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Veterinary Microbiology

Miranda Prats-van der Ham, Juan Tatay-Dualde, Christian de la Fe, Ana Paterna, Antonio Sánchez, Juan Carlos Corrales, Antonio Contreras, Ángel Gómez-Martín
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
Abbey J Steckler, Maria X Cardenas-Alvarez, Megan K Townsend Ramsett, Neil Dyer, Teresa M Bergholz
Listeria monocytogenes infections are an important disease of ruminants worldwide, causing encephalitis, septicemia, and abortions. Ruminant listeriosis can also pose a food safety risk due to the potential for L. monocytogenes to enter the food supply via the farm environment. Data on the genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes from ruminant clinical cases in the United States is limited. Our goal was to assess the genetic diversity of clinical listeriosis isolates from ruminants in the Upper Great Plains states, a population not well-studied, and compare this population to isolates from ruminants in New York State...
December 26, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
Yanhong Ji, Tao Liu, Yingying Du, Xiaole Cui, Qingzhong Yu, Zhengxiang Wang, Jinjin Zhang, Yu Li, Qiyun Zhu
Administration of vaccines combined with the good management and strict biosecurity is an effective way for Newcastle disease (ND) control. However, vaccine failure is continuously reported in some countries mainly because the antigenic difference between the used vaccine and field strains even they are of one serotype. Therefore, development of antigen-matched ND vaccines is needed to improve the vaccine efficacy in birds. In this study, we introduced four site mutations, K1756A, D1881A, K1917A and E1954Q, respectively, into the large protein gene of the virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) G7 strain using reverse genetics technology...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Giulia Niero, Valeria Bortolaia, Michele Vanni, Luigi Intorre, Luca Guardabassi, Alessandra Piccirillo
The aim was to investigate occurrence and diversity of plasmid-mediated resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (3GC) and quinolones in clinical Escherichia coli from 200 industrial poultry farms across Italy. E. coli was isolated from colibacillosis lesions in turkeys (n = 109), broilers (n = 98) and layers (n = 22) between 2008 and 2012. 3GC-resistant isolates were screened for extended-spectrum and AmpC β-lactamase (ESBL/AmpC), while all isolates were tested for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Luca Ferrari, Elena Canelli, Elena De Angelis, Alessia Catella, Giulia Ferrarini, Giulia Ogno, Luca Bonati, Roberto Nardini, Paolo Borghetti, Paolo Martelli
Highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV isolates have been discovered within both PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 genotypes and investigated in recent years especially for their ability to cause extremely severe disease in conventional pig herds. The exacerbation of general and respiratory clinical signs has been attributed not only to an efficient replication (virulence) but also to the ability to dysregulate viral recognition and induce mechanisms of immune evasion or immune enhancement of humoral and cellular anti-viral responses differently from non-HP PRRSV isolates in terms of intensity and temporal onset...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Anna Lena Zogg, Katrin Zurfluh, Sarah Schmitt, Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen, Roger Stephan
Among 64 uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolated from 13 cats and 51 dogs, 35 were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, and 29 were non-ESBL producers. Forty-six (71.9%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). Among the ESBL producers, blaCTX-M-15 (n = 17/48.6% of the blaESBLs ), blaCTX-M-1 (n = 10/28.6%), blaCTX-M-55 (n = 4/11.4%), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 3/8.6%), and blaCTX-M-27 (n = 1/2.9%) were identified. The plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance genes aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrB and the azithromycin resistance gene mph(A) were detected in 17 (26...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Yaowalak Panyasing, Roongtham Kedkovid, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Apisit Kittawornrat, Ju Ji, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Jeffrey Zimmerman
Early recognition and rapid elimination of infected animals is key to controlling incursions of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). In this study, the diagnostic characteristics of 10 CSFV assays were evaluated using individual serum (n = 601) and/or oral fluid (n = 1417) samples collected from -14 to 28 days post inoculation (DPI). Serum samples were assayed by virus isolation (VI), 2 commercial antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), virus neutralization (VN), and 3 antibody ELISAs...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Yu Jia-Yu, Zhu Qian, Diao Fei-Fei, Teng Chuan-Jie, Peng Hui, Shang Yuan-Yuan, Zhao Yong-Feng, Wang Jian-Li, Shijin Jiang, Xie Zhi-Jing
Three parvoviruses were isolated from the raccoon dogs experiencing severe enteritis, named RDPV-DP1, RDPV-DP2 and RDPV-DP3, respectively. The VP2 genes of the 3 isolates showed 99.9% identity at the nucleotide level, and shared 99.1%-99.5% identity with the reference CPVs. The RDPVs resembled original CPV-2, but with four mutations. The RDPVs displayed S297A of VP2 protein as CPV-2a or CPV-2b prevalent throughout most of the world. Residue N375D was found in the 3 isolates, resembling CPV-2a/2b/2c. And the 3 isolates had a natural mutation of VP2 residue V562L, which is adjacent to residue 564 and 568 and might be involved in host range...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Xinxin Niu, Lanlan Liu, Chunyan Han, Jing Li, Xiangwei Zeng
To probe the epidemiology of duck circovirus (DuCV) in migrating wild ducks in China, 189 samples collected from 11 species of wild ducks from 2013 to 2016 were analyzed by PCR. Four positive samples were obtained from Mallard (2), Green-winged Teal (1), and Falcated Duck (1), and the positive rate was 2.12%. The homologous alignment of the complete genome shows that the homology of the wild duck strains is 81.6 to 95.1% to each other and 81.4 to 100% to the 32 strains from other origins. Amino acids alignment revealed that the mutable ORF2 gene has six major variable regions and many random mutation points...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Vera Haapala, Tarja Pohjanvirta, Nella Vähänikkilä, Jani Halkilahti, Henri Simonen, Sinikka Pelkonen, Timo Soveri, Heli Simojoki, Tiina Autio
Mycoplasma bovis infections are responsible for substantial economic losses in the cattle industry, have significant welfare effects and increase antibiotic use. The pathogen is often introduced into naive herds through healthy carrier animals. In countries with a low prevalence of M. bovis, transmission from less common sources can be better explored as the pathogen has limited circulation compared to high prevalence populations. In this study, we describe how M. bovis was introduced into two closed and adequately biosecure dairy herds through the use of contaminated semen during artificial insemination (AI), leading to mastitis outbreak in both herds...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Ismail A Odetokun, Britta Ballhausen, Victoria O Adetunji, Ibraheem Ghali-Mohammed, Mukaila T Adelowo, Shakirat A Adetunji, Alexandra Fetsch
Staphylococcus aureus is a zoonotic pathogen of significant public health concern. Information on the prevalence and risk factors facilitating bacterial colonization and spread under abattoir settings in Nigeria are scarce. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine prevalence of S. aureus as well as risk factors on knowledge and practices facilitating pathogen carriage among workers and slaughter animals in two municipal abattoirs of Ilorin and Ibadan, Nigeria. Swab samples (n = 1671) from nostrils of cattle, goats, pigs and abattoir workers, and from meat tables and abattoir walls were collected for detection of S...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Mazen Alssahen, Osama Sammra, Jörn-Peter Wickhorst, Abdulwahed Ahmed Hassan, Christoph Lämmler, Mirja Raunio Saarnisto, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff, Markus Timke, Andrè Becker, Amir Abdulmawjood
In the present study 12 Arcanobacterium phocae strains isolated from fur animals in Finland, including foxes, minks and Finnraccoons, could successfully be identified phenotypically, by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and genotypically by sequencing 16S rDNA and phocaelysin (PHL) encoding gene phl. The PHL of all 12 A. phocae strains in the present study and reference strains A. phocae DSM 10002T and A. phocae DSM 10003 displayed, as typical members of the cholesterol dependent cytolysin-group of toxins, the variant undecapeptide sequence EATGLAWDPWW which appeared to be most closely related to arcanolysin of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum and pyolysin of Trueperella pyogenes...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Priscila Regina Guerra, Ana Herrero-Fresno, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Shahana Ahmed, Dan Wang, Ida Thøfner, Fabio Antenucci, John Elmerdahl Olsen
Over the last few years, polyamines have been described as key-signal of virulence in pathogenic bacteria. In the current study, we investigated whether the knockout of genes related to polyamine biosynthesis and putrescine transport affected the virulence of an avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strain. One-week-old White Leghorn chickens were infected intratracheally with mutants in polyamine biosynthesis (ΔspeB/C and ΔspeD/E) and transport genes (ΔpotE) of a well-characterized APEC strain of ST117 (O83: H4)...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Áine B Collins, John F Mee, Peter D Kirkland
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and Akabane virus (AKAV) are teratogenic Simbu serogroup Orthobunyaviruses. Embryonated chicken egg models (ECE) have been used to study the pathogenicity and teratogenicity of Simbu viruses previously, however to date no such studies have been reported for SBV. Hence, the aims of this study were to investigate if ECE are susceptible to experimental SBV infection, and to evaluate the pathogenicity and teratogenicity of SBV and AKAV in ECE models. Two studies were conducted. In Study A, SBV (106...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Agnieszka Sałamaszyńska-Guz, Ilona Stefańska, Paweł Bącal, Marian Binek
A total of 43 Campylobacter isolates from poultry, cattle and pigs were investigated for their ability to form biofilm. The studied strains were also screened for motility, adhesion and invasion of Caco-2 cells as well as extracellular DNase activity. The relation between biofilm formation and selected phenotypes was examined. Biofilm formation by the tested strains was found as irrespective from their motility and not associated with colonization abilities of human Caco-2 cells. Results of our study show that Campylobacter isolates from various animal sources are able to form biofilm and invade human Caco-2 cells in vitro...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Ismail Boukahil, Charles J Czuprynski
Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are two bacterial species implicated in the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) that is costly to the beef and dairy cattle industries. Both bacterial species are thought to occupy a similar niche as commensals in the upper respiratory tract. Many bacteria are thought to exist as biofilms in their hosts, perhaps in close proximity with other bacterial species. We previously showed that M. haemolytica forms biofilm on bovine respiratory epithelial cells in vitro...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Silke Amelung, Maria Hartmann, Ludwig Haas, Lothar Kreienbrock
In Germany, all calves are tested for the presence of bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease virus (BVDV) virus since January 1, 2011. The basis for this compulsory investigation is the BVDV Federal Regulation (BVDVV), which demands testing of calves before the age of six months and according to the new regulation of June 2016 within four weeks or before entering another stock. In 2012, a questionnaire was sent to 7250 Lower Saxony cattle farmers to identify potential factors associated with the presence of BVDV...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Miranda Prats-van der Ham, Juan Tatay-Dualde, Ángel Gómez-Martín, Juan Carlos Corrales, Antonio Contreras, Antonio Sánchez, Christian de la Fe
Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc) is one of the causative agents of contagious agalactia, and antimicrobial therapy is the most commonly applied measure to treat outbreaks of this disease. Macrolides and lincosamides bind specifically to nucleotides at domains II and V of the 23S rRNA. Furthermore, rplD and rplV genes encode ribosomal proteins L4 and L22, which are also implicated in the macrolide binding site. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between mutations in these genes and the acquisition of macrolide and lincosamide resistance in Mcc...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Sandrine Baron, Laetitia Le Devendec, Fabrice Touzain, Eric Jouy, Pierrick Lucas, Claire de Boisséson, Emeline Larvor, Isabelle Kempf
Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) is mostly borne by conjugative plasmids. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the characteristics and diversity of ESC resistance plasmids in Escherichia coli from different free-range broiler flocks in France, and their persistence in flocks during rearing. Two hatcheries were selected. Faecal samples from 11 flocks were collected from before their arrival on the broiler production farm up to their slaughter at the end of the rearing period. A selection of 25 E...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Quan Li, Yuhang Zhang, Du Dechao, Yu Yanfei, Wei Zhang
Streptococcus suis, an important swine pathogen and a major zoonotic agent, is responsible for severe financial losses in the global swine industry. Although a multitude of virulence factors have been reported, the pathogenesis of S. suis infections remains poorly understood. In our previous work, we identified a potential virulence-associated protein, named PnuC, unique to virulent strains of S. suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2). To investigate the functions of PnuC, the pnuC gene deletion mutant (ΔpnuC) was constructed in S...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
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