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Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641361/maternal-alcohol-use-disorder-and-risk-of-child-contact-with-the-justice-system-in-western-australia-a-population-cohort-record-linkage-study
#1
Katherine Hafekost, David Lawrence, Colleen O'Leary, Carol Bower, James Semmens, Stephen R Zubrick
BACKGROUND: Early contact with the justice system is associated with a multitude of negative outcomes across the life course. This includes an increased risk of ongoing justice contact, social disadvantage and marginalization, and mental health and substance use issues. Children whose mothers have an alcohol use disorder may be at risk of early justice system contact, and we sought to quantify this relationship in a Western Australian cohort. METHODS: This population cohort study made use of linked administrative data...
June 22, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618018/executive-functions-memory-and-social-cognitive-deficits-and-recovery-in-chronic-alcoholism-a-critical-review-to-inform-future-research
#2
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Rosemary Fama, Edith V Sullivan
Alcoholism is a complex and dynamic disease, punctuated by periods of abstinence and relapse, and influenced by a multitude of vulnerability factors. Chronic excessive alcohol consumption is associated with cognitive deficits, ranging from mild to severe, in executive functions, memory, and metacognitive abilities, with associated impairment in emotional processes and social cognition. These deficits can compromise efforts in initiating and sustaining abstinence by hampering efficacy of clinical treatment and can obstruct efforts in enabling good decision-making, success in interpersonal/social interactions, and awareness of cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions...
June 15, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617959/varenicline-reduces-alcohol-intake-during-repeated-cycles-of-alcohol-reaccess-following-deprivation-in-alcohol-preferring-p-rats
#3
Janice C Froehlich, Emily R Nicholson, Julian E Dilley, Nick J Filosa, Logan C Rademacher, Teal N Smith
BACKGROUND: Most alcoholics experience periods of voluntary alcohol abstinence or imposed alcohol deprivation followed by a return to alcohol drinking. The current study examined whether varenicline (VAR) reduces alcohol intake during a return to drinking after periods of alcohol deprivation in rats selectively bred for high alcohol drinking (the alcohol preferring or "P" rats). METHODS: Alcohol-experienced P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to alcohol (15% and 30% v/v) for 2 h/d...
June 15, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617958/alcohol-consumption-decreases-oxytocin-neurons-in-the-anterior-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-in-prairie-voles
#4
J R Stevenson, K A Young, A E Bohidar, L M Francomacaro, T R Fasold, J M Buirkle, J R Ndem, S C Christian
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are associated with dysfunctional social relationships and stress responses. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are known to orchestrate or mediate many aspects of social behavior, stress responses, and ingestive behaviors. Because of the overlap between the effects of alcohol and the roles of oxytocin and vasopressin, we sought to determine if alcohol consumption altered expression of OT and AVP in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), one of the key sites for OT and AVP synthesis...
June 15, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614615/a-quantitative-analysis-of-latino-acculturation-and-alcohol-use-myth-versus-reality
#5
REVIEW
Miriam J Alvarez, Gabriel Frietze, Corin Ramos, Craig Field, Michael A Zárate
Research on health among Latinos often focuses on acculturation processes and the associated stressors that influence drinking behavior. Given the common use of acculturation measures and the state of the knowledge on alcohol-related health among Latino populations, the current analyses tested the efficacy of acculturation measures to predict various indicators of alcohol consumption. Specifically, this quantitative review assessed the predictive utility of acculturation on alcohol consumption behaviors (frequency, volume, and quantity)...
June 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614590/chronic-ethanol-during-adolescence-impacts-corticolimbic-dendritic-spines-and-behavior
#6
Nicholas J Jury, Gabrielle A Pollack, Meredith J Ward, Jessica L Bezek, Alexandra J Ng, Courtney R Pinard, Hadley C Bergstrom, Andrew Holmes
BACKGROUND: Risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in adulthood is linked to alcohol drinking during adolescence, but understanding of the neural and behavioral consequences of alcohol exposure during adolescence remains incomplete. Here, we examined the neurobehavioral impact of adolescent chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) vapor exposure in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6J-background Thy1-EGFP mice were CIE-exposed during adolescence or adulthood and examined, as adults, for alterations in the density and morphology of dendritic spines in infralimbic (IL) cortex, prelimbic (PL) cortex, and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
June 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608920/facial-curvature-detects-and-explicates-ethnic-differences-in-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#7
Michael Suttie, Leah Wetherill, Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, H Eugene Hoyme, Elizabeth R Sowell, Claire Coles, Jeffrey R Wozniak, Edward P Riley, Kenneth L Jones, Tatiana Foroud, Peter Hammond
BACKGROUND: Our objective is to help clinicians detect the facial effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) by developing computer based tools for screening facial form. METHODS: All 415 individuals considered were evaluated by expert dysmorphologists and categorized as 1) healthy control (HC), 2) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or 3) heavily prenatally alcohol exposed (HE) but not clinically diagnosable as FAS. 3D facial photographs were used to build models of facial form to support discrimination studies...
June 13, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605827/predischarge-injectable-versus-oral-naltrexone-to-improve-postdischarge-treatment-engagement-among-hospitalized-veterans-with-alcohol-use-disorder-a-randomized-pilot-proof-of-concept-study
#8
Angela Christina Busch, Meenakshi Denduluri, Joseph Glass, Scott Hetzel, Shalu P Gugnani, Michele Gassman, Dean Krahn, Brienna Deyo, Randall Brown
BACKGROUND: Injectable naltrexone for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has been efficacious in several studies. It has not been (i) compared head-to-head with oral naltrexone or (ii) examined in the hospital setting as an intervention that might facilitate treatment attendance after hospital discharge. METHODS: Fifty-four hospitalized veterans identified as having DSM-IV-TR alcohol dependence were randomized to receive (i) a 50 mg oral naltrexone plus a 30-day prescription or (ii) a 380 mg intramuscular naltrexone injection prior to discharge...
June 12, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578562/development-and-initial-validation-of-the-alcohol-expectancy-task-aet
#9
Emmanuel Kuntsche, Sandra Kuntsche
BACKGROUND: Although studies have shown that alcohol expectancies are prominent predictors of alcohol initiation and subsequent drinking levels, the questionnaires used to assess these expectancies among young adolescents have been criticized as being time-intensive, biased and inappropriate. METHODS: In response, we developed the Alcohol Expectancy Task (AET), in which eight scenarios featuring adults in everyday situations and in different emotional states, accompanied by photos of a range of beverages (four alcoholic, eight non-alcoholic) are displayed on a tablet screen, and participants are then asked to tap on the beverage they think the given person had been drinking...
June 4, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571107/age-specific-prevalence-of-binge-and-high-intensity-drinking-among-u-s-young-adults-changes-from-2005-to-2015
#10
Megan E Patrick, Yvonne M Terry-McElrath, Richard A Miech, John E Schulenberg, Patrick M O'Malley, Lloyd D Johnston
BACKGROUND: This study examined changes during the past decade, from 2005 to 2015, in binge and high-intensity drinking in 7 separate age groups of U.S. 12th graders and young adults. METHODS: National longitudinal data (N = 6,711) from Monitoring the Future were used to examine trends in consuming 5+, 10+, and 15+ drinks on the same occasion in the past 2 weeks from ages 18 to 29/30 overall and by gender. Results were compared with trends in past 12-month and 30-day alcohol use for the same age groups...
June 1, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557005/sarcopenia-in-alcoholic-liver-disease-clinical-and-molecular-advances
#11
Jaividhya Dasarathy, Arthur J McCullough, Srinivasan Dasarathy
Despite advances in treatment of alcohol use disorders that focus on increasing abstinence and reducing recidivism, alcoholic liver disease is projected to be the major cause of cirrhosis and its complications. Malnutrition is recognized as the most frequent complication in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and despite the high clinical significance, there are no effective therapies to reverse malnutrition in ALD. Malnutrition is a relatively imprecise term and sarcopenia or skeletal muscle loss, the major component of malnutrition, is primarily responsible for the adverse clinical consequences in patients with liver disease...
May 29, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556207/characterization-of-self-defining-memories-in-individuals-with-severe-alcohol-use-disorders-after-mid-term-abstinence-the-impact-of-the-emotional-valence-of-memories
#12
Jean-Louis Nandrino, Marie-Charlotte Gandolphe
BACKGROUND: Self-defining memories (SDM) are distinguished from other autobiographical memory (AM) processes to delineate those associated with the sense of personal identity and continuity in one's individual history. With chronic alcohol consumption, the construction of such memories may be modified in terms of specificity, valence, meaning-making and evoked topics. The present study sought to characterize SDM in a population of 27 patients with AUD who had been abstinent for at least 2 months compared with 28 control participants...
May 28, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543031/in-memoriam-professor-jean-pierre-von-wartburg-1931-to-2017
#13
Helmut K Seitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543099/evidence-of-altered-mitochondrial-protein-expression-after-chronic-ethanol-consumption-in-the-aged-estrogen-deficient-female-rat-heart
#14
Alexandra M Garvin, J L Miller-Lee, D R Sharda, G M Kanski, J C Hunter, Donna H Korzick
BACKGROUND: Estrogen loss has been implicated to increase the risk of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in post-menopausal women. The purpose of this study was to identify novel mitochondrial protein targets for the treatment of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in aged women using a state-of-the-art proteomics approach. We hypothesized that chronic ethanol (EtOH) ingestion exacerbates maladaptive mitochondrial protein expression in the aged female heart METHODS: Adult (3 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 ovary-intact or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were randomly assigned an EtOH or control Lieber-DeCarli 'all liquid' diet for 20 wks...
May 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494516/the-modulation-of-the-startle-reflex-as-predictor-of-alcohol-use-disorders-in-a-sample-of-heavy-drinkers-a-4-year-follow-up-study
#15
Rosa Jurado-Barba, Almudena Duque, José Ramón López-Trabada, Isabel Martínez-Gras, María Salud García-Gutiérrez, Francisco Navarrete, Francisco López-Muñoz, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Arriero, Cesar Ávila, Jorge Manzanares, Gabriel Rubio
BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrated that patients with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show altered startle reflex responses to alcohol-related stimuli. However, there is little information about the role of these altered responses in the development of AUDs. This study examined the startle reflex response to different visual stimuli and the role of these patterns in the development of AUDs in a 4-year follow-up. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-nine (nondependent) heavy-drinking participants were selected...
May 11, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493623/aripiprazole-suppression-of-drinking-in-a-clinical-laboratory-paradigm-influence-of-impulsivity-and-self-control
#16
Raymond F Anton, Joseph P Schacht, Konstantin E Voronin, Patrick K Randall
BACKGROUND: Aspects of impulsivity have been implicated in the development, or maintenance, of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). The brain dopamine system is implicated in both reward processing/memory (typically subcortical) and in brain inhibitory control mechanisms (typically cortical). Using a validated clinical lab paradigm, the dopamine/serotonin "stabilizing" drug, aripiprazole was evaluated in non-treatment-seeking AUD individuals based on their level of impulsivity/ self-control. METHODS: Ninety-nine individuals (77% male; mean age 27; 7...
May 11, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493563/nalmefene-prevents-alcohol-induced-neuroinflammation-and-alcohol-drinking-preference-in-adolescent-female-mice-role-of-tlr4
#17
Jorge Montesinos, Anabel Gil, Consuelo Guerri
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that, by activating innate immune receptors toll-like 4 (TLR4), adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure causes neuroinflammation, myelin damage and behavioral dysfunctions. Recent findings reveal that clinically-used opioid antagonists naltrexone (NT) and naloxone (NX) inhibit opioid-induced TLR4 signaling, and that NT, NX and nalmefene (NF), the 6-methylene derivative of NX, are able to reduce alcohol drinking escalation. METHODS: NF (0...
May 11, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493556/association-of-anticipated-and-laboratory-derived-alcohol-stimulation-sedation-and-reward
#18
Daniel J Fridberg, Sandra Y Rueger, Patrick B S Smith, Andrea C King
BACKGROUND: Laboratory alcohol challenges are the "gold standard" for obtaining accurate measurements of subjective alcohol stimulation, sedation, and reward. However, these approaches are time- and resource-intensive. The present study examined the extent to which self-reported anticipated alcohol stimulation, sedation, and reward corresponded with those same responses measured with the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES), Brief-BAES (B-BAES), and Drug Effects Questionnaire (DEQ) during a controlled laboratory alcohol challenge...
May 11, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485899/determinants-of-bdnf-blood-levels-in-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#19
Philippe Nubukpo, Nicolas Ramoz, Murielle Girard, Dominique Malauzat, Philip Gorwood
BACKGROUND: Blood Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels are influenced by both addiction and mood disorders, as well as somatic conditions, gender, and genetic polymorphisms, leading to widely varying results. Depressive symptoms and episodes are frequently observed in patients with alcohol-use disorder, and vary widely over time, making it a challenge to determine which aspects are specifically involved in variations of serum BDNF levels in this population. METHODS: We assessed 227 patients with alcohol dependence involved in a detoxification program, at baseline and after a follow-up of six months, for the AUDIT score, the length of alcohol dependence, and the number of past detoxification programs...
May 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471508/fda-and-ema-need-homology-on-alcohol-outcome-measures-semper-simplicitas-est-purius-modum
#20
LETTER
Bankole A Johnson
Litten et al. (2017) continue to propose important points, which also emanated from my initial commentary (Johnson, 2017) on the paper by Witkiewitz et al. (2017), which call for: a) homology between the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) criteria to be used for determining efficacy in pharmacotherapy trials for alcohol use disorder (AUD); b) measures that have clinical relevance with respect to the health-related consequences of AUD; and c) the establishment that such measures be sensitive enough to detect clinically significant change in pharmacotherapy trials for AUD...
May 4, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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