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Journal of Analytical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395272/tobacco-use-classification-by-inexpensive-urinary-cotinine-immunoassay-test-strips
#1
Honest Achilihu, June Feng, Lanqing Wang, John T Bernert
Urinary cotinine is one of the most commonly measured biomarkers reflecting recent exposure to nicotine. In some cases a simple qualitative dichotomization of smokers and non-smokers is all that is required. NicAlert® test strips have been evaluated for this purpose, but other recently introduced, inexpensive single-line test strips have not. In this study we evaluated two such strips with nominal cutoffs of 200 and 10 ng/mL. A total of 800 urine samples with known cotinine concentrations determined by an LC-MS-MS method were examined, including 400 urine samples ranging from 0...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395206/development-of-a-reliable-method-for-assessing-coca-alkaloids-in-oral-fluid-by-hplc-ms-ms
#2
Nelida Cristina Rubio, Pilar Bermejo-Barrera, Ana Maria Bermejo, Antonio Moreda-Piñeiro
A reliable method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the assessment of coca alkaloids/metabolites [cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), cocaethylene (CE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME), tropococaine (TRO), transcinnamoylcocaine (trCIN), cuscohygrine (CUS) and hygrine (HYG)] in oral fluid samples from cocaine abusers and from coca leaves consumers (coca leaves chewers and coca tea drinkers). Oral fluid samples were collected by the passive drool technique (spitting), and after centrifugation the supernatant was treated for protein removal by adding acidified acetonitrile...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30371866/total-blood-carbon-monoxide-alternative-to-carboxyhemoglobin-as-biological-marker-for-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-determination
#3
S Oliverio, V Varlet
As one of the most abundant toxic contaminants in the atmosphere, carbon monoxide (CO) plays a significant role in toxicology and public health. Every year, around half of the accidental non-fire-related poisoning deaths are attributed to CO in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, due to the non-specificity of the symptoms and often encountered inconsistency of these with the results obtained from measurements of the biomarker for CO poisonings, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), there is a high rate of misdiagnoses...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30365028/a-fatal-case-involving-n-ethyldeschloroketamine-2-oxo-pce-and-venlafaxine
#4
Nadine Theofel, Philipp Möller, Elke Vejmelka, Kerstin Kastner, Sonja Roscher, Stefan Scholtis, Michael Tsokos
Methoxetamine, 3-methoxyphencyclidine or 3-methoxyeticyclidine are arylcyclohexylamines which have been abused in the past. However, the market for new psychoactive substances, in particular for research chemicals, is rapidly growing and new compounds are being regularly explored by users. Abuse can lead to clinical case and in the worst-case scenario to fatalities. We present the fatal case of a 52-year-old man, who was found dead in the bedroom by his fiancé. He had abused N-ethyldeschloroketamine and venlafaxine prior to his death...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30364974/the-application-of-a-single-column-gc-ms-ms-method-for-the-rapid-analysis-of-chemical-warfare-agents-and-breakdown-products
#5
Sheena A Young, Benedict R Capacio
The development of one comprehensive gas chromatographic-triple quadrupole mass spectrometric (GC-MS-MS) method for the analysis of nerve agents and their breakdown products can pose a challenge due to significant differences in analyte volatility. Nerve agent breakdown products typically have a low volatility, requiring a derivatization step prior to analysis by gas chromatography (GC). However, nerve agent parent compounds are generally more volatile, which eliminates the need for derivatization and allows for direct analysis...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30364943/corrigendum-to-case-reports-of-fatalities-involving-tianeptine-in-the-united-states
#6
Erica L Bakota, Warren C Samms, Teresa R Gray, Deanna A Oleske, Merrill O Hines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307505/characterization-of-bromethalin-and-its-degradation-products-in-veterinary-toxicology-samples-by-gc-ms-ms
#7
Andreas Lehner, Mark Bokhart, Margaret Johnson, John Buchweitz
Bromethalin is a neurotoxicant with unusual instability and chromatographic behavior that make it difficult to analyze by gas chromatography (GC) in forensic examination of non-target animal deaths. Physicochemical breakdown of bromethalin produced multiple unique products with discernible mass spectra. This paper describes an investigation of the GC electron impact-mass spectrometric properties of bromethalin and its capacity to generate up to twenty heat- or light-induced breakdown products. Two principal breakdown products are isomeric with one another and involve release of both fluorine and methyl groups to develop dehydrofluorodesmethylbromethalin products...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295910/resorcylic-acid-lactones-in-urine-samples-of-croatian-farm-animals
#8
A Vulic, T Lešic, N Kudumija, T Mikuš, J Pleadin
Metabolic transformation of zearalenone (ZEA), a mycotoxin which can contaminate both food and feed, results in the formation of five metabolites, one of them being zeranol (α-ZAL), which can be abused in farm animals as a growth promoter. To the best of our knowledge, there is no analytical method that can distinguish whether α-ZAL is present in an animal urine sample as a result of ZEA biotransformation or as a result of anabolic abuse. This study aimed at monitoring resorcylic acid lactones (RALs) concentration in urine of farm animals over several years...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295858/a-gas-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry-assay-for-the-quantification-of-opiates-in-human-blood-samples
#9
Mohammad Ali Al Saad, Ali Mohammad Abu-Rumman, Khaled Masoud Mohamed
A simplified protein precipitation method in combination with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) analysis was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine (6-MAM), hydrocodone and hydromorphone in human blood samples. A protein precipitation with 10% trichloroacetic acid followed by solid-phase extraction using a mixed-mode cartridge was used to separate the analyte from the blood samples. A BSTFA + 1% TMCS was used for derivatization of opiates prior to the analysis...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295849/simultaneous-detection-and-quantification-of-three-novel-prescription-drugs-of-abuse-suvorexant-lorcaserin-and-brivaracetam-in-human-plasma-by-uplc-ms-ms
#10
Muzaffar Iqbal, Nasr Y Khalil, Essam Ezzeldin, Khalid A Al-Rashood
Suvorexant (SVR), lorcaserin (LCR) and brivaracetam (BVR) have been recently approved for the treatment of insomnia, obesity and epilepsy, respectively. Despite their clinical uses, these drugs have some abuse potential and have been enlisted under the schedule IV (SVR, LVR) and schedule V (BVR) categories of the Controlled Substances Act. A sensitive UPLC-MS-MS assay was developed for simultaneously determining SVR, LCR and BVR in human plasma. The liquid-liquid extraction method, using tert-butyl methyl ether as an extracting solvent, was used for sample preparation...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295842/separation-and-identification-of-isomeric-and-structurally-related-synthetic-cannabinoids-using-2d-liquid-chromatography-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#11
Melanie N Eckberg, Luis E Arroyo-Mora, Dwight R Stoll, Anthony P DeCaprio
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are emerging drugs of abuse that are variations of existing compounds intended to cause a CNS psychotropic effect. Some NPS are so comparable in structure and physicochemical properties that they co-elute using traditional single column chromatographic techniques and therefore will not be detected as individual compounds. 2D liquid chromatography (2D-LC) has demonstrated applicability in difficult separations of small molecules and compounds in complex mixtures. It was hypothesized that this technique could also be used to separate co-eluting isomeric and structurally related, non-isomeric NPS, including synthetic cannabinoids (SC)...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295840/bioaccessibility-of-drug-residues-on-common-police-station-work-surfaces
#12
Gregory S Doran, Julia A Howitt
The fraction of any surface-adsorbed contaminant available for absorption is considered the bioaccessible fraction. Applied previously to contaminants such as pesticides and heavy metals on surfaces such as soil, food and cosmetics, the term may also be used to describe the fraction of drug residue bound to work surfaces which may be mobilized via contact transfer with human skin. Police station work surfaces have been shown to commonly contain low levels of drug residues as thin films; however, no information is available on how readily these residues may be transferred to human skin during direct or glancing contact...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295817/a-wolf-in-sheep-s-clothing
#13
Wenche Rødseth Brede, Hege-Merete Krabseth, Lisbeth Solem Michelsen, Harald Aarset, John-Petter Jamt, Lars Slørdal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295809/detection-of-drugs-in-simultaneously-collected-samples-of-oral-fluid-and-blood
#14
Eirin Bakke, Gudrun Høiseth, Marianne Arnestad, Hallvard Gjerde
Simultaneously collected samples of oral fluid and blood in a naturalistic setting could provide a qualitative impression of the relative detection times of drugs in oral fluid compared to blood. The aim of this study was to compare detections of different drugs in oral fluid and blood from a large material of paired samples. The study included results from 930 paired oral fluid and blood samples collected from drivers suspected for driving under the influence of drugs. Oral fluid was collected using the Intercept device...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272233/fully-automated-forensic-routine-dried-blood-spot-screening-for-workplace-testing
#15
Stefan Gaugler, Maha K Al-Mazroua, Sahar Y Issa, Jana Rykl, Matthias Grill, Asem Qanair, Vicente L Cebolla
In this study, we describe the transfer of a new and fully automated workflow for the cost-effective drug screening of large populations based on the dried blood spot (DBS) technology. The method was installed at a routine poison control center and applied for DBS and dried urine spot (DUS) samples. A fast method focusing on the high-interest drugs and an extended screening method were developed on the automated platform. The dried cards were integrated into the automated workflow, in which the cards were checked in a camera recognition system, spiked with deuterated standards via an in-built spraying module and directly extracted...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272189/drug-screening-using-the-sweat-of-a-fingerprint-lateral-flow-detection-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-cocaine-opiates-and-amphetamine
#16
Mark Hudson, Tanya Stuchinskaya, Smita Ramma, Jalpa Patel, Claudia Sievers, Stephan Goetz, Selina Hines, Eleanor Menzies, David A Russell
Here, we describe the use of a fluorescence based lateral flow competition assay for the screening of four classes of drugs, viz, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cocaine (through the detection of benzoylecgonine, BZE), opiates (through the detection of morphine, MOR) and amphetamine (AMP) present in the sweat of a fingerprint. The Drug Screening Cartridge was specifically developed for fingerprint sample collection and analysis. For this study, the cut-offs were set at: 190, 90, 68 and 80 pg/fingerprint for THC, BZE, MOR and AMP, respectively...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272183/systematic-evaluation-and-validation-of-benzodiazepines-confirmation-assay-using-lc-ms-ms
#17
Miau-Guo Kang, Huei-Ru Lin
Benzodiazepines is a large drug group used extensively to treat sleep disorders and anxiety; these drugs are frequently associated with various crimes such as murder and drug-facilitated sexual assault. With growing use and misuse of these compounds, confirmatory assays are increasingly required in clinical laboratories. In this study, 4 β-glucuronidase enzymes were systematically evaluated for their hydrolysis efficiencies. Additionally, the matrix effects and extraction recoveries of three protein precipitation plates were systematically evaluated...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272174/driving-under-the-influence-of-drugs-when-the-law-misses-the-mark
#18
Nicholas B Tiscione, Ilene K Alford, Russell Miller, Xiaoqin Shan, Dustin Tate Yeatman
According to Florida law, an individual is not guilty of driving under the influence of drugs unless impairment is observed and is due to one or more controlled drugs listed in the Florida Statutes. Many prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs and novel psychoactive compounds that can cause significant impairment are not included in this list. Five other states within the USA including Alaska, Hawaii, Massachusetts, New York and Oregon have similar or other restrictive language in their impaired driving statutes...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215771/validation-and-cross-reactivity-data-for-fentanyl-analogs-with-the-immunalysis-fentanyl-elisa
#19
Davide Guerrieri, Fanny Kjellqvist, Robert Kronstrand, Henrik Gréen
Every year new fentanyl analog compounds, or fentanyls, appear on the drug scene. Development of immunoassays dedicated for screening individual molecules is challenging due to the short-lived presence of these compounds on the recreational drug market. Therefore, we investigated the detecting capabilities of the immunalysis fentanyl direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit against fentanyl in whole blood, and determined the cross-reactivity of nine fentanyl analogs (2-fluorofentanyl, acetylfentanyl, acrylfentanyl, carfentanil, cyclopropylfentanyl, tetrahydrofuranylfentanyl, furanylfentanyl, ocfentanil, valerylfentanyl) to confirm its validity for the general screening of fentanyls...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192957/determination-of-antiepileptic-drugs-using-dried-saliva-spots
#20
Joana Carvalho, Tiago Rosado, Mário Barroso, Eugenia Gallardo
The present work describes the development and validation of an analytical method for the determination of the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine and its active metabolite carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, in oral fluid using liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector. Correlation between plasma and oral fluid for these compounds has been proven before, making this matrix a great non-invasive alternative for drug-monitoring purposes. The adaptation of cards, commonly applied in dried blood spots (DBS) sampling, to oral fluid resulted in dried saliva spots (DSS)...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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