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Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

Abby L Braitman, Cathy Lau-Barraco
BACKGROUND: Problematic drinking among emerging adult college students is extensive. Computer-delivered interventions (CDIs) have strong appeal because they can be quickly delivered to large numbers of students. Although they are efficacious in the short term, CDIs are not as efficacious as in-person interventions longer term. This study examined the utility of emailed boosters containing personalized feedback after a CDI to enhance and extend reductions among emerging adult college drinkers...
July 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Dahyeon Kang, Konrad Bresin, Catharine E Fairbairn
BACKGROUND: Researchers have long sought to understand how individuals respond to alcohol in social settings with the aim of elucidating pathways of risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). But studies that incorporate a social context are still outnumbered by those that examine alcohol's subjective effects among participants drinking alcohol in isolation. Further, perhaps due to the challenges of capturing automatic affective processes in these settings, prior studies of alcohol response in social context have relied mainly on self-report measures, and so relatively little is known about alcohol's psychophysiological effects in social settings...
July 10, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Marc A Schuckit, Tom L Smith, George Danko, John Kramer, Kathleen K Bucholz, Vivia McCutcheon, Grace Chan, Samuel Kuperman, Victor Hesselbrock, Danielle M Dick, Michie Hesselbrock, Bernice Porjesz, Howard J Edenberg, John I Nureberger, Marcy Gregg, Lara Schoen, Mari Kawamura, Lee Anne Mendoza
BACKGROUND: Recent reports indicate higher-than-expected problematic drinking in older populations. However, few data describe how to predict which older individuals are most likely to demonstrate alcohol-related problems, including those with earlier alcohol use disorders (AUDs). These analyses evaluate predictors of alcohol outcomes in individuals with earlier AUDs in the Collaborative Study on Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). METHODS: Original COGA participants with baseline AUDs at about age 40 were interviewed 13 to 26 years later and placed into clinically derived outcome categories...
July 5, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Clara R Freeman, Corinde E Wiers, Matthew E Sloan, Amna Zehra, Veronica Ramirez, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been associated with impairments in cognitive and emotional function, including difficulty identifying emotional facial expressions. However, it is unclear whether these deficits are associated with alcohol consumption or related anxious and depressive symptoms. METHODS: We compared the recognition of emotional faces expressing happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust in 19 AUD participants and 19 healthy volunteers using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Emotion Recognition Task...
July 5, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Umit Shrestha, Tess L Weber, Jessica D Hanson
BACKGROUND: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are a major public health concern including among American Indian (AI)/Alaska Native (AN) communities. Various studies have demonstrated higher alcohol consumption among AI/AN women during pregnancy compared to other groups. This paper intends to understand the milieu within which such consumption patterns flourish. The paper utilizes qualitative and quantitative data from the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES Program, a tribally run public health program that aims to reduce alcohol-exposed pregnancy preconceptually in AI women...
July 4, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Lara A Ray, Spencer Bujarski, Daniel James Olan Roche, Molly Magill
BACKGROUND: As the development of novel pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been slow, the discovery and testing of more efficacious pharmacotherapies for AUD represents a high priority research area. In fact, the transition from pre-clinical to clinical testing of novel compounds has been termed the "valley of death" in medications development. One key obstacle consists of the lack of an articulated set of goals for each stage of medications development. Specifically, the knowledge outputs required to make the transition from safety testing, to early efficacy detection, to confirming clinical efficacy remain unclear, and this is despite a great deal of interest and substantial financial investment in developing novel therapeutics for AUD...
July 3, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jinni Su, Sally I-Chun Kuo, Fazil Aliev, Mignonne C Guy, Chelsea L Derlan, Howard J Edenberg, John I Nurnberger, John R Kramer, Kathleen K Bucholz, Jessica E Salvatore, Danielle M Dick
BACKGROUND: Parental alcohol problems are associated with adverse adolescent outcomes such as risky drinking and conduct problems. Important questions remain about the unique roles of fathers' and mothers' alcohol problems and differences and/or similarities in pathways of risk across ethnicity and gender. In this study, we used a family systems approach to consider spillover and crossover effects of fathers' and mothers' alcohol problems (number of alcohol dependence symptoms) and parenting behaviors in relation to adolescents' risky drinking and conduct problems...
July 3, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Mandy Rita LeCocq, Soraya Lahlou, Melanie Chahine, Nadine Lorraine Padillo, Nadia Chaudhri
BACKGROUND: Animal models are critical for studying causal explanations of relapse. Using a Pavlovian conditioning procedure with alcohol, we examined relapse after extinction triggered by either re-exposure to alcohol (reinstatement) or a delay between extinction and test (spontaneous recovery). METHODS: Male, Long-Evans rats were acclimated to 15% alcohol in the home-cage using an intermittent-access two-bottle choice procedure. Next, they received Pavlovian conditioning sessions in which an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS; 20 s white-noise; 8 trials/session; variable time 240 s) was paired with 15% alcohol (0...
July 3, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Andres L Paz, Monica Rosselli, Joshua Conniff
BACKGROUND: Links between response inhibition and young adult problematic drinking (e.g., binge drinking) has been established, but only to an extent. Considering the presence of some inconsistent findings associated with these two variables, the present study proposes the need to investigate the extent in which different inhibitory subcomponents are associated with binge drinking behaviors of the same sample. METHODS: Through the use of a six-month longitudinal design, changes in Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ) binge score of 163 college students (50...
July 3, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Anuranita Gupta, Andrew T Gargiulo, Genevieve R Curtis, Preeti S Badve, Surya Pandey, Jessica R Barson
BACKGROUND: The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) is a limbic brain structure that affects ethanol drinking, but the neurochemicals transcribed in this nucleus that may participate in this behavior have yet to be fully characterized. The neuropeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), is known to be transcribed in other limbic areas and to be involved in many of the same behaviors as the PVT itself, possibly including ethanol drinking. It exists in two isoforms, PACAP-38 and PACAP-27, with the former expressed at higher levels in most brain regions...
July 3, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Joseph M Gullett, Damon G Lamb, Eric Porges, Adam J Woods, Jake Rieke, Paul Thompson, Neda Jahanshad, Talia M Nir, Karen Tashima, Ronald A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is prevalent among individuals diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and both HIV and alcohol use have been shown to negatively affect the integrity of white matter pathways in the brain. Behavioral, functional, and anatomical impairments have been linked independently to HIV and alcohol use, and these impairments have bases in specific frontally-mediated pathways within the brain. METHODS: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data were acquired for 37 HIV+ participants without dementia or hepatitis C...
June 29, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Matthew B Pomrenze, Simone M Giovanetti
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are a devastating class of addictive disorders that incur a tremendous societal and economic burden. AUDs cost an estimated annual $235 billion in the United States (Rehm et al., 2009) and are very common with a 12-month prevalence of 13.9% and lifetime prevalence of 29.1% (Grant et al., 2015). Current treatment options are limited to psychosocial intervention, three FDA-approved medications (disulfuram, acamprosate, and naltrexone), and a handful of other drugs approved for other indications, all with relatively small effect sizes...
June 29, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Dylan Todd, Daniel J Bonthius, Lia Marie Sabalo, Jasmine Roghair, Bahri Karacay, Samantha Larimer Bousquet, Daniel J Bonthius
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-exposure during pregnancy can kill developing neurons and lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, affected individuals differ in their regional patterns of alcohol-induced neuropathology. Because neuroprotective genes are expressed in spatially selective ways, their mutation could increase the vulnerability of some brain regions, but not others, to alcohol teratogenicity. The objective of this study was to determine whether a null mutation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) can increase the vulnerability of some brain regions, but not others, to alcohol-induced neuronal losses...
June 29, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jennifer M Loftis, Juno Valerio, Jonathan Taylor, Elaine Huang, Rebekah Hudson, Patricia Taylor-Young, Michael Chang, Samuel B Ho, Eric Dieperink, Juan Luis Miranda, Peter Hauser
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and alcohol use disorder (AUD) both adversely affect the immune system resulting in alterations in immune cell signaling and inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate how comorbid AUD contributes to abnormalities in inflammatory mediators and psychiatric impairments in adults with HCV. METHODS: Alcohol use, mood, and inflammatory factors were evaluated at 3 time points (baseline, week 4, and week 12) in Veterans with HCV, with (n = 42) and without (n = 13) comorbid AUD...
June 28, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Nancy J Alexander, Andrew R Rau, Vanessa A Jimenez, James B Daunais, Kathleen A Grant, Brian A McCool
BACKGROUND: Recent work with long-term ethanol self-administration in non-human primate models has revealed a complex array of behavioral and physiological effects that closely mimic human alcohol abuse. Detailed neurophysiological analysis in these models suggests a myriad of pre- and postsynaptic neurobiological effects that may contribute to the behavioral manifestations of long-term ethanol drinking. The molecular mechanisms regulating presynaptic effects of this chronic ethanol exposure are largely unknown...
June 26, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Brittney A Hultgren, Rob Turrisi, Kimberly A Mallett, Sarah Ackerman, Mary E Larimer, Denis McCarthy, Eduardo Romano
BACKGROUND: Riding with a drinking driver (RWDD) is a serious concern that leads to numerous preventable deaths every year. There is a significant gap in research on empirically tested predictors of RWDD that could be implemented in prevention efforts. College students are in need of such prevention efforts, as they have some of the highest rates of alcohol-related crash fatalities and may RWDD more than their non-college peers. The current study utilized behavioral decision-making approach to examine predictors of RWDD and declining a ride from a drinking driver (Decline) in older college students...
June 26, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Michael Suttie, Jeffrey R Wozniak, Scott E Parnell, Leah Wetherill, Sarah N Mattson, Elizabeth R Sowell, Eric Kan, Edward P Riley, Kenneth L Jones, Claire Coles, Tatiana Foroud, Peter Hammond
BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a range of facial, neurostructural and neurocognitive adverse effects have been shown to be associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. Typically, these effects are studied individually and not in combination. Our objective is to improve the understanding of the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure by simultaneously considering face-brain morphology and neurocognitive measures. METHODS: Participants were categorized as control (n=47), fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS, n=22) or heavily exposed prenatally, but not eligible for a FAS diagnosis (HE, n=50)...
June 23, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Cathy Lau-Barraco, Abby L Braitman, Ashley Linden-Carmichael, Amy L Stamates
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to test proposed mediators and moderators of a personalized feedback alcohol intervention (PFI) on alcohol use. Data for the current investigation came from an earlier randomized controlled trial of a PFI targeted for nonstudent heavy drinkers between 18-25 years. METHOD: Participants were 164 (65.9% men) drinkers recruited from the community. They were randomly assigned to either a single-session PFI or an assessment-only (AO) control group...
June 23, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Paul A Shuper, Narges Joharchi, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND: Although it has been purported that HIV-positive individuals may experience a greater degree of intoxication than HIV-negative individuals following acute alcohol consumption, no research to date has empirically tested this supposition. The present investigation entailed a randomized controlled experiment to identify whether the administration of a weight-specified dose of alcohol would lead to differential blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) among HIV-positive versus HIV-negative men...
June 21, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Lisa K Akison, Jenny Kuo, Natasha Reid, Roslyn N Boyd, Karen M Moritz
Prenatal alcohol exposure results in cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits in offspring. There is an urgent need for safe and effective treatments to overcome these effects. Maternal choline supplementation has been identified as a potential intervention. Our objective was to review preclinical and clinical studies using choline supplementation in known cases of fetal alcohol exposure to determine its effectiveness in ameliorating deficits in offspring. A systematic search of six electronic databases was conducted and studies selected by reviewing titles/abstracts against specific inclusion/exclusion criteria...
June 21, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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