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Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

Evgeny J Chumin, Joaquín Goñi, Meredith E Halcomb, Timothy C Durazzo, Mario Džemidžić, Karmen K Yoder
BACKGROUND: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been widely used to investigate the integrity of white matter (WM; indexed by fractional anisotropy, FA) in alcohol dependence and cigarette smoking. These disorders are highly comorbid, yet cigarette use has often not been adequately controlled in neuroimaging studies of alcohol dependent populations. In addition, information on white matter deficits in currently drinking, nontreatment-seeking (NTS) individuals with alcohol dependence is limited...
March 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Jan B Hoek
Epigenetic regulation, the persistent change in the gene regulatory state following a transient environmental perturbation, has become increasingly prominent in accounting for the consequences of exposure to addictive substances, including alcohol (ethanol). The purpose of this Virtual Issue is to draw attention to some of the recent advances in our understanding of how consumption of alcohol impacts the epigenetic landscape and causes such persistent changes in the regulation of gene expression and cellular function that affect behavior or disease susceptibility well after the alcohol challenge has occurred...
March 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Shirley Y Hill
Henderson and colleagues have provided new data from a large cohort demonstrating that cortical thickness, as one index of brain morphology, differs between adolescents with and without a family history of alcohol dependence. Understanding the relationship between brain structure and cognitive ability that differ in those with a family history of alcohol use disorders and those without relatives with AUD may provide clues about the biological substrate of addiction. To date, most of the studies concerning brain morphological differences by familial risk have focused on volumetric differences...
March 12, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Amanda M Barkley-Levenson, Frances A Lagarda, Abraham A Palmer
BACKGROUND: Glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) is an enzyme that metabolizes methylglyoxal (MG), which is a competitive partial agonist at GABAA receptors. Inhibition of GLO1 increases concentrations of MG in the brain and decreases binge-like ethanol drinking. The present study assessed whether inhibition of GLO1, or genetic over expression of Glo1, would also alter the locomotor effects of ethanol, which might explain reduced ethanol consumption following GLO1 inhibition. We used the prototypical GABAA receptor agonist muscimol as a positive control...
March 12, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Hyeonyoung Ko, Yun-Mi Song, Sang-Chol Lee, Seung Woo Park, Joohon Sung, Kayoung Lee, Eunae Lee
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of excessive alcohol consumption on heart reflected by various echocardiographic parameters according to the presence or absence of flushing reaction that might reflect acetaldehyde metabolism. METHODS: A total of 854 Korean men without significant cardiovascular diseases who underwent echocardiography and participated in the Korean Healthy Twin Study were used as subjects of this study. These subjects were classified into three categories: non-drinker, moderate drinker (≤ 196 g/week), and heavy drinker (> 196 g/week) within two strata of flushing reaction to alcohol drinking...
March 10, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak, Donald M Dougherty, John D Roache, Tara E Karns-Wright, Martin A Javors
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the synthesis and elimination of phosphatidylethanol (PEth) 16:0/18:1 and 16:0/18:2 following the consumption of alcohol among 56 light and heavy drinkers. METHODS: A transdermal alcohol monitor was used to promote alcohol absence 7 days prior, and 14 days after, alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Participants consumed a 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol in15 min. Blood and breath samples were collected before, at various times up to 360 min post-consumption, and 2, 4, 7, 11 and 14 days after alcohol consumption...
March 5, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Kelly S DeMartini, Michael L Schilsky, Amanda Palmer, Dwain C Fehon, Paula Zimbrean, Stephanie S O'Malley, Hochang B Lee, Benjamin A Toll
BACKGROUND: Many liver transplantation programs require documented alcohol sobriety prior to United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) listing. This pilot study examined the feasibility of the first mobile, alcohol relapse prevention intervention for liver transplant patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS: This was a randomized 8-week pilot feasibility trial of a text message-based alcohol intervention. In-treatment assessment was conducted at 4 weeks (4W), and immediate posttreatment assessment was conducted at 8W...
March 2, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Sudie E Back, Jennifer L Jones
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are two of the most common, chronic and debilitating mental health disorders in our society. Epidemiologic data indicate that lifetime rates of AUD and PTSD in the general population are 29.1% and 7.8%, respectively (Grant et al., 2015; Kessler et al., 1995). These two disorders frequently co-occur and are associated with substantial suffering and functional impairment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 28, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Cathy Lau-Barraco, Abby L Braitman, Amy L Stamates
BACKGROUND: Emerging adulthood is a period of heightened vulnerability for problematic alcohol use. Considerable research has been devoted to reducing alcohol risks in college student populations, although far less effort has focused on their noncollege-attending peers. Research targeting nonstudent emerging adults is critical as this group is at risk of experiencing alcohol-related harms. Consequently, the main objective of the present randomized study was to examine the preliminary efficacy of a brief personalized feedback intervention (PFI) tailored for nonstudent at-risk drinkers...
February 27, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Dawn W Foster, Feifei Ye, Stephanie S O'Malley, Tammy Chung, Alison E Hipwell, Carolyn E Sartor
BACKGROUND: African American (AA) girls initiate alcohol use later and drink less than European American (EA) girls, potentially reflecting differences in the development of drinking behaviors. The current study examined alcohol-related cognitions: expectancies, attitudes, and intention to drink, as possible sources of variation by race in alcohol use. The aim of the current study was to characterize the nature and degree of association between these cognitions and use over time and by race in EA and AA girls...
February 27, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
John F Kelly, M Claire Greene, Brandon G Bergman
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment and recovery research typically have focused narrowly on changes in alcohol/drug use (e.g., "percent days abstinent") with little attention on changes in functioning or well-being. Furthermore, little is known about whether and when such changes may occur, and for whom, as people progress in recovery. Greater knowledge would improve understanding of recovery milestones and points of vulnerability and growth. METHODS: National, probability-based, cross-sectional sample of U...
February 23, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Yuri A Blednov, Adriana J Da Costa, Tamara Tarbox, Olga Ponomareva, Robert O Messing, R Adron Harris
BACKGROUND: Phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibitors produce widespread anti-inflammatory effects and reduce ethanol consumption in several rodent models. These drugs are potential treatments for several diseases, including central nervous system disorders, but clinical use is limited by their emetic activity. Apremilast is a selective PDE4 inhibitor with fewer gastrointestinal side effects that is FDA approved for the treatment of psoriasis. METHODS: We measured the acute and chronic effects of apremilast on ethanol consumption in male and female C57BL/6J mice using the continuous and intermittent 24-h two-bottle choice drinking models...
February 22, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Yuri A Blednov, Adriana J Da Costa, R Adron Harris, Robert O Messing
BACKGROUND: In our companion paper, we reported that the phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor apremilast reduced ethanol intake and preference in different drinking models in male and female C57BL/6J mice. In the current study, we measured the effects of apremilast on other behaviors that are correlated with ethanol consumption. METHODS: The effects of apremilast (20 mg/kg) on the following behaviors were studied in male and female C57BL/6J mice: locomotor response to a novel situation; ethanol- or LiCl-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin; conditioned place preference (CPP) and conditioned place avoidance (CPA) to ethanol; severity of handling-induced convulsions after ethanol administration; ethanol-induced anxiolytic-like behavior in the elevated plus maze; duration of ethanol-induced loss of the righting reflex (LORR); recovery from ethanol-induced motor impairment on the rotarod; and acute functional tolerance (AFT) to ethanol...
February 22, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Joel Gelernter, Hang Zhou, Yaira Z Nuñez, Apiwat Mutirangura, Robert T Malison, Rasmon Kalayasiri
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use (both quantity and dependence) is moderately heritable, and genomewide association studies (GWAS) have identified risk genes in European, African, and Asian populations. The most reproducibly identified risk genes affect alcohol metabolism. Well-known functional variants at the gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase B (ADH1B) and other alcohol dehydrogenases affect risk in European and African-ancestry populations. Similarly, variants mapped to these same genes and a well-known null variant that maps to the gene that encodes aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) also affect risk in various Asian populations...
February 20, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Booker T Davis, Robin M Voigt, Maliha Shaikh, Christopher B Forsyth, Ali Keshavarzian
Heavy use of alcohol can lead to addictive behaviors and to eventual alcohol related tissue damage. While increased consumption of alcohol has been attributed to various factors including level of alcohol exposure and environmental factors such as stress, data from behavioral scientists and physiological researchers is revealing roles for the circadian rhythm in mediating the development of behaviors associated with alcohol use disorder as well as the tissue damage that drives physiological disease. In this work, we compile recent work on the complex mutually influential relationship that exists between the core circadian rhythm and the pharmacodynamics of alcohol...
February 16, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Robert F Leeman, Christine Nogueira, Reinout W Wiers, Janna Cousijn, Kelly Serafini, Kelly S DeMartini, John A Bargh, Stephanie S O'Malley
BACKGROUND: Young adult heavy drinking is an important public health concern. Current interventions have efficacy but with only modest effects, thus novel interventions are needed. In prior studies, heavy drinkers, including young adults, have demonstrated stronger automatically triggered approach tendencies to alcohol-related stimuli than lighter drinkers. Automatic action tendency retraining has been developed to correct this tendency and consequently reduce alcohol consumption. The current study is the first to test multiple iterations of automatic action tendency retraining, followed by laboratory alcohol self-administration...
February 16, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, Rao P Gullapalli, Alexandre E Medina
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often have deficits associated with multisensory processing. Because ethanol disrupts activity-dependent neuronal plasticity, a process that is essential for refining connections during cortical development, we hypothesize that early alcohol exposure results in alterations in multisensory cortical networks, which could explain the multisensory processing deficits seen in FASD. Here, we use a gyrencephalic animal model to test the prediction that early alcohol exposure alters the functional connectivity and microstructural features of the rostral posterior parietal cortex (PPr), a visual-tactile integrative area...
February 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Annah K Bender, Kathleen K Bucholz, Andrew C Heath, Vivia V McCutcheon
BACKGROUND: Women are increasingly involved in drunk driving and fatal crashes, yet except for the screening performed in criminal justice settings, little is known about their life context, psychiatric histories, and family backgrounds. This study describes a sample of women with histories of arrest for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) who were interviewed outside a criminal justice setting and contrasts women with single versus multiple DUI convictions. METHODS: Women with recent documented histories of DUI participated in a study of women's health behaviors...
February 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Raymond F Anton, Patricia K Latham, Konstantin E Voronin, Patrick K Randall, Sarah W Book, Michaela Hoffman, Joseph P Schacht
BACKGROUND: The opioid antagonist naltrexone is not efficacious for every alcohol treatment seeker. However, various individual factors, such as genetic differences and nicotine-use/smoking status, have been suggested as predictors of naltrexone response. In a randomized clinical trial, we previously reported that nicotine-use/smoking status might be a stronger predictor of naltrexone efficacy than OPRM1 A118G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype. In this report, we further characterize the nicotine-users in that trial, examine other drinking outcomes, examine the influence of smoking change on naltrexone effects on drinking, and validate the result in smokers with disialo carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%dCDT) change as an independent biomarker of response...
February 12, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Joris C Verster, Marith van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marlou Mackus, Aurora J A E van de Loo, Johan Garssen, Andrew Scholey
BACKGROUND: At a group level, hangover severity during the day has been described to follow an inverted U-shaped curve, with gradually increasing severity scores that, after reaching a peak, gradually decrease towards zero. The aim of the current study was to examine if and how individual drinkers' hangover severity scores vary during the day. METHODS: Data from a survey (Penning et al. 2012) in which N=732 drinkers reported on their latest alcohol hangover were re-analysed...
February 9, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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