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Veterinary Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923501/influenza-a-virus-vaccines-for-swine
#1
Amy L Vincent, Daniel R Perez, Daniela Rajao, Tavis K Anderson, Eugenio J Abente, Rasna R Walia, Nicola S Lewis
Economic losses due to influenza A virus (IAV) infections are substantial and a global problem, ranking among the top three major health challenges in the swine industry. Currently, H1 and H3 subtypes circulate in pigs globally associated with different combinations of N1 and N2 subtypes; however, the origin, gene constellation, and antigenic makeup of IAV vary greatly on different continents. Vaccination is one means of mitigating the effects of IAV disease, and vaccines are most effective if the strains included closely match the currently circulating strains in pigs...
November 24, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916319/recombinant-viral-vectored-vaccines-for-the-control-of-avian-influenza-in-poultry
#2
David L Suarez, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood
Vaccination is a commonly used tool for the control of both low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) viruses. Traditionally, inactivated adjuvanted vaccines made from a low pathogenic field strain have been used for vaccination, but advances in molecular biology have allowed a number of different viral vectored vaccines, expressing the AI virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene, to be developed and licensed for use for control of AI. This review summarizes the licensed vector vaccines available for use in poultry...
November 24, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916320/antimicrobial-resistance-at-the-interface-of-human-and-veterinary-medicine
#3
EDITORIAL
Robin Köck, Lothar Kreienbrock, Engeline van Duijkeren, Stefan Schwarz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916318/advances-in-vaccine-research-against-economically-important-viral-diseases-of-food-animals-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#4
Daral J Jackwood
Numerous reviews have been published on infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Many high quality vaccines are commercially available for the control of IBD that, when used correctly, provide solid protection against infection and disease caused by IBDV. Viruses are not static however; they continue to evolve and vaccines need to keep pace with them. The evolution of IBDV has resulted in very virulent strains and new antigenic types of the virus. This review will discuss some of the limitations associated with existing vaccines, potential solutions to these problems and advances in new vaccines for the control of IBD...
November 22, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890448/vaccines-against-pseudorabies-virus-prv
#5
C M Freuling, T F Müller, T C Mettenleiter
Aujeszkýs disease (AD, pseudorabies) is a notifiable herpesvirus infection of pigs causing substantial economic losses to swine producers. AD in pigs is controlled by the use of vaccination with inactivated and attenuated live vaccines. Starting with classically attenuated live vaccines derived from low virulent field isolates, AD vaccination has pioneered novel strategies in animal disease control by the first use of genetically engineered live virus vaccines lacking virulence-determining genes, and the concept of DIVA, i...
November 18, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769529/ten-years-of-pcv2-vaccines-and-vaccination-is-eradication-a-possibility
#6
Zahra Afghah, Brett Webb, Xiang-Jin Meng, Sheela Ramamoorthy
More than two decades after its emergence, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) remains an economically important swine pathogen. Commercial vaccines which were first introduced to the U.S in 2006, have been highly effective in reducing clinical signs and improving production. Recent studies have indicated a declining level of PCV2 prevalence and viremia in the field. However, reports on the emergence of new viral variants have also continued to increase. This article reviews topics of current interest in the field of PCV2 vaccines; including the comparative efficacy of the available commercial products, efficacy of current vaccines against new and emerging strains, findings on the differences between immunity in natural infection versus vaccination, limitations of current experimental models for PCV2 vaccine studies, and new developments in novel experimental vaccines...
October 13, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756505/challenges-for-african-swine-fever-vaccine-development-%C3%A2-perhaps-the-end-of-the-beginning
#7
D L Rock
African swine fever (ASF), an acute, viral hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine with mortality rates approaching 100%, is arguably the most significant emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. Devastating ASF outbreaks and continuing epidemic in the Caucasus region and Russia (2007-to date) highlight significance of this disease threat. There is no vaccine for ASF, thus leaving animal slaughter the only effective disease control option. It is clear, however, that vaccination is possible since protection against reinfection with the homologous strain of African swine fever virus (ASFV) has been clearly demonstrated...
October 11, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692670/strategies-to-broaden-the-cross-protective-efficacy-of-vaccines-against-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#8
Hiep L X Vu, Asit K Pattnaik, Fernando A Osorio
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important viral pathogens currently affecting swine production worldwide. Although PRRS vaccines have been commercially available for over 20 years, the available vaccines are considered inadequately effective for control and eradication of the virus. Major obstacles for the development of a highly effective PRRS vaccine include the highly variable nature of the viral genome, the viral ability to subvert the host immune system, and the incomplete understanding of the immune protection against PRRSV infection...
September 21, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671967/the-battlefield-in-the-war-against-attaching-and-effacing-bacterial-pathogens-monocytes-macrophages-and-dendritic-cells-in-action
#9
Lionel F Poulin, Mathias Chamaillard
The recent adoption of a unified nomenclature for the mononuclear phagocyte system has already led to the generation of novel strategies for specifically depleting a single subset of phagocytes in the presence of intact lymphoid structures. Herein, we provide a detailed description of how the various types of tissue phagocyte orchestrate the host's defense against enteric bacterial infections. From a bench-to-bedside perspective, we expect that this paradigm will accelerate the development of novel adjuvants and vaccines in human and veterinary microbiology...
September 20, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665990/new-perspectives-to-the-enterotoxigenic-e-coli-f4-porcine-infection-model-susceptibility-genotypes-in-relation-to-performance-diarrhoea-and-bacterial-shedding
#10
Petra J Roubos-van den Hil, Ralph Litjens, Anna-Katharina Oudshoorn, Jan Willem Resink, Coen H M Smits
Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), causing post-weaning diarrhoea, is a major problem in weaned piglets. Individual animal responses to ETEC infection show high variability in animal experiments. Two studies were designed to optimize the ETEC F4ac infection model in piglets by combining the genotype susceptibility with performance, diarrhoea incidence and bacterial shedding. The studies were performed with respectively 120 and 80 male piglets that were tested for susceptibility or resistance towards ETEC O149:F4ac by a DNA marker based test...
September 18, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771077/felis-catus-papillomavirus-type-2-e6-oncogene-enhances-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-and-akt-activation-but-not-egfr-expression-in-an-in-vitro-feline-model-of-viral-pathogenesis
#11
Gennaro Altamura, Annunziata Corteggio, Giuseppe Borzacchiello
A possible causative role of Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV2) in the development of feline oral and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) has been recently suggested by demonstrating viral gene expression in vivo and transforming properties by its putative oncogenes E6 and E7 in vitro. The activated molecules MEK (pMEK), ERK (pERK) and Akt (pAkt) are signaling transduction effectors regulating cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis, which are critical steps towards tumour formation. Here, we show by Western blotting (WB) that expression of FcaPV2 E6 in feline epithelial cells enhances pMEK, pERK and pAkt levels compared to control cells...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771076/a-longitudinal-study-of-the-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-infection-status-in-young-goats-and-their-mothers
#12
Pascale Mercier, Sandrine Freret, Karine Laroucau, Marie-Pierre Gautier, Isabelle Brémaud, Claire Bertin, Christelle Rossignol, Armel Souriau, Laurence A Guilloteau
The dynamics between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection and the immune response of goats naturally exposed to MAP were studied in a herd where the clinical expression of paratuberculosis had been observed. Four generations of goats were observed over a 33-month period: mothers of three different generations (G1, G2, G3) and their daughters, generation 4 (G4). A MAP infection status was defined according to the combined results of an IFN-γ assay, antibody response, faecal culture and post-mortem examination...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771075/autophagy-and-apoptosis-induced-by-chinese-giant-salamander-andrias-davidianus-iridovirus-cgsiv
#13
Jian Du, Liqing Wang, Yuanxian Wang, Jian Shen, Chuanyin Pan, Yan Meng, Changming Yang, Hong Ji, Wuzi Dong
The outbreak of Chinese Giant Salamander (Andrias davidianus, CGS) Iridovirus (CGSIV) caused massive death of CGSs. However, some CGSs with low level of CGSIV usually could survive. In our study, major capsid protein (MCP) DNA replicates of CGSIV in shedding skin were employed to assess the relative content of CGSIV in the living CGSs by qPCR. Furthermore, the examinations of autophagy and apoptosis in CGSs in vivo and in the primary renal cells in vitro were performed, respectively. The results showed that the relative contents of CGSIV in the shedding skin could reflect those in liver, spleen, and kidney of the CGSs...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771074/caveolin-1-mediated-endocytic-pathway-is-involved-in-classical-swine-fever-virus-shimen-infection-of-porcine-alveolar-macrophages
#14
Pengbo Ning, Lifang Gao, Yulu Zhou, Congxia Hu, Zhi Lin, Cunmei Gong, Kangkang Guo, Xianghan Zhang
Macrophages are at the frontline of defense against pathogenic microorganisms. However, very little is known about the cell invasion mechanism of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) Shimen strain. To elucidate the infective mechanism of this important pathogen, we screened deep-sequencing data derived from macrophages infected with CSFV Shimen and uninfected macrophages, and identified a role of caveolin-1 (CAV1). Digital gene expression profiling showed that CAV1 was differentially expressed in CSFV Shimen-infected macrophages...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771073/identification-of-recombination-among-vp1-gene-of-muscovy-duck-parvovirus-from-the-mainland-of-china
#15
Tian-Fei Yu, Ming Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771072/mouse-model-for-the-rift-valley-fever-virus-mp12-strain-infection
#16
Yuekun Lang, Jamie Henningson, Dane Jasperson, Yonghai Li, Jinhwa Lee, Jingjiao Ma, Yuhao Li, Nan Cao, Haixia Liu, William Wilson, Juergen Richt, Mark Ruder, Scott McVey, Wenjun Ma
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a Category A pathogen and select agent, is the causative agent of Rift Valley fever. To date, no fully licensed vaccine is available in the U.S. for human or animal use and effective antiviral drugs have not been identified. The RVFV MP12 strain is conditionally licensed for use for veterinary purposes in the U.S. which was excluded from the select agent rule of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The MP12 vaccine strain is commonly used in BSL-2 laboratories that is generally not virulent in mice...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771071/differential-expression-of-putative-adhesin-genes-of-actinobacillus-suis-grown-in-in-vivo-like-conditions
#17
Adina R Bujold, Josée Labrie, Mario Jacques, Janet I MacInnes
Actinobacillus suis is an opportunistic pathogen that resides in the tonsils of the soft palate of swine. Unknown stimuli can cause this organism to invade the host, resulting in septicaemia and sequelae including death. To better understand its pathogenesis, the expression of several adhesin genes was evaluated by semi-quantitative real-time PCR in A. suis grown in conditions that mimic the host environment, including different nutrient and oxygen levels, exponential and stationary phases of growth, and in the presence of the stress hormone epinephrine...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771070/corrigendum-to-in-vivo-virulence-of-viral-haemorrhagic-septicaemia-virus-vhsv-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-correlates-inversely-with-in-vitro-mx-gene-expression-vet-microbiol-187-2016-31-40
#18
Irene Cano, Bertrand Collet, Clarissa Pereira, Richard Paley, Ronny van Aerle, David Stone, Nick G H Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771069/whole-genomic-analysis-of-bovine-group-a-rotavirus-strains-a5-10-and-a5-13-provides-evidence-for-close-evolutionary-relationship-with-human-rotaviruses
#19
Satoshi Komoto, Yaowapa Pongsuwanna, Ratana Tacharoenmuang, Ratigorn Guntapong, Tomihiko Ide, Kyoko Higo-Moriguchi, Takao Tsuji, Tetsushi Yoshikawa, Koki Taniguchi
Bovine group A rotavirus (RVA) is an important cause of acute diarrhea in calves worldwide. In order to obtain precise information on the origin and evolutionary dynamics of bovine RVA strains, we determined and analyzed the complete nucleotide sequences of the whole genomes of six archival bovine RVA strains; four Thai strains (RVA/Cow-tc/THA/A5-10/1988/G8P[1], RVA/Cow-tc/THA/A5-13/1988/G8P[1], RVA/Cow-tc/THA/61A/1989/G10P[5], and RVA/Cow-tc/THA/A44/1989/G10P[11]), one American strain (RVA/Cow-tc/USA/B223/1983/G10P[11]), and one Japanese strain (RVA/Cow-tc/JPN/KK3/1983/G10P[11])...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771068/molecular-and-epidemiological-population-based-integrative-analysis-of-human-and-animal-mycobacterium-bovis-infections-in-a-low-prevalence-setting
#20
Juan José Palacios, Yurena Navarro, Beatriz Romero, Ana Penedo, Ángela Menéndez González, M Dolores Pérez Hernández, Ana Fernández-Verdugo, Francisca Copano, Aurora Torreblanca, Emilio Bouza, Lucas Domínguez, Lucía de Juan, Darío García-de-Viedma
Human Mycobacterium bovis infections are considered to be due to reactivations, when involve elderly people, or to recent transmissions, when exposure is occupational. We determined the cause of M. bovis infections by genotyping M. bovis isolates in a population-based study integrating human and animal databases. Among the 1,586 tuberculosis (TB) cases in Asturias, Northern Spain (1,080,000 inhabitants), 1,567 corresponded to M. tuberculosis and 19 to M. bovis. The number of human isolates sharing genotype with cattle isolates was higher than expected (47%) for a setting with low prevalence of bovine TB and efficient control programs in cattle...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
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