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Journal of Analytical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30615181/acute-pharmacokinetic-profile-of-smoked-and-vaporized-cannabis-in-human-blood-and-oral-fluid
#1
Tory R Spindle, Edward J Cone, Nicolas J Schlienz, John M Mitchell, George E Bigelow, Ronald Flegel, Eugene Hayes, Ryan Vandrey
Currently, an unprecedented number of individuals can legally access cannabis. Vaporization is increasingly popular as a method to self-administer cannabis, partly due to perception of reduced harm compared with smoking. Few controlled laboratory studies of cannabis have used vaporization as a delivery method or evaluated the acute effects of cannabis among infrequent cannabis users. This study compared the concentrations of cannabinoids in whole blood and oral fluid after administration of smoked and vaporized cannabis in healthy adults who were infrequent users of cannabis...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30615130/detection-time-of-oxazepam-and-zopiclone-in-urine-and-oral-fluid-after-experimental-oral-dosing
#2
Lina Dorthea Bruun, Kari Kjeldstadli, Vidar Temte, Morris Birdal, Liliana Bachs, Marit Langødegård, Dag Helge Strand, Kristin Irene Gaare, Elisabeth Øiestad, Gudrun Høiseth
Data from previous experimental studies on the detection time of oxazepam and zopiclone in biological matrices are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the detection time in urine and oral fluid after single oral doses of oxazepam and zopiclone. Ten healthy volunteers received 25 mg of oxazepam in the evening of Day 1 and 7.5 mg of zopiclone in the evening of Day 3. Urine and oral fluid samples were collected twice daily for 9 days, with an additional sampling the day after ingestion of zopiclone. A total of 19 samples of both urine and oral fluid from each participant were analyzed using fully validated chromatographic methods...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30590712/prevalence-of-new-psychoactive-substances-in-oral-fluid-specimens-from-french-and-belgian-drivers-comparison-2016-2017
#3
Camille Richeval, Mélodie Nachon-Phanithavong, Vincent Di Fazio, Jean-François Wiart, Luc Humbert, Nele Samyn, Sarah Maria Richarda Wille, Delphine Allorge, Jean-Michel Gaulier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30590627/analysis-of-desomorphine-in-urine-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Jessica Winborn, Sarah Kerrigan
Desomorphine is a primary component of the drug Krokodil. While reports of Krokodil use continue to appear in the literature, analytically confirmed cases remain quite scarce. This might be attributed to trends in geographical use, and limited published analytical methodology to detect its use. A sensitive analytical method to detect desomorphine was developed and validated to assist with identification efforts. Solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantitatively identify desomorphine in urine...
December 22, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30590581/lethal-injection-of-a-castor-bean-extract-ricinine-quantification-as-a-marker-for-ricin-exposure-using-a-validated-lc-ms-ms-method
#5
Nick Verougstraete, Dries Helsloot, Christa Deprez, Olivier Heylen, Isabelle Casier, Kathleen Croes
Ricin is a highly toxic agent derived from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis). Poisoning occurs commonly by oral ingestion of the beans. Injection of ricin is believed to be more lethal. Ricin is a large glycosylated protein difficult to detect in clinical samples. Instead, ricinine, a small alkaloid found in the same beans, is used as surrogate marker for ricin exposure. We describe a simple LC-MS/MS method for the detection of ricinine in serum, blood and urine, validated according to EMA guidelines and successfully applied to patient samples of a suicidal death after injection of a castor bean extract...
December 22, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30590551/plasma-and-urine-levamisole-in-clinical-samples-containing-benzoylecgonine-absence-of-aminorex
#6
S A Handley, S L Belsey, L Couchman, R J Flanagan
Aminorex has been reported as a metabolite of levamisole in man, but data on the aminorex concentrations in clinical samples are scant. We thus measured levamisole, aminorex and benzoylecgonine in urine, and levamisole and aminorex in plasma using achiral liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Centrifuged urine (50 μL) was diluted with LC eluent containing internal standard (benzoylecgonine-D3, 25 μg/L) (450 μL). For plasma, sample (200 μL) and Tris solution (2 mol/L, pH 10.6, 100 μL) were added to a 60...
December 22, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30566582/a-fatality-involving-furanylfentanyl-and-mmmp-with-presumptive-identification-of-three-mmmp-metabolites-in-urine
#7
Christine Nash, Danielle Butzbach, Peter Stockham, Timothy Scott, Greg Abroe, Ben Painter, John Gilbert, Chris Kostakis
The prevalence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the illicit drug market continues to grow, with new analogs being routinely synthesized. Routes of administration for these compounds are also diversifying, and recent research has shown an increase in the incorporation of NPS into vaping liquids. Among the most commonly encountered NPS are the cathinone and fentanyl analogs. Fentanyl analogs in particular have been implicated in a significant number of deaths, usually in combination with other prescription and illicit drugs...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30566569/harmala-alkaloids-identify-ayahausca-intoxication-in-a-urine-drug-screen
#8
Jeffrey D Pope, Kay Weng Choy, Olaf H Drummer, Hans G Schneider
Background: Ayahausca is an ethnobotanical drink of South America and the compound dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is primarily responsible for the hallucinogenic effects. DMT has a short half-life and its detection in urinary drug screens is challenging. We investigate a simple alternate approach to detect ayahuasca consumption by relying on other constituents of the drink, the β-carboline harmala alkaloids. Methods: Three commercially sourced harmala alkaloids were characterized and added to a non-targeted high-resolution mass spectrometry urine drug screening method...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30561666/the-use-of-feathers-from-racing-pigeons-for-doping-control-purposes
#9
Fernando X Moreira, Helena Carmo, Armindo Melo, Maria B André, Renata Silva, Zélia Azevedo, Maria L Bastos, Paula G de Pinho
The development of accurate and reliable analytical methodologies to detect the abuse of doping agents in sport animals is crucial to ensure their welfare, as well as to support continuing social acceptance of these sports. The detection of doping agents in racing pigeons is difficult, especially owing to the disadvantages and limitations of obtaining samples from conventional matrices. The present study aimed to develop and validate an analytical methodology combining a two-step extraction procedure (liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction) in feathers from racing pigeons with analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) that enabled the simultaneous detection of a beta-agonist drug (clenbuterol) and three corticosteroids (prednisolone, betamethasone and budesonide)...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517712/an-experimental-study-of-diazepam-and-alprazolam-kinetics-in-urine-and-oral-fluid-following-single-oral-doses
#10
Vidar Temte, Kari Kjeldstadli, Lina Dorthea Bruun, Morris Birdal, Liliana Bachs, Ritva Karinen, Gerrit Middelkoop, Elisabeth Øiestad, Gudrun Høiseth
Benzodiazepines are commonly seen in samples submitted for drug testing of patients, people involved in child welfare cases, work-place drug testing, as well as in drug-facilitated assaults. Limited previous experimental studies are available regarding the excretion of benzodiazepines in urine and oral fluid. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of diazepam and alprazolam in oral fluid and urine for up to 2 weeks after ingestion of a single oral dose in healthy volunteers. A total of 11 healthy volunteers ingested 10 mg diazepam at the start of the study and 0...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517702/comparison-of-purified-%C3%AE-glucuronidases-in-patient-urine-samples-indicates-a-lack-of-correlation-between-enzyme-activity-and-drugs-of-abuse-metabolite-hydrolysis-efficiencies-leading-to-potential-false-negatives
#11
Pongkwan Sitasuwan, Cathleen Melendez, Margarita Marinova, Michelle Spruill, L Andrew Lee
Pain management laboratories analyze biological fluids (urine, saliva or blood) from patients treated for chronic pain to ensure compliance and to detect undisclosed drug use. The quantitation of multi-panel drugs in urine and tissues utilizes β-glucuronidase to cleave the glucuronic acid and liberate the parent drug for mass spectrometry analysis. This work focuses on the comparison of three different, purified and commercially available β-glucuronidases across 83 patient urine samples. One enzyme is genetically modified, expressed in bacteria and the other two enzymes are purified from abalone...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517637/cardiovascular-medication-stability-in-urine-for-non-adherence-screening-by-lc-ms-ms
#12
A D Burns, D Lane, R Cole, P Patel, P Gupta
Biochemical testing in urine is a powerful new tool in the investigation of non-adherence to cardiovascular medications Drug testing using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) is the mainstay of the laboratory test but may be subject to pre-analytical factors that could impact on test results. The stability of cardiovascular medications in urine is one such factor that has not been fully explored in non-adherence testing and has the potential to result in patients appearing falsely non-adherent to their therapy...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476158/metabolites-to-parent-3-meo-pcp-ratio-in-human-urine-collected-in-two-fatal-cases
#13
Alice Ameline, Hugues Greney, Laurent Monassier, Jean-Sébastien Raul, Pascal Kintz
In this article, two fatal cases related to the use of 3-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) are described. This compound is a new psychoactive substance that belongs to the phencyclidine family. In the recent period, this dissociative drug has gained interest because of its proposal as a legally available alternative to phencyclidine in some countries. The scientific literature related to 3-MeO-PCP is very poor. Using standard ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the authors focused on the detection of 3-MeO-PCP and its metabolites in human urine...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476143/unrecognized-elevations-of-toxic-elements-in-urine-and-blood-highlight-the-potential-need-for-a-broader-approach-to-exposure-assessment
#14
Sarah A Hackenmueller, Carmen Gherasim, Jake Q Walden, Christian L Law, Frederick G Strathmann
Heavy metals testing remains an ongoing challenge for diagnosing acute or chronic exposure to heavy metals. In this study, we determined the positivity rates of single element and panel testing for toxic elements, and evaluated the potential utility of an expanded detection protocol for screening of toxic element exposures. The retrospective analysis included data from urine (n = 19,343) and blood (n = 196,019) specimens tested using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury (blood), and arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and zinc (urine)...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476101/five-postmortem-case-reports-with-qualitative-analysis-of-cyclopropylfentanyl-by-lc-ms-ms
#15
Michael Fagiola, Timothy Hahn, Joseph Avella
In January 2018, the Drug Enforcement Agency temporarily designated cyclopropylfentanyl as a Schedule I drug. Over the course of 5 months (December 2017-May 2018), the Nassau County Medical Examiner Toxicology Laboratory qualitatively identified and confirmed cyclopropylfentanyl in specimens obtained from five postmortem cases. We describe the five cases and include pertinent autopsy findings and decedent histories, along with results for cyclopropylfentanyl determined in postmortem cardiac blood. Samples were prepared by an alkaline liquid-liquid extraction, with sample pH adjusted to >9 and utilizing an extraction solvent consisting of 90:10 hexane:ethyl acetate...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476085/residue-distribution-and-depletion-of-ractopamine-in-goat-tissues-after-exposure-to-growth-promoting-dose
#16
Zhen Zhao, Xu Gu, Junguo Li, Jun Li, Moyong Xue, Xiaowei Yang, Yunfeng Gao, Yuchang Qin
The objectives of the present study was to investigated the ractopamine (RAC) distribution and depletion process in various tissues of goat including liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, fat, bile, brain and the eyes. The experiment was carried out on 21 goats (18 treated and 3 controls). Treated goats were orally administered RAC in a dose of 1 mg/kg body mass per day for last 28 days and randomly sacrificed on withdrawal days of 0.25, 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. RAC in all matrices were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30462229/determination-of-fentanyl-analog-exposure-using-dried-blood-spots-with-lc-ms-ms
#17
Craig Seymour, Rebecca L Shaner, Melanie C Feyereisen, Rebekah E Wharton, Pearl Kaplan, Elizabeth I Hamelin, Rudolph C Johnson
Fentanyl, and the numerous drugs derived from it, are contributing to the opioid overdose epidemic currently underway in the USA. To identify human exposure to these growing public health threats, an LC-MS-MS method for 5 μL dried blood spots (DBS) was developed. This method was developed to detect exposure to 3-methylfentanyl, alfentanil, α-methylfentanyl, carfentanil, fentanyl, lofentanil, sufentanil, norcarfentanil, norfentanyl, norlofentanil, norsufentanil, and using a separate LC-MS-MS injection, cyclopropylfentanyl, acrylfentanyl, 2-furanylfentanyl, isobutyrylfentanyl, ocfentanil and methoxyacetylfentanyl...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30462216/quantification-of-trace-elements-in-different-dokha-and-shisha-tobacco-products-using-edxrf
#18
Ayesha Begum Mohammad, Shabber Hasan Khan Mohammad, Masrath Khathoon Mohammad, Abdus Sayeed Khan, Mohamed Saleh Al-Hajjaj
The present study aims to quantify trace metals in different dokha (medwakh) and shisha tobacco products available in local markets. Recent research has shown that these products have higher amounts of nicotine and tar compared to various other tobacco products. No specific data are available on the concentration of trace elements in dokha (medwakh) and shisha tobacco products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Harmful health effects due to the toxicity of these elements in tobacco and its smoke have not been adequately emphasized...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30462247/detection-of-fentanyl-analogs-and-synthetic-opioids-in-real-hair-samples
#19
Alberto Salomone, Joseph J Palamar, Rachele Bigiarini, Enrico Gerace, Daniele Di Corcia, Marco Vincenti
Novel synthetic opioids include various analogs of fentanyl and emerging non-fentanyl compounds with different chemical structures, such as AH-7921, MT-45 and U-47700. In recent years, these drugs have rapidly emerged on the drug market, and their abuse has been increasing worldwide. The motivations for use of these new compounds include their legal status, ready availability, low cost, users' curiosity or preference for their particular pharmacological properties and the intention to avoid detection. Furthermore, more common drugs like heroin are now increasingly being replaced or cut with fentanyl or new designer opioids; thus, many drug users are unintentionally or unknowingly using synthetic fentanyl analogs...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30462231/development-and-validation-of-a-novel-all-inclusive-lc-ms-ms-designer-drug-method
#20
Erin C Strickland, Oneka T Cummings, Allyson L Mellinger, Gregory L McIntire
Designer drugs including synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are an increasing problem due to the ease of access to these compounds. They present analytical challenges inasmuch as the compound structures are numerous and growing within each class. Typically each class of designer compounds is analyzed separately due to differences in chemistry, desired cut-offs or other reasons. Physicians treating "high-risk" patients typically order tests for all "illicit" substances which can span several test classes...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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