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Veterinary Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126749/corrigendum-to-efficacy-of-e2-glycoprotein-fused-to-porcine-cd154-as-a-novel-chimeric-subunit-vaccine-to-prevent-classical-swine-fever-virus-vertical-transmission-in-pregnant-sows
#1
Sara Muñoz-González, Yusmel Sordo, Marta Pérez-Simó, Marisela Suarez, Albert Canturri, Maria Pilar Rodriguez, María Teresa Frías-Lepoureau, Mariano Domingo, Mario Pablo Estrada, Llilianne Ganges
Here we evaluated the effect of double vaccination with a novel subunit marker vaccine candidate based in the CSFV E2 glycoprotein fused to the porcine CD154 to prevent CSFV vertical transmission. A lentivirus-based gene delivery system was used to obtain a stable recombinant HEK 293 cell line for the expression of E2 fused to porcine CD154 molecule. Six pregnant sows were distributed in two groups and at 64days of gestation animals numbered 1-4 (group 1) were vaccinated via intramuscular inoculation with 50μg of E2-CD154 subunit vaccine...
November 7, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102127/transmission-of-african-swine-fever-virus-from-infected-pigs-by-direct-contact-and-aerosol-routes
#2
Ann Sofie Olesen, Louise Lohse, Anette Boklund, Tariq Halasa, Carmina Gallardo, Zygmunt Pejsak, Graham J Belsham, Thomas Bruun Rasmussen, Anette Bøtner
In 2014, African swine fever virus (ASFV) was introduced into the Baltic states and Poland. Since then, the disease has continued to spread within these regions, and recently, cases were reported in the Czech Republic and Romania. Currently, there is an increasing risk of ASFV introduction into Western Europe. Hence, there is an urgent need to assess current contingency plans. For this purpose, knowledge of modes-of-transmission and clinical outcome in pigs infected with new European ASFV strains is needed...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102126/development-of-cdv-specific-monoclonal-antibodies-for-differentiation-of-variable-epitopes-of-nucleocapsid-protein
#3
Zhenwei Bi, Yongshan Wang, Qunxing Pan, Xingxia Xia, Libo Xu
The highly contagious canine distemper viruses (CDVs) are still a major threat to a wide range of natural susceptible hosts. The nucleocapsid (N) protein plays various roles in the virus-induced immune response. But precise mapping of epitopes and antigenic variations in N protein of CDV are still scant. In this study, two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated as F8N and G3N, against the N protein of CDV were generated and characterized. The epitopes recognized by the two MAbs were mapped by truncated N protein fragments expressed in E...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102125/genetic-and-biological-characterization-of-a-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-2-prrsv-2-causing-significant-clinical-disease-in-the-field
#4
L K Kvisgaard, L E Larsen, C K Hjulsager, A Bøtner, P H Rathkjen, P M H Heegaard, N P Bisgaard, J Nielsen, M S Hansen
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is the cause of severe reproductive and respiratory disease in swine worldwide. In Denmark, both PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 are circulating and approximately 35% of pig herds are seropositive for PRRSV. In November 2010, a pig herd in the Northern part of Denmark experienced an infection with PRRSV-2 with clinical signs that were much more severe than normally reported from current Danish PRRSV-2 affected herds. Due to the clinical observations of reproductive failure in sows and high mortality in piglets, it was speculated that a new, more pathogenic or vaccine evading PRRSV strain had emerged in Denmark...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102124/transparent-tiger-barb-puntius-tetrazona-a-fish-model-for-in-vivo-analysis-of-nocardial-infection
#5
F Wang, X G Wang, C Liu, O Q Chang, Y Y Feng, L Jiang, K B Li
Nocardiosis afflicts multiple species of cultured fish, resulting in substantial economic losses to the aquaculture industry, however, lack of detailed knowledge on disease pathogenesis has hampered the development of effective prevention and control strategies. In this study, we injected a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled Nocardia seriolae strain into a transparent mutant strain of Tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona) to monitor tissue pathogen accumulation and tissue damage in vivo, and to clarify the relationship between pathogenic processes and overt symptoms...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102123/convergence-of-plasmid-architectures-drives-emergence-of-multi-drug-resistance-in-a-clonally-diverse-escherichia-coli-population-from-a-veterinary-clinical-care-setting
#6
Sam Wagner, Nadejda Lupolova, David L Gally, Sally A Argyle
The purpose of this study was to determine the plasmid architecture and context of resistance genes in multi-drug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infections in dogs. Illumina and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing were applied to assemble the complete genomes of E. coli strains associated with clinical urinary tract infections, which were either phenotypically MDR or drug susceptible. This revealed that multiple distinct families of plasmids were associated with building an MDR phenotype...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102122/effects-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-infection-on-nursery-pig-intestinal-function-and-barrier-integrity
#7
S M Curry, K J Schwartz, K J Yoon, N K Gabler, E R Burrough
The pig intestinal epithelium can be compromised by pathogens leading to reduced integrity and function. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), recently detected in North America, exemplifies intestinal epithelial insult. Although several studies have investigated the molecular aspects and host immune response to PEDV, there are little data on the impact of PEDV on pig intestinal physiology. The objective of this study was to investigate the longitudinal impact of PEDV on nursery pig intestinal function and integrity...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102121/porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-envelope-e-protein-interacts-with-tubulin
#8
Maodong Zhang, Alexander Zakhartchouk
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) encodes the small envelope (E) protein which is a minor structural component of the virion that is important for virus infectivity. To better understand the biological functions of the E protein, we studied interactions between E and PRRSV cellular proteins. Using immunoprecipitation-coupled mass spectrometry approach, we previously identified tubulin-α as an interacting partner of E. In this study, we confirmed this interaction using co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization assays...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102120/antimicrobial-resistance-in-clinical-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-companion-animals-in-australia
#9
Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Tahlia Mitchell, Hui San Wong, Rebecca J Abraham, Amanda Kidsley, John Turnidge, Darren J Trott, Sam Abraham
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli have become a major public health concern to both humans and animal health. While the frequency of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in clinical E. coli is monitored regularly in human medicine, current frequency of AMR in companion animals remains unknown in Australia. In this study we conducted antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and where possible, determined potential risk factors for MDR infection among 883 clinical Escherichia coli isolated from dogs (n=514), cats (n=341) and horses (n=28)...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102119/rig-1-and-mda-5-signaling-pathways-contribute-to-ifn-%C3%AE-production-and-viral-replication-in-porcine-circovirus-virus-type-2-infected-pk-15-cells-in-vitro
#10
Bei Huang, Jiansheng Li, Xinchen Zhang, Qiling Zhao, Mingqing Lu, Yingjun Lv
Type I Interferons (IFNs) is known for its antiviral activity; however, it is surprising that in vitro treatment of IFN-α and IFN-γ enhanced the replication of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), indicating a complex relationship between interferon and PCV2. To date, it remains poorly understood how the interferon is produced during PCV2 infection and whether the interferon induced by PCV2 itself can promote viral replication. In this study, PCV2 induced the up-regulation of IFN-β in PK-15 cells, while treatment of PCV2-infected cells with the interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF3) inhibitor, BX795, decreased the expression of IFN-β, whereas treatment with the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) inhibitor, BAY11-7082, did not...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102118/impact-of-poxvirus-lesions-on-saltwater-crocodile-crocodylus-porosus-skins
#11
Rhiannon L Moore, Sally R Isberg, Cathy M Shilton, Natalie L Milic
Cutaneous poxvirus infections are common in several crocodilian species and are of importance in crocodile farming due to their potential impact on the tanned hide. To confirm poxvirus infection and understand the impact on saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) skin, fourteen animals from different age groups (five hatchlings, five yearlings and four grow-outs) were selected based on a criterion of ten poxvirus-like lesions per animal. One lesion on each animal was extruded for genetic analysis and transmission electron microscopy...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102117/genetic-and-pathogenic-characterization-of-a-russian-subtype-2-prrsv-1-isolate
#12
Anton G Yuzhakov, Sergei A Raev, Andrei N Skrylev, Alexander M Mishin, Tatiana V Grebennikova, Oleg A Verkhovsky, Alexei D Zaberezhny, Ivan Trus, Hans J Nauwynck, Taras I Aliper
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure and respiratory problems. Data about the virulence and pathogenicity of subtype 2 PRRSV-1 strains are limited. The main purposes of this investigation were to characterize the full genome sequence of the subtype 2 PRRSV-1 WestSib13 strain and to compare the pathogenicity with that of the subtype 1 PRRSV-1 Lelystad strain. Comparison of the whole genome sequence of the WestSib13 strain with that of PRRSV-1 prototype strains revealed a 76...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102116/secretion-of-the-shiga-toxin-b-subunit-stx1b-via-an-autotransporter-protein-optimizes-the-protective-immune-response-to-the-antigen-expressed-in-an-attenuated-e-coli-repec-e22%C3%AE-ler-vaccine-strain
#13
Wyatt Byrd, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, Prashanth Setty, Chengru Zhu, Edgar C Boedeker
We previously developed attenuated rabbit enteropathogenic E. coli (rEPEC) strains which are effective oral vaccines against their parent pathogens by deleting ler, a global regulator of virulence genes. To use these strains as orally administered vectors to deliver other antigens we incorporated the B subunit of shiga-like toxin 1(Stx1) into the passenger domain of the autotransporter EspP expressed on a plasmid. Native EspP enters the periplasm where its passenger domain is exported to the bacterial surface through an outer membrane channel formed by its translocator domain, then cleaved and secreted...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102115/molecular-epidemiology-of-swine-influenza-a-viruses-in-the-southeastern-united-states-highlights-regional-differences-in-circulating-strains
#14
Constantinos S Kyriakis, Ming Zhang, Stefan Wolf, Les P Jones, Byoung-Shik Shim, Anna H Chocallo, Jarod M Hanson, MingRui Jia, Dong Liu, Ralph A Tripp
Swine influenza A virus (IAV) can cause widespread respiratory disease with high morbidity, low mortality, and have a substantial economic impact to the swine industry. Swine infection may contribute to pandemic IAV given their susceptibility to both avian and human IAVs. Currently, three IAV subtypes (H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2) circulate in swine in North America frequently combining gene segments from avian or human viruses. This study investigated the prevalence of IAV in commercial swine herds. A total of 1878 oral fluid samples were collected from pigs of all ages from 201 commercial farms located in North Carolina and South Carolina...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102114/in-vivo-probiotic-and-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-as-alternative-therapies-against-cryptococcosis-are-ineffective
#15
Lorena Vívien Neves de Oliveira, Rafael Wesley Bastos, Noelly de Queiroz Ribeiro, Marliete Carvalho Costa, Leonardo Borges Acurcio, Karen Maia Rocha, Julliana Ribeiro Alves Santos, Rosana de Carvalho Cruz, Betânia Maria Soares, Daniel Assis Santos
Cryptococcosis, an invasive fungal infection distributed worldwide that affects both domestic and wild animals, has incredible rates regarding treatment failure, leading to the necessity of the development of new therapies. In this way, we aimed to evaluate the probiotic (Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus paracasei ST-11, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) and antimicrobial photodynamic alternative therapies against Cryptococcus gattii in a murine model. Although previous studies suggest that these therapies can be promising against cryptococcosis, our experimental conditions for both probiotic and antimicrobial photodynamic therapies (aPDT) were not able to improve the survival of mice with cryptococcosis, even with the treatment combined with fluconazole...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102113/different-activated-methyl-cycle-pathways-affect-the-pathogenicity-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#16
Da Xu, Jiakun Zuo, Zhaoguo Chen, Xiaolong Lv, Jiangang Hu, Xiaoka Wu, Kezong Qi, Rongsheng Mi, Yan Huang, Jingfeng Miao, Wei Jiang, Shaohui Wang, Chengming Wang, Xiangan Han
The activated methyl cycle (AMC) regulates the cellular levels of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) in bacteria, which plays a crucial role in bacterial pathogenicity. There are two AMC pathways in bacteria: one is a two-step reaction pathway (named the LuxS/Pfs pathway) in which LuxS and Pfs catalyze the conversion of SAH to l-homocysteine and autoinducer-2 (AI-2), and the other is a one-step reaction (named the SahH pathway) mediated by S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SahH), which completes this cycle without producing AI-2...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102112/refinement-of-the-equine-influenza-model-in-the-natural-host-a-meta-analysis-to-determine-the-benefits-of-individual-nebulisation-for-experimental-infection-and-vaccine-evaluation-in-the-face-of-decreased-strain-pathogenicity
#17
Dion Garrett, Fernando Montesso, Stéphanie Fougerolle, Maria R Lopez-Alvarez, Ilhan Birand, Manuelle De Bock, Chengjin M Huang, Loïc Legrand, Stéphane Pronost, Romain Paillot
Equine Influenza (EI) is an important respiratory disease of horses caused by H3N8 equine influenza viruses (EIV). Vaccination is a key strategy to prevent or control this disease. However, EIV undergoes continuous antigenic drift and whilst numerous EI vaccines are commercially available worldwide, an accurate evaluation of their efficacy is frequently required through clinical trials conducted in the natural host. Room nebulisation is one of the chosen methods to challenge horses during EI vaccine studies...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102111/discovery-of-a-novel-swine-enteric-alphacoronavirus-seacov-in-southern-china
#18
Yongfei Pan, Xiaoyan Tian, Pan Qin, Bin Wang, Pengwei Zhao, Yong-Le Yang, Lianxiang Wang, Dongdong Wang, Yanhua Song, Xiangbin Zhang, Yao-Wei Huang
Outbreaks of diarrhea in newborn piglets without detection of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), have been recorded in a pig farm in southern China since February 2017. Isolation and propagation of the pathogen in cell culture resulted in discovery of a novel swine enteric alphacoronavirus (tentatively named SeACoV) related to the bat coronavirus HKU2 identified in the same region a decade ago. Specific fluorescence signal was detected in Vero cells infected with SeACoV by using a positive sow serum collected in the same farm, but not by using TGEV-, PEDV- or PDCoV-specific antibody...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102110/fetopathic-effects-of-experimental-schmallenberg-virus-infection-in-pregnant-goats
#19
Eve Laloy, Emmanuel Bréard, Sascha Trapp, Nathalie Pozzi, Mickaël Riou, Céline Barc, Sylvain Breton, Rémi Delaunay, Nathalie Cordonnier, Sophie Chateau-Joubert, Didier Crochet, Julie Gouzil, Typhaine Hébert, Maxime Raimbourg, Cyril Viarouge, Damien Vitour, Benoît Durand, Claire Ponsart, Stéphan Zientara
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging virus responsible for congenital malformations in the offspring of domestic ruminants. It is speculated that infection of pregnant dams may also lead to a significant number of unrecognized fetal losses during the early period of gestation. To assess the pathogenic effects of SBV infection of goats in early pregnancy, we inoculated dams at day 28 or 42 of gestation and followed the animals until day 55 of gestation. Viremia in the absence of clinical signs was detected in all virus-inoculated goats...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102109/molecular-resistance-mechanisms-of-mycoplasma-agalactiae-to-macrolides-and-lincomycin
#20
Miranda Prats-van der Ham, Juan Tatay-Dualde, Christian de la Fe, Ana Paterna, Antonio Sánchez, Juan Carlos Corrales, Antonio Contreras, Ángel Gómez-Martín
The extensive use of antimicrobials for disease control has caused a remarkable decrease in antimicrobial susceptibility of different animal mycoplasma species, including Mycoplasma agalactiae (M. agalactiae), the main causative agent of contagious agalactia. However, the molecular mechanisms behind M. agalactiae resistance to macrolides and lincomycin have not yet been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of different antimicrobials and mutations in the 23S rRNA gene and ribosomal proteins L4 and L22, analysing both field isolates (n=50) and in vitro selected resistant mutants of M...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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