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FEMS Microbiology Letters

Karen Michael, David No, Jennifer Dankoff, Kyoyi Lee, Elisabeth Lara-Crawford, Marilyn C Roberts
Clostridium difficile is both a hospital and community acquired pathogen. The current study determined if C. difficile could be cultured from clinical laundry facility surfaces. A total of 240 surface samples were collected from dirty areas (n = 120), which handle soiled clinical linens, and from clean areas (n = 120), which process and fold the clean linens, within the University of Washington Consolidated Laundry facility in 2015. Sampling was done four times over the course of one year. The dirty area was significantly more contaminated than the clean area (21% vs 2%, p<0...
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Yong Yang, Hua Gu, Xiaofeng Yu, Li Zhan, Jiancai Chen, Yun Luo, Yunyi Zhang, Yanjun Zhang, Yiyu Lu, Jianmin Jiang, Lingling Mei
Emetic toxin producing Bacillus cereus (emetic B. cereus) is the third member of B. cereus group whose toxins are encoded by megaplasmids, beside anthrax and insecticidal toxins of B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis respectively. 18 emetic isolates collected from food poisoning events, clinical and non-random food samples in Zhejiang province of China, were analyzed by plasmid screening, pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), as well as toxic gene identification to investigate their genotypic diversity...
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Robert Dolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
David S Senchina
Infectious diseases are potential catalysts for exploring 'engaged citizen' or socioscientific themes given their interwoven economic, political, scientific, and social dimensions. This article describes how an undergraduate course on the history of infectious diseases was modified to explore the impact of two 'engaged citizen' themes (poverty and technology), and to consider the ramifications of those themes on past, present, and future infectious disease outbreaks. Four outbreaks were used as the foundation for the course: plague (1350s), puerperal fever (1840s), cholera (1850s), and syphilis (1930s)...
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Yu Yang, Wendy Ballent, Brooke K Mayer
Phosphorus (P) is a critical, nonrenewable nutrient; yet excess discharges can lead to eutrophication and deterioration of water quality. Thus, P removal from water must be coupled with P recovery to achieve sustainable P management. P-specific proteins provide a novel, promising approach to recover P from water. Bacterial phosphate binding proteins (PBP) are able to effectively remove phosphate, achieving extremely low levels in water (i.e., 0.015 mg-P L(-1)). A prerequisite of using PBP for P recovery, however, is not only removal, but also controlled P release, which has not yet been reported...
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Luciana A Pagnussat, Florencia Salcedo, Guillermo Maroniche, Christoph Keel, Claudio Valverde, Cecilia M Creus
Plant growth promoting bacteria belonging to Azospirillum and Pseudomonas genera are major inhabitants of the rhizosphere. Both are increasingly commercialized as crops inoculants. Inter-specific interaction in the rhizosphere is critical for inoculants aptness. The objective of this work was to evaluate Azospirillum and Pseudomonas interaction in mixed biofilms by co-cultivation of the model strains A. brasilense Sp245 and P. protegens CHA0. The results revealed enhanced growth of both strains when co-cultured in static conditions...
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Bingbing Zong, Wugang Liu, Yanyan Zhang, Xiangru Wang, Huanchun Chen, Chen Tan
In recent years, extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) has been found to pose a great threat to human and animal health, but its pathogenic mechanism is not fully understood yet. Capsular polysaccharide, an essential virulence factor in these bacteria, can damage the host immune system, and kpsM is a member of the gene cluster responsible for capsular polysaccharide synthesis. In this study, whole sequence alignment of the virulent strain PCN033 and the attenuated strain PCN061 revealed that kpsM exists in PCN033 but not in PCN061...
October 12, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Kristin Ciezki, Kristen Murfin, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, S Patricia Stock, Steven Forst
R-type bacteriocins are contractile phage-tail-like structures that are bactericidal towards related bacterial species. The C-terminal region of the phage tail fiber protein determines target-binding specificity. The mutualistic bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Xenorhabdus bovienii produce R-type bacteriocins (xenorhabdicins) that are selectively active against different Xenorhabdus species. We analyzed the P2-type remnant prophage clusters in draft sequences of nine strains of X. bovienii The C-terminal tail fiber region in each of the respective strains was unique and consisted of mosaics of modular units...
October 12, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Kjartan Østbye, Robert Wilson, Knut Rudi
Knowledge about the factors shaping the rumen microbiota in wild animals is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the microbiota from the three cervid species moose (Alces alces, n = 5), red deer (Cervus elaphus, n = 4) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, n = 12), sharing the same habitat. Using deep 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we found that the largest species moose had the highest number of unique Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Furthermore, red deer and moose, shared more of the microbiota, compared with the smallest species, roe deer, with Firmicutes and Euryarchaeota being significantly overrepresented for the shared microbiota...
October 12, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Zhongqiu Chen, Wen Ling, Guangdong Shang
Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a saprophytic, generally recognized as safe microorganism that plays important roles in the biodegradation and production of value-added chemicals. Chromosomal gene deletion of P. putida KT2440 usually involves time-consuming gene coning, conjugal transfer and counterselection. Recently, we developed a P. putida KT2440 markerless gene deletion method based on recombineering and Cre/loxP site-specific recombination. PCR-based λ Red recombineering circumvents the tedious cloning steps and is more amenable to high-throughput manipulation...
October 7, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Patricia Morán Losada, Burkhard Tümmler
Genomic sequence diversity of a bacterial species mainly results from the frequency distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Here we report on a SNP-matrix based binary algorithm to determine the intra- or interclonal genomic diversity by the number of shared sequential SNPs, the so-called SNP synteny or haplotype. All SNP positions and the frequency and length distribution of haplotypes are determined from pairwise alignment of completely sequenced genomes. This metric is invariant regarding the reference genome chosen...
October 3, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
William D Leavitt, Sofia S Venceslau, Inês A C Pereira, David T Johnston, Alexander S Bradley
Dissimilatory sulfate reduction is the central microbial metabolism in global sulfur cycling. Understanding the importance of sulfate reduction to Earth's biogeochemical S cycle requires aggregating single-cell processes with geochemical signals. For sulfate reduction, these signals include the ratio of stable sulfur isotopes preserved in minerals, as well as the hydrogen isotope ratios and structures of microbial membrane lipids preserved in organic matter. In this study we cultivated the model sulfate reducer, Desulfovibrio vulgaris DSM 644(T), to investigate how these parameters were perturbed by changes in expression of the protein DsrC...
October 3, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Laura Vinué, David C Hooper
To study the viability of a gyrA S83 stop mutation found in an Escherichia coli J53 ciprofloxacin-resistant strain (J53 CipR27), a pBR322 derivative was constructed with a UAG mutation in the bla gene knocking out ampicillin resistance. Ampicillin resistance was restored, suggesting that the strain contains tRNA suppressor activity able to suppress the UAG codon gyrA and allow viability. The method was applied to 22 unique clinical E. coli isolates, and all were found to have low-level suppressor activity.
September 27, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Takahiro Ogawa, Hiromi Kato, Mitsuru Higashide, Mami Nishimiya, Yoko Katayama
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an atmospheric trace gas and one of the sources of stratospheric aerosol contributing to climate change. Although one of the major sinks of COS is soil, the distribution of COS degradation ability among bacteria remains unclear. Seventeen out of 20 named bacteria belonging to Actinomycetales had COS degradation activity at mole fractions of 30 parts per million by volume (ppmv) COS. Dietzia maris NBRC 15801(T) and Mycobacterium sp. THI405 had the activity comparable to a chemolithoautotroph Thiobacillus thioparus THI115 that degrade COS by COS hydrolase for energy production...
September 25, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Suk-Hyun Yun, Song Hee Lee, Kum-Kang So, Jung-Mi Kim, Dae-Hyuk Kim
A total of 315 fungal isolates causing green mold disease were collected from contaminated artificial logs and sawdust bags used for cultivating shiitake Lentinula edodes in Korea and were analyzed for the presence of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). dsRNA, which was purified using dsRNA-specific chromatography and verified by dsRNA-specific RNaseIII digestion, was detected in 32 isolates. The molecular taxonomy of dsRNA-infected isolates indicated that all isolates belonged to the Trichoderma spp.. The number and size of dsRNAs varied among isolates and the band patterns could be categorized into 15 groups...
September 22, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Cecilia M Duarte, Laura A Basile, Andrés Zalguizuri, Viviana C Lepek
Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 has a functional Type III secretion system (T3SS) that is involved in the determination of competitiveness for legume nodulation. Here we demonstrate that the transcriptional factor TtsI, which positively regulates T3SS genes expression, is involved in a negative regulation of M. loti swimming motility in soft-agar. Conditions that induce T3SS expression affect flagella production. The same conditions also affect promoter activity of M. loti visN gene, a homolog to the positive regulator of flagellar genes that has been described in other rhizobia...
September 22, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Ankita Kothari, Marimikel Charrier, Yu-Wei Wu, Stephanie Malfatti, Carol E Zhou, Steven W Singer, Larry Dugan, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay
The hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Acinetobacter venetianus RAG-1 has attracted substantial attention due to its powerful oil degrading capabilities and its potential to play an important ecological role in the cleanup of alkanes. In this study we compare the transcriptome of the strain RAG-1 grown in dodecane, the corresponding alkanol (dodecanol), and sodium acetate for the characterization of genes involved in dodecane uptake and utilization. Comparison of the transcriptional responses of RAG-1 grown on dodecane led to the identification of 1074 genes that were differentially expressed relative to sodium acetate...
September 22, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Wang Shen, Liu Ying, Li Dandan, Zhou Tiezhong, Gao Shenyang, Zha Enhui, Yue Xiqing
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the pathogen of causing hepatitis E (HE). It arouses a global public health concern since its zoonosis. The objective of this letter is to report a cost-effective internal control prepared for monitoring procedures of HEV RT-PCR detection. A selected conserved HEV RNA fragment was integrated into the downstream of the truncated MS2 bacteriophage genome based on Armed RNA technology. The resulting MS2-HEV gene harboring in pET-28b-MS2-HEV plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) for expression analysis by SDS-PAGE...
September 22, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Ee Li, Jiajia Wu, Peng Wang, Dun Zhang
D-amino acids have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation or disperse existing biofilms of many microbes, in some cases, it is due to growth inhibition as an unspecific effect. In this work, six different D-amino acids were tested for their inhibitory effects on biofilm development and bacteria growth of Pseudoalteromonas sp. SC2014, a marine microbe involving in microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Experimental results indicated that D-phenylalanine (D-Phe) inhibited biofilm formation effectively at concentrations that did not affect cell growth, whereas, the other D-amino acids either showed little effect or inhibited biofilm formation when inhibited bacteria growth...
September 22, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Steven M Swift, D Treva Rowley, Carly Young, Ashley Franks, Paul Hyman, David M Donovan
Bacteriophage produce endolysins (peptidoglycan hydrolases) to lyse the host cell from within and release nascent bacteriophage particles. Recombinant endolysins can lyse Gram-positive bacteria when added exogenously. As a potential alternative antimicrobial, we cloned and expressed the enterococcal VD13 bacteriophage endolysin. VD13 endolysin has a CHAP catalytic domain with 92% identity with the bacteriophage IME-EF1 endolysin. The predicted size of VD13 endolysin is ∼27 kDa as verified by SDS-PAGE. The VD13 endolysin lyses Enterococcus faecalis strains, but not Enterococcus faecium or other non-enterococci...
September 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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