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FEMS Microbiology Letters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679171/a-burkholderia-endophyte-of-the-ancient-maize-landrace-chapalote-utilizes-c-di-gmp-dependent-and-independent-signaling-to-suppress-diverse-plant-fungal-pathogen-targets
#1
Hanan R Shehata, Manish N Raizada
Chapalote is a maize (corn) landrace grown continuously by subsistence farmers in the Americas since 1000 BC, valued in part for its broad-spectrum pathogen resistance. Previously we showed that Chapalote possesses a bacterial endophyte, Burkholderia gladioli strain 3A12, which suppresses growth of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, a fungal pathogen of a maize relative, used as a model system. Ten mutants that lost the anti-pathogen activities were identified, corresponding to five genes. However, S. homoeocarpa is not a known maize pathogen, hence the relevance of these anti-fungal mechanisms to its ancient host has not been clear...
June 29, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673033/comparison-of-four-dna-extraction-methods-for-comprehensive-assessment-of-16s-rrna-bacterial-diversity-in-marine-biofilms-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#2
Natàlia Corcoll, Tobias Österlund, Lucas Sinclair, Alexander Eiler, Erik Kristiansson, Thomas Backhaus, K Martin Eriksson
High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies are increasingly used for the metagenomic characterization of microbial biodiversity. However, basic issues, such as the choice of an appropriate DNA extraction method, are still not resolved for non-model microbial communities. This study evaluates four commonly used DNA extraction methods for marine periphyton biofilms in terms of DNA yield, efficiency, purity, integrity and resulting 16S rRNA bacterial diversity. Among the tested methods, the Plant DNAzol® Reagent (PlantDNAzol) and the Fast DNATM SPIN Kit for Soil (FastDNA Soil) methods were best suited to extract high quantities of DNA (77 - 130 μg g wet wt-1)...
June 29, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655209/phylogenetic-diversification-and-developmental-implications-of-poly-r-3-hydroxyalkanoate-gene-cluster-assembly-in-prokaryotes
#3
Gurusamy Kutralam-Muniasamy, Juan Corona-Hernandez, Ravi-Kumar Narayanasamy, Rodolfo Marsch, Fermín Pérez-Guevara
Many polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) system genes, such as phaC, phaA, phaB, phaR, phaP, and phaZ, are often found to be organized in the form of operon-like clusters. In this study, a genome survey was performed to identify such clustered PHA systems among 256 prokaryotic organisms. These data were then used to generate a comprehensive 16S rRNA species tree depicting the phylogenetic distribution of the observed clusters with diverse gene arrangements. In addition, the gene occurrences and physical linkages between PHA system genes were quantitatively estimated...
June 26, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655193/the-importance-of-fermentative-conditions-for-the-biotechnological-production-of-lignin-modifying-enzymes-from-white-rot-fungi
#4
Francesca Martani, Fabrizio Beltrametti, Danilo Porro, Paola Branduardi, Marina Lotti
White-rot fungi are the main natural producers of lignin modifying enzymes, i.e. laccases and peroxidases, whose secretion and activity allows the depolymerization of lignin and the release of polysaccharides contained in lignocellulose. These enzymes are able to oxidize, in addition to lignin, a wide spectrum of natural and synthetic substrates, making their industrial and biotechnological application appealing. However, the complex regulation of the synthesis of lignin modifying enzymes, as well as the heterogeneous physiology of fungi in response to nutrients, make the use of white-rot fungi as production platforms challenging...
June 26, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655181/pantothenate-auxotrophy-in-zymomonas-mobilis-zm4-is-due-to-a-lack-of-aspartate-decarboxylase-activity
#5
J R Gliessman, T A Kremer, A A Sangani, S E Jones-Burrage, J B McKinlay
The bacterium Zymomonas mobilis naturally produces ethanol at near theoretical maximum yields, making it of interest for industrial ethanol production. Z. mobilis requires the vitamin pantothenate for growth. Here we characterized the genetic basis for the Z. mobilis pantothenate auxotrophy. We found that this auxotrophy is due to the absence of a single gene, panD, encoding aspartate-decarboxylase. Heterologous expression of Escherichia coli PanD in Z. mobilis or supplementation of the growth medium with the product of PanD activity, β-alanine, eliminated the need for exogenous pantothenate...
June 26, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651361/epigallocatechin-gallate-inhibits-the-type-iii-secretion-system-of-gram-negative-enteropathogenic-bacteria-under-model-condition
#6
Noboru Nakasone, Naomi Higa, Claudia Toma, Yasunori Ogura, Toshihiko Suzuki, Tetsu Yamashiro
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, inhibits the type III secretion system (T3SS) of enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively), Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The inhibitory effect causes the inhibition of hemolysis, cell invasion, cell adhesion, and apoptosis, which are functions of the type III secretion device. In the case of EPEC, EspB accumulates in the cells. RT-PCR showed that the translation of EspB was not blocked...
June 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645196/antagonistic-regulation-of-cyclin-expression-by-the-bzip-transcription-factors-pcr1-and-atf1-during-g2-m-transition
#7
Sushobhana Bandyopadhyay, Protiti Maiti Ghosh, Sohini Basu, Madhurima Paul, Syed Benazir Alam, Elizabeth Das, Geetanjali Sundaram
The transcription factor Atf1 is known to promote cell survival during various stress conditions in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by activating the expression of appropriate genes. It can also activate transcription of other important genes responsible for cell cycle progression. An Atf1 dependent increase in the expression of cell division promoting genes will oppose activation of checkpoints necessary to ensure repairs and cell survival during stress. Hence selective inhibition of the cell cycle related functions of Atf1 would be indispensable for cellular survival during stress...
June 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637209/purification-and-characterization-of-two-new-cell-bound-bioactive-compounds-produced-by-wildlactococcus-lactisstrain
#8
Margarete Alice Fontes Saraiva, Dag Anders Brede, Ingolf Figved Nes, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, Marisa Vieira de Queiroz, Célia Alencar de Moraes
Novel compounds and innovative methods are required considering that antibiotic resistance has reached a crisis point. In the study, two cell-bound antimicrobial compounds produced by L. lactis ID1.5 were isolated and partially characterized. Following purification by cationic exchange and a solid phase C18 column, antimicrobial activity was recovered after three runs of RPC using 60% (v/v) and 100% (v/v) of 2-propanol for elution, suggesting that more than one antimicrobial compound were produced by L. lactis ID1...
June 20, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637172/identification-of-four-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-systems-in-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
#9
Chengkun Zheng, Xigong Zhao, Ting Zeng, Manman Cao, Jiali Xu, Guolin Shi, Jinquan Li, Huanchun Chen, Weicheng Bei
Toxin-antitoxin systems are small genetic elements that are widely prevalent in the genomes of bacteria and archaea. These modules have been identified in various bacteria and proposed to play an important role in bacterial physiology and virulence. However, their presence in the genomes of Actinobacillus species has received no attention. In this study, we describe the identification of four type II TA systems in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. Reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed that the genes encoding the toxin and antitoxin are co-transcribed...
June 20, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637330/occurrence-of-aminoglycoside-modifying-enzymes-ames-among-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-exhibiting-high-levels-of-aminoglycoside-resistance-isolated-from-korean-cattle-farms
#10
Kuastros Mekonnen Belaynehe, Seung Won Shin, Park Hong-Tae, Han Sang Yoo
This study investigated 247 Escherichia coli isolates collected from four cattle farms to characterize aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) genes, their plasmid replicons and transferability. Out of 247 isolates a high number of isolates (total 202; 81.78%) were found resistant to various antibiotics by disc-diffusion. Of the 247 strains 139 (56.3%) were resistant to streptomycin and other antibiotics resistance followed as tetracycline (12.15%), ampicillin (7%), chloramphenicol (5.7%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (0...
June 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605563/the-contribution-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-virulence-factors-and-host-factors-in-the-establishment-of-urinary-tract-infections
#11
J W Newman, R V Floyd, J L Fothergill
Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause complicated urinary tract infections, particularly in people with catheters, which can lead to pyelonephritis. Whilst some subgroups appear more susceptible to infection, such as the elderly and women, the contribution of other host factors and bacterial virulence factors to successful infection remains relatively understudied. In this review, we explore the potential role of P. aeruginosa virulence factors including phenazines, quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and siderophores along with host factors such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, osmotic stress and iron specifically on establishment of successful infection in the urinary niche...
June 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605536/quick-change-post-transcriptional-regulation-in-pseudomonas
#12
L Grenga, R H Little, J G Malone
Pseudomonas species have evolved dynamic and intricate regulatory networks to fine-tune gene expression, with complex regulation occurring at every stage in the processing of genetic information. This approach enables Pseudomonas to generate precise individual responses to the environment in order to improve their fitness and resource economy. The weak correlations we observe between RNA and protein abundance highlight the significant regulatory contribution of a series of intersecting post-transcriptional pathways, influencing mRNA stability, translational activity and ribosome function, to Pseudomonas environmental responses...
June 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605495/green-tea-and-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-are-bactericidal-against-bacillus-anthracis
#13
Shane D Falcinelli, Maggie C Shi, Arthur M Friedlander, Jennifer Chua
Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is listed as a Category A biothreat agent by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The virulence of the organism is due to expression of two exotoxins and capsule, which interfere with host cellular signaling, alter host water homeostasis, and inhibit phagocytosis of the pathogen, respectively. Concerns regarding the past and possible future use of B. anthracis as a bioterrorism agent have resulted in an impetus to develop more effective protective measures and therapeutics...
June 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605431/matrix-exopolysaccharides-the-sticky-side-of-biofilm-formation
#14
Eve Maunders, Martin Welch
The Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is found ubiquitously within the environment and is recognised as an opportunistic human pathogen that commonly infects burn wounds and immunocompromised individuals, or patients suffering from the autosomal recessive disorder cystic fibrosis (CF). During chronic infection, P. aeruginosa is thought to form structured aggregates known as biofilms characterised by a self-produced matrix which encases the bacteria, protecting them from anti-microbial attack and the host immune response...
June 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591849/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quorum-sensing-response-in-the-absence-of-functional-lasr-and-lasi-proteins-the-case-of-strain-148-a-virulent-dolphin-isolate
#15
Estefanía Morales, Abigail González-Valdez, Luis Servín-González, Gloria Soberón-Chávez
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that presents a complex regulatory network called 'quorum-sensing', which is responsible for the transcription of genes coding for several traits implicated in its pathogenicity. Strain 148 is a dolphin-isolate that has been shown to produce quorum-sensing regulated virulence-traits and to be virulent in a mouse model, despite the fact that it contains a 20 kbp deletion that eliminates from the chromosome the lasR gene and the lasI promoter. LasR is a key quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator that, when coupled with the autoinducer 3-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL) produced by LasI, activates transcription of genes coding for some virulence-associated traits such as elastase, lasI, rhlI and rhlR...
June 7, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591835/assessing-phagotrophy-in-the-mixotrophic-ciliate-paramecium-bursaria-using-gfp-expressing-yeast-cells
#16
Takashi Miura, Hisao Moriya, Sosuke Iwai
We used cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) as fluorescently labeled prey to assess the phagocytic activities of the mixotrophic ciliate Paramecium bursaria, which harbours symbiotic Chlorella-like algae. Because of different fluorescence spectra of GFP and algal chlorophyll, ingested GFP-expressing yeast cells can be distinguished from endosymbiotic algal cells and directly counted in individual P. bursaria cells using fluorescence microscopy. By using GFP-expressing yeast cells, we found that P...
June 7, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591829/benzoate-transport-in-pseudomonas-putida-csv86
#17
Alpa Choudhary, Hemant Purohit, Prashant S Phale
Pseudomonas putida strain CSV86 metabolizes variety of aromatic compounds as the sole carbon source. Genome analysis revealed the presence of genes encoding putative transporters for benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, phenylacetate, p-hydroxyphenylacetate and vanillate. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that benzoate transport and metabolism genes are clustered at the ben locus as benK-catA-benE-benF. Protein topology prediction suggests that BenK (aromatic acid-H+ symporter of major facilitator superfamily) has 12 transmembrane α-helices with the conserved motif, LADRXGRKX in loop 2 while BenE (benzoate-H+ symporter protein) has 11 predicted transmembrane α-helices...
June 7, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591809/cpx-dependent-expression-of-yqja-requires-cations-at-elevated-ph
#18
Sujeet Kumar, Vijay Tiwari, William T Doerrler
Under alkaline pH conditions, Escherichia coli must maintain a stable cytoplasmic pH of about 7.6 that is acidic relative to the environment. Bacteria employ various mechanisms to survive alkaline pH; however, membrane cation/H+ antiporters play a primary role by facilitating inward transport of protons. E. coli YqjA belongs to the DedA/Tvp38 membrane protein family and, along with its paralog YghB, is required for growth at 42°C, proper cell division and antibiotic resistance. YqjA is required for viability at alkaline pH, requiring cations sodium or potassium to support growth under these conditions, suggesting it may be a transporter...
June 7, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591808/relationship-between-%C3%AE-lactamase-production-and-resistance-phenotype-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains
#19
Jeongjin Kim, Tian Ding, Juhee Ahn
This study was designed to evaluate the resistance phenotypes of β-lactamases-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. The antibiotic susceptibility and β-lactamase activity of K. pneumoniae strains, including antibiotic-sensitive K. pneumoniae (KPWT), ciprofloxacin-induced resistant K. pneumoniae (KPCIP), and clinically isolated K. pneumoniae strains (KPCI237, KPCI263, and KPCI272), were determined in the absence and presence of β-lactamase inhibitors (BLI 489, sulbactam, clavulanate, and tazobactam). All strains were highly resistant to ampicillin in the absence of β-lactamase inhibitors (MIC≥ 512 μg mL-1)...
June 7, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505315/plasmid-transfer-efficiency-using-lactoccocus-lactis-strains-depends-on-invasiveness-status-but-also-on-plasmid-copy-number
#20
Denis Mariat, Véronique Robert, Philippe Langella, Jean-Marc Chatel
Lactic acid bacteria as Lactococcus lactis are used as vector for protein but also DNA delivery into intestinal cells in vitro and in vivo. For the plasmid delivery strategy, the plasmid copy number per bacteria (PCN) is thus of great importance. The aim of this paper is to determine the physiological conditions when PCN is the highest in the bacteria. PCN was characterized by qPCR in five different recombinant Lactococcus lactis strains, containing one (mono-) or two different plasmids (biplasmidic), at exponential or stationary phase...
May 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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