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Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098956/the-effect-of-reference-group-classification-and-change-in-alcohol-consumption-on-the-association-between-alcohol-consumption-and-cardiovascular-disease
#1
Ji-Eun Park, Yeonhee Ryu, Sung-Il Cho
BACKGROUND: Many studies suggest that mild alcohol consumption can help avert cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the association between alcohol consumption and CVD incidence, and assessed whether this differed by reference group classification. As alcohol consumption amounts may change over time, the results of simple and time-dependent analyses were compared. METHODS: Data were from a community-based cohort study on 40- to 69-year-old Koreans recruited in 2001 to 2002...
January 18, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098946/negative-association-between-mr-spectroscopic-glutamate-markers-and-gray-matter-volume-after-alcohol-withdrawal-in-the-hippocampus-a-translational-study-in-humans-and-rats
#2
Ulrich Frischknecht, Derik Hermann, Nuran Tunc-Skarka, Guo-Ying Wang, Markus Sack, Julia van Eijk, Traute Demirakca, Claudia Falfan-Melgoza, Bertram Krumm, Sandra Dieter, Rainer Spanagel, Falk Kiefer, Karl F Mann, Wolfgang H Sommer, Gabriele Ende, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr
BACKGROUND: Both chronic alcohol consumption and alcohol withdrawal lead to neural tissue damage which partly recovers during abstinence. This study investigated withdrawal-associated changes in glutamatergic compounds, markers of neuronal integrity, and gray matter volumes during acute alcohol withdrawal in the hippocampus, a key region in development and maintenance of alcohol dependence in humans and rats. METHODS: Alcohol-dependent patients (N = 39) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) measurements within 24 hours after the last drink and after 2 weeks of abstinence...
January 18, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098942/biomarkers-for-the-detection-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Heidi Bager, Lars Porskjaer Christensen, Steffen Husby, Lene Bjerregaard
Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause adverse effects to the fetus, because it interferes with fetal development, leading to later physical and mental impairment. The most common clinical tool to determine fetal alcohol exposure is maternal self-reporting. However, a more objective and useful method is based on the use of biomarkers in biological specimens alone or in combination with maternal self-reporting. This review reports on clinically relevant biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)...
January 18, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097729/the-role-of-orexin-signaling-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-and-central-amygdala-in-modulating-binge-like-ethanol-drinking-behavior
#4
Jeffrey J Olney, Montserrat Navarro, Todd E Thiele
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have demonstrated that binge-like ethanol drinking leads to an increase in hypothalamic orexin (OX) signaling and that suppressing this signaling via systemic administration of an orexin receptor (OXR) antagonist blocks this behavior; however, the specific OX pathways that modulate this behavior remain unknown. The goal of the present study was to further elucidate the role of the OX system in binge-like ethanol drinking using behavioral, molecular, and pharmacological techniques...
January 17, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092119/preserved-affective-sharing-but-impaired-decoding-of-contextual-complex-emotions-in-alcohol-dependence
#5
Delphine Grynberg, Pierre Maurage, Jean-Louis Nandrino
BACKGROUND: Prior research has repeatedly shown that alcohol dependence is associated with a large range of impairments in psychological processes, which could lead to interpersonal deficits. Specifically, it has been suggested that these interpersonal difficulties are underpinned by reduced recognition and sharing of others' emotional states. However, this pattern of deficits remains to be clarified. The present study thus aimed to investigate whether alcohol dependence is associated with impaired abilities in decoding contextual complex emotions and with altered sharing of others' emotions...
January 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084631/differentiating-the-effects-of-familial-risk-for-alcohol-dependence-and-prenatal-exposure-to-alcohol-on-offspring-brain-morphology
#6
Vinod K Sharma, Shirley Y Hill
BACKGROUND: Offspring with a family history of alcohol dependence (AD) have been shown to have altered structural and functional integrity of corticolimbic brain structures. Similarly, prenatal exposure to alcohol is associated with a variety of structural and functional brain changes. The goal of this study was to differentiate the brain gray matter volumetric differences associated with familial risk and prenatal exposure to alcohol among offspring while controlling for lifetime personal exposures to alcohol and drugs...
January 13, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081301/ethanol-induces-platelet-apoptosis
#7
Lei Liu, Mengxing Chen, Lili Zhao, Qing Zhao, Renping Hu, Jie Zhu, Rong Yan, Kesheng Dai
BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse incurs severe medical conditions, such as thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage, but the pathogenesis is not totally understood. Alcohol has been reported to induce apoptosis in eukaryotic cells, such as hepatocyte, nerve cell, corneal fibroblasts. However, it is still unclear whether alcohol induces platelet apoptosis. METHODS: Washed human platelets were pretreated with ethanol (EtOH), and apoptotic events and platelet function were detected...
January 12, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075019/differential-recruitment-of-brain-regions-during-response-inhibition-in-children-prenatally-exposed-to-alcohol
#8
Vikas N Kodali, Joseph L Jacobson, Nadine M Lindinger, Neil C Dodge, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Sandra W Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Response inhibition is a distinct aspect of executive function that is frequently impaired in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We used a Go/NoGo (GNG) task in a functional MRI protocol to investigate differential activation of brain regions in the response inhibition network in children diagnosed with full or partial fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS/PFAS), compared with healthy controls. METHODS: A rapid, event-related task with 120 Go and 60 NoGo trials was used to study children aged 8 to 12 years-8 with FAS/PFAS, 17 controls...
January 11, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073157/comparison-of-parent-peer-psychiatric-and-cannabis-use-influences-across-stages-of-offspring-alcohol-involvement-evidence-from-the-coga-prospective-study
#9
Kathleen K Bucholz, Vivia V McCutcheon, Arpana Agrawal, Danielle M Dick, Victor M Hesselbrock, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, John I Nurnberger, Jessica E Salvatore, Marc A Schuckit, Laura J Bierut, Tatiana M Foroud, Grace Chan, Michie Hesselbrock, Jacquelyn L Meyers, Howard J Edenberg, Bernice Porjesz
BACKGROUND: All stages of development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have not been equally studied. While initiation of drinking has been given considerable attention, other stages have not been as thoroughly investigated. It is not clear whether the same factors are associated consistently across early and late transitions in AUD involvement. High-risk family samples that are enriched for AUD vulnerability and transitions in AUD development offer an opportunity to examine influences across multiple stages of AUD development...
January 10, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072457/effects-of-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-during-adolescence-on-the-febrile-response-in-rats
#10
Tatiane M B B Telles, Bruna M T de Oliveira, Luiz A Lomba, Mariane G Leite-Avalca, Diego Correia, Aleksander R Zampronio
BACKGROUND: Ethanol exposure during different phases of life may increase the risk of infections and cause alterations in the central nervous system. The present study investigated the effects of binge-like ethanol exposure in adolescent rats on the febrile response that was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). METHODS: Male rats were exposed to ethanol from postnatal day 25 to 38 in a binge-like pattern. Fever was induced by LPS (5 and 50 μg/kg, intraperitoneally) and evaluated on postnatal day 51 and 63, or by IL-β (3 ng) and evaluated on postnatal day 51...
January 10, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072453/post-treatment-low-risk-drinking-as-a-predictor-of-future-drinking-and-problem-outcomes-among-individuals-with-alcohol-use-disorders-a-9-year-follow-up
#11
Andrea H Kline-Simon, Raye Z Litten, Constance M Weisner, Daniel E Falk
BACKGROUND: Treatment for alcohol use disorders has traditionally been abstinence-oriented, but new research and regulatory guidelines suggest that low-risk drinking may also be an acceptable treatment outcome. However, little is known about long-term outcomes for patients who become low-risk drinkers post-treatment. This study explores a post-treatment low-risk drinking outcome as a predictor of future drinking and psychosocial outcomes over 9 years. METHODS: Study participants were adults with alcohol use disorders at treatment entry who received follow-up interviews 6 months post-treatment intake (N=1061) in two large randomized studies conducted at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large private, nonprofit, integrated health system...
January 10, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068457/cellular-gabaergic-neuroactive-steroid-3%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-3-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one-3%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-thp-immunostaining-levels-are-increased-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-of-human-alcohol-use-disorder-patients-a-postmortem-study
#12
Ahmet Sait Hasirci, Antoniette M Maldonado-Devincci, Matthew C Beattie, Todd K O'Buckley, A Leslie Morrow
BACKGROUND: The GABAergic neuroactive steroid (3α,5α)-3-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP; allopregnanolone) enhances GABAergic activity and produces subjective effects similar to ethanol (EtOH). The effect of chronic alcohol exposure on 3α,5α-THP concentrations has been studied in mouse, rat, and monkey limbic brain areas. Chronic EtOH exposure produced divergent brain region and cell-specific changes in 3α,5α-THP concentrations in animal studies. However, 3α,5α-THP levels in similar human brain regions have never been examined in individuals diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (AUD)...
January 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067964/cardiovascular-consequences-of-binge-drinking-an-integrative-review-with-implications-for-advocacy-policy-and-research
#13
Mariann R Piano, Adriana Mazzuco, Minkyung Kang, Shane A Phillips
Worldwide, binge drinking is a major public health problem. The popularized health risks associated with binge drinking include physical injury and motor vehicle crashes; less attention has been given to the negative effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. The primary aims of this review were to provide a summary of the adverse effects of binge drinking on the risk and development of CV disease and to review potential pathophysiologic mechanisms. Using specific inclusion criteria, an integrative review was conducted that included data from human experimental, prospective cross-sectional, and cohort epidemiological studies that examined the association between binge drinking and CV conditions such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, and arrhythmias...
January 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067415/the-measurement-of-adolescent-alcohol-problems-via-item-response-theory-and-their-15-year-prospective-associations-with-alcohol-and-other-psychiatric-disorders
#14
Michael Windle, Rebecca C Windle
BACKGROUND: A limited number of measures exist to assess alcohol problems during adolescence. Item response theory modeling was used to scale a measure of adolescent alcohol problems, including drinking and driving, and then related to alcohol and other psychiatric disorders that occurred over a 15-year period. METHODS: High school students (N = 832) completed the 13-item Alcohol Problems Index (API) at age 18 years as part of a long-term longitudinal study of predictors of alcohol use and alcohol disorders...
January 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063241/health-risk-factors-associated-with-lifetime-abstinence-from-alcohol-in-the-1979-national-longitudinal-survey-of-youth-cohort
#15
William C Kerr, Camillia K Lui, Edwina Williams, Yu Ye, Thomas K Greenfield, E Anne Lown
BACKGROUND: The choice and definition of a comparison group in alcohol-related health studies remains a prominent issue in alcohol epidemiology due to potential biases in the risk estimates. The most commonly used comparison group has been current abstainers; however, this includes former drinkers who may have quit drinking due to health problems. Lifetime abstention could be the best option, but measurement issues, selection biases due to health and other risk factors, and small numbers in populations are important concerns...
January 7, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060415/gender-differences-in-affects-and-craving-in-alcohol-dependence-a-study-during-alcohol-detoxification
#16
Géraldine Petit, Olivier Luminet, Mariana Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Pauline Monhonval, Sophie Leclercq, Quentin Spilliaert, François Zammit, Pierre Maurage, Philippe de Timary
BACKGROUND: Alcohol craving is a major cause of relapse in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients. It is closely related to the high depression and anxiety symptoms that are frequently observed at the early stages of abstinence, and these comorbid symptoms might thus constitute a relapse factor when they persist after detoxification. As these negative affects are known to evolve during the detoxification process, the aim of this study was to investigate the course of the relation between affects and craving during detoxification, with a particular attention given to gender in light of the known differences in affects between AD men and women...
January 6, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056493/alcohol-impaired-driving-and-perceived-risks-of-legal-consequences
#17
Frank A Sloan, Sabrina A McCutchan, Lindsey M Eldred
BACKGROUND: Driving while impaired (DWI) is a threat to public health. Codified legal sanctions are a widely implemented strategy to reduce DWI. However, it is unclear that sanctioning affects individual risk perceptions so as to deter alcohol-impaired driving. METHODS: Using survey data collected from individual drivers, police, and defense attorneys specializing in DWI in 8 U.S. cities, we investigated whether risk perceptions about legal consequences for alcohol-impaired driving, both the risk of being stopped if driving while alcohol-impaired and receiving specific penalties following a DWI, deter alcohol-impaired driving...
January 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055143/no-wrong-doors-findings-from-a-critical-review-of-behavioral-randomized-clinical-trials-for-individuals-with-co-occurring-alcohol-drug-problems-and-ptsd
#18
Tracy L Simpson, Keren Lehavot, Ismene L Petrakis
Prior reviews of behavioral treatments for individuals with comorbid alcohol and drug use disorders (SUD) and PTSD have not systematically considered whether comparison conditions are matched to target treatments on time and attention. A systematic literature search using PubMed MESH terms for alcohol and substance use disorders, PTSD, and treatment identified relevant behavioral randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated PTSD-oriented exposure-based treatments, addiction-focused treatments, and coping-based treatments that do not involve exposure to trauma memories...
January 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055135/a-combination-of-naltrexone-varenicline-retards-the-expression-of-a-genetic-predisposition-toward-high-alcohol-drinking
#19
Janice C Froehlich, Stephen M Fischer, Emily R Nicholson, Julian E Dilley, Nicholas J Filosa, Teal N Smith, Logan C Rademacher
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether naltrexone (NTX) or varenicline (VAR), alone or in combination, can retard the phenotypic expression of a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for high alcohol intake when drug treatment is initiated prior to, or concomitantly with, the onset of alcohol drinking. METHODS: Alcohol-naïve P rats were treated daily with NTX (15.0 mg/kg BW), VAR (1.0 mg/kg BW), a combination of NTX (15.0 mg/kg BW) + VAR (1...
January 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055132/identifying-future-drinkers-behavioral-analysis-of-monkeys-initiating-drinking-to-intoxication-is-predictive-of-future-drinking-classification
#20
Erich J Baker, Nicole A R Walter, Alex Salo, Pablo Rivas, Sharon Moore, Steven Gonzales, Kathleen A Grant
BACKGROUND: The Monkey Alcohol and Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is a repository and analytics platform for detailed data derived from well-documented Non-Human Primate (NHP) alcohol self-administration studies. This macaque model has demonstrated categorical drinking norms reflective of human drinking populations, resulting in consumption pattern classifications of Very Heavy Drinking (VHD), Heavy Drinking (HD), Binge Drinking (BD), and Low Drinking (LD) individuals. Here we expand on previous findings that suggest ethanol drinking patterns during initial drinking to intoxication can reliably predict future drinking category assignment...
January 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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