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Journal of Medical Virology

Nmn NikNadia, Chee Wah Tan, Kien Chai Ong, I-Ching Sam, Yoke Fun Chan
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) neutralization escape mutants were generated with monoclonal antibody MAB979 (Millipore). The VP2-T141I and VP1-D14N substitutions were identified. Using reverse genetics, infectious clones with these substitutions were constructed and tested by neutralization assay with immune sera from mice and humans. The N-terminus VP1-14 is more important than EF loop VP2-141 in acute human infection, mainly because it recognised IgM present in acute infection. The N-terminus VP1 could be a useful target for diagnostics and therapeutic antibodies in acute infection...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Shiyi Zhou, Li Ren, Xueshan Xia, Zhijiang Miao, Fen Huang, Yunlong Li, Mei Zhu, Zhenrong Xie, Yu Xu, Yuan Qian, Qiuwei Pan, Kunhua Wang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in immunocompromised patients often results in distinct outcome, compared to the infection in general population. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, potential risk factors and clinical features of HEV infection among HIV patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Yunnan province, China. METHODS: A total of 770 HIV-infected patients between May 2015 and February 2016 were enrolled in Yunnan, China...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Gianguglielmo Zehender, Alessia Lai, Carla Veo, Annalisa Bergna, Massimo Ciccozzi, Massimo Galli
Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, is an exclusively human virus belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus, which includes many other viral species covering a wide range of mammal hosts, such as vaccinia, cowpox, camelpox, taterapox, ectromelia and monkeypox virus. The tempo and mode of evolution of Orthopoxviruses were reconstructed using a Bayesian phylodynamic framework by analysing 80 hemagglutinin sequences retrieved from public databases. Bayesian phylogeography was used to estimate their putative ancestral hosts...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Meihua Ran, Jiegang Huang, Hao Liang, Junjun Jiang, Bingyu Liang, Chuanyi Ning, Ning Zang, Weibo Liao, Huifang Liu, Fengxiang Qin, Quanlue Yang, Wenzhe Ho, Li Ye, Hui Chen
AIM: Alcohol could compromise the anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) function of interferon-alpha (IFN-α). However, little information is available about the effect of alcohol on interferon-lambda (IFN-λ, type III IFN), a novel candidate for development of therapy for HCV infection. METHODS: Huh7 cells were infected with HCV JFH-1 virus, then treated with alcohol and/or IFN-λ1. RT-PCR and western blot were used to detect the levels of HCV and key cellular factors. Overexpression or silencing expression was performed to verify the role of key factors in alcohol-attenuated anti-HCV function of IFN-λ1...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Qianqian Zhang, Wen Liu, Yang Yang, Zhenzhen Zhao, Bing Luo
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is etiologically linked to nasopharyngeal carcinoma, lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. The aim of this study was to assess the association of TM2 domain containing 3 (TM2D3) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) SNPs rs675436 and rs755793 with susceptibility to EBV-associated tumors in Chinese Han population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA of 415 patients with cancer and 99 healthy controls was assessed using a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer, and was genotyped in EBV-associated/-negative gastric cancer (EBVa/nGC), EBV-associated/-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma (EBVa/nNPC), EBV-associated/ -negative lymphoma (EBVa/nL) and normal controls (NC)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Wassim Chehadeh, Anfal Al-Adwani, Sonia Elezebeth John, Shaikhah Al-Dhufairi, Hessa Al-Dousari, Maha Alkhaledi, Widad Al-Nakib
Human adenovirus (HAdV) infection can result in a severe respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to identify HAdV types detected in patients hospitalized for severe respiratory illness. The study population consisted of 743 patients with severe respiratory disease admitted to four major hospitals in Kuwait between January 2013 and December 2016. Respiratory specimens were retrospectively screened for 20 respiratory viruses by real-time PCR. The HAdV hexon gene was amplified and directly sequenced, and HAdV types were identified by performing Bayesian phylogenetic analysis...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Juan Fidel Osuna-Ramos, Horacio Rendón-Aguilar, José Manuel Reyes-Ruiz, Rosa María Del Ángel, Alejandra Romero-Utrilla, Efrén Rafael Ríos-Burgueño, Ismael Velarde-Rodriguez, Jesús Salvador Velarde-Félix
Immunological factors, such as cytokines, have been proposed as a cause of changes in the lipid profile of dengue patients. We studied whether serum lipid levels and serum TNF-α levels are associated in a group of dengue patients from an endemic region in the northwest of Mexico. We found statistically important differences in the serum lipid profile and the TNF-α levels of dengue patients compared with the control group, were observed. However, TNF-α levels did not correlate with the lipid profile of dengue patients...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Eddy Wh Lam, Michael Mh Chan, Cynthia Kc Wai, Chi Man Ngai, Zigui Chen, Martin Cs Wong, Apple Cm Yeung, Joanna Hm Tong, Amy Bw Chan, K F To, Paul Ks Chan
Objective Delineate the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in laryngeal cancer in Southern Chinese. Study Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting A major otorhinolaryngology referral center in Hong Kong. Subjects and Methods Eighty-five Chinese patients with histology-confirmed laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) diagnosed between 2005 and 2010 were examined for the status of HPV by PCR, and the expression of p16 and p53 by immunohistochemistry. The HPV, p16 and p53 findings were correlated with clinicopathological features, recurrence and 5-year survival...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Sibghat Tul Llah, Sheema Mir, Sumaiya Sharif, Salman Khan, Mohammed A Mir
Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is characterized by pulmonary capillary leakage and alveolar flooding, resulting in 50% mortality due to fulminant hypoxic respiratory failure. In addition, depression of cardiac function ensues, which complicates the picture with cardiogenic shock. Early diagnosis and appropriate use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are amongst the lifesaving interventions in this fatal illness. However, a recent case report demonstrates that implementation of high volume continuous hemofilteration along with protective ventilation reverses the cardiogenic shock within few hours in hantavirus infected patients...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Letizia Greco, Sara Colonia Uceda Renteria, Davide Guarneri, Anna Orlandi, Antonella Zoccoli, Susanna Benardon, Marco Cusini, Giovanna Lunghi
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a feco-orally transmitted pathogen and one of the most common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Recent studies in developed countries suggested that a direct human-to-human contact such as for sexually transmitted diseases may play a significant role in the HEV spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HEV and HAV in a group of MSM, including subjects HIV and Treponema infected, in Milan, Italy. The overall anti HEV IgG seroprevalence in MSM was 10.2% (65/636), instead in the control group the detection rate was 5...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Carla de Castro Sant' Anna, Marcella Kelly Costa de Almeida, Patrícia Ferreira, Roseane Gomes de Oliveira, Anna Rafaella Ferreira Baraúna, Evonnildo Costa Gonçalvez, Andrea Marinho da Silva, Carolina de Souza Pereira, Luisa Carício Martins
In the present study, we evaluated the prevalence of occult hepatitis B (OBI) in a population from the Brazilian Amazon region, identify circulating genotypes and mutations in the S gene. 181 patients with negative serology for HBsAg and anti-HBs and positive serology for anti-HBc participated in the study. Detection of viral DNA, genotyping by sequencing and analysis of nucleotide sequences to detect possible mutations were performed. HBV DNA was detected in 14.36% of the patients. Genotyping revealed genotype A in 88...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Stefan Kovachev, Victor Slavov
The distribution and prevalence of 33 high-, medium-, and low-risk HPV genotypes were surveyed in women aged between 15 and 54 years and with normal cytology in the biggest cities and regions in Bulgaria (viz., Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, and Burgas) and in two smaller communities (viz., Pleven and Vidin). This survey was also intended to update previous data collected in 2012 and to assess the results of a national campaign to immunize all 12-year-old girls against HPV, which was also started in 2012. The GenoFlow HPV Array Test Kit was used to analyze HPV status in cervical samples collected in 2012-2016 from 5,277 women who had visited 47 gynecological clinics across the study sites...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Sandro Mancinelli, Maria Franca Pirillo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Robert Mphwere, Roberta Amici, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Stefano Vella, Leonardo Palombi, Marina Giuliano
The aim of this study was to assess the immune response to HBV vaccine in HIV-exposed infants and to correlate it to HBV infection acquisition. Protective anti-HBs levels (> 10 mIU/ml) were found in 54/58 (93.2%) infants at 6 months, 126/144 (87.5%) at 12 months and 141/176 (80.1%) children at 24 months. HBV infection (7 children were HBsAg+ at Month 24) occurred also in the presence of levels above 10 mIU/ml. Our findings indicate limited impact of HIV exposure on anti-HBV immune response, but suggest that levels > 10 mIU/ml may be required to confer protection in this context...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Fumihiro Ogata, Norio Akuta, Masahiro Kobayashi, Shunichiro Fujiyama, Yusuke Kawamura, Hitomi Sezaki, Tetsuya Hosaka, Mariko Kobayashi, Satoshi Saitoh, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Fumitaka Suzuki, Yasuji Arase, Kenji Ikeda, Hiromitsu Kumada
Impact of substitution of aa70 in the core region (Core aa70) in HCV genotype 1b (HCV-1b) on hepatocarcinogenesis following eradication of HCV RNA by direct-acting antiviral therapy is not clear. In a retrospective study, 533 patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease, with sustained virological response defined as negative HCV RNA at 12 weeks after cessation of direct-acting antiviral therapy, were examined to evaluate the relationship between Core aa70 substitution and hepatocarcinogenesis. Twelve patients developed hepatocellular carcinoma during the follow-up period...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
M Grandal, B Pernas, A Tabernilla, A Mariño, H Álvarez, N Valcarce, A Mena, A Castro-Iglesias, A B Pérez, M Delgado, E Poveda
The presence of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) at NS5A region might compromise the efficacy of Direct Acting Antiviral agents (DAAs). HCV resistance at NS5A region is mainly focused on patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1a (G1a) and 3 (G3) with other factors of poor treatment response (i.e. cirrhosis, prior treatment-exposure, or HCV-RNA > 800,000 IU/mL). Herein, we evaluated in a cohort of HCV G1a and G3 infected patients the prevalence of RASs at domain I NS5A using population-based sequencing and the impact of RASs on the optimization of current therapeutic strategies...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Soon-Hwan Kwon, Sujin Lee, Jeyoun Jang, Yujin Seo, Hee-Young Lim
In order to diagnose the infectious disease from clinical samples, the various protocols such as culturing microorganism, rapid diagnostic test using chromatographic method, ELISA, conventional PCR are developed. Since a novel strain of avian influenza can be cross-infected human as well as birds and livestock due to genetic reassortment, some strains of influenza such as H7N9 and H5N1 have emerged as a severe virus which can be threaten the health of poultry as well as human. Therefore we explored the development of simultaneously and rapid diagnostic tool for seasonal influenza (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (A/H5N1, A/H7N9)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Zhengju Xu, Jiankun Shen, Xingnan Pan, Meijuan Wei, Liguan Liu, Kaipeng Wei, Lifei Liu, Huanwen Yang, Jinfa Huang
As a noninvasive marker, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) has limitations, because a large proportion of patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) suffer from severe hepatic necroinflammation, but have normal or mildly elevated ALT. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential value of serum Golgi protein 73 (GP73) in predicting significant hepatic necroinflamation among chronic HBV infected patients. A cohort of 497 chronic HBV infected patients was retrospectively recruited...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Jeng-How Yang, Po-Yen Huang, Shian-Sen Shie, Shuan Yang, Kuo-Chien Tsao, Tsu-Lan Wu, Ting-Shu Wu, Ching-Tai Huang
To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Sofia influenza A + B fluorescent immunoassay (Sofia FIA), we performed a prospective study at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan from January 2012 to December 2013. Patients who presented at out-patient clinics or the emergency department with influenza-like illness were included. Upper respiratory tract specimens were collected from oropharynx or nasopharynx. Performance of the Sofia FIA was compared to that of the Formosa One Sure Flu A/B Rapid Test...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Romesa Ibrahim, Rozina Thobani, Fatima Aziz, Asad Ali
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the second leading cause of death in children less than five years of age worldwide. Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) is associated with around 5-7% of the total pneumonia admissions in children. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of hMPV associated hospitalizations among children, in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODOLOGY: A three years prospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), from August 2009 to June 2012...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Shintaro Hashimoto, Gabriel Gonzalez, Seiya Harada, Hideo Oosako, Nozomu Hanaoka, Rikutaro Hinokuma, Tsuguto Fujimoto
The aim of this study was to report the emergence of a recombinant human mastadenovirus (HAdV) type 85 (HAdV-85) and to describe its genomic and clinical characteristics. The strains were detected and identified in Japan in cases of adenoviral conjunctivitis including epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). The type was designated as HAdV-85 based on the novel combination of penton base (P = HAdV-37), hexon (H = HAdV-19), and fiber (F = HAdV-8). The whole genome sequence determined for HAdV-85 was compared against sequences of other types in the same species...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
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