan L Ryan, Joanne B Fertig, Eric G Devine, Ricardo Cruz, E Sherwood Brown, Heather Burns, Ihsan M Salloum, D Jeffrey Newport, John Mendelson, Gantt Galloway, Kyle Kampman, Catherine Brooks, Alan I Green, Mary F Brunette, Richard N Rosenthal, Kelly E Dunn, Eric C Strain, Lara Ray, Steven Shoptaw, Nassima Ait-Daoud Tiouririne, Erik W Gunderson, Janet Ransom, Charles Scott, Lorenzo Leggio, Steven Caras, Barbara J Mason, Raye Z Litten
BACKGROUND: Several single-site alcohol treatment clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy for immediate-release (IR) gabapentin in reducing drinking outcomes among individuals with alcohol dependence. The purpose of this study was to conduct a large, multisite clinical trial of gabapentin enacarbil extended-release (GE-XR) (HORIZANT® ), a gabapentin prodrug formulation, to determine its safety and efficacy in treating alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHODS: Men and women (n= 346) who met DSM-5 criteria for at least moderate AUD were recruited across 10 US clinical sites...
November 7, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Katie Witkiewitz, Henry R Kranzler, Kevin A Hallgren, Stephanie S O'Malley, Daniel E Falk, Raye Z Litten, Deborah S Hasin, Karl F Mann, Raymond F Anton
BACKGROUND: Abstinence and no heavy drinking days are currently the only Food and Drug Administration-approved end points in clinical trials for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Many individuals who fail to meet these criteria may substantially reduce their drinking during treatment, and most individuals with AUD prefer drinking reduction goals. One- and two-level reductions in World Health Organization (WHO) drinking risk levels have been proposed as alternative end points that reflect reduced drinking and are associated with reductions in drinking consequences, improvements in mental health, and reduced risk of developing alcohol dependence...
November 5, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Rachel A Hoopsick, D Lynn Homish, Bonnie M Vest, Gregory G Homish
BACKGROUND: Limited research shows that mental health problems are prevalent among never-deployed soldiers and many experience negative emotions related to their nondeployment. U.S. Army Reserve/National Guard (USAR/NG) soldiers are also at high risk for alcohol misuse. However, it is not known if nondeployment emotions contribute to an increased risk of alcohol misuse among never-deployed USAR/NG soldiers. METHODS: Data are from Operation: SAFETY (Soldiers and Families Excelling Through the Years), an ongoing study of USAR/NG soldiers...
October 31, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
E López-Caneda, A Crego, A D Campos, A González-Villar, A Sampaio
BACKGROUND: Research with the Think/No-Think (TNT) task has shown that voluntary suppression of an unwanted memory may lead to its later forgetting. To date, however, no study has assessed the memory suppression abilities in alcohol-related contexts despite the potential implications that it might have for alcohol research. With this aim, we developed a new version of the TNT paradigm, the Think/No-Think Alcohol (TNTA) task, which consists of 36 neutral pictures paired with 36 alcohol/no-alcohol images that are instructed to be suppressed or recollected...
October 30, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Warren K Bickel, John C Crabbe, Kenneth J Sher
The current article highlights key issues in defining, studying, and treating addiction, a concept related to but distinct from substance use disorders. The discussion is based upon a roundtable discussion at the 2017 annual meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) where Warren Bickel and John Crabbe were charged with answering a range of questions posed by Kenneth Sher. All the presenters highlighted a number of central concerns for those interested in assessing and treating addiction as well as those seeking to conduct basic preclinical research that is amenable to meaningful translation to the human condition...
October 29, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Ronald A Cohen, Joseph M Gullett, Eric C Porges, Adam J Woods, Damon G Lamb, Vaughn E Bryant, Mikayla McAdams, Karen Tashima, Robert Cook, Kendall Bryant, Mollie Monnig, Christopher W Kahler, Peter M Monti
BACKGROUND: There is growing concern about the health impact of heavy alcohol use in people infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV+). Mixed findings of past studies regarding the cognitive impact of alcohol use in HIV+ adults have been mixed, with inconsistent evidence that alcohol consumption exacerbates HIV-associated brain dysfunction. This study examined contributions of current heavy drinking, lifetime AUD, and age to cognitive deficits in HIV+ adults, and relative to other HIV-associated clinical factors...
October 29, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Justin J Anker, Erich Kummerfeld, Alexander Rix, Scott J Burwell, Matt G Kushner
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression ("internalizing") disorders occur in approximately 50% of patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and mark a two-fold increase in the rate of relapse in the months following treatment. In a previous study using network modeling, we found that perceived stress and drinking to cope (DTC) with negative affect were central to maintaining network associations between internalizing psychopathology (anxiety and depression) and drinking in comorbid individuals...
October 29, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Henri-Jean Aubin, Karl Mann
Ray et al (Ray et al., 2018) discuss several obstacles encountered in the transition from pre-clinical to human clinical testing in the development of novel medications for alcohol use disorders (AUD). A large number of promising drugs have perished in this transition phase, so large that the term "valley of death" has been proposed to characterize this perilous passage (Butler, 2008). Even when the valley of death has successfully been crossed the pathway to marketing remains highly problematic...
October 23, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Marc A Emerson, Roland S Moore, Raul Caetano
PURPOSE: To describe sociodemographic and selected psychiatric disorder patterns and estimate correlates of seeking alcohol treatment among American Indians, Alaska Natives (AIAN) and Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) with lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHODS: Data come from the 2012-2013 U.S. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. We retrospectively identified participants who completed information on lifetime AUD, race/ethnicity and seeking alcohol treatment or help for AUD...
October 22, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Julie A Mustard, Ramiro Oquita, Paulina Garza, Alexander Stoker
BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are significant global issues. Honey bees are excellent models for learning and other complex behaviors; furthermore, they share many behavioral responses to ethanol with humans and animal models. We develop a two feeder choice assay to determine if honey bees will self-administer and preferentially consume solutions containing ethanol. METHODS: Gustatory responsiveness to ethanol is determined using the proboscis extension reflex and consumption assays...
October 22, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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