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Veterinary Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528961/gp5-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-as-a-target-for-homologous-and-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#1
REVIEW
Luca N Popescu, Benjamin R Trible, Nanhua Chen, Raymond R R Rowland
Virus neutralization (VN) responses range from narrowly focused antibodies with only homologous neutralizing activity against the virus used for infection, to antibodies that can neutralize both Type 1 and Type 2 viruses, referred to as broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb). Even though neutralizing epitopes are likely distributed among several structural glycoproteins, this paper focuses on the ectodomain region of GP5 as a model system for investigating the role for neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies in protection and disease...
April 29, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400145/vaccination-of-cattle-against-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus
#2
Benjamin W Newcomer, Manuel F Chamorro, Paul H Walz
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for significant losses to the cattle industry. Currently, modified-live viral (MLV) and inactivated viral vaccines are available against BVDV, often in combination with other viral and bacterial antigens. Inactivated and MLV vaccines provide cattle producers and veterinarians safe and efficacious options for herd immunization to limit disease associated with BVDV infection. Vaccination of young cattle against BVDV is motivated by prevention of clinical disease and limiting viral spread to susceptible animals...
April 6, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377131/bovine-herpesvirus-1-modified-live-virus-vaccines-for-cattle-reproduction-balancing-protection-with-undesired-effects
#3
Christopher C L Chase, Robert W Fulton, Donal O'Toole, Benjamin Gillette, Russell F Daly, George Perry, Travis Clement
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) has long been associated with reproductive failure in cattle following infection of the ovary and/or fetus. Vaccination prior to breeding has been an effective approach to lessen the impact of BoHV-1 on reproduction. Prior studies in the 1980s and 1990s established the susceptibility of the ovary and particularly the corpus luteum (CL) to BoHV-1 infection. A series of studies at breeding time established that: (1) in naïve animals, the CL was the major target of BoHV-1 pathology; (2) CL lesions occurred within 4-9 days after estrus; (3) similar lesions was seen with BoHV-1 MLV vaccines; (4) ovarian lesions varied by the vaccine strain used; (5) progesterone decreased with or without CL lesions; and (6) following reactivation of BoHV-1 latent infection, ovaries could become reinfected in the face of BoHV-1 immunity...
March 23, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385270/host-genetics-of-response-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-in-nursery-pigs
#4
REVIEW
Jack Dekkers, Raymond R R Rowland, Joan K Lunney, Graham Plastow
PRRS is the most costly disease in the US pig industry. While vaccination, biosecurity and eradication effort have had some success, the variability and infectiousness of PRRS virus strains have hampered the effectiveness of these measures. We propose the use of genetic selection of pigs as an additional and complementary effort. Several studies have shown that host response to PRRS infection has a sizeable genetic component and recent advances in genomics provide opportunities to capitalize on these genetic differences and improve our understanding of host response to PRRS...
March 22, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377132/a-review-of-potential-bluetongue-virus-vaccine-strategies
#5
Christie Mayo, Justin Lee, Jennifer Kopanke, N James MacLachlan
Bluetongue (BT) is an economically important, non-zoonotic arboviral disease of certain wild and domestic species of cloven-hooved ungulates. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent and the occurrence of BTV infection is distinctly seasonal in temperate regions of the world, and dependent on the presence of vector biting midges (e.g. Culicoides sonorensis in much of North America). In recent years, severe outbreaks have occurred throughout Europe and BTV is endemic in most tropical and temperate regions of the world...
March 18, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341332/the-viral-innate-immune-antagonism-and-an-alternative-vaccine-design-for-prrs-virus
#6
REVIEW
Hanzhong Ke, Dongwan Yoo
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) remains one of the most economically significant diseases in the swine industry worldwide. The current vaccines are less satisfactory to confer protections from heterologous infections and long-term persistence, and the need for better vaccines are urgent. The immunological hallmarks in PRRSV-infected pigs include the unusually poor production of type I interferons (IFNs-α/β) and the aberrant and delayed adaptive immune responses, indicating that PRRSV has the ability to suppress both innate and adaptive immune responses in the host...
March 18, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330692/preface
#7
EDITORIAL
Chang-Won Lee, Fernando A Osorio, Amelia R Woolums
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318782/role-of-the-microbiome-in-swine-respiratory-disease
#8
REVIEW
Megan C Niederwerder
Microbiome is a term used to describe the community of microorganisms that live on the skin and mucosal surfaces of animals. The gastrointestinal microbiome is essential for proper nutrition and immunity. How the gastrointestinal microbiome impacts primary respiratory or systemic infections is an emerging area of study. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by a systemic virus infection with primary lung pathology and continues to be the most costly disease of swine worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that improved outcome after experimental infection with PRRS virus and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with increased fecal microbiome diversity and the presence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292547/pathogenesis-and-control-of-the-chinese-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#9
REVIEW
Jun Han, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Hanchun Yang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has remained a major threat to the worldwide swine industry ever since its first discovery in the early 1990s. Under the selective pressures in the field, this positive-stranded RNA virus undergoes rapid genetic evolution that eventually leads to emergence in 2006 of the devastating Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV). The atypical nature of HP-PRRSV has caused colossal economic losses to the swine producers in China and the surrounding countries...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292546/novel-insights-into-host-responses-and-reproductive-pathophysiology-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-caused-by-prrsv-2
#10
REVIEW
John C S Harding, Andrea Ladinig, Predrag Novakovic, Susan E Detmer, Jamie M Wilkinson, Tianfu Yang, Joan K Lunney, Graham S Plastow
A large challenge experiment using North American porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV-2) provided new insights into the pathophysiology of reproductive PRRS. Deep phenotyping of dams and fetuses identified maternal and fetal predictors of PRRS severity and resilience. PRRSV infection resulted in dramatic decreases in all leukocyte subsets by 2days post inoculation. Apoptosis in the interface region was positively related to endometrial vasculitis, viral load in endometrium and fetal thymus, and odds of meconium staining...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532813/genetics-and-biological-property-analysis-of-korea-lineage-of-influenza-a-h9n2-viruses
#11
Min Kang, Hyung-Kwan Jang
H9N2 influenza viruses have been detected from wild and domestic avian species including chickens and ducks worldwide. Few studies have compared the biological properties of different H9N2 lineages or determined whether certain lineages might pose a higher risk to mammals, especially H9N2 viruses of Korean lineage. The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic and biological properties of 22 Korean H9N2 viruses and assess their potential risks to mammals. Their complete genomes were analyzed. Some Korean H9N2 viruses were found to carry mammalian host-specific mutations...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532812/the-occurrence-of-biofilm-in-an-equine-experimental-wound-model-of-healing-by-secondary-intention
#12
E Jørgensen, L Bay, T Bjarnsholt, L Bundgaard, M A Sørensen, S Jacobsen
In humans, biofilm is a well-known cause of delayed healing and low-grade inflammation of chronic wounds. In horses, biofilm formation in wounds has been studied to a very limited degree. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the occurrence of biofilm in equine experimental wounds healing by secondary intention. Tissue biopsies from non-contaminated, experimental excisional shoulder and limb wounds were obtained on day 1-2, day 7-10 and day 14-15 post-wounding. Limb wounds were either un-bandaged or bandaged to induce exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) formation and thereby impaired healing...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532811/bovine-vaccinia-inactivated-vaccinia-virus-vaccine-induces-protection-in-murine-model
#13
Ana Carolina Diniz Matos, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes, Izabelle Silva Rehfeld, Erica Azevedo Costa, Aristoteles Gomes Costa, Natalia Lopes da Silva, Andrey Pereira Lage, Zélia Inês Portela Lobato
Bovine vaccinia (BV), caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), is a zoonosis characterized by exanthematous lesions on the teats of dairy cows and the milkers' hands. Since 1999, due to the occurrence of many BV outbreaks in dairy farms across all Brazilian regions, there is a need to improve the control and prevention measures of the disease. Vaccination is one of the major tools to prevent viral diseases, and it could be an alternative for BV prevention. The main objective of this study was the development of vaccine formulations against BV using the inactivated VACV strain GP2 as antigen combined with different adjuvants...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532810/species-level-identification-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococcus-spp-from-buffalo-using-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-and-cydb-real-time-quantitative-pcr
#14
Lucas J L Pizauro, Camila C de Almeida, Glenn A Soltes, Durda Slavic, Oswaldo D Rossi-Junior, Fernando A de Ávila, Luiz F Zafalon, Janet I MacInnes
Incorrect identification of Staphylococcus spp. can have serious clinical and zoonotic repercussions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine if matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and/or cydB real- time quantitative PCR (qPCR) could be used to accurately identify coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (CoNS) obtained from buffalo milk and milking environment samples. Seventy-five of 84 CoNS isolates could be identified to the species level (score value >1...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532809/seroprevalence-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1-related-alphaherpesvirus-infections-in-free-living-and-captive-cervids-in-poland
#15
Jerzy Rola, Magdalena Larska, Wojciech Socha, Jolanta G Rola, Magdalena Materniak, Renata Urban-Chmiel, Etienne Thiry, Jan F Żmudziński
To determine the occurrence of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) related alphaherpesvirus infections in cervids, 1194 serum samples of wild ruminants originating from 59 forest districts of Poland were tested with IBR gB ELISA and virus neutralization test (VNT) against BoHV-1 and cervid herpesvirus 1 (CvHV-1). The seroprevalence differed significantly between free-living and captive cervids (P<0.001) with a total of 89 out of 498 (17.9%) and 268 out of 696 (38.5%) seropositive animals in each type of population...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532808/immune-response-of-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-in-a-mouse-mastitis-model-is-linked-to-adaptive-capacity-and-genotypic-profiles
#16
Elizabet A L Pereyra, Sofía C Sacco, Andrea Duré, Celina Baravalle, María S Renna, Carolina S Andreotti, Stefan Monecke, Luis F Calvinho, Bibiana E Dallard
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently isolated major pathogens from intramammary infections (IMI) worldwide. The mechanisms by which S. aureus IMI are established and maintained in dairy cows involve both bacterial escape strategies and modulation of the host immune response. Moreover, it was shown that different S. aureus strains have varying effects on the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response in a mouse mastitis model of two S. aureus strains isolated from bovine IMI with different clinical manifestation (persistent-P or non-persistent-NP), phenotypic and genotypic profile...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532807/distribution-of-aleutian-mink-disease-virus-contamination-in-the-environment-of-infected-mink-farms
#17
A Prieto, R Fernández-Antonio, J M Díaz-Cao, G López, P Díaz, J M Alonso, P Morrondo, G Fernández
Control and eradication of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) are a major concern for fur-bearing animal production. Despite notably reducing disease prevalence, current control programs are unable to prevent the reinfection of farms, and environmental AMDV persistence seems to play a major role regarding this issue. In this study 114 samples from different areas and elements of seven infected mink farms were analyzed by qPCR in order to evaluate the environmental distribution of AMDV load. Samples were classified into nine categories, depending on the type of sample and degree of proximity to the animals, the main source of infection...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532806/a-molecular-survey-for-selected-viral-enteropathogens-revealed-a-limited-role-of-canine-circovirus-in-the-development-of-canine-acute-gastroenteritis
#18
Giulia Dowgier, Eleonora Lorusso, Nicola Decaro, Costantina Desario, Viviana Mari, Maria Stella Lucente, Gianvito Lanave, Canio Buonavoglia, Gabriella Elia
Canine circovirus (CanineCV) is a canine virus, whose pathogenetic role is still uncertain. Based on recent data suggesting its role as entheropathogen, a case-control study was conducted between 2013 and 2016 to investigate the association of CanineCV with gastroenteritis in dogs, alone or in combination with other viral pathogens, including canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine distemper virus (CDV). A total of 219 dogs suffering from acute gastroenteritis disorders and 67 controls randomly recruited among healthy dogs or patients presenting without enteric signs were screened by a panel of real-time (RT-)PCR assays for CanineCV, CPV, CCoV and CDV...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532805/efficacy-of-disinfectants-and-detergents-intended-for-a-pig-farm-environment-where-salmonella-is-present
#19
Rebecca J Gosling, Ian Mawhinney, Kelly Vaughan, Robert H Davies, Richard P Smith
Disinfection is a useful component of disease control, although products and chemical groups vary in their activity against different pathogens. This study investigated the ability of fifteen disinfectants to eliminate pig-associated Salmonella. Active compounds of products included chlorocresol, glutaraldehyde/formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde/quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), iodine, peracetic acid and potassium peroxomonosulphate. Six detergents were also tested for their ability to dislodge faecal material, and interactions with specific disinfectants...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532804/mycobacterium-avium-subsp-hominissuis-menigoencephalitis-in-a-cat
#20
Hiroo Madarame, Miyoko Saito, Kikumi Ogihara, Hideharu Ochiai, Mami Oba, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yuzo Tsuyuki, Tetsuya Mizutani
A 33-month old, neutered female Abyssinian cat died. The cat had sudden onset of widespread neurologic signs about half a year after birth. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) group was isolated and identified from the brain of a cat affected with pyogranulomatous meningoencephalitis. The central nervous system (CNS) was involved in the disseminated MAH infection. MAH infection should be considered in cats with neurologic signs in regard to zoonotic aspects. Comparatively, this is a first case of MAH infection observed in the brain in either humans or animals...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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