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Journal of Medical Virology

Bianca De Santis Gonçalves, Marco Aurélio Pereira Horta, Pedro Hernan Cabello Acero, Rosany Bochner, Monique da Rocha Queiroz Lima, Eliane Saraiva de Araújo, Simone Alves Sampaio, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis
The hyperendemicity and co-circulation of different dengue serotypes in Brazil have increased the number of severe dengue cases and the rate of hospitalization for dengue. Virological and individual factors are associated with the disease's complexity. Antigenemia levels of non-structural glycoprotein-1 (NS1) have been associated with severe dengue. Aiming to identify a severity marker during the acute phase (0-5 days of disease), the association of NS1 antigenemia with clinical presentation, sex, age range, immune response, number of days of disease and serotype RNA levels was evaluated in serum samples of patients from the state of Rio de Janeiro clinically classified as having dengue without warning signs (DWWS) or dengue with warning signs/severe dengue (DWWS/SD)...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Anna Uehara, Chee Wah Tan, Shailendra Mani, Kaw Bing Chua, Yee Sin Leo, Danielle E Anderson, Lin-Fa Wang
To determine whether Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) exposure has occurred in Singapore, we tested 856 individuals from an existing serum panel collected from 2005-2013. After an initial screen with luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) and secondary confirmation with virus neutralization test, we identified at least seven individuals with specific antibodies against PRV in both assays. Our findings confirm that PRV spillover into human populations is relatively common in this region of the world. This article is protected by copyright...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Özgür M Koc, Geert Robaeys, Beytullah Yildirim, Dirk Posthouwer, Niel Hens, Ger H Koek
Since the cultural diversity in Western Europe is growing, this study assessed whether foreign-born chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients have more cirrhosis than Dutch or Belgian-born patients, with a main focus on the Turkish population. Baseline characteristics (e.g. socioeconomic status), biological characteristics and disease outcome (e.g. cirrhosis) were collected for all patients. Between December 2009 and January 2015, 269 CHB patients participated from the outpatient departments of three hospitals in the Netherlands, Belgium and Turkey...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Yuko Nagaoki, Michio Imamura, Yuno Nisihda, Kana Daijo, Yuji Teraoka, Fumi Honda, Yuki Nakamura, Kei Morio, Hatsue Fujino, Takashi Nakahara, Tomokazu Kawaoka, Masataka Tsuge, Akira Hiramatsu, Yoshiiku Kawakami, Daiki Miki, Hidenori Ochi, Kazuaki Chayama, Hiroshi Aikata
BACKGROUND & AIM: To examine the effect on recurrence and survival of treatment by interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antivirals (DAA) for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) -associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent primary curative treatment. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 250 HCV patients who had received curative treatment for primary HCC. As anti-HCV treatment after HCC treatment, 38 patients received IFN-free DAA therapy (DAA patients), 94 received IFN-based therapy (IFN patients)...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Luis Filipe da Costa Marques Borges, Mariano Gustavo Zalis, Guilherme Santoro-Lopes, Rafael Brandão Varella
To our knowledge, there are no published data on HCV genotypes in Angola. This study aimed at assessing the distribution of HCV genotypes in seropositive hemodialysis patients in Luanda. Among 51 HCV-positive subjects included, viremia was detected in 27 (53%). HCV genotyping was performed by bidirectional sequencing of the 5 'UTR region by the Sanger method. HCV genotype 4 was largely predominant (20 cases; 74%), followed by genotypes 1b (5 cases; 18.5%), 1a and 2 (one case each; 3.7%). These results suggest that the distribution of HCV genotypes in Angola is similar to that reported from other Central African countries...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
M Z Rahman, M Sumiya, M Sahabuddin, L G Pell, J B Gubbay, R Rahman, F Momtaz, N Azmuda, S S Shanta, Jahan, M Rahman, A A Mahmud, D E Roth, S K Morris
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children in low and middle income countries. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is one of the most common viral etiological agents for ARIs in children. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we explored the genotypic diversity and the epidemiology of hMPV among infants in Dhaka, Bangladesh. STUDY DESIGN: Between December 2014 and August 2016, a total of 3810 mid-turbinate nasal swab samples were collected from infants (0 to 6 months of age) who met clinical ARI criteria, as a part of a prospective ARI cohort study...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Gao-Shan Liu, Pei-Hua Niu, Sheng-Cang Zhao, Rou-Jian Lu, Wen-Jie Tan
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), respiratory syncytial virus type A (RSV-A), RSV-B, and human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3 (HPIV-1, HPIV-2, and HPIV-3) are common respiratory paramyxoviruses. Here, we developed a two-tube triplex one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) and evaluated its performance using clinical samples. The data showed that this novel assay was 100% consistent with the monoplex real-time RT-PCR assay(in-house), which was superior to the commercial routine multiplex- ligation-NAT based assay...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Ya-Ping Li, Hui-Ling Deng, Li-Hong Xu, Mu-Qi Wang, Mei Li, Xin Zhang, Shuang-Suo Dang
Severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is sometimes associated with critical complications that can cause substantial child mortality. Activity of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) may influence the outcomes of EV71 infection. This case-control study aimed to assess the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding the vitamin D receptor (VDR) with the severity of enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated HFMD. We selected four VDR SNPs based on linkage disequilibrium and functional prediction, and we tested them using the SNPscan multiple SNP typing method for potential association with severity of EV71-associated HFMD...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Fernanda Majolo, Daniel Rodrigo Marinowic, Adriana Ávila Moura, Denise Cantarelli Machado, Jaderson Costa da Costa
Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) was recently demonstrated to be associated with damage to the central nervous system, especially microcephaly and the Guillain-Barré syndrome. This finding had alarmed public health agencies and mobilized institutions around the world to search for more information about the virus, its effects, pathophysiological mechanisms, and potential immunizations and treatments. Given the increasing interest in using iPSCs and cerebral organoids to model the congenital infection and neuropathogenesis induced by ZIKV, the aim of this review was to present an up-to-date summary of the publications on the association of ZIKV with microcephaly, using iPSCs and organoids...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Auwal I Kabuga, Mohamed E El Zowalaty
Since the eradication of smallpox approximately 39 years ago, monkeypox virus remains the most pathogenic poxvirus, being mainly restricted to Central and West Africa. Before 1970, there were no reports of human monkeypox in Nigeria, while between 1971 and 1978 there were three cases, with none having been reported thereafter. However, in September 2017, a case of contagious skin rash disease, typical of monkeypox, was observed in an 11-year-old boy from the southern part of the country, and confirmed to be associated with the monkeypox virus...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Ines Brini, Naila Hannachi, Aida Guerrero, Dorothea Orth-Höller, Sana Bhiri, Britta Schiela, Dorothee Holm-von Laer, Jalel Boukadida, Heribert Stoiber
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to characterize the epidemiology of pathogenic respiratory agents in patients aged 0-12 months and hospitalized for acute respiratory infections in Tunisia between 2013 and 2014. METHODS: A total of 20 pathogens including viruses, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, were detected using molecular sensitive assays and their associations with patient's demographic data and season were analyzed. RESULTS: Viral infectious agents were found in 449 (87...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Vera Holzmayer, Robert Hance, Patricia Defechereux, Robert Grant, Mary C Kuhns, Gavin Cloherty, Mary A Rodgers
The rare hepatitis B virus genotype I (HBV-I) classification includes complex A/G/C/U recombinants identified amongst individuals from China, India, Laos, and Vietnam. Herein we report the first HBV-I specimen from Thailand, with detectable HBsAg despite a 10 amino acid truncation. This HBV-I genome has a similar recombinant pattern to reference strains, including a C region that branches basal to references, suggesting a pre-modern era recombination event gave rise to HBV-I. With an average sequence divergence from other genotypes ranging from 7...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Qiwen Fang, Zhenqiu Liu, Tiejun Zhang
Host genetic background may influence the immunity to resist viral infection. As the most polymorphic loci in the entire human genome, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system plays an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses to many invading pathogens. Studies have shown that an association might exist between HLA polymorphisms and susceptibility to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection and associated diseases. However, discrepant conclusions were reached among different subjects with different detection methods...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Zohreh Azarkar, Masood Ziaee, Azadeh Ebrahimzadeh, Gholamreza Sharifzadeh, Davod Javanmard
OBJECTIVES: Features of occult HBV infection among the anti-HBc positives have yet to be described in more details. This research aimed to determine the molecular prevalence of OBI, and association to risk factors among seropositives for anti-HBc. METHODS: This was part of a community-based screening project that included 5234 cases. All participants completed a questionnaire on demographic and socio-epidemiological information. Then, the blood samples were collected and tested for anti-HBc and HBsAg using ELISA method...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Rainer Gosert, Klaudia Naegele, Hans H Hirsch
Influenzavirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) detection with short turn-around-time (TAT) is pivotal for rapid decisions regarding treatment and infection control. However, negative rapid testing results may come from poor assay sensitivity or from influenza-like illnesses caused by other community-acquired respiratory viruses (CARVs). We prospectively compared the performance of Cobas Liat Influenza A/B & RSV assay (LIAT) with our routine multiplexNAT-1 (xTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel, Luminex) and multiplexNAT-2 (ePlex-RPP; GenMark) using 194 consecutive nasopharyngeal swabs from patients with influenza-like illness during winter 2017/18...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Tomoichiro Oka, Nobuhiro Iritani, Seiji P Yamamoto, Kohji Mori, Tomoko Ogawa, Chika Tatsumi, Shinichiro Shibata, Seiya Harada, Fang-Tzy Wu
Sapoviruses are associated with acute gastroenteritis. Human sapoviruses are classified into four distinct genogroups (GI, GII, GIV, and GV) based on their capsid gene sequences. A TaqMan probe based real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay that detects representative strains of these four genogroups is widely used for screening fecal specimens, shellfish, and environmental water samples. However, since the development of this test, more genetically diverse sapovirus strains have been reported, and are not detected by the previously established assay...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Xiaofei Zhu, Yun Chen, Wenqiang Zhu, Mingde Ji, Jing Xu, Yuanyuan Guo, Feng Gao, Wanjian Gu, Xuewen Yang, Chunbing Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) vIL-6 is sufficient to induce lymphatic reprogramming of vascular endothelial cells, which is a key event in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) development. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Chinese herb oroxylin A on lymphatic reprogramming and neovascularization by KSHV vIL-6 in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The lymphatic-phenotype endothelial cell line was generated by lentiviral KSHV vIL-6 infection...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Aboud Kourieh, Tarik Gheit, Massimo Tommasino, Véronique Dalstein, Gary M Clifford, Jean Lacau St Guily, Christine Clavel, Silvia Franceschi, Jean-Damien Combes
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of all known human herpesviruses (HHV) in tonsils of an age-stratified large sample of immunocompetent children and adults. METHODS: Patients undergoing tonsillectomy for benign indications were recruited in 19 French hospitals. After resection, the entire outer surface of right and left half tonsils were extensively brushed. A highly sensitive species-specific multiplex assay was used to detect HSV1, HSV2, EBV (types 1 and 2) and CMV DNA in 688, as well as VZV, HHV6A, HHV6B, HHV7, KSHV DNA in a subset of 440, tonsil brushings...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Danielle M Yugo, Caitlin M Cossaboom, Connie Lynn Heffron, Yao-Wei Huang, Scott P Kenney, Amelia R Woolums, David J Hurley, Tanja Opriessnig, Linlin Li, Eric Delwart, Isis Kanevsky, Xiang-Jin Meng
Genotypes 3 and 4 hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains within the species Orthohepevirus A in the family Hepeviridae are zoonotic. Recently, a genotype 4 HEV was reportedly detected in fecal samples of cows, although independent confirmation is lacking. In this study, we first tested serum samples from 983 cows in different regions in the United States for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-HEV and found that 20.4% of cows were seropositive. The highest seroprevalence rate (68.4%) was from a herd in Georgia...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Tamina Kienka, Matthew G Varga, Josie Caves, Jennifer S Smith, Vijay Sivaraman
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to contribute to cervical carcinogenesis, yet other cofactors that may contribute to oncogenesis are poorly understood. Herein, we examine whether the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (CMV), two oncomodulatory viruses, are associated with HPV-mediated cervical neoplastic progression. METHODS: Sixty patient cervical brush samples from a study of North Carolina women were obtained...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
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