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Journal of Analytical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762694/comparative-study-of-postmortem-concentrations-of-antidepressants-in-several-different-matrices
#1
Åse Marit Leere Øiestad, Ritva Karinen, Sidsel Rogde, Stian Nilsen, Kari-Beate Boye Eldor, Gerd-Wenche Brochmann, Marianne Arnestad, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad, Mariana Dadalto Peres, Lena Kristoffersen, Vigdis Vindenes
Peripheral blood (PB) is considered to be the golden standard for measuring postmortem drug concentrations. In several cases, PB is however not available, but information regarding drug findings might still be crucial in order to determine the cause of death. Antidepressants are frequently detected in postmortem samples from forensic toxicology cases, but the literature investigating concentrations in other matrices than peripheral and heart blood is limited.We here describe a study for comparison of concentrations for a large number of different drugs in six different matrices...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762685/urine-multi-drug-screening-with-gc-ms-or-lc-ms-ms-using-salle-hybrid-ppt-spe
#2
Junhui Lee, Jiwon Park, Ahra Go, Heesung Moon, Sujin Kim, Sohee Jung, Wonjoon Jeong, Heesun Chung
To intoxicated patients in the emergency room, toxicological analysis can be considerably helpful for identifying the involved toxicants. In order to develop a urine multi-drug screening (UmDS) method, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) were used to determine targeted and unknown toxicants in urine. A GC-MS method in scan mode was validated for selectivity, limit of detection (LOD) and recovery. An LC-MS-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method was validated for lower LOD, recovery and matrix effect...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750269/analytical-determination-of-nicotine-and-tar-levels-in-various-dokha-and-shisha-tobacco-products
#3
Bassam Mahboub, Ayesha Begum Mohammad, Ayssar Nahlé, Mayank Vats, Omar Al Assaf, Hamdan Al-Zarooni
In the Middle East, there is no precise data and literature on tobacco-based products, such as dokha and shisha. The proposed study aims to quantify the levels of nicotine and tar in different kinds of dokha and shisha products that are sold in the local marketplace. The amount of nicotine in dokha and shisha products can be quantitatively determined using a combination of the "kissling" and "silicotungstic acid" method proposed by Robert M. Chapin. The tar residue from the smoke sample was collected on a glass wool placed before the stopcock (tap) of a separatory funnel as the smoke passes through the inlet of an electronically controlled vacuum pump...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750257/aluminum-in-tobacco-products-available-in-the-united-states
#4
R Steven Pappas, Clifford H Watson, Liza Valentin-Blasini
A quantitative method for the analysis of aluminum in tobacco products was developed, validated and applied to select samples. Samples were prepared using standard microwave digestion of tobacco from various products. Detection and quantification utilized sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Method applicability to analyze aluminum in a range of tobacco products was demonstrated with quantitative analyses of smokeless tobacco products, cigarette tobacco, little cigar tobacco and roll-your-own/pipe tobacco...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750250/analysis-of-fentanyl-and-18-novel-fentanyl-analogs-and-metabolites-by-lc-ms-ms-and-report-of-fatalities-associated-with-methoxyacetylfentanyl-and-cyclopropylfentanyl
#5
Melissa F Fogarty, Donna M Papsun, Barry K Logan
Methoxyacetylfentanyl and cyclopropylfentanyl are two of the newest illicit opioids that are infiltrating the heroin market. Methoxyacetylfentanyl and cyclopropylfentanyl were reported by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in their third quarter report of 2017 to have been chemically identified seven and five times, respectively, from drug evidence analyzed by the DEA's lab system; Q3 was the first time cyclopropylfentanyl was identified by the DEA's lab system, while methoxyacetylfentanyl was reported one time in Q2 2017...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750249/zolpidem-and-zolpidem-carboxylic-acid-results-from-medication-monitoring
#6
Sheng Feng, Oneka T Cummings, Gregory McIntire
Zolpidem (Ambien®) is one of the "Z" drugs often used to improve sleep in older patients and those suffering from insomnia. Schwope, D.M., DePriest, A., Black, D.L., Caplan, Y.H., Cone, E.J., Heltsley, R. (2014) Determing zolpidem compliance: urinary metabolite detection and prevalence in chronic pain patients . Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 38, 513-518 reported that zolpidem in urine is not very prevalent being present <23% of the time in patient urine while the major metabolite, zolpidem 4-phenyl carboxylic acid (ZCA), is much more prevalent in urine with positive rates as high as 50% of the patient samples reviewed...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718282/suspected-driving-under-the-influence-case-involving-mitragynine
#7
Trista H Wright
Mitragynine is a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) that has emerged as a designer opioid being distributed on the street. Mitragynine, also known as kratom, has dose-dependent pharmacological effects and possesses both stimulant-like and sedative effects due to dual-binding of α-adrenergic and μ-opioid receptors. This herbal remedy readily available online has caused adverse effects including tachycardia, agitation, tremors, hallucination and death; however, this is the first reported suspected driving under the influence case involving mitragynine...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659874/carfentanil-in-impaired-driving-cases-and-the-importance-of-drug-seizure-data
#8
Nicholas B Tiscione, Ilene Alford
Drug seizures containing carfentanil continue to increase in Palm Beach County, FL, USA despite international efforts to control the distribution of the drug. The analysis of drug seizures from the county in 2016 and 2017 demonstrated that carfentanil was the most commonly identified fentanyl analog and was most often detected in combination with heroin, fentanyl, furanyl fentanyl and/or other fentanyl analogs. Carfentanil is an ultra-potent opioid requiring a method with adequate sensitivity for detection in blood specimens from impairment cases...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659875/sensitive-and-simultaneous-determination-of-nine-anticoagulant-rodenticides-in-human-blood-by-uplc-ms-ms-with-phospholipid-removal-pretreatment
#9
Hao Guo, Junwei Wang, Yuhong Wu, Wenwen Liu, Juan Bu, Qingbiao Zhao
A sensitive and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of nine anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) in human blood is reported herein. The method involves phospholipid removal pretreatment for reduced matrix effect (ME) and detection with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Satisfactory recoveries were achieved ranging from 80.6% to 113.1% for the nine analytes, with the intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 3.4-7.9% and inter-day RSDs in the range of 4...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618078/simultaneous-time-concentration-analysis-of-soman-and-vx-adducts-to-butyrylcholinesterase-and-albumin-by-lc-ms-ms
#10
Jin Young Lee, Changhwan Kim, Yong Han Lee
A sensitive method for the purification and determination of two protein adducts, organophosphorus (OP)-BChE and OP-albumin adducts, in a single sample using a simultaneous sample preparation method was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. First, we isolated O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methyl phosphonothiolate (VX) and O-pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (soman, GD)-BChE adducts using an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method and the HiTrap™ Blue affinity column was subsequently used to isolate and purify VX and GD-albumin adducts from the plasma of rhesus monkeys exposed to nerve agents...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618077/n-ethyl-pentylone-ephylone-intoxications-quantitative-confirmation-and-metabolite-identification-in-authentic-human-biological-specimens
#11
Alex J Krotulski, Donna M Papsun, Bruno S De Martinis, Amanda L A Mohr, Barry K Logan
N-ethyl pentylone (ephylone) has been identified as the most recent novel stimulant to emerge into the arena of evolving novel psychoactive substances (NPS). Due to its novelty, information regarding case reports with associated quantitative confirmations, biotransformation pathways, and identified unique metabolites will assist the scientific community in understanding the implications of the emergence and risks associated with N-ethyl pentylone use. Authentic blood specimens (n = 26) submitted as part of toxicological death investigations or drugged driving casework tested positive for N-ethyl pentylone, and were quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579279/distribution-of-eight-qt-prolonging-drugs-and-their-main-metabolites-between-postmortem-cardiac-tissue-and-blood-reveals-potential-pitfalls-in-toxicological-interpretation
#12
Christian R Mikkelsen, Jakob R Jornil, Ljubica V Andersen, Jytte Banner, Jørgen B Hasselstrøm
Femoral blood concentrations are usually used in postmortem toxicology to assess possible toxic effects of drugs. This includes QT-prolongation and other cardiac dysrhythmia, which could have been the cause of death. However, blood concentration is only a surrogate for the active site concentration, and therefore cardiac tissue concentration may provide a more accurate toxicological interpretation. Thus, cardiac tissue and femoral and cardiac blood concentrations were examined for eight frequently used QT-prolonging drugs (QTD) and their metabolites in a mentally ill population...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579266/time-dependent-postmortem-redistribution-of-opioids-in-blood-and-alternative-matrices
#13
Lana Brockbals, Sandra N Staeheli, Dominic Gascho, Lars C Ebert, Thomas Kraemer, Andrea E Steuer
Forensic postmortem case interpretation can be challenging, in particular due to postmortem redistribution (PMR) phenomena. Recent studies have shown that computed tomography (CT)-guided collection of biopsy samples using a robotic arm (virtobot) provides a valuable tool for systematic studies on time-dependent PMR. Utilizing this strategy, several cases involving opioid use such as methadone, fentanyl, tramadol, codeine, oxycodone and hydrocodone were evaluated for time-dependent concentration changes and potential redistribution mechanisms...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566235/case-reports-of-fatalities-involving-tianeptine-in-the-united-states
#14
Erica L Bakota, Warren C Samms, Teresa R Gray, Deanna A Oleske, Merrill O Hines
Tianeptine is a tricyclic anti-depressant that is also known to have opioid receptor activity. We present two fatal cases of tianeptine intoxication in Texas in which tianeptine was used recreationally. The first case involved a 28-year-old white male found alone on the floor of his locked residence. He had a history of drug abuse but no other toxicological findings. The second case involved a 30-year-old white male found on the floor of the bathroom in his home. Drug paraphernalia and bags labeled as tianeptine powder were found at both scenes...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566234/multielemental-analysis-of-tobacco-plant-and-tobacco-products-by-txrf
#15
U Majewska, M Piotrowska, I Sychowska, D Banas, A Kubala-Kukus, J Wudarczyk-Mocko, I Stabrawa, S Gózdz
The aim of this research is to develop a fast analytical method for multielemental analysis of the tobacco plant Virginia tobacco (cultivated in Poland) and tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, cigarillos, snuff and two kinds of properly crafted tobacco such as a shisha and cigarette tobacco) distributed in Polish markets by means of a low-power benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) system. For this purpose, a set of certified tobacco materials and real samples was employed. In leaves and stalks of V...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554333/nail-analysis-for-drugs-a-role-in-workplace-testing
#16
Virginia A Hill, G Neil Stowe, Ryan B Paulsen, Michael Schaffer
Analysis of nail clippings may be a useful back-up for hair analysis when hair is unavailable. One aspect of using nails or hair is the ability to analyze whether drug present is from ingestion or from contamination. A common method of three 15-s rinses in methanol failed to remove drug from nails that had been soaked in either 5 or 50 μg/mL cocaine, methamphetamine or morphine for 1 h. While methanol rinsing did not remove contaminating drug, washing the nails soaked with 5 and 50 μg/mL of these drugs with an extended wash, a method developed for hair analysis and consisting of a 15-min isopropanol wash, and three 30-min and two 60-min phosphate buffer-0...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554298/development-of-a-quantitative-lc-ms-ms-assay-for-codeine-morphine-6-acetylmorphine-hydrocodone-hydromorphone-oxycodone-and-oxymorphone-in-neat-oral-fluid
#17
Megan Grabenauer, Katherine N Moore, Nichole D Bynum, Robert M White, John M Mitchell, Eugene D Hayes, Ronald Flegel
Recent advances in analytical capabilities allowing for the identification and quantification of drugs and metabolites in small volumes at low concentrations have made oral fluid a viable matrix for drug testing. Oral fluid is an attractive matrix option due to its relative ease of collection, reduced privacy concerns for observed collections and difficulty to adulterate. The work presented here details the development and validation of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the quantification of codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone and oxymorphone in neat oral fluid...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554274/dibutylone-bk-dmbdb-intoxications-quantitative-confirmations-and-metabolism-in-authentic-biological-specimens
#18
Alex J Krotulski, Amanda L A Mohr, Donna M Papsun, Barry K Logan
The number of emerging novel stimulants modified based on beta-keto variations of amphetamine-like substances continues to rise. Dibutylone reports described in the medical and toxicological literature are limited, therefore little information is available in terms of quantitative confirmation or metabolism. During this study, authentic human specimens, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, oral fluid and liver were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for the presence of dibutylone and butylone, with paired case history and demographic information...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509887/toxic-elements-in-human-saliva-of-smokeless-tobacco-users
#19
Donatella Desideri, Carla Roselli, Ivan Fagiolino, Maria Assunta Meli
The occurrence and mobility of different elements in oral smokeless tobacco products (STPs) were determined because the effects on human health must take into account their availability. In this research, the elemental analysis of 15 oral STPs of different brands purchased in local specialty stores in Europe, and the determination of % extraction of the different elements into an artificial salivary juice during the sucking or chewing operations were performed. In all samples analyzed, cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) (total) levels were <0...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490025/distribution-of-methadone-and-metabolites-in-skeletal-tissue
#20
Michiel Vandenbosch, Tomas Somers, Eva Cuypers
In forensic toxicology, when extended time has elapsed before discovery of the body, the most commonly analyzed specimens are often degraded or not available at all due to decomposition. In this case, skeletal tissue may be the only specimen left. Nevertheless, very limited research is found on the drug disposition in bone, making toxicological interpretation very difficult. Since methadone is linked to almost 50% of drug abuse fatalities in Belgium, an easy extraction and quantification method was developed and validated to investigate the distribution pattern of methadone and its metabolites in skeletal tissue after chronic dosing...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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