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Veterinary Microbiology

Ana B García-Martín, Vincent Perreten, Alexandra Rossano, Sarah Schmitt, Heiko Nathues, Friederike Zeeh
Worldwide emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae led us question whether specific clones are present in Switzerland. Fifty-one B. hyodysenteriae isolates originating from 27 different Swiss pig herds sampled between 2010 and 2017 were characterised. Multilocus sequence typing revealed the presence of four different sequence types (STs) ST6, ST66, ST196 and ST197 with ST196 being predominant. Antimicrobial susceptibility to six different antimicrobial agents was determined by measurement of the minimal inhibitory concentration by broth dilution...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Sarah Gallien, Christelle Fablet, Lionel Bigault, Cécilia Bernard, Olivier Toulouse, Mustapha Berri, Yannick Blanchard, Nicolas Rose, Béatrice Grasland
An acute epidemic of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has affected the USA since 2013 and spread all around the world. In France, the immune status of the pig population against PED virus (PEDV) was expected to be low due to the absence of circulation of the virus since the 80's and a compulsory notification of PED was set up in 2014. Here, we reported the first case of a PED outbreak in December 2014 in the North of France after a long absence of the disease, the monitoring of the excretion and the control measure implementation...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Elena Canelli, Alessia Catella, Paolo Borghetti, Luca Ferrari, Giulia Ogno, Elena De Angelis, Paolo Bonilauri, Stefano Guazzetti, Roberto Nardini, Paolo Martelli
PRRS is one of the main viral diseases in pig production, causing huge economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. The virus shows an intrinsic genomic instability and is able to change continuously, with the emergence of new strains, with different pathogenicity patterns. Commercially available vaccines only partially prevent or counteract the disease and the correlated losses. Moreover, the emergence of highly virulent and pathogenetic isolates represents a particular concern for PRRS control and diagnosis...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Laetitia Le Devendec, Eric Jouy, Frederic Paboeuf, Claire de Boisséson, Pierrick Lucas, Djamel Drider, Isabelle Kempf
Colistin-resistant Escherichia coli are isolated from pigs suffering from post-weaning diarrhea (PWD). This study was designed to develop an experimental model of PWD using mcr-1-carrying shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) or enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), for the future evaluation of control measures. Three groups of eight piglets, kept in high biosecurity units, were orally inoculated with mcr-1-positive STEC or ETEC, and one unchallenged group was used as a control. Clinical signs were recorded. Regularly-collected fecal samples and samples obtained from the digestive tract of animals sacrificed one month after inoculation were cultured in selective media and isolates were characterized...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Yu Liu, Shanshan Liu, Boning He, Tian Wang, Shangqi Zhao, Chenhua Wu, Shan Yue, Shixun Zhang, Mingrui He, Li Wang, Wenjing Huang, Tongrui Shi, Zhanbo Zhu
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important virus that can cause extensive economic losses in both dairy and beef industry worldwide. Acute infection with BVDV results in peripheral blood lymphopenia, apoptosis and immunosuppression. Up-regulated programmed death-1 (PD-1) expression induces functional exhaustion of lymphocytes, inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis of lymphocytes during acute and chronic viral infections, such as HIV and HCV. However, there are no reports showing the role of PD-1 in peripheral blood lymphopenia, apoptosis and immunosuppression after acute BVDV infection...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Jessica M Gilbertie, Lauren V Schnabel, Darko Stefanovski, Donna J Kelly, Megan E Jacob, Thomas P Schaer
Bacterial colonization of synovial structures can cause infections that are difficult to treat. Systemic and local antimicrobials and repeated joint lavages are the mainstays of therapy. However, despite aggressive treatments, infection may persist, leading to significant tissue damage or death of the patient. In order to investigate the impact of bacterial culture and antimicrobial resistance on survival to discharge, we reviewed medical records of horses admitted to the University of Pennsylvania's large animal teaching hospital from 2010-2015...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Dimos P Papatheodorou, Konstantia E Tasioudi, Laskarina-Maria Korou, Vasileios L Georgiou, Gerasimos Markantonatos, Peristera Iliadou, Aikaterini Kirtzalidou, Aggeliki Katsifa, Spyridon Ztrivas, Georgia Bechtsi, Myrsini Tzani, Eleni Chondrokouki, Olga Mangana-Vougiouka
Although juvenile red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are considered a single age group, essential for monitoring the effectiveness of the oral rabies vaccination (ORV), there appear to be significant differences among age subgroups. Herein, a subset of 335 foxes aged 0-1 year that had not consumed bait in previous campaign were collected for monitoring the effectiveness of the first seven ORV campaigns in Greece, carried out from 2013 to 2017. These juveniles were additionally assigned to three individual 4-month age groups, according to the exact date on which they were killed...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Chang-Yong Choi, Yong-Chan Choi, In-Byung Park, Chang-Hee Lee, Seok-Jin Kang, Taehoon Chun
Identifying the functional role of each porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) ORF associated with host cell modulation might provide better knowledge about the pathogenesis of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). PCV2 ORF5 was recently identified and the functional role of ORF5 during pathogenesis after PCV2 infection is largely unknown. In this study, we used RNA-seq to investigate the functional role of PCV2 ORF5 in PCV2-infected porcine epithelial cells. Our data demonstrates that PCV2 ORF5 could inhibit type I interferon (IFN) expression via transcriptional repression of genes involved in type I IFN production, thus enhancing replication of PCV2 in porcine epithelial cells...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Zsuzsa Kreizinger, Kinga M Sulyok, Katinka Bekő, Áron B Kovács, Dénes Grózner, Orsolya Felde, Szilvia Marton, Krisztián Bányai, Salvatore Catania, Dušan Benčina, Miklós Gyuranecz
Control of one of the most important avian mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma synoviae, and tracing the spread of the infection can be challenging as the pathogen is transmissible by both horizontal and vertical routes, and it can be disseminated through long distances via the hatching eggs, day-old chicks or pullets during intensive international trade. Genetic information provided by molecular typing methods support control programmes and epizootiologic studies. The aims of the present study were to develop a multi-locus variable number of tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) method for the typing of M...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Mark A O'Dea, Tanya Laird, Rebecca Abraham, David Jordan, Kittitat Lugsomya, Laura Fitt, Marcelo Gottschalk, Alec Truswell, Sam Abraham
Streptococcus suis is a major zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease in both humans and pigs. Australia's pig herd has been quarantined for over 30 years, however S. suis remains a significant cause of disease. In this study, we investigated S. suis from 148 cases of clinical disease in pigs from 46 pig herds over a period of seven years, to determine the level of genetic difference from international isolates that may have arisen over the 30 years of separation. Isolates underwent whole genome sequencing, genome analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Kuandyk Zhugunissov, Yerbol Bulatov, Dmitriy Taranov, Zakir Yershebulov, Zhumagali Koshemetov, Asankadyr Zhunushov, Gourapura J Renukaradhya, Kaissar Tabynov, Yergali Abduraimov
In this study, we developed and evaluated the beta-propiolactone inactivated bivalent bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes 4 and 16 vaccine delivered with Montanide™ ISA-71VG adjuvant. The safety, stability and immunological profile of the fresh and after three years of long-term storage of the vaccine formulation was analyzed. We observed after long-term storage that the vaccine emulsion was stable as indicated by unchanged pH and viscosity. The stored vaccine formulation induced virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) in sheep against both the bluetongue virus serotypes at 7-10 day post-vaccination (dpv)...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Min-Goo Seo, In-Ohk Ouh, Haeseung Lee, Paul John L Geraldino, Man Hee Rhee, Oh-Deog Kwon, Dongmi Kwak
Bovine anaplasmosis is a tick-borne, infectious, non-contagious disease caused by Anaplasma marginale, A. centrale, A. bovis, and zoonotic A. phagocytophilum. Recently, Anaplasma capra detected in goats was identified as a novel zoonotic pathogen. To determine whether A. capra can infect bovines, we used PCR to differentially diagnose Anaplasma spp. in 1219 South Korean cattle by performing multilocus gene typing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis detected the 16S rRNA gene of A...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Lin Li, Wenjing Wang, Ruiliang Zhang, Jun Xu, Rui Wang, Lei Wang, Xia Zhao, Jinnian Li
Salmonella are becoming increasingly resistant to fluoroquinolones (FQs), therefore determining the resistance mechanism is very important. Recent studies have shown that protein post-translational modifications (PTM) play a role in bacterial antibiotic resistance. One such type of PTM, lysine acetylation, is a reversible and highly regulated PTM which has been found to be associated with antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium and Acinetobacter species. Salmonella Typhimurium are major zoonotic pathogens, which are becoming increasingly resistant to FQs, the antibiotics of choice where therapy is indicated...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Matthew J Lott, Rhiannon L Moore, Natalie L Milic, Michelle Power, Catherine M Shilton, Sally R Isberg
The control of pathogens that target crocodilian skin is essential to the long-term success and sustainability of intensive farming operations worldwide. To understand the impact these pathogens may have on the skin, a brief overview of skin histology is given. A review of the known viral, bacterial, fungal and helminth taxa associated with skin conditions in commercially significant crocodilian species is presented. Best management practices are discussed, with an emphasis on addressing extrinsic factors that influence transmission and pathogenicity...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Dong-Jun An, Seong-In Lim, SeEun Choe, Ki-Sun Kim, Ra Mi Cha, In-Soo Cho, Jae-Young Song, Bang-Hun Hyun, Bong-Kyun Park
The 5' UTR (n=102) and full-length E2 (n=37) genes of classical swine fever viruses (CSFVs) circulating in South Korea over the past 30 years (1987-2017) were examined to determine the evolutionary rate and estimated time of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA). From 2000, the Korean classical swine fever (CSF) antigen changed from genotype 3 to 2, which comprises subgenotypes 2.1b (2002-2013) and 2.1d (2011-2017). There are genotypic variations in the full-length E2 gene of Korean CSFV genotypes 2.1b and 2...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Louise Ladefoged Poulsen, Magne Bisgaard, Steffen Lynge Jørgensen, Tommy Dideriksen, Jacob Roland Pedersen, Henrik Christensen
The aim of the study was to investigate cellulitis caused by Escherichia coli which has been responsible for economic and welfare problems in Danish broiler production between 2014 and 2016. The study included 13 flocks with unusually high condemnation rates due to cellulitis during a period of approximately one year. From six flocks, 126 condemned carcasses were collected at a Danish slaughterhouse. Further 272 broilers dead on their own were collected on nine broiler farms from flocks with increased mortality and cellulitis (2 farms included both birds from the rearing period and broilers subsequently condemned)...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Lenka Kavanová, Katarína Matiašková, Lenka Levá, Kateřina Nedbalcová, Ján Matiašovic, Martin Faldyna, Jiří Salát
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) predisposes pigs to secondary bacterial infection caused by Haemophilus parasuis. The aim of the present study was to analyse the immune response of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), serving as a model of macrophages accumulating at the site of inflammation. The second part of the study was focused on the role of IFNα in the production of inflammatory cytokines in co-infected MDMs. Concurrent infection with PRRSV and H. parasuis decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8) in MDMs in comparison with MDMs infected with PRRSV or H...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Xiaole Cui, Yanhong Ji, Zhengxiang Wang, Yingying Du, Haoran Guo, Liang Wang, Hualan Chen, Qiyun Zhu
Virulence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIV) is determined by multiple genes and their encoded proteins. In particular, the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of viruses is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in type I interferon (IFN) antagonism, pathogenicity, and determining viral host range. Naturally-occurring truncation or mutation of NS1 during virus evolution attenuates viral replication and pathogenicity, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Volker Schmidt, Linus Klasen, Juliane Schneider, Jens Hübel, Kerstin Cramer
In contrast to fungal dermatitis, fungal glossitis and disseminated visceral mycosis, fungal infection of the lung has so far rarely been described in reptiles. Pulmonary fungal granulomas were diagnosed histopathologically within the scope of post mortem examinations. Fragments of the 18S-internal transcribed spacer1-5.8S rDNA (SSU-ITS1-5.8S) and 28S rDNA (LSU), including domains (D)1 and D2 as well as the protein coding gene translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF) were used for phylogenetical analysis after isolation of the fungal pathogen by culturing...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Huixian Tong, Juxiang Liu, Xiaohui Yao, Haiyan Jia, Jianchao Wei, Donghua Shao, Ke Liu, Yafeng Qiu, Zhiyong Ma, Beibei Li
The mcr-1 gene is a plasmid-borne and globally distributed colistin-resistance gene, which threatens the last-line role of colistin in treatment of infections caused by multi-drug resistant(MDR) Gram-negative bacteria in humans. The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive understanding of mcr-1 prevalence in the pig industry in China. A total of 600 faecal samples were collected from 60 swine farms in 18 provinces of China. Faecal DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR screening to detect the presence of mcr-1...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
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