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Veterinary Microbiology

Douglas J Begg, Kumudika de Silva, Lyrissa Di Fiore, Deborah L Taylor, Katrina Bower, Ling Zhong, Satoko Kawaji, David Emery, Richard J Whittington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Andre Broes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Graham J Belsham, Anette Bøtner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Katja Hille, Mayala Felski, Inga Ruddat, Johanna Woydt, Annette Schmid, Anika Friese, Jennie Fischer, Hannah Sharp, Lars Valentin, Geovana Brenner Michael, Stefan Hörmansdorfer, Ute Messelhäußer, Uwe Seibt, Walther Honscha, Beatriz Guerra, Stefan Schwarz, Uwe Rösler, Annemarie Käsbohrer, Lothar Kreienbrock
Resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, including third-generation cephalosporins, is of major concern for animal and human health. In this study, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) / plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) β-lactamase -producing Escherichia coli isolates from German livestock farms were characterised and associations of these isolate characteristics with farm-related factors were investigated across different types of livestock. A total of 469 isolates originating from 150 farms (34 broiler farms, 38 fattening pig farms, 43 dairy cattle farms, 35 beef cattle farms) was included in the analyses...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Yixue Sun, Jing Qian, Xiaohong Xu, Yubo Tang, Wenzhang Xu, Wentao Yang, Yanlong Jiang, Guilian Yang, Zhuang Ding, Yanlong Cong, Chunfeng Wang
H9N2 avian influenza viruses are of significance in poultry and public health for the past two decades. Vaccination plays an important role in preventing the infection in domestic poultry. Current H9N2 vaccines have not yet offered ideal protection and eliminated shedding of G57 genotype viruses responsible for H9N2 outbreaks during 2010-2013. Targeted vaccination is a promising strategy to improve vaccine effectiveness. Such a vaccine strategy can be achieved if it is targeted to dendritic cells (DCs) that directly elicit mucosal and adaptive immune responses against microbe challenge...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Yun Bai, Yuan Gan, Li-Zhong Hua, Heiko Nathues, Hao Yang, Yan-Na Wei, Meng Wu, Guo-Qing Shao, Zhi-Xin Feng
In order to evaluate the sIgA-ELISA method reported previously for differentiating Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) infected from vaccinated pigs, dynamics of anti-M. hyopneumoniae secretory IgA (sIgA) antibody secretion in nasal mucus and IgG antibodies in serum from 10 pigs experimentally infected with M. hyopneumoniae or vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine were examined using sIgA-ELISA and a commercial M. hyopneumoniae antibody detection kit (IgG-ELISA), respectively. In addition, nasal swabs and serum samples from 2368 pigs of different ages originating from 10 pig farms with different M...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Kate A Worthing, James Brown, Laura Gerber, Darren J Trott, Sam Abraham, Jacqueline M Norris
This study investigated the transmission cycle of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in small companion animal veterinary practice. Sampling was undertaken at two small animal veterinary hospitals in Sydney, Australia. Samples were collected from 46 veterinary personnel, 79 personnel-owned dogs and cats, 151 clinically normal canine hospital admissions and 25 environmental sites. Nasal swabs were collected from veterinary personnel. Nasal, oral and perineal swabs were collected from animals...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Clémence Bourély, Claire Chauvin, Éric Jouy, Géraldine Cazeau, Nathalie Jarrige, Agnès Leblond, Émilie Gay
Categorized by WHO as critically important antibiotics, third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) are one of the latest therapeutic alternatives to fight severe infectious diseases in humans. Some antibiotics belonging to this class are prescribed to treat food-producing animals in specific pathological contexts. Preserving the effectiveness of 3GCs requires characterization and careful monitoring of 3GCs resistance and the identification and implementation of measures that can limit this antimicrobial resistance (AMR)...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Qiuchun Li, Xin Wang, Jie Xia, Yu Yuan, Chao Yin, Lijuan Xu, Yang Li, Xinan Jiao
Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum) is one of the host-restricted serotypes causing systemic infection in poultry. Survival in macrophages is one of the mechanisms underlying the persistent infection of S. Pullorum in hosts. Formation of Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) is essential for bacteria to be concealed in macrophages. In this study, confocal microscopy was applied to detect the SCV development by S. Pullorum in the chicken hepatocellular carcinoma cell line LMH and the macrophage cell line HD-11, respectively...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Andrea T Feßler, Angela R Schug, Franziska Geber, Anissa D Scholtzek, Roswitha Merle, Julian Brombach, Vivian Hensel, Marita Meurer, Geovana Brenner Michael, Mario Reinhardt, Stephanie Speck, Uwe Truyen, Stefan Schwarz
In comparison to biocide efficacy testing, biocide susceptibility testing of bacteria so far lacks standardized methods for routine use. The aims of the present study were to develop a broth macrodilution method to test bacterial pathogens for their biocide susceptibility and to evaluate this method in an interlaboratory trial. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 6538 was tested for its susceptibility to benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and isopropanol comparing test strain suspension preparations, test volumes and incubation times...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Marcha Badenhorst, Birthe Tegtmeyer, Daniel Todt, Alan Guthrie, Karsten Feige, Amely Campe, Eike Steinmann, Jessika M V Cavalleri
Since the discovery of equine hepacivirus (EqHV) in 2011, the virus has been detected in horse populations from more than twelve countries across five continents. EqHV seroprevalence has been reported to be as high as 61.8% and EqHV ribonucleic acid (RNA) prevalence to range between 0.9% and 34.1%. Molecular and serological indications of EqHV infection have never been reported in equids on the African continent. Therefore, investigation of EqHV prevalence in South African horses and subsequent viral genetic characterization contribute to a better understanding of the global epidemiology of this virus...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Gerald L Murray, Theeraya Simawaranon, Chamraj Kaewraemruaen, Ben Adler, Rasana W Sermswan
A previously-described live, attenuated vaccine (M1352, serovar Manilae, serogroup Pyrogenes) was tested in the hamster model of infection for cross-protective immunity. The vaccine elicited strong, significant cross-protection against lethal infection by strains representing four serologically distinct leptospiral serovars (Grippotyphosa, Australis, Canicola, and Autumnalis). Combined with our previously reported protection against serovars Pomona and Manilae, this work demonstrates unequivocal proof of concept for cross-protective immunity in leptospirosis...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Laura Huber, Steeve Giguère, Londa J Berghaus, Amanda Hanafi, Clare Ryan
Rhodococcus equi, a soil saprophyte, is a common cause of pneumonia in foals and a frequent opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed people. Because it is widespread in the environment, R. equi can be detected in the feces of most horses. However, the exact timing and rate of shedding relative to infection is unknown. The objectives of this study were to quantify shedding of R. equi in mares and foals after experimental infection of foals with 2 different inocula and to determine the effect of composting on concentrations of R...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Yujuan Niu, Qinqin Sun, Guihua Zhang, Xingpo Liu, Yingli Shang, Yihong Xiao, Sidang Liu
Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) is a hepatotrophic virus that causes severe liver diseases. Upon histological examination, the most remarkable findings in the liver are small multifocal areas of necrosis and mononuclear cell infiltration, including basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes surrounded by a clear halo or which fill the entire nucleus. Here, we examined the mechanism responsible for FAdV-4-mediated hepatocyte damage in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that FAdV-4 impaired liver integrity and function, which decreased albumin and blood glucose concentrations and increased the plasma activity of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, compared with a non-infected control group (P<0...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Mónica Reséndiz, Olivia Valenzuela, Jesús Hernández
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most important disease affecting the swine industry worldwide. Although monocytes and macrophages, especially tissue-resident and alveolar macrophages, are the primary target of PRRSV, monocyte- and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) are also susceptible to PRRSV infection. It has been shown that lung DCs cannot be infected with PRRSV, but the response and susceptibility of bona fide conventional DC subtypes (cDCs; cDC1 and cDC2) is unknown...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Cheng Peng, Guangyu Hou, Jinping Li, Suchun Wang, Yan Wang, Shanju Cheng, Xiaohui Yu, Jihui Jin, Wenming Jiang
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 and H7N9 viruses pose a serious challenge to public health and the poultry industry in China. In this study, we generated a chimeric H7/H5 recombinant virus that expressed the entire HA1 region of the HPAI A/chicken/Guangdong/RZ/2017(H7N9) virus and the HA2 region of the HPAI A/chicken/Fujian/5/2016(H5N6) viruses. The resulting chimeric PR8-H7/H5 virus exhibited similar growth kinetics as the parental PR8-H5 and PR8-H7 viruses in vitro. The inactivated chimeric PR8-H7/H5 vaccine induced specific, cross-reactive hemagglutination inhibition antibodies against the H7 virus only but induced serum-neutralizing antibodies against both H7 and H5 viruses...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Bryony Armson, Valerie Mioulet, Claudia Doel, Mikidache Madi, Satya Parida, Karissa A Lemire, Diane J Holder, Amaresh Das, Michael T McIntosh, Donald P King
This study aimed to evaluate the utility of milk as a non-invasive sample type for the surveillance of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hooved animals. Four milking Jersey cows were infected via direct-contact with two non-milking Jersey cows that had been previously inoculated with FMD virus (FMDV: isolate O/UKG/34/2001). Milk and blood were collected throughout the course of infection to compare two high-throughput real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) protocols with different RT-PCR chemistries...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Yan-Li Li, Laila Darwich, Enric Mateu
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is known to infect porcine dendritic cells (DC). Previous studies indicated that different PRRSV1 isolates regulated differently the cytokine profiles and expression of surface molecules of DC. However, the characterisation of the infection is lacking. The current study aimed to characterise the replication and attachment of different PRRSV1 isolates in bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC). For this purpose, immature (i) and mature (m) BMDC were infected with three PRRSV1 isolates...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Madjid Akkou, Coralie Bouchiat, Kenza Antri, Michèle Bes, Anne Tristan, Olivier Dauwalder, Patricia Martins-Simoes, Jean-Philippe Rasigade, Jérôme Etienne, François Vandenesch, Nadjia Ramdani-Bouguessa, Frédéric Laurent
Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and pathogen of both humans and bovines. While the epidemiology of both groups has been extensively studied individually, little is known about the potential zoonotic transfer from animal strains to human being and vice versa. To determine the S. aureus prevalence of bovine mastitis in Algeria and the zoonotic transfer of strains to human beings, mastitis milk samples were collected, and professionals in a close contact with bovines were nasal swabbed. S. aureus isolates were all characterized by methicillin resistance and spa-typing...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Maja Velhner, Dalibor Todorović, Edita Grego, Branko Jovčić, Bojana Prunić, Igor Stojanov, Corinna Kehrenberg
During the hunting season 2013-2014, fecal samples collected from hare, roe deer, deer and wild boars were sent to the bacteriology laboratory for the isolation of Escherichia coli and multidrug resistant isolates were characterized phenotypically and genotypically. Out of 106 fecal samples, E. coli was isolated from 101 samples. Although the majority of isolates belonged to phylogenetic groups A and B1, 14 out of 101 isolates were affiliated to group B2. A multidrug resistance phenotype was determined in 7 isolates, all of which had distinguishable genomic macrorestriction profiles...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
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