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Veterinary Microbiology

Alexandra Irrgang, Jens A Hammerl, Linda Falgenhauer, Elisabet Guiral, Silvia Schmoger, Can Imirzalioglu, Jennie Fischer, Beatriz Guerra, Trinad Chakraborty, Annemarie Käsbohrer
Antimicrobial resistance to cephalosporins is commonly mediated by extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) or plasmidic AmpC β-lactamases (pAmpC). In livestock blaCTX-M-1 is the most frequently detected ESBL-encoding gene. As transmission to consumers through contaminated food is often proposed, this study characterized ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli collected from food samples. Therefore, samples from food products of animal origin and vegetables were screened for phenotypically resistant E. coli by selective cultivation...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Munir Aktas, Sezayi Ozubek
Mycoplasma haemocanis (Mhc) and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum (CMhp) are cell-wall-deficient bacterial pathogens that localize on the vertebrate erythrocyte surface. Prevalence of infection with these hemoplasmas and associated risks factors were ascertained from archived DNA samples collected from 621 domestic dogs (201 strays, 262 from shelters, 158 domestic pets) by species-specific PCR assay. The overall prevalence of infection was 15.3% (CI 12.5-18.4), with Mhc and CMhp single infection prevalence of 4...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
A Prieto, J M Díaz-Cao, R Fernández-Antonio, R Panadero, G López-Lorenzo, P Díaz, A Pérez-Creo, M P Morrondo, G Fernández
Flies are known vectors for a variety of infectious diseases in animals. In fur mink farming, one of the most severe diseases is Aleutian disease, which is caused by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). The presence of large fly populations is a frequent issue in mink farms; however, no studies assessing their role as AMDV carrier vectors have been conducted to-date. In order to determine the presence of AMDV in aerial flies from an infected mink farm, flies (n = 254) and environmental swab samples (n = 4) were collected from two farm barns...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Jing Sun, Qunjing Li, Chunyan Shao, Yuanmei Ma, Haijian He, Sheng Jiang, Yingshan Zhou, Yuan Wu, Shaobo Ba, Lin Shi, Weihuan Fang, Xiaodu Wang, Houhui Song
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PEDV) has raised growing concerns in the pig-breeding industry because it has caused significant economic losses. To better understand the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of PEDV field isolates, in this study, the complete spike (S) and ORF3 genes of 17 PEDV variants in Zhejiang, China during 2014 to 2017, were characterized and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis based on the S gene and ORF3 gene of these 17 novel PEDV strains and PEDV reference strains indicated that all the PEDV strains fell into two groups designated G1 and G2...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Miguel Rodríguez Pulido, Laura Del Amo, Francisco Sobrino, Margarita Sáiz
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of a highly transmissible disease affecting wild and domestic animals including pigs, cattle and sheep. The ability of synthetic RNA transcripts mimicking distinct domains in the non-coding regions of the FMDV genome (ncRNAs) to induce a potent innate immune response in swine cultured cells and mice has been previously described, as well as their enhancing effect on conventional inactivated FMD vaccines. Here, we provide evidence of the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key transcriptional regulator of type I interferon (IFN)-dependent immune responses after transfection of swine and bovine cells with transcripts corresponding to the FMDV 3´ non-coding region (3´NCR)...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Wei Ouyang, Jing Qian, Qun-Xing Pan, Jing-Yu Wang, Xing-Xia Xia, Xiao-Li Wang, Yu-Mei Zhu, Yong-Shan Wang
Chicken melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (chMDA5) is a key pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that recognizes RNA viral infections and initiates an antiviral innate immune response in chickens. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of chMDA5 to sense RNA virus infection, but how it exerts antiviral activity against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection and regulates chMDA5 in chicken cells is unclear. Thus, we measured the expression of chMDA5 in IBDV-infected DT40 cells and found it significantly increased...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Giulia Dowgier, Jennifer Lahoreau, Gianvito Lanave, Michele Losurdo, Katia Varello, Maria Stella Lucente, Gianluca Ventriglia, Elena Bozzetta, Vito Martella, Canio Buonavoglia, Nicola Decaro
Scarce data are currently available about the ecology of canine adenoviruses (CAdVs) in wild carnivores. In this paper, the consecutive circulation of CAdV-1 and CAdV-2 in wild carnivores maintained in a French zoological park is reported. A fatal CAdV-1 infection was observed in a Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus), which displayed gross lesions, histopathological changes and immunohistochemical findings suggestive of CAdV-1 infection. The virus was isolated on cell cultures and its genome was determined through next-generation sequencing, resulting genetically related to a recent Italian CAdV-1 strain detected in an Italian wolf...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Luana C Melo, Cíntia Oresco, Lucianne Leigue, Hildebrando M Netto, Priscilla A Melville, Nilson R Benites, Estelle Saras, Marisa Haenni, Nilton Lincopan, Jean-Yves Madec
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC)-carrying Enterobacteriaceae have widely disseminated in human, animal and environmental reservoirs. Pets have been recognized as a source of ESBL/pAmpC worldwide, and are possibly also a source of human contamination. The aim of this study was to document to what extent cats and dogs may act as a driving force in the spread of ESBLs and pAmpCs in Brazil. A total of 113 healthy stray cats and dogs and 74 sick pets were sampled, and extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (ESC-R) were detected in 28/113 (24...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Kwonil Jung, Ayako Miyazaki, Hui Hu, Linda J Saif
The porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2, is useful to characterize the interactions of enterocytes with enteric viruses in vitro. We investigated whether IPEC-J2 cells are susceptible to porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) infection. We conducted quantification of infectious virus or viral RNA, immunofluorescent (IF) staining for the detection of PDCoV antigens, and TUNEL assay in IPEC-J2 cells inoculated with the strain OH-FD22-P8 grown in LLC-PK cells, and supplemented with 10 μg/ml of trypsin in the cell culture medium...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
K Dietze, T Moritz, T Alexandrov, K Krstevski, K Schlottau, M Milovanovic, D Hoffmann, B Hoffmann
The geographic expansion of Lumpy skin disease (LSD) from the near East into the European Union highlighted again the need for appropriate disease detection tools applicable to animal host populations where access to individual animals is difficult. This is of particular importance considering that the clinical manifestation of LSD is often mild making early disease detection challenging under the above-mentioned conditions. Building on positive experiences of group-level oral fluid sampling for pathogen detection as it is known to work for swine herds and wild boar, the concept was transferred to ruminants...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Paloma S Moreno, Josef Wagner, Carl D Kirkwood, James R Gilkerson, Caroline S Mansfield
The fecal virome has been investigated in humans and various animal species using next generation sequencing. However, limited information is available about the fecal virome of dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE). We aimed to characterize the canine fecal virome of dogs with CE and compare it with the virome of previously analyzed healthy dogs.A total of 16 adult dogs; 8 healthy dogs (data from a parallel study) and 8 dogs with CE had fecal samples assessed by viral shotgun sequencing. Fecal samples were subjected to enrichment of viral nucleic acids prior to sequencing and metagenomic analyses...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Ruihua Zhang, Junhao Chen, Jinqiang Zhang, Yupeng Yang, Pengfei Li, Jingjing Lan, Zhijing Xie, Shijin Jiang
Generally, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) only infects young ducklings. Since December 2016, severe outbreaks of duck viral infection with egg drop, feed consumption decline, and ovary-oviduct disease have occurred in some laying duck flocks in Shandong Province of China. DHAV-1 isolated from the affected ducks was confirmed as the causative pathogen of the egg drop. Compared with other DHAV-1 strains, the novel isolate has three special amino acid mutation points in the most variable regions at the C-terminus of VP1...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
S Preziuso, M L Marenzoni, J Thiry, E Thiry, V Cuteri
During a serological survey, 157 out of 681 unvaccinated buffaloes resulted seropositive for bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) glycoprotein B (gB) and seronegative for BoHV1 glycoprotein E (gE). These serological results were generally expected in animals vaccinated with a BoHV1 gE-deleted vaccine but not in unvaccinated animals. Seroneutralization tests on 36 selected sera detected neutralizing antibody titers more than three times higher for BuHV1 than for BoHV1. In order to investigate the virus, one of these buffaloes was injected with dexamethasone, and from nasal and vaginal swabs collected at different time points, a ruminant herpesvirus was isolated, characterized and also detected by PCR...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Jung-Eun Park, Ki-Jong Kang, Ji-Hoon Ryu, Jae-Yeon Park, Hyun Jang, Da-Jung Sung, Jae-Gu Kang, Hyun-Jin Shin
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infects pigs and causes an enteric disease that is characterized by vomiting and watery diarrhea. PEDV outbreaks have a tremendous financial impact on the worldwide pork industry. In South Korea, the incidence of PEDV has continued despite nationwide use of attenuated and inactivated vaccines, raising questions regarding the current vaccines' efficacy and the need for new vaccine development. In the present study, we isolated a new Korean PEDV epidemic strain, PED-CUP-B2014, in Vero cells...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Andrea T Feßler, Riccarda Schuenemann, Kristina Kadlec, Vivian Hensel, Julian Brombach, Jayaseelan Murugaiyan, Gerhard Oechtering, Iwan A Burgener, Stefan Schwarz
The aim of the study was to investigate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) among employees of a small animal hospital and the hospital environment. In total, 96 swabs from employees and 73 swabs from the clinic environment were investigated. Cation-adjusted-Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMHB) + 6.5% NaCl was used for enrichment before plating on Mueller-Hinton (MH) agar with 2% NaCl and 0.25 mg/L oxacillin. The staphylococcal species was determined using MALDI-TOF MS...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Amelia R Woolums, Brandi B Karisch, Jonathan G Frye, William Epperson, David R Smith, John Blanton, Frank Austin, Ray Kaplan, Lari Hiott, Tiffanie Woodley, Sushim K Gupta, Charlene R Jackson, Michael McClelland
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial respiratory pathogens in high-risk stocker cattle has been poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR; resistance to > 3 antimicrobial classes) respiratory pathogens in 50 conventionally managed stocker cattle over 21 days after arrival. Cattle received tildipirosin metaphylaxis on day 0 and were eligible to receive up to 3 additional antimicrobials for bovine respiratory disease (BRD): florfenicol, ceftiofur and enrofloxacin...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Sante Roperto, Valeria Russo, Alessandra Rosati, Dora M Ceccarelli, John S Munday, Maria C Turco, Franco Roperto
Chaperone-assisted selective autophagy (CASA) is a newly-described selective tension-induced macroautophagy pathway mediated by Bag3 that is believed to be essential for mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle and to be an important regulator of the immune system. We investigated CASA machinery both in healthy and in fifteen papillomavirus-associated neoplastic bovine urothelium. The components of CASA complex, that comprises the molecular chaperones HspA8/Hsc70 and Hsp8B/Hsp22 and the cochaperones Bag3 and STUB1/CHIP, were studied by molecular, microscopic and submicroscopic investigations...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
J C F M Dortmans, W Li, P J van der Wolf, G J Buter, P J M Franssen, G van Schaik, M Houben, B J Bosch
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the highly contagious, causative agent of an economically important acute enteric disease in pigs of all ages. The disease is characterized by diarrhea and dehydration causing mortality and growth retardation. In the last few decades, only classical PEDV was reported sporadically in Europe, but in 2014 outbreaks of PEDV were described in Germany. Phylogenetic analysis showed a very high nucleotide similarity with a variant of PEDV that was isolated in the US in January 2014...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Martynas Simanavicius, Karolina Juskaite, Arune Verbickaite, Marius Jasiulionis, Paulius Lukas Tamosiunas, Rasa Petraityte-Burneikiene, Aurelija Zvirbliene, Rainer G Ulrich, Indre Kucinskaite-Kodze
Rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an orthohepevirus which is related to other HEV found in humans and other mammals. It was first identified in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Germany in 2010, and later it has been detected in Black rats (Rattus rattus) and Norway rats from USA, China, Indonesia, Vietnam and many European countries. In this study, we describe molecular and serological investigations of Black and Norway rats trapped in Lithuania, Eastern Europe, for infections with rat HEV and human HEV genotypes 1-4...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Gwenaelle Mourand, Eric Jouy, Claire Chauvin, Laetitia Le Devendec, Frédéric Paboeuf, Isabelle Kempf
Colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is a public health problem. The present study was designed to evaluate the dissemination of a colistin-resistant Escherichia coli strain and its resistance gene, mcr-1, between orally inoculated pigs and their contacts. A non-inoculated control group, one low-dose and one high-dose group-both including two pens of two inoculated and three contact pigs-were raised in separate rooms. After inoculation of a colistin- and rifampicin-resistant E. coli suspension (2.5 × 105 CFU/pig for the low-dose group and 2...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
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