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Veterinary Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215617/genetic-engineering-alveolar-macrophages-for-host-resistance-to-prrsv
#1
REVIEW
Randall S Prather, Kristin M Whitworth, Susan K Schommer, Kevin D Wells
Standard strategies for control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have not been effective, as vaccines have not reduced the prevalence of disease and many producers depopulate after an outbreak. Another method of control would be to prevent the virus from infecting the pig. The virus was thought to infect alveolar macrophages by interaction with a variety of cell surface molecules. One popular model had PRRSV first interacting with heparin sulfate followed by binding to sialoadhesin and then being internalized into an endosome...
February 10, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228336/evaluation-of-hydrophobic-chitosan-based-particulate-formulations-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-vaccine-candidate-t-cell-antigens
#2
Helen Mokhtar, Lucia Biffar, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sarah McGowan, Miriam Pedrera, Rebecca Strong, Jane C Edwards, Margarita Garcia-Durán, Maria Jose Rodriguez, Graham R Stewart, Falko Steinbach, Simon P Graham
PRRS control is hampered by the inadequacies of existing vaccines to combat the extreme diversity of circulating viruses. Since immune clearance of PRRSV infection may not be dependent on the development of neutralising antibodies and the identification of broadly-neutralising antibody epitopes have proven elusive, we hypothesised that conserved T cell antigens represent potential candidates for development of a novel PRRS vaccine. Previously we had identified the M and NSP5 proteins as well-conserved targets of polyfunctional CD8 and CD4 T cells...
February 3, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161211/cranberry-extract-inhibits-in-vitro-adhesion-of-f4-and-f18-escherichia-coli-to-pig-intestinal-epithelium-and-reduces-in-vivo-excretion-of-pigs-orally-challenged-with-f18-verotoxigenic-e-coli
#3
Annelies Coddens, Michaela Loos, Daisy Vanrompay, Jean Paul Remon, Eric Cox
F4(+)E. coli and F18(+)E. coli infections are an important threat for pig industry worldwide. Antibiotics are commonly used to treat infected piglets, but the emerging development of resistance against antibiotics raises major concerns. Hence, alternative therapies to prevent pigs from F4(+)E. coli and F18(+)E. coli infections need to be developed. Since cranberry previously showed anti-adhesive activity against uropathogenic E. coli, we aimed to investigate whether cranberry extract could also inhibit binding of F4(+)E...
January 20, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161212/advances-in-peste-des-petits-ruminants-vaccines
#4
Naveen Kumar, Sanjay Barua, Thachamvally Riyesh, Bhupendra N Tripathi
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants that leads to high morbidity and mortality thereby results in devastating economic consequences to the livestock industry. PPR is currently endemic across most parts of Asia and Africa, the two regions with the highest concentration of poor people in the world. Sheep and goats in particularly contribute significantly towards the upliftment of livelihood of the poor and marginal farmers in these regions. In this context, PPR directly affecting the viability of sheep and goat husbandry has emerged as a major hurdle in the development of these regions...
January 17, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161213/new-perspective-of-host-micrornas-in-the-control-of-prrsv-infection
#5
REVIEW
Fang Liu, Yinping Du, Wen-Hai Feng
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most important diseases in pigs, leading to significant economic losses in swine industry worldwide. PRRS virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped positive single-stranded RNA virus, which mainly infects cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs and have emerged as important regulators of virus-host cell interactions. In the past several years, scientists have been trying to understand the interaction between host miRNAs and PRRSV infection...
January 9, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081857/vaccination-against-infectious-bronchitis-virus-a-continuous-challenge
#6
Brian Jordan
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a significant respiratory pathogen of commercial poultry that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue worldwide each year. Even though the poultry industry extensively vaccinates against IBV, emergence of new serotypes and variants continually occur, making control of the disease difficult. Current mass application strategies for IBV vaccines are inefficient and frequently result in vaccination failures. Novel vaccine technology development has been slow, and is hindered by the constraints of large-scale poultry production...
January 4, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069290/classical-swine-fever-vaccines-state-of-the-art
#7
Sandra Blome, Claudia Moß, Ilona Reimann, Patricia König, Martin Beer
Due to its impact on animal health and pig industry, classical swine fever (CSF) is still one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. To control the disease, safe and highly efficacious live attenuated vaccines exist for decades. These vaccines have usually outstanding efficacy and safety but lack differentiability of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA or marker strategy). In contrast, the first generation of E2 subunit marker vaccines shows constraints in efficacy, application, and production. To overcome these limitations, new generations of marker vaccines are developed...
January 3, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069291/antagonizing-cytokine-mediated-jak-stat-signaling-by-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#8
REVIEW
Liping Yang, Yan-Jin Zhang
Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is activated by myriad cytokines, which are involved in regulation of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, immunity and inflammatory response. Because of its significance in immune response, JAK-STAT pathway is often targeted by pathogens, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). PRRSV causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages...
December 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057380/current-and-future-vaccines-and-vaccination-strategies-against-infectious-laryngotracheitis-ilt-respiratory-disease-of-poultry
#9
Maricarmen García
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important respiratory disease of poultry that affects the industry worldwide. Vaccination is the principal tool in the control of the disease. Two types of vaccines, live attenuated and recombinant viral vector, are commercially available. The first generation of GaHV-1 vaccines available since the early 1960's are live viruses, attenuated by continuous passages in cell culture or embryos. These vaccines significantly reduce mortalities and, in particular, the chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines have shown to limit outbreaks of the disease...
December 24, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040311/foot-and-mouth-disease-vaccines
#10
Fayna Diaz-San Segundo, Gisselle N Medina, Carolina Stenfeldt, Jonathan Arzt, Teresa de Los Santos
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease affects many areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible. In countries where food and farm animals are essential for subsistence agriculture, outbreaks of FMD seriously impact food security and development. In highly industrialized developed nations, FMD endemics cause economic and social devastation mainly due to observance of health measures adopted from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)...
December 19, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024856/newcastle-disease-vaccines-a-solved-problem-or-a-continuous-challenge
#11
Kiril M Dimitrov, Claudio L Afonso, Qingzhong Yu, Patti J Miller
Newcastle disease (ND) has been defined by the World Organisation for Animal Health as infection of poultry with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Lesions affecting the neurological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive systems are most often observed. The control of ND must include strict biosecurity that prevents virulent NDV from contacting poultry, and also proper administration of efficacious vaccines. When administered correctly to healthy birds, ND vaccines formulated with NDV of low virulence or viral-vectored vaccines that express the NDV fusion protein are able to prevent clinical disease and mortality in chickens upon infection with virulent NDV...
December 16, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024855/current-limitations-in-control-of-viral-arthritis-and-tenosynovitis-caused-by-avian-reoviruses-in-commercial-poultry
#12
Holly S Sellers
Avian reoviruses are the causative agent of viral arthritis/tenosynovitis in chickens and turkeys. Clinical signs of disease include swelling of the hock joints accompanied by lesions in the gastrocnemius and digital flexor tendons causing lameness in addition to hydropericardium. The economic impact is significant as it results in poor weight gain, increased feed conversion ratios and condemnations at the processing plant. Vaccination with both live attenuated and inactivated oil emulsion vaccines have been used successfully for decades to control the disease...
December 13, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024854/how-efficacious-are-vaccines-against-bovine-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-cattle
#13
John A Ellis
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a paramyxovirus that is the major cause of pneumonia in calves. Vaccines for this important pathogen have been available since the late 1970's. This review is a critical assessment of the literature including, experimental challenge studies and field trials, that address the efficacy of commonly used vaccines to control respiratory disease caused by BRSV.
December 5, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964998/vaccines-for-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-and-other-swine-coronaviruses
#14
Volker Gerdts, Alexander Zakhartchouk
The recent introduction of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) into the North American swine herd has highlighted again the need for effective vaccines for swine coronaviruses. While vaccines for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) have been available to producers around the world for a long time, effective vaccines for PEDV and deltacoronaviruses were only recently developed or are still in development. Here, we review existing vaccine technologies for swine coronaviruses and highlight promising technologies which may help to control these important viruses in the future...
December 2, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110792/effect-of-enrofloxacin-on-haemophilus-parasuis-infection-disease-and-immune-response
#15
Nubia Macedo, Maxim C J Cheeran, Albert Rovira, Andrew Holtcamp, Montserrat Torremorell
Haemophilus parasuis, the causative agent of Glasser's disease, is a pathogen that colonizes the upper respiratory tract (URT) of pigs, invades the bloodstream and causes polyserositis. Because antimicrobials are highly effective against H. parasuis, we hypothesized that they could have a detrimental effect on the establishment of an immune response if given at the time of URT colonization. In this study, we characterized clinical outcomes and antibody and IFN-γ responses to H. parasuis in pigs treated with enrofloxacin before or after low dose inoculation with a pathogenic H...
February 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110791/induction-of-spotty-liver-disease-in-layer-hens-by-infection-with-campylobacter-hepaticus
#16
Thi Thu Hao Van, Eltaher Elshagmani, Mian-Chee Gor, Arif Anwar, Peter C Scott, Robert J Moore
Spotty liver disease (SLD) in chickens can present with variable impacts on mortality and production, ranging from sporadic mortalities of individual birds and no notable impact on production to severe reduction in egg output and increased mortality in layer flocks of greater than 1% per day. It was first described over 60 years ago and there have been sporadic reports of the disease throughout the intervening decades, particularly in the US, UK and Germany. Recently it has become of increasing concern as outbreaks of the disease have occurred more frequently, particularly in the Australian poultry industry...
February 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110790/induction-and-suppression-of-type-i-interferon-responses-by-mink-enteritis-virus-in-crfk-cells
#17
Xiaomei Zhang, Jigui Wang, Yaping Mao, Ji Xi, Yongle Yu, Weiquan Liu
Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is one of the most important viral pathogens causing serious disease in mink. Type I interferon (IFN) plays a critical role in antiviral innate immunity and, for successful infection, many viruses have evolved evasive strategies against it. Here, we show that MEV infection does not evoke IFN or interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) responses in feline kidney (CRFK) cells, and that MEV suppresses IFN production in both poly I:C-stimulated and untreated cells. In CRFK cells pre-exposure to IFN, show that infection with, and replication of, MEV remain unaffected...
February 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110789/exudative-epidermitis-of-piglets-caused-by-non-toxigenic-staphylococcus-sciuri
#18
Lixin Lu, Kongwang He, Yanxiu Ni, Zhengyu Yu, Aihua Mao
Infections with strains of Staphylococcus sciuri are a potential threat to animal and public health, and a cause for considerable concern. We isolated and identified S. sciuri as a pathogen from an acute outbreak of exudative epidermitis in piglets for further genetic identification using experimental infections. The results of this study showed that S. sciuri strain NJ1306 reproduced exudative epidermitis in experimentally infected 5-day-old piglets. The isolated bacteria also caused sudden death in BALB/c mice following intraperitoneal injection with 5×10(8) CFU of the isolate...
February 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110788/in-vitro-characterization-of-the-novel-h3n1-reassortant-influenza-viruses-from-quail
#19
Aunyaratana Thontiravong, Wikanda Tunterak, Kanisak Oraveerakul, Alongkorn Amonsin
Quail is considered as an intermediate host for generation of the novel reassortant influenza A viruses (IAVs). In this study, we evaluated the replication ability of the three novel H3N1 reassortant viruses recovered from pandemic H1N1 2009 (pH1N1) and duck H3N2 (dkH3N2) co-infected quail generated from our previous study in embryonated chicken eggs, mammalian (MDCK) and human lung derived (A549) cells. Our study demonstrated that all of the reassortant viruses replicated efficiently in avian and mammalian cells, albeit with slightly lower titers than the parental viruses...
February 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110787/mycoplasma-bovis-escapes-bovine-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#20
Satoshi Gondaira, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Koji Nishi, Hidetomo Iwano, Hajime Nagahata
Mycoplasma bovis is a significant pathogen in bovine infections including mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis and otitis media, and is the cause of large economic losses in beef and dairy farms. During infection with M. bovis, recruited neutrophils are not sufficient to eradicate M. bovis from the infection site. The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is one of the innate immune responses of neutrophils but the effect of M. bovis on NET formation by bovine neutrophils has not yet been clarified. The objective of our research was to examine the effect of M...
February 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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