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Veterinary Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554869/pathogenicity-of-three-genetically-diverse-strains-of-prrsv-type-1-in-specific-pathogen-free-pigs
#1
Tomasz Stadejek, Lars E Larsen, Katarzyna Podgórska, Anette Bøtner, Sara Botti, Izabella Dolka, Michał Fabisiak, Peter M H Heegaard, Charlotte K Hjulsager, Tomasz Huć, Lise K Kvisgaard, Rafał Sapierzyński, Jens Nielsen
Studies from Eastern European countries proved that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Type 1 (PRRSV-1) harbours high genetic diversity and that genetically divergent subtypes 2-4 circulate in this area. In the present study, we compared the pathogenicity of two different PRRSV-1 subtype 2 strains and a strain representing PRRSV-1 subtype 1. Four groups of 8-week-old specific pathogen free pigs were either infected with subtype 2 strain ILI6, subtype 2 strain or BOR59, subtype 1 strain 18794, or mock inoculated...
May 16, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528961/gp5-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-as-a-target-for-homologous-and-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#2
REVIEW
Luca N Popescu, Benjamin R Trible, Nanhua Chen, Raymond R R Rowland
Virus neutralization (VN) responses range from narrowly focused antibodies with only homologous neutralizing activity against the virus used for infection, to antibodies that can neutralize both Type 1 and Type 2 viruses, referred to as broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb). Even though neutralizing epitopes are likely distributed among several structural glycoproteins, this paper focuses on the ectodomain region of GP5 as a model system for investigating the role for neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies in protection and disease...
April 29, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400145/vaccination-of-cattle-against-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus
#3
Benjamin W Newcomer, Manuel F Chamorro, Paul H Walz
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for significant losses to the cattle industry. Currently, modified-live viral (MLV) and inactivated viral vaccines are available against BVDV, often in combination with other viral and bacterial antigens. Inactivated and MLV vaccines provide cattle producers and veterinarians safe and efficacious options for herd immunization to limit disease associated with BVDV infection. Vaccination of young cattle against BVDV is motivated by prevention of clinical disease and limiting viral spread to susceptible animals...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377132/a-review-of-potential-bluetongue-virus-vaccine-strategies
#4
Christie Mayo, Justin Lee, Jennifer Kopanke, N James MacLachlan
Bluetongue (BT) is an economically important, non-zoonotic arboviral disease of certain wild and domestic species of cloven-hooved ungulates. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent and the occurrence of BTV infection is distinctly seasonal in temperate regions of the world, and dependent on the presence of vector biting midges (e.g. Culicoides sonorensis in much of North America). In recent years, severe outbreaks have occurred throughout Europe and BTV is endemic in most tropical and temperate regions of the world...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377131/bovine-herpesvirus-1-modified-live-virus-vaccines-for-cattle-reproduction-balancing-protection-with-undesired-effects
#5
Christopher C L Chase, Robert W Fulton, Donal O'Toole, Benjamin Gillette, Russell F Daly, George Perry, Travis Clement
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) has long been associated with reproductive failure in cattle following infection of the ovary and/or fetus. Vaccination prior to breeding has been an effective approach to lessen the impact of BoHV-1 on reproduction. Prior studies in the 1980s and 1990s established the susceptibility of the ovary and particularly the corpus luteum (CL) to BoHV-1 infection. A series of studies at breeding time established that: (1) in naïve animals, the CL was the major target of BoHV-1 pathology; (2) CL lesions occurred within 4-9 days after estrus; (3) similar lesions was seen with BoHV-1 MLV vaccines; (4) ovarian lesions varied by the vaccine strain used; (5) progesterone decreased with or without CL lesions; and (6) following reactivation of BoHV-1 latent infection, ovaries could become reinfected in the face of BoHV-1 immunity...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330692/preface
#6
EDITORIAL
Chang-Won Lee, Fernando A Osorio, Amelia R Woolums
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161212/advances-in-peste-des-petits-ruminants-vaccines
#7
Naveen Kumar, Sanjay Barua, Thachamvally Riyesh, Bhupendra N Tripathi
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants that leads to high morbidity and mortality thereby results in devastating economic consequences to the livestock industry. PPR is currently endemic across most parts of Asia and Africa, the two regions with the highest concentration of poor people in the world. Sheep and goats in particularly contribute significantly towards the upliftment of livelihood of the poor and marginal farmers in these regions. In this context, PPR directly affecting the viability of sheep and goat husbandry has emerged as a major hurdle in the development of these regions...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081857/vaccination-against-infectious-bronchitis-virus-a-continuous-challenge
#8
Brian Jordan
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a significant respiratory pathogen of commercial poultry that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue worldwide each year. Even though the poultry industry extensively vaccinates against IBV, emergence of new serotypes and variants continually occur, making control of the disease difficult. Current mass application strategies for IBV vaccines are inefficient and frequently result in vaccination failures. Novel vaccine technology development has been slow, and is hindered by the constraints of large-scale poultry production...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069290/classical-swine-fever-vaccines-state-of-the-art
#9
Sandra Blome, Claudia Moß, Ilona Reimann, Patricia König, Martin Beer
Due to its impact on animal health and pig industry, classical swine fever (CSF) is still one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. To control the disease, safe and highly efficacious live attenuated vaccines exist for decades. These vaccines have usually outstanding efficacy and safety but lack differentiability of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA or marker strategy). In contrast, the first generation of E2 subunit marker vaccines shows constraints in efficacy, application, and production. To overcome these limitations, new generations of marker vaccines are developed...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057380/current-and-future-vaccines-and-vaccination-strategies-against-infectious-laryngotracheitis-ilt-respiratory-disease-of-poultry
#10
Maricarmen García
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important respiratory disease of poultry that affects the industry worldwide. Vaccination is the principal tool in the control of the disease. Two types of vaccines, live attenuated and recombinant viral vector, are commercially available. The first generation of GaHV-1 vaccines available since the early 1960's are live viruses, attenuated by continuous passages in cell culture or embryos. These vaccines significantly reduce mortalities and, in particular, the chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines have shown to limit outbreaks of the disease...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040311/foot-and-mouth-disease-vaccines
#11
Fayna Diaz-San Segundo, Gisselle N Medina, Carolina Stenfeldt, Jonathan Arzt, Teresa de Los Santos
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease affects many areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible. In countries where food and farm animals are essential for subsistence agriculture, outbreaks of FMD seriously impact food security and development. In highly industrialized developed nations, FMD endemics cause economic and social devastation mainly due to observance of health measures adopted from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038868/marek-s-disease-vaccines-current-status-and-strategies-for-improvement-and-development-of-vector-vaccines
#12
Sanjay M Reddy, Yoshihiro Izumiya, Blanca Lupiani
Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative viral disease of chickens, which has been controlled through vaccination since 1969. MD vaccines protect against tumors but do not provide sterilizing immunity, and thus it is generally believed that their use has contributed to increase virulence of field strains with the ability to cause MD in vaccinated chickens. Traditional methods of developing vaccines, like cell culture attenuation, have proved unsuccessful for the development of improved vaccines to protect against highly virulent MD virus (MDV) field strains...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024856/newcastle-disease-vaccines-a-solved-problem-or-a-continuous-challenge
#13
Kiril M Dimitrov, Claudio L Afonso, Qingzhong Yu, Patti J Miller
Newcastle disease (ND) has been defined by the World Organisation for Animal Health as infection of poultry with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Lesions affecting the neurological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive systems are most often observed. The control of ND must include strict biosecurity that prevents virulent NDV from contacting poultry, and also proper administration of efficacious vaccines. When administered correctly to healthy birds, ND vaccines formulated with NDV of low virulence or viral-vectored vaccines that express the NDV fusion protein are able to prevent clinical disease and mortality in chickens upon infection with virulent NDV...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024855/current-limitations-in-control-of-viral-arthritis-and-tenosynovitis-caused-by-avian-reoviruses-in-commercial-poultry
#14
Holly S Sellers
Avian reoviruses are the causative agent of viral arthritis/tenosynovitis in chickens and turkeys. Clinical signs of disease include swelling of the hock joints accompanied by lesions in the gastrocnemius and digital flexor tendons causing lameness in addition to hydropericardium. The economic impact is significant as it results in poor weight gain, increased feed conversion ratios and condemnations at the processing plant. Vaccination with both live attenuated and inactivated oil emulsion vaccines have been used successfully for decades to control the disease...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024854/how-efficacious-are-vaccines-against-bovine-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-cattle
#15
John A Ellis
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a paramyxovirus that is the major cause of pneumonia in calves. Vaccines for this important pathogen have been available since the late 1970's. This review is a critical assessment of the literature including, experimental challenge studies and field trials, that address the efficacy of commonly used vaccines to control respiratory disease caused by BRSV.
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964998/vaccines-for-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-and-other-swine-coronaviruses
#16
Volker Gerdts, Alexander Zakhartchouk
The recent introduction of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) into the North American swine herd has highlighted again the need for effective vaccines for swine coronaviruses. While vaccines for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) have been available to producers around the world for a long time, effective vaccines for PEDV and deltacoronaviruses were only recently developed or are still in development. Here, we review existing vaccine technologies for swine coronaviruses and highlight promising technologies which may help to control these important viruses in the future...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923501/influenza-a-virus-vaccines-for-swine
#17
Amy L Vincent, Daniel R Perez, Daniela Rajao, Tavis K Anderson, Eugenio J Abente, Rasna R Walia, Nicola S Lewis
Economic losses due to influenza A virus (IAV) infections are substantial and a global problem, ranking among the top three major health challenges in the swine industry. Currently, H1 and H3 subtypes circulate in pigs globally associated with different combinations of N1 and N2 subtypes; however, the origin, gene constellation, and antigenic makeup of IAV vary greatly on different continents. Vaccination is one means of mitigating the effects of IAV disease, and vaccines are most effective if the strains included closely match the currently circulating strains in pigs...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916319/recombinant-viral-vectored-vaccines-for-the-control-of-avian-influenza-in-poultry
#18
David L Suarez, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood
Vaccination is a commonly used tool for the control of both low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) viruses. Traditionally, inactivated adjuvanted vaccines made from a low pathogenic field strain have been used for vaccination, but advances in molecular biology have allowed a number of different viral vectored vaccines, expressing the AI virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene, to be developed and licensed for use for control of AI. This review summarizes the licensed vector vaccines available for use in poultry...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916318/advances-in-vaccine-research-against-economically-important-viral-diseases-of-food-animals-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#19
Daral J Jackwood
Numerous reviews have been published on infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Many high quality vaccines are commercially available for the control of IBD that, when used correctly, provide solid protection against infection and disease caused by IBDV. Viruses are not static however; they continue to evolve and vaccines need to keep pace with them. The evolution of IBDV has resulted in very virulent strains and new antigenic types of the virus. This review will discuss some of the limitations associated with existing vaccines, potential solutions to these problems and advances in new vaccines for the control of IBD...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890448/vaccines-against-pseudorabies-virus-prv
#20
C M Freuling, T F Müller, T C Mettenleiter
Aujeszkýs disease (AD, pseudorabies) is a notifiable herpesvirus infection of pigs causing substantial economic losses to swine producers. AD in pigs is controlled by the use of vaccination with inactivated and attenuated live vaccines. Starting with classically attenuated live vaccines derived from low virulent field isolates, AD vaccination has pioneered novel strategies in animal disease control by the first use of genetically engineered live virus vaccines lacking virulence-determining genes, and the concept of DIVA, i...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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