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Veterinary Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757046/rapid-acquisition-adaptive-amino-acid-substitutions-involved-in-the-virulence-enhancement-of-an-h1n2-avian-influenza-virus-in-mice
#1
Zhijun Yu, Weiyang Sun, Xinghai Zhang, Kaihui Cheng, Chuqi Zhao, Xianzhu Xia, Yuwei Gao
Although H1N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) only infect birds, documented cases of swine infection with H1N2 influenza viruses suggest this subtype AIV may pose a potential threat to mammals. Here, we generated mouse-adapted variants of a H1N2 AIV to identify adaptive changes that increased virulence in mammals. MLD50 of the variants were reduced >1000-fold compared to the parental virus. Variants displayed enhanced replication in vitro and in vivo, and replicate in extrapulmonary organs. These data show that enhanced replication capacity and expanded tissue tropism may increase the virulence of H1N2 AIV in mice...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757045/efficacy-of-potential-phage-cocktails-against-vibrio-harveyi-and-closely-related-vibrio-species-isolated-from-shrimp-aquaculture-environment-in-the-south-east-coast-of-india
#2
Nattan Stalin, Pappu Srinivasan
A diverse set of novel phages infecting the marine pathogenic Vibrio harveyi was isolated from shrimp aquaculture environments in the south east coast of India. Based on initial screening, three phages with a broad host range revealed that the growth inhibition of phage is relatively specific to V. harveyi. They were also able to infect V. alginolyticus and V. parahemolyticus that belonged to the Harveyi clade species from shrimp pond and sea coast environment samples. However, the impact of these phages on their host bacterium are well understood; a one-step growth curve experiment and transmission electron microscope (TEM) revealed three phages grouped under the Myoviridae (VHM1 and VHM2); Siphoviridae (VHS1) family...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757044/fungal-dermatitis-glossitis-and-disseminated-visceral-mycosis-caused-by-different-metarhizium-granulomatis-genotypes-in-veiled-chameleons-chamaeleo-calyptratus-and-first-isolation-in-healthy-lizards
#3
Volker Schmidt, Linus Klasen, Juliane Schneider, Jens Hübel, Michael Pees
Metarhizium (M.) granulomatis (formerly Chamaeleomyces granulomatis) invariably causes fatal fungal glossitis and systemic mycosis in veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus). Isolation of M. granulomatis in other lizards thus far has not been described. The aim of this study therefore was to obtain information on the presence of M. granulomatis in reptiles kept as pets, and to examine whether there was an association between specific genotypes and clinical/pathological outcomes. Besides 18S ribosomal (r) DNA (SSU) and internal transcribed spacer1-5...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757043/a-large-scale-serological-survey-of-akabane-virus-infection-in-cattle-yak-sheep-and-goats-in-china
#4
Jidong Wang, Kim R Blasdell, Hong Yin, Peter J Walker
Akabane virus (AKAV) is a member of the Simbu serogroup, classified in the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae. AKAV infection can cause abortion, stillbirth, and congenital arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in cattle and sheep. The distribution and prevalence of AKAV infection in China is still unknown. A total of 2731 sera collected from 2006 to 2015 in 24 provinces of China from cattle, sheep, goats and yak were examined by serum neutralisation test. The overall seroprevalence rates for AKAV antibodies were 21...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757042/occurrence-and-characterization-of-stx-and-or-eae-positive-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-wildlife-including-a-typical-epec-strain-from-a-wild-boar
#5
Carla Andrea Alonso, Azucena Mora, Dafne Díaz, Miguel Blanco, David González-Barrio, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Carmen Simón, Jorge Blanco, Carmen Torres
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains are food-borne pathogens associated with acute diarrhea. Haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is often a complication of STEC infection. In order to examine the occurrence, serotypes, virulence and antimicrobial-resistance profiles of STEC and EPEC in wildlife, 326 faecal E. coli strains from 304 clinically healthy animals were analyzed. For this approach stx1, stx2 and eae genes, as well as accessory virulence determinants (ehx, hlyA, saa, tia, bfp, subAB) were PCR-screened and sequenced...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757041/mutations-in-the-quinolone-resistance-determining-region-conferring-resistance-to-fluoroquinolones-in-mycoplasma-agalactiae
#6
Juan Tatay-Dualde, Miranda Prats-van der Ham, Christian de la Fe, Ana Paterna, Antonio Sánchez, Juan Carlos Corrales, Antonio Contreras, Ángel Gómez-Martín
M. agalactiae is the main causative agent of contagious agalactia, against which antimicrobial treatment is the main applied control measure. Quinolones are an effective group of antimicrobials inhibiting the growth of M. agalactiae, but in the last years, various reports have demonstrated an increase of resistance in field isolates due to its massive use. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms involved in the acquisition of fluoroquinolones resistance in M. agalactiae have not been elucidated yet. Therefore, the aim of this work was to analyze the presence of DNA variations that could be related to changes in fluoroquinolone susceptibility...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757040/porcine-parvovirus-infection-activates-inflammatory-cytokine-production-through-toll-like-receptor-9-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways-in-porcine-kidney-cells
#7
Yong Zhou, Xiao-Hui Jin, Ya-Xing Jing, Yue Song, Xiao-Xiang He, Lan-Lan Zheng, Ya-Bin Wang, Zhan-Yong Wei, Gai-Ping Zhang
Porcine parvovirus virus (PPV) is an animal virus that has caused high economic losses for the swine industry worldwide. Previous studies demonstrated that PPV infection induced significant production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in vitro and in vivo. However, the inflammatory cytokines and specific signaling pathways induced during PPV infection remain largely unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the expression levels of IL-6 in PPV-infected porcine kidney 15 (PK-15) and the results showed that PPV infection induced the increase of IL-6 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757039/genomic-characterisation-of-felis-catus-papillomavirus-type-5-with-proposed-classification-within-a-new-papillomavirus-genus
#8
John S Munday, Keren E Dittmer, Neroli A Thomson, Simon F Hills, Rebecca E Laurie
Four Felis catus papillomavirus (FcaPV) types have been fully sequenced from domestic cats. Of these, FcaPV-2 and -3 are thought to cause feline viral plaques and Bowenoid in situ carcinomas. Two short sequences of DNA from a previously unreported PV type were amplified from a feline viral plaque using consensus PCR primers. DNA was then extracted from a swab of the lesion and two sets of 'outward facing' primers were designed using the short sequences to amplify the entire 7600bp genome of the novel PV. The PV was designated FcaPV-5 and contained putative coding regions that were predicted to produce five early proteins and two late ones...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757038/livestock-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-is-widespread-in-farmed-mink-neovison-vison
#9
Julie Elvekjær Hansen, Anders Rhod Larsen, Robert Leo Skov, Mariann Chriél, Gitte Larsen, Øystein Angen, Jesper Larsen, Desireé Corvera Kløve Lassen, Karl Pedersen
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 is widespread in the Danish pig production with around 90% of herds being positive. Since 2009, cases of CC398 LA-MRSA infections in Danish mink farmers have been observed. The objective of the study was to examine the presence of LA-MRSA in farmed mink. The investigation comprised three different sample types 1) clinical samples from carcasses submitted to the laboratory for diagnostic examination, 2) paws and pharyngeal swabs from healthy animals collected at pelting, and 3) feed samples from mink feed producers...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757037/multiple-amino-acid-substitutions-involved-in-the-virulence-enhancement-of-an-h3n2-avian-influenza-a-virus-isolated-from-wild-waterfowl-in-mice
#10
Zhijun Yu, Weiyang Sun, Xinghai Zhang, Kaihui Cheng, Chuqi Zhao, Yuwei Gao, Xianzhu Xia
Frequent emergence of low pathogenic avian influenza H3N2 viruses in the wild birds has caused concern for human health. Here, we generated mouse-adapted strains of a wild waterfowl-origin low pathogenic avian influenza H3N2 virus to identify adaptive mutations that confer enhanced virulence in mammals. The mouse lethal doses (MLD50) of the adapted strains were reduced >562-fold compared to the parental virus. Mouse-adapted strains displayed enhanced replication in vitro and in vivo, and acquired the ability to replicate in extrapulmonary tissues...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757036/the-phenotypic-and-molecular-resistance-induced-by-a-single-exposure-to-sub-mutant-prevention-concentration-of-marbofloxacin-in-salmonella-typhimurium-isolates-from-swine
#11
Seung-Jin Lee, Na-Hye Park, Abraham Fikru Mechesso, Kwang-Jick Lee, Seung-Chun Park
In the present study, the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium clinical isolates from pigs were investigated using a single-step mutation model of exposure to sub-mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) of marbofloxacin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of seven antibacterial drugs were evaluated against 30 S. Typhimurium clinical isolates from different pigs. MPCs of marbofloxacin were also determined. The mechanism of marbofloxacin-resistance was investigated by sequencing analysis of target gene mutations and quantifying the overexpression of efflux pumps and their regulators by quantitative RT-PCR...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757035/characterization-of-akabane-virus-from-domestic-bamboo-rat-southern-china
#12
Hai-Bo Tang, Fenglian Chen, Guibo Rao, Anbin Bai, Jiajia Jiang, Yichao Du, Pengfei Ren, Jinfeng Liu, Shaomin Qin, Lei Yang, Jianmin Wu
To identify the causative agents in 3 large-scale outbreaks of encephalitis and death among farmed bamboo rats (Rhizomys pruinosus). The routine bacterial culture and identification were performed. There were no significant pathogenic bacteria isolated from the brain, heart, liver, spleen, lung, or kidney of diseased bamboo rats. Using PCR-based methods, we excluded the following as causative agent: pox virus, herpesvirus, adenovirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, rabies virus, and sendai virus. Furthermore, the homogenate from the diseased bamboo rats was subjected to viral metagenomic analysis which revealed 48506 filtered viral reads annotated to Akabane virus (AKAV) with >75% nucleotide identity, suggesting the presence of AKAVs in bamboo rats...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757034/microbial-community-sequencing-analysis-of-the-calf-eye-microbiota-and-relationship-to-infectious-bovine-keratoconjunctivitis
#13
J N Cullen, A Lithio, A S Seetharam, Y Zheng, G Li, D Nettleton, A M O'Connor
Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is an important production limiting disease in cattle. Moraxella bovis has historically been considered the primary causal agent; however, vaccines have not been consistently shown as effective in controlling disease incidence. The purpose of this study was to examine the bacterial community of calf eyes prior to disease onset using high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA and determine if it was associated with IBK occurrence. The study was designed as a case-control nested within a randomized controlled trial (RCT)...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757033/commensal-coagulase-negative-staphylococcus-from-the-udder-of-healthy-cows-inhibits-biofilm-formation-of-mastitis-related-pathogens
#14
Paula Isaac, Luciana Paola Bohl, María Laura Breser, María Soledad Orellano, Agustín Conesa, Marcela Alejandra Ferrero, Carina Porporatto
Bovine mastitis, considered the most important cause of economic losses in the dairy industry, is a major concern in veterinary medicine. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the main pathogens associated with intramammary infections, and bacterial biofilms are suspected to be responsible for the persistence of this disease. CNS from the udder are not necessarily associated with intramammary infections. In fact, some commensal CNS have been shown to have biological activities...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757032/incidence-of-postoperative-implant-related-bacterial-endocarditis-in-dogs-that-underwent-trans-catheter-embolization-of-a-patent-ductus-arteriosus-without-intra-and-post-procedural-prophylactic-antibiotics
#15
Viktor Szatmári
Intra- and post-procedural prophylactic antibiotics are routinely administered by veterinary cardiologists to dogs that undergo trans-catheter embolization of a patent ductus arteriosus for prevention of implant-related infective endocarditis. The hypothesis of our study was that primary antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary to prevent bacterial endocarditis. In this retrospective case series 54 client-owned dogs that underwent trans-catheter occlusion of a patent ductus arteriosus in a single tertiary veterinary referral center between 2004 and 2016 were evaluated...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757031/genetic-characteristics-pathogenicity-and-immunogenicity-associated-with-cell-adaptation-of-a-virulent-genotype-2b-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#16
Sunhee Lee, Kyu-Yeol Son, Yun-Hee Noh, Seung-Chul Lee, Hwan-Won Choi, In-Joong Yoon, Changhee Lee
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has emerged or re-emerged worldwide, posing a significant financial threat to major pig-producing countries. In the present study, a virulent Korean pandemic PEDV strain, KNU-141112, was serially propagated in Vero cells for up to 100 passages. Through cell culture adaptation, we obtained four distinct deletion (DEL) mutants by plaque purification followed by nucleotide sequencing of the spike (S)/ORF3 gene-coding region, which were designated KNU-141112-S DEL2, -S DEL5, -S DEL2/ORF3, and -S DEL5/ORF3...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757030/identification-and-genetic-characterization-of-equine-hepaciviruses-in-italy
#17
Gabriella Elia, Gianvito Lanave, Eleonora Lorusso, Antonio Parisi, Nicola Cavaliere, Giovanni Patruno, Calogero Terregino, Nicola Decaro, Vito Martella, Canio Buonavoglia
Viruses similar to human hepatitis C virus, hepaciviruses, have been identified in various animal species. Equine hepacivirus (EqHV) is the closest relative of human hepaciviruses. Although detected worldwide, information on EqHV epidemiology, genetic diversity and pathogenicity is still limited. In this study we investigated the prevalence and genetic diversity of EqHV in Italian equids. The RNA of EqHV was detected in 91/1932 sera (4.7%) whilst it was not detectable in 134 donkey sera screened by a TaqMan-based quantitative assay...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757029/diversity-of-streptococcus-equi-subsp-zooepidemicus-strains-isolated-from-the-spanish-sheep-and-goat-population-and-the-identification-function-and-prevalence-of-a-novel-arbutin-utilisation-system
#18
Karen F Steward, Carl Robinson, Matthew T G Holden, Simon R Harris, Ana Fernández Ros, Gema Chacón Pérez, Rafael Baselga, Andrew S Waller
The zoonotic bacterium Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a diverse, opportunistic pathogen that can cause mastitis in dairy sheep and goats. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to define the genetic diversity of 60 isolates of S. zooepidemicus, which were recovered from sheep and goats in Spain between 2003 and 2010. We identify a novel clonal complex based on sequence type (ST), ST-236, which accounted for 39 of the 60 isolates. A representative ST-236 strain, S. zooepidemicus strain C7 (SzC7), was sequenced and interrogated for the presence of novel nutritional uptake or utilisation systems, the acquisition of which have previously been shown to be important for environmental adaptation in other streptococcal pathogens...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757028/campylobacter-hepaticus-the-cause-of-spotty-liver-disease-in-chickens-is-present-throughout-the-small-intestine-and-caeca-of-infected-birds
#19
Thi Thu Hao Van, Mian-Chee Gor, Arif Anwar, Peter C Scott, Robert J Moore
Spotty liver disease (SLD) causes significant egg production losses and mortality in chickens and is therefore a disease of concern for some sectors of the poultry industry. Although the first reports of the disease came from the United States in the 1950s it is only recently that the organism that causes the disease was identified, isolated, and characterised as a new bacterial species, Campylobacter hepaticus. The first isolations of C. hepaticus were from the livers and bile of SLD affected birds. Isolates could only be recovered from samples that had a monoculture of C...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757027/salmonella-serovar-specific-interaction-with-jejunal-epithelial-cells
#20
Elisabetta Razzuoli, Massimo Amadori, Fabrizio Lazzara, Dania Bilato, Monica Ferraris, Guendalina Vito, Angelo Ferrari
Gut is often a receptacle for many different pathogens in feed and/or the environment, such as Salmonella spp. The current knowledge about pathogenicity of Salmonella is restricted to few serotypes, whereas other important ones like S. Coeln, S. Thompson, S. Veneziana, have not been investigated yet in human and animal models. Therefore, the aim of our work was to verify the ability of widespread environmental Salmonella strains to penetrate and modulate innate immunity in pig intestinal IPEC-J2 cells. Our results outline the different ability of Salmonella strains to modulate innate immunity; the expression of the IFN-β gene was increased by S...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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