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Veterinary Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330692/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Chang-Won Lee, Fernando A Osorio, Amelia R Woolums
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318782/role-of-the-microbiome-in-swine-respiratory-disease
#2
REVIEW
Megan C Niederwerder
Microbiome is a term used to describe the community of microorganisms that live on the skin and mucosal surfaces of animals. The gastrointestinal microbiome is essential for proper nutrition and immunity. How the gastrointestinal microbiome impacts primary respiratory or systemic infections is an emerging area of study. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by a systemic virus infection with primary lung pathology and continues to be the most costly disease of swine worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that improved outcome after experimental infection with PRRS virus and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with increased fecal microbiome diversity and the presence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292547/pathogenesis-and-control-of-the-chinese-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#3
REVIEW
Jun Han, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Hanchun Yang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has remained a major threat to the worldwide swine industry ever since its first discovery in the early 1990s. Under the selective pressures in the field, this positive-stranded RNA virus undergoes rapid genetic evolution that eventually leads to emergence in 2006 of the devastating Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV). The atypical nature of HP-PRRSV has caused colossal economic losses to the swine producers in China and the surrounding countries...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292546/novel-insights-into-host-responses-and-reproductive-pathophysiology-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-caused-by-prrsv-2
#4
REVIEW
John C S Harding, Andrea Ladinig, Predrag Novakovic, Susan E Detmer, Jamie M Wilkinson, Tianfu Yang, Joan K Lunney, Graham S Plastow
A large challenge experiment using North American porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV-2) provided new insights into the pathophysiology of reproductive PRRS. Deep phenotyping of dams and fetuses identified maternal and fetal predictors of PRRS severity and resilience. PRRSV infection resulted in dramatic decreases in all leukocyte subsets by 2days post inoculation. Apoptosis in the interface region was positively related to endometrial vasculitis, viral load in endometrium and fetal thymus, and odds of meconium staining...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284415/sampling-guidelines-for-oral-fluid-based-surveys-of-group-housed-animals
#5
Marisa L Rotolo, Yaxuan Sun, Chong Wang, Luis Giménez-Lirola, David H Baum, Phillip C Gauger, Karen M Harmon, Marlin Hoogland, Rodger Main, Jeffrey J Zimmerman
Formulas and software for calculating sample size for surveys based on individual animal samples are readily available. However, sample size formulas are not available for oral fluids and other aggregate samples that are increasingly used in production settings. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop sampling guidelines for oral fluid-based porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) surveys in commercial swine farms. Oral fluid samples were collected in 9 weekly samplings from all pens in 3 barns on one production site beginning shortly after placement of weaned pigs...
February 17, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215617/genetic-engineering-alveolar-macrophages-for-host-resistance-to-prrsv
#6
REVIEW
Randall S Prather, Kristin M Whitworth, Susan K Schommer, Kevin D Wells
Standard strategies for control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have not been effective, as vaccines have not reduced the prevalence of disease and many producers depopulate after an outbreak. Another method of control would be to prevent the virus from infecting the pig. The virus was thought to infect alveolar macrophages by interaction with a variety of cell surface molecules. One popular model had PRRSV first interacting with heparin sulfate followed by binding to sialoadhesin and then being internalized into an endosome...
February 10, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274496/next-generation-sequencing-as-a-tool-for-the-study-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-macro-and-micro-molecular-epidemiology
#7
REVIEW
M Cortey, I Díaz, G E Martín-Valls, E Mateu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228336/evaluation-of-hydrophobic-chitosan-based-particulate-formulations-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-vaccine-candidate-t-cell-antigens
#8
Helen Mokhtar, Lucia Biffar, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sarah McGowan, Miriam Pedrera, Rebecca Strong, Jane C Edwards, Margarita Garcia-Durán, Maria Jose Rodriguez, Graham R Stewart, Falko Steinbach, Simon P Graham
PRRS control is hampered by the inadequacies of existing vaccines to combat the extreme diversity of circulating viruses. Since immune clearance of PRRSV infection may not be dependent on the development of neutralising antibodies and the identification of broadly-neutralising antibody epitopes have proven elusive, we hypothesised that conserved T cell antigens represent potential candidates for development of a novel PRRS vaccine. Previously we had identified the M and NSP5 proteins as well-conserved targets of polyfunctional CD8 and CD4 T cells...
February 3, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161211/cranberry-extract-inhibits-in-vitro-adhesion-of-f4-and-f18-escherichia-coli-to-pig-intestinal-epithelium-and-reduces-in-vivo-excretion-of-pigs-orally-challenged-with-f18-verotoxigenic-e-coli
#9
Annelies Coddens, Michaela Loos, Daisy Vanrompay, Jean Paul Remon, Eric Cox
F4(+)E. coli and F18(+)E. coli infections are an important threat for pig industry worldwide. Antibiotics are commonly used to treat infected piglets, but the emerging development of resistance against antibiotics raises major concerns. Hence, alternative therapies to prevent pigs from F4(+)E. coli and F18(+)E. coli infections need to be developed. Since cranberry previously showed anti-adhesive activity against uropathogenic E. coli, we aimed to investigate whether cranberry extract could also inhibit binding of F4(+)E...
January 20, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161212/advances-in-peste-des-petits-ruminants-vaccines
#10
Naveen Kumar, Sanjay Barua, Thachamvally Riyesh, Bhupendra N Tripathi
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants that leads to high morbidity and mortality thereby results in devastating economic consequences to the livestock industry. PPR is currently endemic across most parts of Asia and Africa, the two regions with the highest concentration of poor people in the world. Sheep and goats in particularly contribute significantly towards the upliftment of livelihood of the poor and marginal farmers in these regions. In this context, PPR directly affecting the viability of sheep and goat husbandry has emerged as a major hurdle in the development of these regions...
January 17, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161213/new-perspective-of-host-micrornas-in-the-control-of-prrsv-infection
#11
REVIEW
Fang Liu, Yinping Du, Wen-Hai Feng
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most important diseases in pigs, leading to significant economic losses in swine industry worldwide. PRRS virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped positive single-stranded RNA virus, which mainly infects cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs and have emerged as important regulators of virus-host cell interactions. In the past several years, scientists have been trying to understand the interaction between host miRNAs and PRRSV infection...
January 9, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081857/vaccination-against-infectious-bronchitis-virus-a-continuous-challenge
#12
Brian Jordan
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a significant respiratory pathogen of commercial poultry that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue worldwide each year. Even though the poultry industry extensively vaccinates against IBV, emergence of new serotypes and variants continually occur, making control of the disease difficult. Current mass application strategies for IBV vaccines are inefficient and frequently result in vaccination failures. Novel vaccine technology development has been slow, and is hindered by the constraints of large-scale poultry production...
January 4, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069290/classical-swine-fever-vaccines-state-of-the-art
#13
Sandra Blome, Claudia Moß, Ilona Reimann, Patricia König, Martin Beer
Due to its impact on animal health and pig industry, classical swine fever (CSF) is still one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. To control the disease, safe and highly efficacious live attenuated vaccines exist for decades. These vaccines have usually outstanding efficacy and safety but lack differentiability of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA or marker strategy). In contrast, the first generation of E2 subunit marker vaccines shows constraints in efficacy, application, and production. To overcome these limitations, new generations of marker vaccines are developed...
January 3, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069291/antagonizing-cytokine-mediated-jak-stat-signaling-by-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#14
REVIEW
Liping Yang, Yan-Jin Zhang
Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is activated by myriad cytokines, which are involved in regulation of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, immunity and inflammatory response. Because of its significance in immune response, JAK-STAT pathway is often targeted by pathogens, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). PRRSV causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages...
December 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284629/fermented-rapeseed-meal-is-effective-in-controlling-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-infection-and-improving-growth-performance-in-broiler-chicks
#15
Amin Ashayerizadeh, Behrouz Dastar, Mahmoud Shams Shargh, Alireza Sadeghi Mahoonak, Saeed Zerehdaran
The aim of present experiment was to assess the effects of fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) colonization and growth performance in broiler chicks. Two hundred forty day-old male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were divided into six experimental treatments with four replicates and 10 birds per each. The treatments were including two positive and negative controls which birds received a basal corn-soybean diet as well as four others which birds received the diets that rapeseed meal (RSM) or FRSM was replaced with soybean meal at 50 and 100% levels...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284628/japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection-diagnosis-and-control-in-domestic-animals
#16
REVIEW
Karen L Mansfield, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Ashley C Banyard, Anthony R Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a significant cause of neurological disease in humans throughout Asia causing an estimated 70,000 human cases each year with approximately 10,000 fatalities. The virus contains a positive sense RNA genome within a host-derived membrane and is classified within the family Flaviviridae. Like many flaviviruses, it is transmitted by mosquitoes, particularly those of the genus Culex in a natural cycle involving birds and some livestock species. Spill-over into domestic animals results in a spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic infection in some species to acute neurological signs in others...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284627/lumpy-skin-disease-outbreaks-in-greece-during-2015-16-implementation-of-emergency-immunization-and-genetic-differentiation-between-field-isolates-and-vaccine-virus-strains
#17
Eirini I Agianniotaki, Konstantia E Tasioudi, Serafeim C Chaintoutis, Peristera Iliadou, Olga Mangana-Vougiouka, Aikaterini Kirtzalidou, Thomas Alexandropoulos, Achilleas Sachpatzidis, Evangelia Plevraki, Chrysostomos I Dovas, Eleni Chondrokouki
The objective of this study is to present epizootiological data from the lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreaks in Greece during 2015-16, following the implementation of emergency vaccination and total stamping-out, along with laboratory data regarding the genetic differentiation between field isolates and live attenuated vaccine virus strains. Descriptive geographical chronology analysis was conducted to present the progressive shift of the outbreaks westwards, and at the same time, the absence of further outbreaks in previously affected regional units where high vaccination coverage was achieved...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284626/rabbit-hepatitis-e-virus-is-an-opportunistic-pathogen-in-specific-pathogen-free-rabbits-with-the-capability-of-cross-species-transmission
#18
Baoyuan Liu, Yani Sun, Taofeng Du, Yiyang Chen, Xinjie Wang, Baicheng Huang, Huixia Li, Yuchen Nan, Shuqi Xiao, Gaiping Zhang, Julian A Hiscox, En-Min Zhou, Qin Zhao
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been detected in rabbits, a recently identified natural reservoir. In this study, anti-HEV antibodies and viral RNA were detected in rabbits sourced from a specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbit vendor in Shaanxi Province, China. BLAST results of partial HEV ORF2 genes cloned here indicated that two viral strains circulated in the rabbits. Sequence determination of the complete genome (7302bp) of one strain and a partial ORF1 gene (1537bp) of the other strain showed that they shared 90% identity with one another and 78%-94% identity with other known rabbit HEVs...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284625/putative-vaccine-breakthrough-event-associated-with-heterotypic-rotavirus-infection-in-newborn-calves-turkey-2015
#19
Ilke Karayel, Enikő Fehér, Szilvia Marton, Nüvit Coskun, Krisztián Bányai, Feray Alkan
Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are regarded as major enteric pathogens of large ruminants, including cattle. Rotavirus vaccines administered to pregnant cows are commonly used to provide passive immunity that protects newborn calves from the clinical disease. In this study we report the detection of RVA from calves with severe diarrhea in a herd regularly vaccinated to prevent enteric infections including RVA. Diarrheic disease was observed in newborn calves aged 4-15days, with high morbidity and mortality rates, but no diarrhea was seen in adult animals...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284624/attenuation-of-an-original-us-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-strain-pc22a-via-serial-cell-culture-passage
#20
Chun-Ming Lin, Yixuan Hou, Douglas G Marthaler, Xiang Gao, Xinsheng Liu, Lanlan Zheng, Linda J Saif, Qiuhong Wang
Although porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has caused huge economic losses in the pork industry worldwide, an effective live, attenuated vaccine is lacking. In this study, an original US, highly virulent PED virus (PEDV) strain PC22A was serially passaged in Vero CCL81 and Vero BI cells. The virus growth kinetics in cell culture, virulence in neonatal pigs and the whole genomic sequences of selected passages were examined. Increased virus titers and sizes of syncytia were observed at the 65th passage level (P65) and P120, respectively...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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