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Journal of Medical Virology

Thayara Morais Portal, Tammy Kathlyn Amaral Reymão, Germano Alves Quinderé Neto, Mercedes Kamila da C Fiuza, Dielle Monteiro Teixeira, Ian Carlos Gomes Lima, Edivaldo Costa Sousa Júnior, Renato da Silva Bandeira, Danielle Rodrigues de Deus, Maria Cleonice A Justino, Alexandre da Costa Linhares, Luciana Damascena da Silva, Hugo Reis Resque, Yvone Benchimol Gabbay
Enteric adenovirus (AdV), sapovirus (SaV), and human astrovirus (HAstV) are important pathogens involved in the gastroenteritis etiology. In this study, a total of 219 fecal samples and sera were collected from children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in two large pediatric hospitals in Belém, from March 2012 to April 2015. The samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for adenovirus (AdV) and HAstV (astrovirus) detection, and Nested-PCR and qPCR for sapovirus (SaV) detection. AdV was detected in 50...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Braira Wahid, Muhammad Waqar, Nouman Rasool, Muhammad Wasim, Ifrah Khalid, Muhammad Idrees
Thyroid dysfunctions occur frequently among HCV infected patients. Accumulating evidence have shown the higher incidence of thyroid dysfunctions in interferon treated patients that was previously the standard of care therapy. However, the prevalence of thyroid disorders haven't been studied in the recently developed interferon-free regimens or direct-acting anti-viral (DAA) drugs treated patients. We recruited 37 patients who had just completed 6 months-long sofosbuvir-based treatment and 26 interferon-treated patients were also included in the study...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Supitcha Wanvimonsuk, Pichaya Thitiwanichpiwong, Somboon Keelawat, Apiwat Mutirangura, Nakarin Kitkumthorn
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the infectious agents found in stomach tissue. Recently, EBV associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) was classified as a new subtype of gastric carcinoma. To date, there is a lack of knowledge about the distribution and prevalence of EBV infection in both the normal stomach and various gastric lesions, including EBVaGC, in the Thai population. In this study, we detected EBV in the normal stomach (NS; n=19), chronic gastritis (CG; n=36), intestinal metaplasia (IM; n=40), gastric dysplasia (GD; n=15), and gastric adenocarcinoma (GC; n=33) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the latent membrane protein (LMP1) gene of EBV...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Eugenia Quiros Roldan, Martina Properzi, Silvia Amadasi, Elena Raffetti, Alice Ferraresi, Luciano Biasi, Emanuele Focà, Francesco Castelli
OBJECTIVES: To assess hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) survival and to investigate the prognostic role of immunonutritional biomarkers, as Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR) and Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI), in a cohort of HIV-infected patients. METHODS: All HIV-positive patients diagnosed with HCC at our Department from January 2000 to December 2013 were included. The outcomes analysed were overall survival (OS), recurrence free survival (RFS) and liver-related death (LRD)...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Haoran Peng, Longyan Zhang, Yue Feng, Hailin Tang, Zhenghan Luo, Zhongtian Qi, Xueshan Xia, Ping Zhao
Serum samples were collected in a village with a clustering HCV infection. HCV antibody, HCV RNA loads, liver function indexes, HCV envelope antibody, and neutralizing activity were assessed. Among 851 adult sera, 342 samples were positive for anti-HCV. Of these positive samples, 254 (74.3%) were HCV RNA positive (≥ 800 copies/mL). None of the 69 children's sera were positive for HCV antibody or RNA. Among the HCV antibody positive sera, ALT and AST levels increased with the higher virus loads, but decreased when virus loads were higher than 1×106 copies/mL...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
G B Maikova, L L Chernokhaeva, Yu V Rogova, L I Kozlovskaya, I S Kholodilov, V V Romanenko, M S Esyunina, A A Ankudinova, A S Kilyachina, M F Vorovitch, G G Karganova
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) remains one of the major public health concerns in the northern Eurasia, and its area is expanding. TBE virus (TBEV) includes 3 subtypes and several monophyletic groups, co-circulating in Russia. Five inactivated vaccines are used for TBE prophylaxis. The rising number of people subjected to vaccination brings up the issue of the impact of individual recipient characteristics on vaccination efficacy. The present work studies correlations between the vaccination scheme, gender, age, BMI, chronic diseases, postvaccinal reaction, preexisting anti-TBEV antibodies and postvaccinal humoral immunity development...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Arezoo Khosravi, Hamidreza Karimi-Sari, Mahdi Abedi-Andani, Bita Behnava, Ali Namvar, Ali Anvar, Seyed Moayed Alavian
BACKGROUND: Thalassemia patients may also have cardiac abnormalities due to congenital problems, anemia, and increased burden of iron in their myocardium. This study designed to evaluate the effects of direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy on cardiac function of hepatitis C (HCV) infected thalassemia patients. METHODS: HCV-infected thalassemia patients were enrolled to this prospective evaluation. Daily tablets of 90mg-Ledipasvir (or 60mg Daclatasvir) plus 400mg-Sofosbuvir (±ribavirin) prescribed for patients according to Iran Hepatitis Network's guideline...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
I-Ching Sam, Wan Noraini, Sukhvinder Singh Sandhu, Ismail Norizah, Sengol Selvanesan, Ravindran Thayan, Mohd Apandi Yusof, Ardalinah Hassan, Faizatul Lela Jafar, Yoke Fun Chan
Influenza seasonality in equatorial countries is little understood. Seasonal and alert influenza thresholds were determined for Malaysia, using laboratory-based data obtained from the Malaysia Influenza Surveillance System and a major teaching hospital, for 2011-2016. Influenza was present year-round, with no clear annual seasons. Variable periods of higher transmission occurred inconsistently, in November-December, January-March, July-September, or a combination of these. These coincide with seasons in nearby southeast Asian countries or winter seasons of the northern and southern hemispheres...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Camila M Bonin, Cacilda T J Padovani, Izaías P da Costa, Leandro S Ávila, Alda Maria T Ferreira, Carlos Eurico S Fernandes, Andrielli R Dos Santos, Inês Aparecida Tozetti
Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer. Viral persistence is considered the main risk factor for neoplastic progression and evidence suggests that regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in the failure of viral elimination. The aim of this study was to detect phenotypic markers of Treg and cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β, in the cervical microenvironment of HPV-infected patients. One hundred and one samples of uterine cervix embedded in paraffin were analyzed. We used immunohistochemistry to examine the co-expression of the CD25/FOXP3 and CD4/TGF-β markers, and the expression of GITR and IL-10 in cells present in the cervical stroma...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Suzane Ramos da Silva, Fan Cheng, I-Chueh Huang, Jae U Jung, Shou-Jiang Gao
After recent outbreaks, Zika virus (ZIKV) was linked to severe neurological diseases including Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and microcephaly in newborns. The severities of pathological manifestations have been associated with different ZIKV strains. To better understand the tropism of ZIKV, we infected 10 human and 4 nonhuman cell lines (types) with 2 African (IbH30656 and MR766) and 2 Asian (PRVABC59 and H/FP/2013) ZIKV strains. Cell susceptibility to ZIKV infection was determined by examining viral titers, synthesis of viral proteins, and replication of positive and negative strands of viral genome...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Sandrama Nadan, Maureen B Taylor, Michelle J Groome, Cheryl Cohen, Shabir A Madhi, Nicola A Page
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of human astroviruses (HAstVs) in hospitalised patients <5 years of age from selected sites in South Africa (SA) was investigated. Diarrheagenic stool specimens collected from April 2009 to May 2014 were screened retrospectively for selected viruses, bacteria and parasites. METHOD: Patient data were analysed to identify epidemiologic factors most frequently detected with HAstV infections. The following case-comparisons were investigated; HAstV-positive and HAstV-negative children, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-uninfected (HAstV-positive) children and HIV-exposed and unexposed (HAstV-positive HIV-uninfected) children...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Kubra Aykac, Eda Karadag Oncel, Sevgen Tanir Basaranoglu, Alpaslan Alp, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Mehmet Ceyhan, Ates Kara
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of infections leading sepsis is needed to develop comprehensive infection prevention and sepsis early recognition and treatment strategies.The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology of sepsis and evaluate the proportion of respiratory viral pathogens in infants under two years of age with possible sepsis. METHODS: The prospective study was performed in two years. Multiplex RT-PCR was performed to detect viral pathogens. All patients who were included in this study had sepsis symptoms as defined by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Tanuja Saswat, Nalinee Sahoo, Sagarika Muduli, Nagen Kumar Debata, Subhasis Chattopadhyay, Soma Chattopadhyay
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is spatio-temporally related to Dengue virus (DENV) infection and mostly undiagnosed due to similar primary symptoms. In 2013, a high rate (36%) of co-infection of DENV and CHIKV was reported in Odisha. Hence, the hospital based study was continued to synthesis current epidemiological understanding of their single distribution or co-infection. Suspected DENV patients serum samples were tested for DENV and CHIKV by serology and RT-PCR. The positive samples were used for analysis of mutation, selection pressure and phylogenetic relationship...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Amir Hossein Mohseni, Vadood Razavilar, Hossein Keyvani, Mohammad Reza Razavi, Ramazan Ali Khavari-Nejad
The ORFs of both native and codon-optimized E7 genes were successfully fused to SPusp45 signal peptide and expressed by a nisin-controlled gene expression system (NICE) in NZ9000 strains of Lactococcus lactis. Recombinant strains were confirmed by Western blot analysis. To measure immune responses against the E7 antigen, specific-pathogen-free C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with L. lactis harboring pNZ8123-rE7 by oral gavage. Then, specific antibodies and cytokines were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, respectively...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Du Guoping, Li Xiaoshan, Taha Hussein Musa, Ji Yu, Wu Bo, He Yan, Ni Qian, Su Ling, Li Wei, Ge You
Comprehensive data on HCV genotypes distribution is critical for treatment regimen selection, vaccine design and drug development. This study aimed to understand the dynamic distribution of HCV genotypes in Mainland China. 362 studies published from January 1993 to December 2017 involving 64,891 samples (5,133 injecting drug users, 2,748 volunteer blood donors, 1,509 former paid plasma donors, 160 sexually encounters, and 1,992 HIV/HCV coinfection patients) were eligible for the quantitative synthesis estimation...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Reina Sasaki, Keith Meyer, Mitsuhiko Moriyama, Naoya Kato, Osamu Yokosuka, Ratna B Ray, Rajeev Aurora, Ranjit Ray, Tatsuo Kanda
Altered immune parameters associated with HCV genotype 1b infection and their correlation with virus eradication in DAA-treated patients were examined. Thirty-one HCV-infected patients were treated with DAAs for 12 weeks. Pre- and post-DAA-treatment sera were analyzed for cytokines/chemokines using MILLIPLEX MAP. Serum complement level and antibody neutralization activity were measured separately. Sera from eleven spontaneously cleared HCV subjects were included for comparison. Rapid virological responders (RVR) or end-of-treatment responders (EOTR) were defined as patients with HCV RNA negative at week 4 or positive at week 4 and negative at week 12, respectively...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Francesco Drago, Astrid Herzum, Giulia Ciccarese, Francesco Broccolo, Alfredo Rebora, Aurora Parodi
Herpes Zoster (HZ) is typically characterized by pain involving the area of vesicular eruption. Several patients, however, complain of unilateral radicular pain without rash (zoster sine herpete (ZSH)). To evaluate whether the severity and duration of pain and the use of analgesics are greater in ZSH patients, than in typical HZ with rash, 16 consecutive patients with acute unilateral pain, without vesicular eruption (ZSH), were compared to 16 controls suffering from typical HZ eruption. Only patients with laboratory evidence of VZV reactivation were selected...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Yiting Li, Yingfu Zeng, Guofen Zeng, Jianguo Li, Xiaohong Zhang, Qingxian Cai, Youming Chen, Chao-Shuang Lin
Currently, hepatitis C antiviral therapy is entering a new era with the use of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). However, the precise immunological influences of DAA therapy in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients are insufficiently understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of DAA therapy on the frequency of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells in CHC patients. Thirty-two treatment-naive CHC patients were treated with DAA therapy, and the frequency of immune cells was analysed by flow cytometry at various time points during and after therapy...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Causenge Cangin, Brian Focht, Randall Harris, Julie A Strunk
BACKGROUND: Previous research identified a decline in Hepatitis E (HEV) seroprevalence in US 1988-1994 and 2009-2010. We investigated most recent HEV epidemiology. METHOD: Using a nationally representative sample (7656 persons in NHANES 2013-2014 and 7124 persons in NHANES 2015-2016), we compared the weighted seroprevalence of HEV (IgG/IGM) among US persons (aged >=6 years) between these two-time periods. Sampling-weighted multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with HEV seropositivity...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Song Shaohui, Liu Ze, Zhou Jian, Cai Wei, Yang Huijuan, Ma Lei, Gao Jingxia, Weidong Li, Guoyang Liao
BACKGROUND: At the same dosage, the new generation of Sabin IPV (sIPV) is less immunogenic than the traditional oral polio vaccine (OPV) dosage in China [1]. The useful adjuvant might be necessary strategy to strengthen the immune protective effects; METHODS: In this study, we produced an adjuvant compound (named KML05) that could promote immunogenicity and fractional doses of Sabin-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (sIPV) with a long duration of protection in a rat model. The compound adjuvant had both advantages and a function of MF59 and carbopol971P...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
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