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Journal of Medical Virology

Florence Nicot, Nicolas Jeanne, Stéphanie Raymond, Olivier Delfour, Romain Carcenac, Caroline Lefebvre, Karine Sauné, Pierre Delobel, Jacques Izopet
The present study compares the performances of an in-house sequencing protocol on MiSeq to those of the Sanger method, and the 454 GS-FLX for detecting and quantifying drug-resistant mutations in the HIV polymerase gene (reverse transcriptase and protease). MiSeq sequencing identified all the resistance mutations detected by bulk sequencing (n=84). The MiSeq and 454 GS-FLX platforms both identified 67 drug-resistant mutations in the reverse transcriptase and protease regions, but a further 25 drug-resistant mutations were seen by only one or other of them...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Daryl M Lamson, Adriana Kajon, Matthew Shudt, Monica Quinn, Alexandra Newman, Joan Whitehouse, Jane Greenko, Eleanor Adams, Kirsten St George
Ocular infections caused by human adenovirus (HAdV) are highly contagious. The most severe are usually caused by members of species HAdV-D (types HAdV8, 19 ,37, 53, 54 and 56) and can manifest as epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) often resulting in prolonged impairment of vision. During the early months of 2012, EKC outbreaks occurred in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) in three hospitals in New York State (New York and Suffolk Counties). A total of 32 neonates were affected. For 14 of them, HAdV8 was laboratory-confirmed as the causative agent...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Maria Maryam, Muhammad Idrees
Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation contribute to progression of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to life-threatening hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), by promoting the silencing of tumor suppressor genes due to DNA hypermethylation and by causing genomic instability due to global hypomethylation. However few studies addressed promoter region hypomethylation status of the oncogenes involved in HCV derived HCC. In this study, we analyzed the promoter region methylation pattern of RAS oncogenes (HRAS, KRAS, NRAS) using methylation-specific PCR (MSP) for 50 Chronic HCV patients infected with genotype 3a (27 HCC patients and 23 Control non-HCC patients)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Xuejiao Chen, Tingli Shi, Jianhua Huang, Gang Xiao, Jing Huang, Yiquan Xiong, Xiufen Li, Huifang Chen, Xueyan Zheng, Shouyi Yu, Qing Chen
Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are prevalent in young children; however, their effects are incompletely understood. We investigated the prevalence, genotype distribution, and phylogeny of HPeVs in individuals with diarrhea (n=430) and healthy controls (n=93), by analysis of stool specimens collected from July 2013 to December 2014; 51 (11.86%) and 6 (6.45%) specimens were HPeV-positive, respectively. HPeV1A occurred in 28 (6.51%) and 6 (6.45%) individuals with diarrhea and controls, respectively, whereas HPeV1B (3...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Eleonora Cella, Elisabetta Riva, Silvia Angeletti, Marta Fogolari, Aletheia Blasi, Vittoria Scolamacchia, Silvia Spoto, Riccardo Bazzardi, Alessia Lai, Caterina Sagnelli, Evangelista Sagnelli, Massimo Ciccozzi
Despite a significantly decrease of acute hepatitis A in the last two decades in Italy, outbreaks mostly occurring in southern Italy were observed. In this study, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis was used to analyze the origin of these epidemics. At this aim, five different datasets of hepatitis A virus sequences were built to perform genotyping by the neighbor-joining method, to estimate the evolutionary rates by using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach, to investigate the demographic history by independent MCMC runs enforcing both a strict and relaxed clock...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Eliseo Albert, Ignacio Torres, Alberto Talaya, Estela Giménez, José Luis Piñana, Juan Carlos Hernández-Boluda, Daniele Focosi, Lisa Macera, Fabrizio Maggi, Carlos Solano, David Navarro
Plasma Torque Teno virus (TTV) DNA load directly correlates with the degree of T-cell immune reconstitution early after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Here, the kinetics of oral TTV DNA shedding was examined to assess whether quantitation of TTV DNA load in saliva may either replace or complement that in plasma for predicting lymphocyte (ALC) reconstitution following engraftment. This prospective observational study enrolled 38 non-consecutive allo-HSCT recipients. Saliva and plasma specimens were collected at baseline (pre-transplant) and at around days +30, +50 and +90 after allo-HSCT...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Ling Ding, Xiaohui Mo, Liming Zhang, Feng Zhou, Caixia Zhu, Yuyan Wang, Cankun Cai, Yeqiang Liu, Fang Wei, Qiliang Cai
Skin disorders vary greatly in symptoms and severity, and the causes of these disorders are largely unknown. Human herpesvirus (HHV) has been shown to cause many diseases. However, the prevalence and correlate of each HHV infection with different skin disorders remains obscure. To reveal the potential link of certain type of skin disease with herpesvirus infection, a total of 272 patient tissues with inflammatory or neoplastic skin diseases including 7 subtypes in Shanghai, China, were investigated. We found that the overall prevalence of HHV-6A in inflammatory or neoplastic skin tissues is the most common (40...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Cheng Xu, Jianguang Fu, Jing Ai, Jun Zhang, Cheng Liu, Xiang Huo, Changjun Bao, Yefei Zhu
Rotavirus A (RVA) is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in children under 5 years of age worldwide. G9P[8] is a common RVA genotype that has been persistently prevalent in Jiangsu, China. To determine the genetic diversity of G9P[8] RVAs, seven representative G9P[8] strains collected from Suzhou Children's Hospital between 2010 and 2016 (named JS2010-JS2016) were analyzed through whole-genome sequencing. All evaluated strains showed the Wa-like constellation G9-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Isidore Juste O Bonkoungou, Nafissatou Ouédraogo, Laure Tamini, Rabieta Kouboura Teguera, Pouiré Yaméogo, Maxime Koiné Drabo, Isaïe Medah, Nicolas Barro, Sumit Sharma, Lennart Svensson, Johan Nordgren
Burkina Faso introduced rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq) to the national immunization program in November 2013. This study describes the detection rates, clinical profiles and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus and norovirus infections among children <5 years hospitalized (n=154) due to acute diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, from December 2012 to November 2013, just prior to start of vaccination. Overall, 44% and 23% of fecal samples were positive for rotavirus and norovirus respectively, most of them detected during the cold dry season (Dec-Mar)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Dianjun Cao, Yan-Yan Ni, Michelle Walker, Yao-Wei Huang, Xiang-Jin Meng
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a member of the family Hepeviridae, causes both acute and chronic viral hepatitis. We have previously demonstrated that the stem-loop structure in the junction region (JR) of HEV genome plays a critical role in HEV replication. However, the function of the sequence bordering the JR, including the 3' terminus of ORF1, in HEV replication is unknown. In this study, a panel of HEV Renilla luciferase (Rluc) replicons containing various deletions at 5' or 3' termini of the JR were constructed to determine the effect of the deletions on HEV replication in Huh7 human liver cells...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Frank van Someren Gréve, Koenraad F van der Sluijs, Anita M Tuip, Marcus J Schultz, Menno D de Jong, Nicole P Juffermans
BACKGROUND: Secondary bacterial pneumonia is a frequent complication of influenza, associated with high morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that treatment with neutralizing influenza A antibody AT10_002 protects against severe secondary pneumococcal infection in a mouse model of influenza A infection. METHODS: Influenza A (H3N2) virus-infected male C57Bl6 mice were treated intravenously with either AT10_002 or a control two days post-infection. Seven days later both groups were infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and sacrificed 18 hours later...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Shereen Abdel Alem, Mohamed Said, Ismail Anwar, Zeinab Abdellatif, Tamer Elbaz, Rasha Eletreby, Mahmoud AbouElKhair, Magdy El-Serafy, Sherif Mogawer, Mona El-Amir, Mostafa El-Shazly, Adel Hosny, Ayman Yosry
BACKGROUND: Progression of recurrent hepatitis C is accelerated in liver transplant (LT) recipients. Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have recently emerged as a promising therapeutic regimen for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Rates of sustained virological response (SVR) have drastically improved since introduction of DAAs. AIM: To elucidate the changes in liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by Transient elastography (TE) as well as ARFI elastography and fibrosis scores after DAAs treatment in LT recipients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Polly Lee, Apple C M Yeung, Zigui Chen, Martin C W Chan, Kin Ho Sze, Paul K S Chan
A newly developed dengue virus vaccine (chimeric yellow fever virus-tetravalent dengue vaccine [CYD-TDV]) has recently been licensed for clinical use. The World Health Organization recommends vaccination for populations with seroprevalence of at least 70% to maximize public health impact. This study aimed to delineate the seroprevalence of dengue infection in Hong Kong. A total of 105 972 serum samples submitted for clinical testing during the period 2013-2015 were age-stratified and sex-stratified. For each year of collection, 25 samples were randomly selected from each age-sex group...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Fang Xu, Chong Wang, Xiaoju Shi, Jie Hou, Xiaolin Guo, Pujun Gao
BACKGROUND: Most cases of hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN) occur in children and present with serum HBsAg positivity. Few studies have investigated adult HBV-GN patients who are serum HBsAg-negative. This study aimed to determine the clinical and pathological features of serum HBsAg-negative adult HBV-GN patients. METHODS: Clinical, pathologic and laboratory findings were collected and analyzed in a cohort of 27 adult HBV-GN patients who were serum HBsAg negative upon diagnosis...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Jean De Dieu Longo, Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa, Marcel Mbeko Simaleko, André Kouabosso, Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde, Leman Robin, Laura Charmant, Gérard Grésenguet, Laurent Bélec
Adult outpatients attending the main sexually transmitted infections clinic of Bangui, Central African Republic, were prospectively subjected to multiplex rapid diagnostic test for HIV, HBV and HCV. In group I (n=208) of patients already followed for HIV, 6 (2.9%) were unexpectedly negative, thus corresponding to false positive for HIV by the national HIV algorithm; HBsAg- and HCV- positivities were high (18.7% and 4.3%, respectively). In group II (n=71) of patients with unknown HIV status, at least one chronic viral disease was diagnosed in 26 (36...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Charles Grose
Strokes and stroke-related deaths are increasing around the world1 . Stroke is not a single entity. Stroke can be divided into two major groups: Ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. The majority of strokes are ischemic. Ischemic stroke is caused by a blocked blood vessel and hemorrhagic stroke is caused by a ruptured blood vessel. Ischemic stroke often requires an inflammatory process in a cerebral artery, which in turn leads to formation of a blood clot. The goal of this Commentary is to document increasing evidence that herpes zoster (shingles) can lead to stroke...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Glauciane Garcia de Figueiredo, Adriana Aparecida Marques, Marisa Márcia Mussi-Pinhata, Wilson Araújo Silva, Aparecida Yulie Yamamoto
It is still not well known, in a population with high HCMV seroprevalence, if a child with congenital infection harbors multiple viral strains at birth, and if the prolonged viral excretion in these children is secondary to the persistence of the same viral strain. To verify the genomic diversity of HCMV detected in congenitally infected children, the nucleotide viral sequences from urine and/or saliva obtained at birth from 14 newborns with congenital infection and breast milk obtained from mothers of 5 of these children were analyzed...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Aiping Fan, Chen Wang, Cha Han, Yingmei Wang, Fengxia Xue, Liqin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors for predicting residual or recurrent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) after cervical conization with negative margins. METHODS: A total of 172 patients with histologically verified high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions who underwent conization with negative margins were recruited at the General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from December 2006 to January 2016. Follow-up comprised clinical examination, liquid-based cytology test, HPV DNA genotyping test, colposcopy assessment, and if indicated, colposcopy-directed punch biopsy...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Qiyuan Kuai, Xiaofan Lu, Zhixin Qiao, Rui Wang, Yanbing Wang, Sanxian Ye, Min He, Yu Wang, Tong Zhang, Hao Wu, Suping Ren, Qun Yu
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can reduce the HIV viral load in the plasma to undetectable levels. However, due to the presence of latent HIV reservoirs, it is difficult to completely eradicate HIV in infected patients. Our objective was to assess the potency of chidamide, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) recently approved for cancer treatment by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA), to reactivate latent HIV-1 via histone acetylation. Viral reactivities of chidamide were accessed in two latent HIV pseudotype virus cell reporter systems (J-Lat Tat-GFP Clone A72 and TZM-bl), a latently infected full-length HIV virus cell system (U1/HIV), and resting CD4+ T cells from nine HIV-infected patients under HAART with undetectable viral load...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Marjan Khazan, Mehdi Hedayati, Reza Mahmoud Robati, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Soheila Nasiri
Oxidative stress, an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, is related to many dermatologic diseases. Increased ROS is also associated with various decreased T-cell immune responses. The incidence and severity of herpes zoster (HZ), which is caused by the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus, increases with age due to declining cell-mediated immunity. The main purpose of this study was to assess the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in HZ patients compared with control subjects...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
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