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Journal of Medical Virology

Giordano Madeddu, Silvia Ortu, Giovanni Garrucciu, Ivana Maida, Michela Melis, Alberto Augusto Muredda, Maria Stella Mura, Sergio Babudieri
Inhibition of viral replication is the most important goal in patients with Hepatitis B virus chronic infection (CHB). Currently, five oral nucleo(t)side analogues (NAs), including Lamivudine, Adefovir, Telbivudine, Entecavir and Tenofovir, have been approved for treatment. The widespread use of NAs has also been linked with a progressive growth of unlikely anomaly attributable to mitochondrial dysfunctions, not previously recognized. Here we explore the hypothesis that NAs may cause persistent epigenetic changes during prolonged NAs therapy in CHB patients...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Maja Kodani, Nourine Ahmed, Alexandra Tejada-Strop, Amanda Poe, Maxine M Denniston, Jan Drobeniuc, Saleem Kamili
Hepatitis E is a major public health problem in developing countries and is increasingly being recognized as a cause of substantial sporadic viral hepatitis infections in industrialized countries. Variable rates of hepatitis E seroprevalence have been reported from the same geographic regions depending on the assay used. In this study, we evaluated the performance characteristics of four assays which included two commercial assays, Wantai HEV-IgG ELISA kit (Wantai, China) and DS-EIA-ANTI-HEV-G kit (DSI, Italy), one NIH-developed immunoassay (NIH-55K, Kuniholm et al...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Binghui Wang, Yaobo Liang, Yajuan Wang, Yue Feng, Yaping Li, Li Zhang, Qicai Xuan, Jing Miao, Weihong Qin, Xueshan Xia
Xishuangbanna is a popular tourist destination in southern Yunnan Province, bordering with Vietnam and Laos and Myanmar. There are more than 2 million cross-border travelers annually entering China at two land ports, Daluo and Mohan. To clarify the characteristics of HIV-1 prevalence among entry travelers, a retrospective epidemic investigation was conducted. Between 2003 and 2012, 196 among 91,432 entry travelers were detected to be HIV-1-positive, accounting for infection rate of 0.21%. Eighty-one gag-pol gene sequences were obtained for phylogenetic analyses and subsequent recombination analysis...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Masahito Miura, Jun Inoue, Mio Tsuruoka, Tsutomu Nishizawa, Shigeo Nagashima, Masaharu Takahashi, Tooru Shimosegawa, Hiroaki Okamoto
Full-length genomic sequences of hepatitis E virus (HEV) obtained from two consecutive cases of acute self-limiting hepatitis E in a city in northeast Japan were determined. Interestingly, two HEV isolates from each patient shared nucleotide identity of 99.97% in 7,225 nucleotides, and a phylogenetic analysis showed that they formed a cluster of Japanese isolates that is considered as a new HEV subtype 3k. The high similarity of HEV sequences of two isolates from these patients in this study suggested that a subtype 3k HEV strain had spread via a commonly distributed food in the city, possibly pig liver...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Nguyen Bao Ngoc, Yukiko Okuno, Masahiko Ajiro, Kei Iida, Masatsugu Denawa, Makoto Yamamoto, Naoya Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Kagechika, Masatoshi Hagiwara
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus with an estimated infection in ∼180 million people worldwide, and its chronic infection leads to development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although recent development of direct acting antiviral (DAA) compounds improved anti-HCV regimens, alternative therapeutic compounds are still demanded due to an expected emergence of escape mutants for those DAAs. In order to identify novel anti-HCV agents, we conducted chemical library screening for 2,086 compounds using HCV Rep-Feo reporter replicon in Huh7 hepatoma cells...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Adhikarimayum Lakhikumar Sharma, Thiyam Ramsing Singh, Khuraijam Ranjana Devi, Lisam Shanjukumar Singh
According to the Joint National Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS); the northeastern region of India has the highest HIV prevalence in the country. This study was conducted to determine the current HIV-1 molecular epidemiology of Manipur, a state in northeast India. Blood samples from HIV-1 seropositive subjects were collected between June 2011 and February 2014. The partial regions of HIV-1 genes; pol and tat-vpu-env were independently amplified, sequenced, analysed and genotyped. Based on all sequences generated from 110 samples using pol and/or tat-vpu-env gene, the overall HIV-1 genotypes distribution of Manipur was as follows: 65...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Abdo A Elfiky, Samah M Mahdy, Wael M Elshemey
A number of human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were reported in the last and present centuries. Some outbreaks of which (e.g. SARS and MERS CoVs) caused the mortality of hundreds of people worldwide. The problem of finding a potent drug against HCoV strains lies in the inability of finding a drug that stops the viral replication through inhibiting its important proteins. In spite of its limited efficacy and potential side effects, Ribavirin is extensively used as a first choice against HCoVs. Therefore, scientists reverted towards the investigation of different drugs that can more specifically target proteins...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Noriko Seishima, Satoru Kondo, Naohiro Wakisaka, Eiji Kobayashi, Tomoko Imoto, Makiko Moriyama-Kita, Yosuke Nakanishi, Kazuhira Endo, Shigeyuki Murono, Hisashi Sugimoto, Miyako Hatano, Takayoshi Ueno, Tomokazu Yoshizaki
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases in both adults and children. However, there have been no reports on the prevalence and amount of EBV in the adenoids of adults; thus, it is important to investigate these in the adenoids and tonsils of adults and children. In this study, 67 patients who underwent tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy were included and divided into two groups: adults aged ≥ 16 years (n = 35) and children aged <16 years (n = 32). Patients' adenoid and tonsil tissues were analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for EBV DNA...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Didier Musso, Eline Rouault, Anita Teissier, Marion C Lanteri, Karen Zisou, Julien Broult, Emilie Grange, Tu-Xuan Nhan, Maite Aubry
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) viremia is reported as low and transient, however, these estimates rely on limited data. We report RNA loads in sera collected from symptomatic patients during the 2013-2014 French Polynesian ZIKV outbreak. METHODS: We performed molecular detection of ZIKV RNA in sera from 747 patients presenting with suspected acute phase ZIKV infection. Among patients with confirmed infection, we analyzed the duration of viremia, assessed viral RNA loads and recorded the main clinical symptoms...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Delana A M Bezerra, Sylvia F S Guerra, Ana C S Serra, Priscylla C M S Fecury, Renato S Bandeira, Edvaldo T Penha, Patrícia S Lobo, Edivaldo C Sousa, Alexandre C Linhares, Luana S Soares, Joana D P Mascarenhas
The species A rotaviruses (RVA) are important gastroenteric pathogens that infect humans and animals. RVA genotype G3P[9] has been described in human-animal reassortment events, and the complexity of its hosts motivates the genetic investigation of this strain. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse a G3P[9] sample that was detected in a child with acute gastroenteritis. The 1A3739 sample featured the constellation G3P[9]-I18-R3-C3-Mx-A19-N3-T3-E3-H6. The sequence for VP3 gene was not obtained. The phylogeny showed a closer relationship among genes VP7, VP1, NSP3, NSP4, and NSP5 with genes of animal origin, such as chiropter, alpaca, equine, and simian...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
M Christine Thurnheer, Rosalind Edwards, Thomas R Schulz, Lilly Yuen, Margaret Littlejohn, Peter Revill, Liz Bannister, Melissa Chu, Firuz Tanyeri, Amanda Wade, Beverley-Ann Biggs, Joseph Sasadeusz
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) from 40 adult African immigrants in Australia was characterised to determine the prevalence of different HBV genotypes and subgenotypes. A mutational analysis was then performed to determine the presence of clinically significant mutations and correlate them to clinical outcomes. Initial sequencing analysis revealed 13 with genotype A (32.5%), 13 with genotype D (32.5%), and 14 with genotype E (35%). Serology showed that 37 were HBeAg negative. Phylogenetic analysis identified a high prevalence (25%) of HBV subgenotype A1 in our cohort, a subgenotype which has been associated with more aggressive clinical disease...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Hafsa Aziz, Aadarash Zia, Amania Anwer, Muneeba Aziz, Shazia Fatima, Muhammad Faheem
ZIKV has emerged as grave global health issue in the past few years. ZIKV was firstly isolated in 1947 from a rhesus sentinel monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda. It is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes and infects skin fibroblasts, skin keratinocytes etc. ZIKV until now was under reported because of its clinical similarity with the dengue and chikungunya. It usually spread through the course of the sylvatic cycle. In this cycle, the virus or pathogen lifespan is spent between the wild animal and vectors...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Karina Rocha Dutra, Betânia Paiva Drumond, Izabela Maurício de Rezende, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira, Débora de Oliveira Lopes, Carlos Eduardo Calzavara Silva, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira Ferreira, Luciana Lara Dos Santos
Dengue, caused by any of the four types of Dengue virus (DENV) is the most important arbovirus in the world. In this study we performed a molecular surveillance of dengue during the greatest dengue outbreak that took place in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais state, Southeast Brazil, in 2013. Samples from 100 patients with clinical symptoms of dengue were studied and 26 were positive. The capsid/premembrane (CprM) and envelope gene sequences of some samples were amplified and sequenced. Molecular analyses demonstrated that two DENV-1 lineages, belonging to genotype V were introduced and co-circulated in Divinópolis...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Kerusha Govender, Prakash Jeena, Raveen Parboosing
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality of children in Africa. The current practice for diagnosing CMV pneumonitis in this setting is based on interpretation of clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings. There is a need for a sensitive and specific laboratory test to objectively distinguish between patients with CMV pneumonitis and those with CMV infection, and non-CMV pneumonia. In this study, we compared plasma and non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (NBBAL) CMV viral loads in patients with CMV pneumonitis and those with CMV infection and non-CMV pneumonia...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Kasım Durmuş, Aynur Engin, Tuba Doğan Karataş, Mustafa Gökhan Gözel, Emine Elif Altuntas
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an important health problem in Turkey. Number of studies on symptoms of ear nose throat system and indicating whether or not the organs are affected in patients with CCHF is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CCHF infections caused any change in nasal physiology in adult patients or not by using saccharin transit time (STT) and nasal symptom scoring. Twenty subjects with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of CCHF and 28 healthy control subjects were included in the present study...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Yi Zhang, Jun Dai, Jinfeng Tang, Li Zhou, Mengzhou Zhou
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a member of the Herpes viridae, is associated with a wide variety of nervous system diseases including meningitis and encephalitis. The data presented here demonstrate that miR-649 promotes the replication of HSV-1 without affecting cell viability. Further mechanistic studies revealed that MALT1 (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1) is directly targeted by miR-649. We then found that MALT1 and the downstream NF-κB signaling pathway, are involved in miR-649-induced HSV-1 replication...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Caterina Sagnelli, Massimo Ciccozzi, Nicola Coppola, Carmine Minichini, Alessandra Lo Presti, Mario Starace, Loredana Alessio, Margherita Macera, Eleonora Cella, Luciano Gualdieri, Nunzio Caprio, Giuseppe Pasquale, Evangelista Sagnelli
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In a recent testing in the metropolitan area of Naples, Italy, on 945 irregular immigrants or refugees, 87 HBsAg chronic carriers were identified, 53 of whom were infected by HBV-genotype E. The aim of the present study was to identify the genetic diversity of HBV-genotype E in these 53 immigrants. METHODS: The 53 immigrant patients with HBV-genotype-E infection were born in Africa, central or eastern Asia, eastern Europe or Latin America. These patients had been seen for a clinical consultation at one of the 4 first-level units from January 2012 to 2013...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Jason L Salemi, Kiara K Spooner, Maria C Mejia de Grubb, Anjali Aggarwal, Jennifer L Matas, Hamisu M Salihu
Currently, data examining nationally representative prevalence and trends of HBV or HCV among specific subgroups of pregnant women in the US are unavailable. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of hospitalizations for liveborn singleton deliveries from 1998 to 2011 using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. After identifying deliveries with HBV, HCV, and HIV infection during pregnancy, survey logistic regression was used to identify risk factors. Temporal trends were analyzed using joinpoint regression...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Sandra Bodeau, Jean-Philippe Lemouel, Momar Diouf, Gilles Duverlie, Eric Nguyen-Khac, Etienne Brochot
Ribavirin-induced anemia is the major side effect observed during HCV therapy. In an in vitro study, we recently discovered that DHEA can strongly inhibit this adverse event. We also evaluated a possible link between pre-treatment serum DHEA and hemoglobin during HCV therapy. Among the 108 patients of our cohort serum baseline DHEA levels were associated with hemoglobin levels at week 12 of treatment (r = 0.35; P = 0.0021). Patients with low baseline serum DHEA developed severe anemia. A serum level of DHEA less than 1,500 ng/ml had a sensitivity of 94...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Nidan Wang, Yijia Li, Yang Han, Jing Xie, Taisheng Li
BACKGROUND: The association between baseline human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sequence diversity and HIV DNA decay after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains uncharacterized during the early stages of HIV infection. METHOD: Samples were obtained from a cohort of 17 patients with early HIV infection (<6 months after infection) who initiated ART, and the C2V5 region of the HIV-1 envelope (env) gene was amplified via single genome amplification (SGA) to determine the peripheral plasma HIV quasispecies...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
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