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Veterinary Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888658/variations-in-glycoprotein-b-contribute-to-immunogenic-difference-between-prv-variant-js-2012-and-bartha-k61
#1
Zhi-Qing Yu, Wu Tong, Hao Zheng, Li-Wei Li, Guo-Xin Li, Fei Gao, Tao Wang, Chao Liang, Chao Ye, Ji-Qiang Wu, Qinfeng Huang, Guang-Zhi Tong
A newly emerged pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant has been identified in many Bartha-K61-vaccinated pig farms. This variant has caused great economic losses to the swine industry in China since 2011. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the gB gene of the emerging PRV variant JS-2012 had multiple variations compared with the vaccine strain Bartha-K61. In the study, a specific CRISPR/Cas9 system combined with homologous recombination was used to construct two recombinant viruses, BJB (Bartha-K61+JS-2012gB) and JBJ (JS-2012-ΔgE/gI+Bartha-K61gB), by interchanging the full-length gB genes between Bartha-K61 and JS-2012-ΔgE/gI...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888657/spontaneous-listeriosis-in-grey-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-murinus-but-not-in-goodman-s-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-lehilahytsara-of-the-same-colony
#2
Kirsten Hülskötter, Daniel Schmidtke, Marko Dubicanac, Ute Siesenop, Elke Zimmermann, Ingo Gerhauser, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Vanessa Herder
Listeriosis is a zoonotic infection with the gram positive, facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria (L.) monocytogenes. Infections mainly occur in ruminants, but also in other species, including humans. Case fatality rate usually is high. The incidence of listeriosis in captive non-human primates is very low. We report the first spontaneous, fatal, and likely food-born outbreak of listeriosis in a population of captive grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Conspicuously, none of the closely related Goodman's mouse lemurs (Microcebus lehilahytsara) in the same facility were affected...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888656/molecular-characterization-of-circulating-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-fmdv-serotype-o-topotype-ea-3-and-serotype-a-african-topotype-genotype-iv-in-egypt-2016
#3
Mohamed A Soltan, Ali H Negmaldin, Mohamed M El-Diasty, Shimaa M G Mansour, Maha A Elbadry, Rebecca P Wilkes
In January-April 2016, cattle and buffalo farm owners and veterinarians reported clinical signs suggestive of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) outbreaks among non-vaccinated cattle and buffalo herds in Egypt. The clinical disease observed was either mild (small oral lesions and speedy recovery) or severe (extensive oral lesions and/or mortalities), and the form of the disease (either mild or severe) segregated by farm. This study aimed to confirm the presence of FMDV and to characterize the circulating strains associated with the outbreaks...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888655/the-matrix-protein-of-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-inhibits-host-directed-transcription-of-target-genes-via-interaction-with-the-tfiih-subunit-p8
#4
Wei Pan, Deguang Song, Wenqi He, Huijun Lu, Yungang Lan, Juanzhen Tong, Feng Gao, Kui Zhao
In response to viral infection, the host innate antiviral response is elicited to limit viral replication. Many viruses have evolved various strategies to circumvent the host antiviral response. It has been reported that matrix (M) protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can inhibit host gene expression to evade the host innate immune response. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that VSV M protein inhibited transcription of a reporter gene transfected into BSR-T7/5 cells...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888654/shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-o22-h8-isolated-from-cattle-reduces-e-coli-o157-h7-adherence-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
L Martorelli, A Albanese, D Vilte, R Cantet, A Bentancor, G Zolezzi, I Chinen, C Ibarra, M Rivas, E C Mercado, A Cataldi
PROBLEM ADDRESSED: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a group of bacteria responsible for food-associated diseases. Clinical features include a wide range of symptoms such as diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a life-threatening condition. OBJECTIVE: Our group has observed that animals naturally colonized with STEC strains of unknown serotype were not efficiently colonized with E. coli O157:H7 after experimental infection...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888653/porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-does-not-replicate-in-porcine-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-but-activates-the-transcription-of-type-i-interferon-and-chemokine
#6
Xiuqing Wang, Martha Ohnstad, April Nelsen, Eric Nelson
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) belongs to the alphacoronavirus of the Coronaviridae. It is the major etiological agent of the recent outbreaks of piglet diarrhea and death in the US. Limited knowledge is currently available regarding the role of dendritic cells in PEDV infection. Here, we observed that PEDV did not replicate in monocyte-derived dendritic cells as evidenced by the decrease of viral gene transcript copies in infected cells by qRT-PCR and the absence of viral proteins by immunofluorescence staining as well as the absence of virus particles in infected cells by transmission electron microscopy...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888652/erratum-to-antimicrobials-used-for-surgical-prophylaxis-by-companion-animal-veterinarians-in-australia-vet-microbiol-203c-2017-301-307
#7
Laura Y Hardefeldt, Glenn F Browning, Karin Thursky, James R Gilkerson, Helen Billman-Jacobe, Mark A Stevenson, Kirsten E Bailey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888651/necrotic-enteritis-locus-1-diguanylate-cyclase-and-phosphodiesterase-cyclic-di-gmp-gene-mutation-attenuates-virulence-in-an-avian-necrotic-enteritis-isolate-of-clostridium-perfringens
#8
Valeria R Parreira, Shivani Ojha, Dion Lepp, Iman Mehdizadeh Gohari, Hongzhuan Zhou, Leonardo Susta, Jianhua Gong, John F Prescott
Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by netB-positive strains of Clostridium perfringens is an important disease of intensively-reared broiler chickens. It is widely controlled by antibiotic use, but this practice that has come under increasing scrutiny and alternative approaches are required. As part of the search for alternative approaches over the last decade, advances have been made in understanding its pathogenesis but much remains to be understood and applied to the control of NE. The objective of this work was to assess the effect on virulence of mutation of the cyclic-di-GMP signaling genes present on the large pathogenicity locus (NELoc-1) in the tcp-encoding conjugative virulence plasmid, pNetB...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888650/detection-of-rat-hepatitis-e-virus-in-wild-norway-rats-rattus-norvegicus-and-black-rats-rattus-rattus-from-11-european-countries
#9
René Ryll, Samuel Bernstein, Elisa Heuser, Mathias Schlegel, Paul Dremsek, Maxi Zumpe, Sandro Wolf, Michel Pépin, Daniel Bajomi, Gabi Müller, Ann-Charlotte Heiberg, Carina Spahr, Johannes Lang, Martin H Groschup, Hermann Ansorge, Jona Freise, Sebastian Guenther, Kristof Baert, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Jiri Pikula, Nataša Knap, Ιoannis Tsakmakidis, Chrysostomos Dovas, Stefania Zanet, Christian Imholt, Gerald Heckel, Reimar Johne, Rainer G Ulrich
Rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) is genetically only distantly related to hepeviruses found in other mammalian reservoirs and in humans. It was initially detected in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Germany, and subsequently in rats from Vietnam, the USA, Indonesia, China, Denmark and France. Here, we report on a molecular survey of Norway rats and Black rats (Rattus rattus) from 12 European countries for ratHEV and human pathogenic hepeviruses. RatHEV-specific real-time and conventional RT-PCR investigations revealed the presence of ratHEV in 63 of 508 (12...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888649/identification-of-two-novel-avian-influenza-a-h5n6-viruses-in-wild-birds-shanghai-in-2016
#10
Guimei He, Lichen Zhou, Caihui Zhu, Hongliang Shi, Xiaofang Li, Di Wu, Jing Liu, Jiamin Lv, Chuanxia Hu, Zhihui Li, Zhenghuan Wang, Tianhou Wang
The H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) has been continuously reported in wild birds, which may contribute to further geographical spread during their long-distance migrations. Active AIV surveillance in wild birds was conducted during October and November 2016 in Shanghai, China. Two novel influenza A (H5N6) viruses were detected in samples from migratory waterfowl that are genetically similar to recent South Korea and Japan H5N6 viruses collected in 2016 and 2017, highlighting the role of migratory waterfowl in the dissemination of H5N6 viruses along migratory flyways...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888648/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-a-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-prrs-modified-live-virus-vaccine-on-sow-reproductive-performance-in-endemic-prrs-farms
#11
Jiwoon Jeong, Seeun Kim, Kee Hwan Park, Ikjae Kang, Su-Jin Park, Changhoon Park, Chanhee Chae
The efficacy of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) modified-live virus vaccine in reproductive performance was evaluated under field conditions. Three PRRS endemic farms were selected based on their history of PRRS-associated reproductive failures. On each farm, a total of 40 sows were randomly allocated to either vaccinated (n=20) or unvaccinated (n=20) groups. Sows were vaccinated six weeks prior to breeding. Clinical data showed a significant improvement in reproductive performance in vaccinated sows...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888647/fibronectin-fibrinogen-binding-protein-fbps-is-not-a-critical-virulence-factor-for-the-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2-strain-zy05719
#12
Quan Li, Yang Fu, Yanan He, Yuhang Zhang, Yunyun Qian, Yanfei Yu, Huochun Yao, Chengping Lu, Wei Zhang
Fibronectin-/fibrinogen-binding protein (FBPS) of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an atypical anchorless microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM) for which the role in bacterial infection are not clearly established. To investigate the biological functions of FBPS, an fbps knockout mutant was constructed in SS2 strain ZY05719 to explore the phenotypic changes between the wild-type and mutant strains. Cell morphology analyses combined with the basic growth curves showed that deletion of fbps does not significantly influence neither the thickness of the capsule of SS2 nor the cell growth characteristic...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888646/disparity-in-the-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-between-healthy-cattle-on-feed-at-entry-processing-and-with-respiratory-disease
#13
Mohamed Zeineldin, James Lowe, Maria de Godoy, Nidia Maradiaga, Chelsey Ramirez, Mohamed Ghanem, Yassein Abd El-Raof, Brian Aldridge
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most serious causes of health and economic problems in the beef production industry, especially in recently weaned, intensely raised and newly transported feedlot cattle. While the importance of upper airway structure and function in the susceptibility of the lower respiratory tract to colonization with potential pathogens is well established, the role of the mucosal microbiota in respirtatory health is less well defined. The objective of this study was to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle at entry into a commercial feedlot, during initial management processing, and to compare the dynamics of change in these microbial communities between clinically healthy calves and those that develop BRD within the first month after entry...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888645/eradication-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-in-germany-diversity-of-subtypes-and-detection-of-live-vaccine-viruses
#14
Kerstin Wernike, Horst Schirrmeier, Heinz-Günter Strebelow, Martin Beer
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) causes high economic losses in the cattle population worldwide. In Germany, an obligatory control program with detection and removal of persistently infected animals is in force since 2011. For molecular tracing of virus transmission, a comprehensive sequence data base of the currently circulating BVD viruses was established. Partial sequences of 1007 samples collected between 2008 and 2016 were generated. As dominant viruses, subtypes 1b (47.0%) and 1d (26.5%) could be identified with no marked geographic or sampling year effect, a much higher amount of BVDV-2c was detected in 2013 compared to other years, predominantly in Western Germany...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888644/genetic-diversity-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-pcv2-in-thailand-during-2009-2015
#15
Nattarat Thangthamniyom, Pradit Sangthong, Pariwat Poolperm, Narut Thanantong, Alongkot Boonsoongnern, Payuda Hansoongnern, Ploypailin Semkum, Nantawan Petcharat, Porntippa Lekcharoensuk
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the essential cause of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD), has evolved rapidly and it has been reported worldwide. However, genetic information of PCV2 in Thailand has not been available since 2011. Herein, we studied occurrence and genetic diversity of PCV2 in Thailand and their relationships to the global PCV2 based on ORF2 sequences. The results showed that 306 samples (44.09%) from 56 farms (80%) were PCV2 positive by PCR. Phylogenetic trees constructed by both neighbor-joining and Bayesian Inference yielded similar topology of the ORF2 sequences...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888643/nasal-carriage-of-methicillin-resistant-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-in-healthy-humans-is-associated-with-occupational-pig-contact-in-a-dose-response-manner
#16
Ling Li, Zhiyao Chen, Dan Guo, Shunming Li, Jingya Huang, Xiaolin Wang, Zhenjiang Yao, Sidong Chen, Xiaohua Ye
This study aimed to explore the association between occupational pig contact and human methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) carriage. We conducted a cross-sectional study of pig exposed participants and controls in Guangdong, China, using a multi-stage sampling design. Participants provided a nasal swab for MRCoNS analysis and resulting isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The dose-response relation was examined using log binomial regression or Poisson regression models...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888642/spatio-temporal-variations-and-genetic-diversity-of-anaplasma-spp-in-cattle-from-the-north-of-tunisia
#17
Hanène Belkahia, Mourad Ben Said, Narjesse El Mabrouk, Mariem Saidani, Chayma Cherni, Mariem Ben Hassen, Ali Bouattour, Lilia Messadi
In cattle, anaplasmosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease caused by Anaplasma marginale, A. centrale, A. phagocytophilum, and A. bovis. To date, no information concerning the seasonal dynamics of single and/or mixed infections by different Anaplasma species in bovines are available in Tunisia. In this work, a total of 1035 blood bovine samples were collected in spring (n=367), summer (n=248), autumn (n=244) and winter (n=176) from five different governorates belonging to three bioclimatic zones from the North of Tunisia...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888641/a-molecular-survey-of-small-ruminant-hemotropic-mycoplasmosis-in-turkey-including-first-laboratory-confirmed-clinical-cases-caused-by-mycoplasma-ovis
#18
Munir Aktas, Sezayi Ozubek
Hemotropic mycoplasmas are emerging zoonotic pathogens that cause mild to severe hemolytic anemia. Blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from six sheep exhibiting clinical symptoms typical of hemolytic anemia. Coccoid and ring-shaped M. ovis were found on the surface of erythrocytes of infected sheep. Parasitemia ranged from 0.7% to 3.7% in individual smears. Clinical cases caused by Mycoplasma ovis were evaluated, and prevalence, based on DNA screening for the 16S rRNA gene of hemoplasmas in apparently healthy sheep (n=328) and goats (n=272) from the same area, was 11...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888640/a-bovine-botulism-outbreak-associated-with-a-suspected-cross-contamination-from-a-poultry-farm
#19
R Souillard, C Le Maréchal, V Ballan, F Mahé, M Chemaly, S Le Bouquin
In October 2014, an outbreak of botulism type D/C occurred on two cattle farms in close proximity. A poultry farm located nearby with no history of botulism had transferred poultry manure to both bovine farms before the beginning of the outbreak. Given this context, epidemiological investigation was conducted to determine if the poultry farm was a reservoir of C. botulinum type D/C and to identify the source of contamination on the cattle farms. Environmental samples were collected at three houses on the poultry farm (boot swabs from the surroundings, swabs from the ventilation system, boot swabs from the poultry litter and darkling beetles samples), and on the two cattle farms (silage samples, boot swabs from the cattle stalls, boot swabs from the cattle pasture and poultry manure samples)...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888639/increased-microbiome-diversity-at-the-time-of-infection-is-associated-with-improved-growth-rates-of-pigs-after-co-infection-with-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-and-porcine-circovirus-type-2-pcv2
#20
Rebecca A Ober, James B Thissen, Crystal J Jaing, Ada G Cino-Ozuna, Raymond R R Rowland, Megan C Niederwerder
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are two of the most important pathogens affecting the swine industry worldwide. Co-infections are common on a global scale, resulting in pork production losses through reducing weight gain and causing respiratory disease in growing pigs. Our initial work demonstrated that the fecal microbiome was associated with clinical outcome of pigs 70days post-infection (dpi) with PRRSV and PCV2. However, it remained uncertain if microbiome characteristics could predispose response to viral infection...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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