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Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

Paula A Zamudio-Bulcock, Gregg E Homanics, John J Woodward
BACKGROUND: Glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are well known for their sensitivity to ethanol inhibition. However, the specific manner in which ethanol inhibits channel activity and how such inhibition affects neurotransmission, and ultimately behavior, remain unclear. Replacement of phenylalanine 639 with alanine (F639A) in the GluN1 subunit reduces ethanol inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptors. Mice expressing this subunit show reduced ethanol-induced anxiolysis, blunted locomotor stimulation following low dose ethanol administration and faster recovery of motor function after moderate doses of ethanol suggesting that cerebellar dysfunction may contribute to some of these behaviors...
January 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Yingmei Zhang, Jun Ren
Binge drinking is commonly associated with high risk of cardiovascular diseases although the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Advances in genomics and genetics have indicated a number of alcohol-responsive genes in alcohol drinking behavior and alcoholic organ injury. Recent findings revealed a dramatic rise in mircoRNA-10a (miR-10a) and miR-21 levels with binge drinking (Beech et al., 2014). Given the increased knowledge in the past decade on the role of non-coding RNAs in the regulation of cardiovascular function, the identification of novel microRNA and underlying cellular mechanisms in alcoholism and alcoholic organ complication suggests therapeutic promises for the interventions against alcoholic complications...
January 6, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Ruilan Xia, Longmei Jin, Dekun Li, Hong Liang, Fen Yang, Jianping Chen, Wei Yuan, Maohua Miao
BACKGROUND: There are limited studies on the effects of paternal alcohol consumption, before conception, on the reproductive development of offspring. Anogenital distance (AGD), the distance from the center of the anus to the genitals, is a sensitive biomarker of reproductive hormone abnormalities during the critical developmental window. The relationship between paternal alcohol consumption and AGD of human offspring has not been studied yet. METHODS: This cohort study included 1,292 pregnant women recruited in Shanghai...
January 6, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Megan E Patrick, Yvonne M Terry-McElrath
Epidemiological research has documented a puzzling disconnect between recent alcohol-related trends in the United States. Studies comparing year-to-year prevalence of alcohol use and binge drinking have shown that drinking has been decreasing among adolescents and young adults (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2015; Miech et al., 2017; Schulenberg et al., 2017). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 4, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Katie Witkiewitz, Kevin E Vowles
The dramatic increase in opioid misuse, opioid use disorder (OUD), and opioid-related overdose deaths in the United States has led to public outcry, policy statements, and funding initiatives. Meanwhile, alcohol misuse and alcohol use disorder is a highly prevalent public health problem associated with considerable individual and societal costs. This paper provides a critical review of alcohol and opioid misuse, including issues of prevalence, morbidity, and societal costs. We also review research on interactions between alcohol and opioid use, the influence of opioids and alcohol on alcohol use disorder (AUD) and OUD treatment outcomes, respectively, the role of pain in the co-use of alcohol and opioids, and treatment of comorbid OUD and AUD...
January 4, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Aaron M White, Megan E Slater, Grace Ng, Ralph Hingson, Rosalind Breslow
BACKGROUND: Acute alcohol consumption and chronic alcohol consumption increase the burden placed on emergency departments (EDs) by contributing to injury and disease. Whether the prevalence of alcohol-related ED visits in the United States has changed in recent years is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in ED visits involving acute and chronic alcohol consumption in the United States by age and sex between 2006 and 2014. METHODS: Data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), the largest all-payer ED database in the United States involving 945 hospitals in 33 states and Washington, DC, were analyzed to assess changes in prevalence and rates of ED visits involving acute and chronic alcohol consumption by age and sex over time among persons aged ≥12 between 2006 and 2014...
January 2, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Raul Caetano, Paul Gruenewald, Patrice A C Vaeth, Glorisa Canino
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to examine lifetime criteria profiles and correlates of severity (mild, moderate, severe) of DSM-5 alcohol use disorders (AUD) in Puerto Rico. METHODS: Data are from a household random sample of individuals 18 to 64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The survey response rate was 83%. DSM-5 AUD was identified with the Spanish version of the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The analyses also identify correlates of each severity level using an ordered logistic regression model...
January 2, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Mary E McCaul, Gary S Wand
There is increasing awareness of the potential negative impacts of participant deception on research, including possibly undermining reliability and reproducibility of study findings. These deceptive individuals set their personal interests above the rules of study participation, thereby jeopardizing data quality as well as placing themselves and others at risk. The costs of participant deception are numerous. Overall, it reduces statistical power and may even result in false conclusions about efficacy and safety...
December 29, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Kevin A Hallgren, Brianna C Delker, Tracy L Simpson
BACKGROUND: Craving and negative affect are distressing and commonly experienced during alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment. Patients may assume that initiating abstinence will intensify their cravings and negative affect despite limited empirical data to support this assumption. The present study extends and replicates, under improved methodological conditions, previous work that found reductions in daily craving associated with initiating abstinence. METHODS: Seventy-eight adults (80...
December 29, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Manuel Sanchez-Alavez, Derek N Wills, Leslie Amodeo, Cindy L Ehlers
Disturbances in sleep architecture, especially reductions in slow wave sleep (SWS), are symptoms commonly observed in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that the anticonvulsant and analgesic drug Gabapentin may have therapeutic value in normalizing sleep quality in recovering alcoholics. However, the brain mechanisms underlying this improvement in sleep following Gabapentin treatment remain unknown METHODS: In the present study, adult Wistar rats were exposed to 8 weeks of chronic intermittent ethanol vapor (CIE) (blood ethanol concentrations averaged 128...
December 29, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Hollis C Karoly, L Cinnamon Bidwell, Raeghan Mueller, Kent Hutchison
BACKGROUND: In recent years, human and animal studies have converged to support altered inflammatory signaling as one molecular mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Alcohol binds to receptors on immune cells, triggering signaling pathways that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Chronic inflammation is associated with tissue damage, which may contribute to negative effects of AUD. Conversely, cannabis is associated with decreased inflammatory signaling, and animal studies suggest that cannabinoids may impact alcohol-induced inflammation...
December 29, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Kelly E Moore, Olga J Santiago Rivera, Bradley Anderson, Jennifer E Johnson, Judith A Hahn, Megan E Kurth, Madhavi K Reddy, Yael C Schonbrun, Michael D Stein
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a direct biomarker for alcohol that is formed shortly after alcohol use and may remain detectable in blood for weeks after alcohol consumption. There is little research on alcohol use factors that influence PEth elimination, especially among women. METHODS: Data were collected from 116 alcohol use-disordered women who were recently incarcerated. We used a two-part model with logistic and linear components to examine whether alcohol consumption in the two weeks prior to incarceration and days since last alcoholic drink (operationalized as abstinence days prior to incarceration + days incarcerated) were associated with PEth detectability (>8ng/mL) and level (ng/mL) in blood...
December 27, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Tobias H Elgán, Natalie Durbeej, Harold D Holder, Johanna Gripenberg
BACKGROUND: Alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events and related problems, such as violence, are of great concern in many countries around the world. However, knowledge is scarce about whether or not alcohol is served to obviously intoxicated spectators at licensed premises inside and outside the sporting arenas, and if obviously intoxicated spectators are allowed entrance to these events. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the occurrences of overserving at licensed premises inside and outside arenas, and of allowed entry of obviously intoxicated spectators into arenas...
December 21, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Usama Bilal, Mary E McCaul, Heidi M Crane, W Christopher Mathews, Kenneth H Mayer, Elvin Geng, Sonia Napravnik, Karen L Cropsey, Michael J Mugavero, Michael S Saag, Heidi Hutton, Bryan Lau, Geetanjali Chander
BACKGROUND: To describe alcohol consumption trajectories in a cohort of People Living With HIV and determine clinical and sociodemographic predictors of each trajectory. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of 7906 patients in the 7 Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) sites. Alcohol consumption was categorized as none, moderate, and alcohol misuse. Predictors included age, race/ethnicity, depressive or anxiety symptoms, illicit drug use (opioids, methamphetamines, cocaine/crack), marijuana use, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, HIV transmission risk factor, and HIV disease progression...
December 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Maria M Wong, Kirk J Brower, Deirdre A Conroy, Kathryn Lachance, Elizabeth A Craun
BACKGROUND: Past research has indicated that both sleep difficulties (Gregory and Sadeh, 2012) and a parental history of alcoholism (Zucker, 2006) increase the risk of behavioral problems. But it is not known whether sleep difficulties differentially increase the risk of problem behaviors among children of alcoholics and controls. We compared multiple measures of sleep and the relationships between sleep and behavioral problems in these two groups of children. METHODS: One hundred and fifteen children aged 8-12 (67% children of alcoholics or COAs; 56% girls; Mage =10...
December 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Lara A Ray, ReJoyce Green, Daniel J O Roche, Spencer Bujarski, Emily E Hartwell, Aaron C Lim, Taylor Rohrbaugh, Dara Ghahremani, Kent Hutchison, Karen Miotto
BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in the endogenous opioid system has been identified as one potential source of individual variability in naltrexone treatment outcomes. The majority of naltrexone pharmacogenetic studies have focused on a particular single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1; rs1799971; commonly known as the Asn40Asp SNP) in Caucasian samples with decidedly mixed results. The goal of this study is to test the pharmacogenetic effects of naltrexone on subjective response to alcohol and self-administration of alcohol in individuals of East Asian descent...
December 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Salvador Huitron-Resendiz, Tali Nadav, Stephanie Krause, Chelsea Cates-Gatto, Ilham Polis, Amanda J Roberts
BACKGROUND: Sleep disruptions are an important consequence of alcohol use disorders. There is a dearth of preclinical studies examining sex differences in sleep patterns associated with ethanol dependence despite documented sex differences in alcohol related behaviors and withdrawal symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (EtOH) on sleep characteristics in female and male mice. METHODS: Female and male C57BL6/J mice had access to EtOH/water two bottle choice (2BC) 2hr/day for 3 weeks followed by exposure to EtOH vapor (vapor-2BC) or air (control-2BC) for 5 cycles of 4 days...
December 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Gregory C Loney, Paul J Meyer
BACKGROUND: Aversion to the orosensory properties of concentrated ethanol solutions is often cited as a primary barrier to initiation of drinking and may contribute to abstention. These aversive properties include gustatory processes which encompass both bitter-like taste qualities and trigeminal-mediated irritation. Chronic-intermittent ethanol access (CIA) results in substantial and persistent increases in ethanol consumption, but the degree to which this facilitation involves sensory responding to ethanol and other bitter stimuli is currently undetermined...
December 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Emily R Nicholson, Julian E Dilley, Janice C Froehlich
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether combining naltrexone (NTX) with bupropion (BUP) is more effective in reducing alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats with a genetic predisposition toward high voluntary alcohol intake than is either drug alone. METHODS: Alcohol-experienced, adult, male, alcohol-preferring (P) rats were fed NTX alone in a dose of 10.0 mg/kg BW, BUP alone in a dose of 10.0 mg/kg BW, BUP alone in a dose of 20.0 mg/kg BW, NTX (10.0 mg/kg BW) + BUP (10...
December 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Megha Bendre, Erika Comasco, Dave Checknita, Jari Tiihonen, Sheilagh Hodgins, Kent W Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms are candidate moderators of the effect of maltreatment on brain and behavior. Interactions between maltreatment and the Monoamine Oxidase A upstream variable number tandem repeat genotype (MAOA-uVNTR) are associated with alcohol-related problems. However, presently it is not known whether DNA methylation moderates this association. The study focused on fifty-three young adult males and aimed to determine: whether MAOA methylation moderated the association of alcohol-related problems with the interaction of MAOA-uVNTR and maltreatment; and whether alcohol consumption moderated the association of MAOA methylation with the interaction of MAOA-uVNTR and maltreatment...
December 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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