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Veterinary Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554869/pathogenicity-of-three-genetically-diverse-strains-of-prrsv-type-1-in-specific-pathogen-free-pigs
#1
Tomasz Stadejek, Lars E Larsen, Katarzyna Podgórska, Anette Bøtner, Sara Botti, Izabella Dolka, Michał Fabisiak, Peter M H Heegaard, Charlotte K Hjulsager, Tomasz Huć, Lise K Kvisgaard, Rafał Sapierzyński, Jens Nielsen
Studies from Eastern European countries proved that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Type 1 (PRRSV-1) harbours high genetic diversity and that genetically divergent subtypes 2-4 circulate in this area. In the present study, we compared the pathogenicity of two different PRRSV-1 subtype 2 strains and a strain representing PRRSV-1 subtype 1. Four groups of 8-week-old specific pathogen free pigs were either infected with subtype 2 strain ILI6, subtype 2 strain or BOR59, subtype 1 strain 18794, or mock inoculated...
May 16, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528961/gp5-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-as-a-target-for-homologous-and-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#2
REVIEW
Luca N Popescu, Benjamin R Trible, Nanhua Chen, Raymond R R Rowland
Virus neutralization (VN) responses range from narrowly focused antibodies with only homologous neutralizing activity against the virus used for infection, to antibodies that can neutralize both Type 1 and Type 2 viruses, referred to as broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb). Even though neutralizing epitopes are likely distributed among several structural glycoproteins, this paper focuses on the ectodomain region of GP5 as a model system for investigating the role for neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies in protection and disease...
April 29, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400145/vaccination-of-cattle-against-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus
#3
Benjamin W Newcomer, Manuel F Chamorro, Paul H Walz
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for significant losses to the cattle industry. Currently, modified-live viral (MLV) and inactivated viral vaccines are available against BVDV, often in combination with other viral and bacterial antigens. Inactivated and MLV vaccines provide cattle producers and veterinarians safe and efficacious options for herd immunization to limit disease associated with BVDV infection. Vaccination of young cattle against BVDV is motivated by prevention of clinical disease and limiting viral spread to susceptible animals...
April 6, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622871/a-spike-specific-whole-porcine-antibody-isolated-from-a-porcine-b-cell-that-neutralizes-both-genogroup-1-and-2-pedv-strains
#4
Fang Fu, Lin Li, Lingling Shan, Beibei Yang, Hongyan Shi, Jiaoer Zhang, Hongfeng Wang, Li Feng, Pinghuang Liu
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), caused by an alpha coronavirus, is a highly contagious disease and causes high morbidity and mortality in suckling piglets. Isolating PEDV neutralizing antibodies from porcine B cells is critical to elucidate the development of PEDV neutralizing antibodies and the protective mechanism of PEDV infection. Here, we described the isolation of a PEDV-neutralizing antibody from the B cell of a vaccinated pig. The antibody, named PC10, was demonstrated to target the conformational epitope of PEDV spike protein, specifically bind to the infected cells of PEDV genogroup 1 and 2 strains, and potently neutralize PEDV infection...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622870/molecular-characterization-of-feline-panleukopenia-virus-isolated-from-mink-and-its-pathogenesis-in-mink
#5
Diao Fei-Fei, Zhao Yong-Feng, Wang Jian-Li, Wei Xue-Hua, Cui Kai, Liu Chuan-Yi, Guo Shou-Yu, Shijin Jiang, Xie Zhi-Jing
Six feline panleukopenia viruses (FPV) were detected in the intestinal samples from the 176 mink collected in China during 2015 to 2016, named MEV-SD1, MEV-SD2, MEV-SD3, MEV-SD4, MEV-SD5 and MEV-SD6. The VP2 genes of the isolates shared 98.9%-100% identity with the reference sequences. The substitution of residue V300A in VP2 protein differentiates the isolates from the reference MEVs, and A300 is a characteristic of FPV. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of VP2 genes indicated that the six isolates were clustered into the same branch of all the reference FPVs...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622869/brucella-lipopolysaccharide-reinforced-salmonella-delivering-brucella-immunogens-protects-mice-against-virulent-challenge
#6
Jonathan Lalsiamthara, John Hwa Lee
Intracellular pathogen Salmonella exhibits natural infection broadly analogous to Brucella, this phenomenon makes Salmonella a pragmatic choice for an anti-Brucella vaccine delivery platform. In this study we developed and formulated a combination of four attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium live vector strains delivering heterologous Brucella antigens (rBs), namely lumazine synthase, proline racemase subunit A, lipoprotein outer membrane protein-19, and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase. With an aim to develop a cross-protecting vaccine, Brucella pan-species conserved rBs were selected...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622868/vaccination-against-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-reduces-the-magnitude-and-duration-of-viremia-following-challenge-with-a-virulent-heterologous-field-strain
#7
Jay G Calvert, Marcia L Keith, Douglas S Pearce, M Corinne Lenz, Vickie L King, Yvette A Diamondidis, Robert G Ankenbauer, Nathalie C Martinon
Forty PRRS-negative, three week-old weaned pigs were randomized into two groups in separate rooms and inoculated with a modified live PRRS vaccine (Fostera(®) PRRS) or control (PBS). Four weeks after vaccination pigs were rehoused in a single room and challenged intranasally and intramuscularly with virulent PRRSV strain NADC20. Timed serum samples were collected and titrated for PRRS virus and anti-PRRS virus antibodies. The study concluded when ≥80% of the pigs in the control group were determined to be virus negative (27days post-challenge)...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622867/evaluation-of-the-involvement-of-mice-mus-musculus-in-the-epidemiology-of-porcine-proliferative-enteropathy
#8
Michelle de P Gabardo, José Paulo H Sato, Amanda Gabriele de S Daniel, Mariana R Andrade, Carlos Eduardo R Pereira, Talita P Rezende, Luísa V Arantes Otoni, Lucas Avelino Rezende, Roberto M C Guedes
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal-oral transmission of L. intracellularis between mice and pigs. The study was divided into two parts. The first part aimed to determine whether mice could be infected by feces from pigs that are experimentally infected with L. intracellularis. Thirty-four Swiss mice received L. intracellularis PCR-positive feces from experimentally infected pigs (M1) for four consecutive days. Twelve other mice received swine negative feces (M2). Pools of mice feces were collected on alternating days post-exposure (dpe)...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622866/pathology-and-genetic-findings-in-a-rare-case-of-mycobacterium-caprae-infection-in-a-sow
#9
Benedetta Amato, Teresa Maria Capucchio, Elena Biasibetti, Elena Mangano, Beatrice Maria Boniotti, Lodovica Maria Pacciarini, Sergio Migliore, Maria Vitale, Michele Fiasconaro, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo Presti
Bovine tuberculosis, a reemerging zoonosis in diverse ecological scenarios, has been reported in the autochthonous Nebrodi black pig breed population used for meat production in Italy. During a routine abattoir inspection in 2013, 24 of 299 carcasses (8%) of Nebrodi black pigs presented tuberculosis-like lesions at pathologic examination. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from 23 animals and M. caprae from a 3-year-old sow. The sow showed severe diffuse lesions involving the visceral organs, right coxofemoral joint, and mammary glands...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622865/pa-x-protein-decreases-replication-and-pathogenicity-of-swine-influenza-virus-in-cultured-cells-and-mouse-models
#10
Xiao-Qian Gong, Ying-Feng Sun, Bao-Yang Ruan, Xiao-Min Liu, Qi Wang, Hai-Ming Yang, Shuai-Yong Wang, Peng Zhang, Xiu-Hui Wang, Tong-Ling Shan, Wu Tong, Yan-Jun Zhou, Guo-Xin Li, Hao Zheng, Guang-Zhi Tong, Hai Yu
Swine influenza viruses have been circulating in pigs throughout world and might be potential threats to human health. PA-X protein is a newly discovered protein produced from the PA gene by ribosomal frameshifting and the effects of PA-X on the 1918 H1N1, the pandemic 2009 H1N1, the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and the avian H9N2 influenza viruses have been reported. However, the role of PA-X in the pathogenesis of swine influenza virus is still unknown. In this study, we rescued the H1N1 wild-type (WT) classical swine influenza virus (A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2011 (H1N1)) and H1N1 PA-X deficient virus containing mutations at the frameshift motif, and compared their replication properties and pathogenicity of swine influenza virus in vitro and in vivo...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622864/isolation-and-characterization-of-avibacterium-paragallinarum-with-different-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-requirements
#11
Ok-Mi Jeong, Min-Su Kang, Byung-Woo Jeon, Byung-Kook Choi, Yong-Kuk Kwon, So-Youn Yoon, Patrick J Blackall, Hee-Soo Lee, Suk-Chan Jung, Jae-Hong Kim
Twenty field isolates of Avibacterium paragallinarum were obtained from chickens in South Korea during 2011-2015. The isolates were identified by a HPG-2 PCR assay specific for A. paragallinarum and by biochemical tests. Growth requirements, Page serovars, carbohydrate fermentation patterns, and antimicrobial susceptibility were also examined. Most isolates (16/20) showed the typical requirement for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and an enriched CO2 atmosphere for growth. One isolate needed increased levels of NAD and serum for good growth...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622863/down-regulating-heat-shock-protein-27-is-involved-in-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-escaping-from-host-antiviral-mechanism
#12
Min Sun, Zeyanqiu Yu, Jiale Ma, Zihao Pan, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), is the etiological agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PED), causes high mortality with severe vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration in swine farms. In this study, the PEDV strain 85-7 could be proliferated effectively in MARC-145 cells, and caused a distinct inhibition of the expression of interferon-β (IFN-β, encoded by IFNB1), which suggested that a full understanding how this virus manipulates the host immune responses is critical in the fight against the spread of PEDV...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622862/identification-of-lawsonia-intracellularis-putative-hemolysin-protein-a-and-characterization-of-its-immunoreactivity
#13
Jehyung Kim, Gayeon Won, Suyeon Park, John Hwa Lee
Despite the recent global increase in fatal endemic outbreaks of proliferative enteropathy (PE) caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Lawsonia intracelluralis (LI) in the swine industry, development of effective prevention strategies or immunodiagnostic tests has been delayed due to the difficulty of cultivating this pathogen in vitro. Although several genetic analyses have been performed at the level of gene transcription after the complete genome sequence of LI was made available, the mechanism of LI infection and virulence genes remain unidentified...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622861/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-genotyping-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-collected-between-1986-and-2015-from-ovine-mastitis
#14
Elisa Azara, Maria Giovanna Piras, Antonio Parisi, Sebastiana Tola
In this research, 330 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, collected in Sardinia (Italy) in the period 1986-2015 from clinical ovine mastitis and used for the preparation of inactivated autogenous vaccines, were analyzed. Susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents was tested by disk diffusion, according to CLSI recommendations. Resistance genes were detected by PCR assays. The most of isolates (85.2%) were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, suggesting that did not exist change of resistance over time. Two isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR), one of them (isolate 1496) showed resistance to seven antibiotics including oxacillin and erythromycin...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622860/immunogenicity-of-t7-bacteriophage-nanoparticles-displaying-g-h-loop-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-fmdv
#15
Hai Xu, Xi Bao, Yu Lu, Yamei Liu, Bihua Deng, Yiwei Wang, Yue Xu, Jibo Hou
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes severe economic losses worldwide. The G-H loop of the FMDV VP1 structural protein is the major neutralizing antigenic site. However, a fully protective G-H loop peptide vaccine requires the addition of promiscuous Th sites from a source outside VP1. Thus, we demonstrated the potential of T7 bacteriophage based nanoparticles displaying a genetically fused G-H loop peptide (T7-GH) as a FMDV vaccine candidate. Recombinant T7-GH phage was constructed by inserting the G-H loop coding region into the T7 Select 415-1b vector...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622859/multilocus-sequence-analysis-reveals-extensive-genetic-variety-within-tenacibaculum-spp-associated-with-ulcers-in-sea-farmed-fish-in-norway
#16
Anne Berit Olsen, Snorre Gulla, Terje Steinum, Duncan J Colquhoun, Hanne K Nilsen, Eric Duchaud
Skin ulcer development in sea-reared salmonids, commonly associated with Tenacibaculum spp., is a significant fish welfare- and economical problem in Norwegian aquaculture. A collection of 89 Tenacibaculum isolates was subjected to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The isolates were retrieved from outbreaks of clinical disease in farms spread along the Norwegian coast line from seven different fish species over a period of 19 years. MLSA analysis reveals considerable genetic diversity, but allows identification of four main clades...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622858/a-novel-avian-retrovirus-associated-with-lymphocytoma-isolated-from-a-local-chinese-flock-induced-significantly-reduced-growth-and-immune-suppression-in-spf-chickens
#17
Xiaoping Wu, Jinrong Zhao, Yukun Zeng, Yijian Wu, Quanxi Wang, Baocheng Wu, Yifan Huang
Avian Leukosis Viruses (ALVs) are associated with neoplasias, immune suppression and reduced performance in chicken flocks. In the present study, a naturally occurring recombinant strain of ALV (FJ15HT0) was isolated from an infected flock of Chinese "Hetian" chickens, and was subsequently identified as an exogenous ALV by immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA), PCR and following entire proviral DNA nucleotide sequencing. This isolate is revealed as a novel recombinant virus, lacking viral oncogenes, with the gp85 (93...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622857/streptococcus-suis-serotype-9-strain-gz0565-contains-a-type-vii-secretion-system-putative-substrate-esxa-that-contributes-to-bacterial-virulence-and-a-vanz-like-gene-that-confers-resistance-to-teicoplanin-and-dalbavancin-in-streptococcus-agalactiae
#18
Liying Lai, Jiao Dai, Huanyu Tang, Shouming Zhang, Chunyan Wu, Wancen Qiu, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao, Hongjie Fan, Zongfu Wu
Streptococcus suis (SS), an important pathogen for pigs, is not only considered as a zoonotic agent for humans, but is also recognized as a major reservoir of antimicrobial resistance contributing to the spread of resistance genes to other pathogenic Streptococcus species. In addition to serotype 2 (SS2), serotype 9 (SS9) is another prevalent serotype isolated from diseased pigs. Although many SS strains have been sequenced, the complete genome of a non-SS2 virulent strain has been unavailable to date. Here, we report the complete genome of GZ0565, a virulent strain of SS9, isolated from a pig with meningitis...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622856/survey-for-selected-pathogens-in-wild-pigs-sus-scrofa-from-guam-marianna-islands-usa
#19
Christopher A Cleveland, Anthony DeNicola, J P Dubey, Dolores E Hill, Roy D Berghaus, Michael J Yabsley
Pigs (Sus scrofa) were introduced to Guam in the 1600's and are now present in high densities throughout the island. Wild pigs are reservoirs for pathogens of concern to domestic animals and humans. Exposure to porcine parvovirus, transmissible gastroenteritis, and Leptospira interrogans has been documented in domestic swine but data from wild pigs are lacking. The close proximity of humans, domestic animals, and wild pigs, combined with the liberal hunting of wild pigs, results in frequent opportunities for pathogen transmission...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622855/b-cell-cross-epitope-of-propionibacterium-acnes-and-actinobacillus-pleuropneumonia-selected-by-phage-display-library-can-efficiently-protect-from-actinobacillus-pleuropneumonia-infection
#20
Jianfang Liu, Qiuyue Ma, Feng Yang, Rining Zhu, Jingmin Gu, Changjiang Sun, Xin Feng, Chongtao Du, Paul R Langford, Wenyu Han, Junling Yang, Liancheng Lei
Contagious porcine pleuropneumonia (CPP), caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), is a highly transmissible and fatal respiratory illness that causes tremendous economic losses for the pig breeding industry worldwide. Propionibacterium acnes (PA) has a strong cross-reaction with anti-APP1 and anti-APP5 serum and can efficiently prevent APP infection, which was fortuitously found in researching the differential gene between the different APP serotypes. There seems to be some natural cross-protection between PA and APP...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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