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Journal of Medical Virology

Asad Ali, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Rabbia Waris, Fatima Jafri, Fatima Aziz, Imran Naeem Abbasi, Anita Zaidi
Major progress is being made in vaccines against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), with multiple vaccine candidates currently in the clinical phase of development. Making an investment case for public sector financing of RSV vaccine will require estimation of burden, cost-effectiveness and impact. The aim of this study is to determine the proportion, age distribution and clinical spectrum of RSV associated hospitalizations in children in Karachi, Pakistan. A three years prospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University hospital in Karachi, a city of 20 million in south Pakistan, from August 2009 to June 2012...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Norio Akuta, Hitomi Sezaki, Fumitaka Suzuki, Shunichiro Fujiyama, Yusuke Kawamura, Tetsuya Hosaka, Masahiro Kobayashi, Mariko Kobayashi, Satoshi Saitoh, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Yasuji Arase, Kenji Ikeda, Hiromitsu Kumada
There is little information on retreatment efficacy and predictors of the combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir) for patients who fail to respond to NS5A inhibitors. NS5A resistance variants are known to persist for long periods after such treatment. Here, we evaluated 54 patients with chronic HCV genotype 1b infection, free of decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, for sustained virological response after 12 weeks (SVR12) of once-daily treatment with 90 mg ledipasvir and 400 mg sofosbuvir...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Marta Grandal, Berta Pernas, Ana Mariño, Hortensia Álvarez, Andrés Tabernilla, Ángeles Castro-Iglesias, Álvaro Mena, Manuel Delgado, Sonia Pértega, Eva Poveda
The aim of the study was to characterize HCV infection in Northwest Spain and assess the impact of the Spanish Strategic Plan to cure HCV infection. Overall, 387 patients were included (60.9% HIV/HCV coinfected and 28.2% cirrhotic). Of these, 72.9% of patients that were recognized as priority for HCV treatment according to the Spanish Strategic Plan (≥F2, transplant or extrahepatic manifestations), initiated treatment during 2015. Globally, SVR12 was achieved in 96.5% of patients. The implementation of the Spanish Strategic Plan has been critical to advance in HCV cure, but 27...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Jorge Abboud Guerra, Allison Waters, Alison Kelly, Ursula Morley, Paul O'Reilly, Edwin O'Kelly, Jonathan Dean, Robert Cunney, Piaras O'Lorcain, Suzanne Cotter, Jeff Connell, Joanne O'Gorman, William W Hall, Michael Carr, Cillian F De Gascun
Enteroviruses (EVs) are associated with a broad spectrum of clinical presentation, including aseptic meningitis (AM), encephalitis, hand, foot and mouth disease, acute flaccid paralysis and acute flaccid myelitis. Epidemics occur sporadically and are associated with increased cases of AM in children. The present study describes the seroepidemiological analysis of circulating EVs in Ireland from 2005-2014 and phylogenetic characterisation of echovirus 30 (E-30), enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and enterovirus D68 (EV-D68)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Mohan K Shukla, Neeru Singh, Ravendra K Sharma, Pradip V Barde
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the utility of dengue virus (DENV) non structural protein 1 (NS1) based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for use in tribal and difficult to reach areas for early dengue (DEN) diagnosis in acute phase patients and evaluate its sensitivity and specificity against DENV NS1 enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) and real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) The DENV NS1 RDT was used for preliminary diagnosis during outbreaks in difficult to reach rural and tribal areas...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Elena S Don, Alexandra G Emelyanova, Natalia N Yakovleva, Nataliia V Petrova, Marina V Nikiforova, Evgeniy A Gorbunov, Sergey A Tarasov, Sergey G Morozov, Oleg I Epstein
This text is aimed to provide the readers with detailed information about phenomenon of released-activity and reply on the specific risen questions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Peibin Zeng, Zhendong Yang, Sonia Bakkour, Bingjun Wang, Shuli Qing, Jingxing Wang, Limin Chen, Michael Busch, Hua Shan, Jing Liu, Tzong-Hae Lee
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne RNA virus recently identified as the pathogen that causes severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in China. The existing commercial nucleic acid testing (comNAT) assay with a relatively high claimed limit of quantitative detection (LOQD) is not capable of sensitive detection and quantitation of SFTSV. Thus, a new real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay with improved sensitivity is needed for clinical diagnosis; it could also be used to screen blood donors if necessary...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Miyako Murakawa, Yasuhiro Asahina, Fukiko Kawai-Kitahata, Mina Nakagawa, Sayuri Nitta, Satoshi Otani, Hiroko Nagata, Shun Kaneko, Yu Asano, Tomoyuki Tsunoda, Masato Miyoshi, Yasuhiro Itsui, Seishin Azuma, Sei Kakinuma, Yasuhito Tanaka, Sayuki Iijima, Kaoru Tsuchiya, Namiki Izumi, Shuju Tohda, Mamoru Watanabe
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within or near interferon lambda 4 (IFNL4) gene located upstream of IFNL3 are associated with response to anti-HCV therapy both in interferon (IFN)-based and IFN-free regimens. IFNL4 encodes IFNλ4, a newly discovered type III IFN, and its expression is controlled by rs368234815-TT/ΔG, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with other tag SNPs within or near IFNL4 such as rs12979860 and rs8099917. Intrahepatic expression levels of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) affect the responsiveness to IFNα and are also associated with IFNL4 genotype...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Peshnyar M A Rashid, Nahla M Saeed, Hiewa Othman Dyary
A highly pathogenic avian influenza, H5N1, was detected for the first time in peafowls in Kirkuk province, Iraq in 2015. Genetic analysis of the Kirkuk H5N1 indicated molecular markers for avian-type receptors. The Kirkuk H5N1 hemagglutinin gene had an infrequent amino acid cleavage site (SPQREKRRKRGLF), and neuraminidase genes showed sensitive molecular markers for antiviral drugs. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis found that the Kirkuk H5N1 belonged to subclade Our results showed that the 2015 H5N1 from the Iraqi city of Kirkuk exhibited new genetic characterization and was different from the 2006 H5N1 isolate from Iraq...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Evgenia V Dueva, Alexander Y Panchin
The study «Dose-dependent antiviral activity of released-active form of antibodies to interferon-gamma against influenza A/California/07/09(H1N1) in murine model» [Don et al., 2016] recently published in Journal of Medical Virology raises a number of concerns. We discuss these concerns in detail. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Gabriela Kusznierz, Carolina Cudós, Juan Manuel Rudi, Sergio Lejona, Lucila Ortellao, Julio Befani, Mirta Villani, Pedro Morana, Graciana Morera, Andrea Uboldi, Elsa Zerbini
BACKGROUND: It is important to characterize the clinical and epidemiological pattern of the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus and compare it with Influenza A (H3N2) virus, as surveyed in just a few studies, in order to contribute to the implementation and strengthening of influenza control and prevention strategies. The aim in this study were to describe influenza clinical and epidemiological characteristics in hospitalized patients, caused by influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and influenza A (H3N2) viruses during 2013, in Santa Fe, Argentina...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Xing Liu, Li Zhang, Xiao-Pan Wu, Xi-Lin Zhu, Li-Ping Pan, Tao Li, Bing-Yu Yan, Ai-Qiang Xu, Hui Li, Ying Liu
Vaccination against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is extensively used as an effective method to prevent HBV infection. However, nearly 10% of healthy adults fail to produce a protective level of antibodies against the hepatitis B vaccine, and multiple genetic variants are known to affect the immune response to the hepatitis B vaccine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between polymorphisms in immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) gene and the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination in a Chinese Han population...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Vahid Rajabali Zadeh, Anitha Jagadesh, Anjana Krishnan, Govindakarnavar Arunkumar
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at D151 position of neuraminidase (NA) gene of influenza A(H3N2) virus has been associated with drug resistance and increased binding affinity. NA-D151G/N-substitutions of influenza A(H3N2) viruses are frequently induced and selected by culturing in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney(MDCK) cell lines. It is important to consider and exclude D151G/N mutants after isolation of influenza virus in MDCK cell line since; the substitutions can highly influence the results of experimental research...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Yan-Ni Lai, Yun Li, Lin-Chun Fu, Fang Zhao, Ni Liu, Feng-Xue Zhang, Pei-Ping Xu
BACKGROUND: It is need for development of new means against influenza virus due to the lack of efficacy of available therapeutic strategies. In previous research, 1,8-cineol exert its inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, the main regulator of cytokine and chemokine production in influenza, and anti-inflammatory activity. These fact supports and helps establish the hypothesis that 1,8-cineol may have synergism with an antiviral on influenza virus infection. METHODS: The combined effect of 1,8-cineol with oseltamivir in a mouse type A influenza virus (Victoria/3/75,H3N2) model were examined...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Linchuan Wang, Wei Chen, Wen Xi, Jin Feng, Pei Dang, Yanfen Ma, Yan Yu
In this study, we evaluate the performance of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for HCV Ag detection in the diagnosis and antiviral therapy management of HCV infections. For the diagnosis of an active HCV infection, the limit of detection of HCV Ag corresponding to HCV RNA level was approximately 7300 IU/mL; the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of HCV-Ag were 88.96, 100, 100, and 91.33%, respectively. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between HCV Ag and HCV RNA was 0...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Jing Guo, Xuli Guo, Yong Wang, Fang Tian, Weiguang Luo, Yizhou Zou
Hantaan virus (HTNV) infection of the human body causes a severe acute infectious disease known as hemorrhagic fever renal syndrome (HFRS). The aim of this study was to correlate patient cytokine profiles to HFRS severity. In this study, we discuss the clinical significance of evaluating HFRS treatment outcomes using cytokine information. The levels of 18 cytokines were quantitatively determined in three groups: 34 HTNV IgM+ cases, 63 HTNV IgM- negative cases, and 78 healthy volunteers. The level of 14 serum cytokines were higher in the patient group than that in the healthy control group...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Chuchu Ye, Weiping Zhu, Jianxing Yu, Zhongjie Li, Yifei Fu, Yajia Lan, Shengjie Lai, Yuanping Wang, Lifeng Pan, Qiao Sun, Genming Zhao
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs), with viral pathogens as the major contributors, are the most common illnesses worldwide, and increase the morbidity and mortality among the elderly population. The clinical and pathological features of elderly people with ARIs need to be identified for disease intervention. From January 1(st) , 2012 through December 31(st) , 2015, respiratory specimens from patients above 60 years old with ARIs were collected from the outpatient and inpatient settings of six sentinel hospitals in Pudong New Area...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Andrea Granados, Susan Quach, Allison McGeer, Jonathan B Gubbay, Jeffrey C Kwong
We compared pairs of self- and investigator-collected mid-turbinate nasal swabs to detect and quantify influenza viral loads. We used RNase P, which reflects presence of human cells to determine adequate sample collection. Sixteen pairs of influenza-positive swabs and 25 pairs of influenza-negative swabs were included in this study. The median influenza A viral loads for self- and investigator-collected swabs were 1.68 and 1.67 log10 copies/ml, respectively (p = 0.96). RNase P loads were also similar between self- and investigator-collected swabs (p = 0...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Stephen K Tyring, Patricia Lee, Gordon T Hill, Joel C Silverfield, Angela Yen Moore, Theresa Matkovits, John Sullivan-Bolyai
This prospective, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study compared the efficacy and safety of FV-100 with valacyclovir for reducing pain associated with acute herpes zoster (HZ). Patients, ≥50 years of age, diagnosed with HZ within 72 h of lesion appearance who had HZ-associated pain, were randomized 1:1:1 to a 7-day course of either FV-100 200 mg QD (n = 117), FV-100 400 mg QD (n = 116), or valacyclovir 1000 mg TID (n =117). Efficacy was evaluated on the basis of the burden of illness (BOI; Zoster Brief Pain Inventory scores); incidence and duration of clinically significant pain (CSP); pain scores; incidence and severity of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN); and times to full lesion crusting and to lesion healing...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Hideaki Yoshitomi, Nobuyuki Sera, Gabriel Gonzalez, Nozomu Hanaoka, Tsuguto Fujimoto
Human mastadenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly infectious viral pathogens that survive for prolonged periods in environmental waters. We monitored the presence of HAdVs in sewage waters between April 2014 and March 2015. A total of 27 adenoviral strains were detected in 75% (18/24 in occasion-base) of 24 wastewater collected samples. We identified the types of the strains as HAdV-C2 (n = 5), HAdV-A31 (5), HAdV-C1 (4), HAdV-B3 (4), HAdV-C5 (4), HAdV-B11 (2), P72H34F11 (2), and HAdV-D56 (1). The complete genome sequence of one P72H34F11 (strain T150125) was determined by next-generation sequencing and compared to other genome sequences of HAdV-B strains...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
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