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Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Lambert K Sørensen, Jørgen B Hasselstrøm
Direct analysis of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids in crude acetonitrile extracts of whole blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using pneumatically assisted electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS-MS) was subjected to pronounced ion suppression from co-eluting phospholipids (PLs). The interferences were mainly caused by the lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine classes of PLs. The PLs were easily removed from crude extracts by filtration through a sorbent with Lewis acid properties, which typically increased the THC and cannabinol (CBN) signal intensities by a factor of 5...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Ying Liu, Cornelius E Uboh, Xiaoqing Li, Fuyu Guan, Youwen You, George A Maylin, Fengchang Zhu, Lawrence R Soma
A rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous screening, quantification and confirmation of 17 barbiturates in horse plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described. Analytes were recovered from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction using methyl tert-butyl ether, separated on a C18 column, and analyzed in negative electrospray ionization mode. Multiple-reaction monitoring was employed for screening and quantification. Confirmation for the presence of the analytes was achieved by comparing ion intensity ratio...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Anna M Miller, Melissa M Goggin, An Nguyen, Stephanie D Gozum, Gregory C Janis
A wide range of concentrations are frequently observed when measuring drugs of abuse in urine toxicology samples; this is especially true for amphetamine and methamphetamine. Routine liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmatory methods commonly anchored at a 50 ng/mL lower limit of quantitation can span approximately a 100-fold concentration range before regions of non-linearity are reached deteriorating accurate quantitation and qualitative assessments. In our experience, approximately a quarter of amphetamine and methamphetamine positive samples are above a 5,000 ng/mL upper limit of quantitation and thus require reanalysis with dilution for accurate quantitative and acceptable qualitative results...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Hsiu-Chuan Liu, Chu-An Yang, Ray H Liu, Dong-Liang Lin
Screening and confirming the presence of drugs and toxic compounds in various matrices are important and challenging tasks routinely faced by forensic and clinical laboratories. Recent advances in the liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric technologies have provided an opportunity for the development of more specific and effective approaches to achieve the "screening" and "confirmation" goals in a single analytical step. The objectives of this study are: (i) the establishment of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic, quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric mass spectrometric and MS-MS spectral database, including 1,200 compounds of interest; and (ii) the development of an effective protocol, using this database and three searching algorithms, for general unknown screening of these compounds...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Lacy L Taylor, Noah A Flint, Vinh Ma, Brandy M Hill, Chantry J Clark, Frederick G Strathmann
Metabolized forms of benzodiazepines (benzos) can cause issues with mass spectrometry identification. Benzodiazepines undergo a process called glucuronidation during metabolism that attaches a glucuronic acid for increased solubility. Often in clinical testing an enzymatic hydrolysis step is implemented to increase the sensitivity of benzodiazepines by hydrolyzing β-D-glucuronic acid from benzodiazepine-glucuronide conjugates in urine samples using the β-Glucuronidase enzyme. In this study resorufin β-D-glucuronide, a substrate of the β-Glucuronidase enzyme, was added to patient samples to determine if proper hydrolysis had occurred...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Jessica Winborn, Sarah Kerrigan
Desomorphine ("Krokodil") is a semi-synthetic opioid that has drawn attention as a recreational drug, particularly in Russia, neighboring former Soviet Republics, Eastern and Central Europe. It has no accepted medicinal uses and is currently a schedule I drug in the United States. In clandestine environments, desomorphine is synthesized from codeine using red phosphorous, hydroiodic acid and gasoline. Residual starting materials in illicit preparations have been associated with severe dermatological effects and extensive tissue necrosis...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Melissa M Goggin, An Nguyen, Gregory C Janis
The illicit drug market has seen an increase in designer opioids, including fentanyl and methadone analogs, and other structurally unrelated opioid agonists. The designer opioid, furanyl fentanyl, is one of many fentanyl analogs clandestinely synthesized for recreational use and contributing to the fentanyl and opioid crisis. A method has been developed and validated for the analysis of furanyl fentanyl and furanyl norfentanyl in urine specimens from pain management programs. Approximately 10% of samples from a set of 500 presumptive heroin-positive urine specimens were found to contain furanyl fentanyl, with an average concentration of 33...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Nathalie Zamariola, Pedro Toledo Netto, Carla Adriene da Silva Franchi, João Lauro Viana de Camargo, Mary Rosa Rodrigues de Marchi
The concomitant exposure to low doses of various pesticides is one of the most relevant issues in human toxicology today. An experimental toxicology study was developed to evaluate the effects of this type of exposure on the reproductive capacity of females of three species of rats that were exposed to mixtures of dicofol, dieldrin, endosulfan and permethrin at low doses (LOAEL and NOAEL). In this context, we have developed a method for determining pesticides in adipose tissue (0.5 g, 49% lipid) associated with the ovaries, based on the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) strategy...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Limon Nahar, Amy Smith, Rajan Patel, Rebecca Andrews, Sue Paterson
There has been a rapid increase in the number of prescriptions for baclofen (BLF), gabapentin (GBP) and pregabalin (PGL) in the UK since their introduction to therapy. Recent studies across the European Union and USA have shown the illicit abuse potential of these drugs and deaths have been observed. A simple, reliable and fully validated method was developed for the screening and quantification of BLF, GBP and PGL in human post-mortem (PM) blood. The analytes and their deuterated analogs as internal standard were extracted from blood using a single addition acetonitrile protein precipitation reaction followed by analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with triggered dynamic multiple reaction monitoring mode for simultaneous confirmation and quantification...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Sandra C Bishop-Freeman, Erin M Shonsey, Laura W Friederich, Michael C Beuhler, Ruth E Winecker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Alberto Salomone, Joseph J Palamar, Enrico Gerace, Daniele Di Corcia, Marco Vincenti
Hundreds of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have emerged in the drug market over the last decade. Few drug surveys in the USA, however, ask about use of NPS, so prevalence and correlates of use are largely unknown. A large portion of NPS use is unintentional or unknown as NPS are common adulterants in drugs like ecstasy/Molly, and most NPS are rapidly eliminated from the body, limiting efficacy of urine, blood and saliva testing. We utilized a novel method of examining prevalence of NPS use in a high-risk population utilizing hair-testing...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Gudrun Høiseth, André Gottås, Thomas Berg, Marianne Arnestad, Per Steinar Halvorsen, Liliana C Bachs
In previous experimental studies on heroin metabolites excretion in urine, the first sample was often collected a few hours after intake. In forensic cases, it is sometimes questioned if a positive urine result is expected e.g., 30 min after intake. The aim of this study was to investigate urinary excretion of heroin metabolites (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G)) every 30 min until 330 min after injection of a 20 mg heroin dose in six pigs. Samples were analyzed using a previously published, fully validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Taís Regina Fiorentin, Tanara Rosangela Vieira Sousa, Renata Pereira Limberger, Flavio Pechansky
The use of point-of-collection testing (POCT) devices for drugs of abuse in oral fluid (OF) is an advantageous tool that has been used for different purposes-particularly traffic enforcement. However, even with the widespread report of cocaine consumption, the reliability of POCT devices has been reported in different magnitudes. This study evaluated the reliability of two POCT devices for the detection of cocaine in OF samples of 110 cocaine users: (i) the DDS2™ (cutoff = 30 ng/mL) and (ii) the Multi-Drugs Multi-Line-Twist Screen Test Device™ (MDML) (cutoff = 20 ng/mL)...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Chelsea Fort, Thomas Jourdan, Jesse Kemp, Byron Curtis
The focus of this study was to determine the stability of four synthetic cannabinoids, XLR-11, UR-144, AB-Pinaca and AB-Fubinaca in biological specimens for the purpose of casework processing prioritization. The study used human whole blood spiked with the compounds of interest to mimic real forensic laboratory samples submitted for synthetic cannabinoid analysis. The spiked whole blood specimens were incubated under one of three temperature conditions: room or ambient (22°C), refrigerated (4°C) and frozen (-20°C) for a period of 12 weeks...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Seon Young Kim, Hyunjin Kim, Yeongchun Park, Jinsook Lim, Jimyung Kim, Sun Hoe Koo, Gye Cheol Kwon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Taha Ahmad, Samie Sabet, Donald A Primerano, Lauren L Richards-Waugh, Gary O Rankin
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme 2B6 plays a significant role in the stereo-selective metabolism of (S)-methadone to 2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, an inactive methadone metabolite. Elevated (S)-methadone can cause cardiotoxicity by prolonging the QT interval of the heart's electrical cycle. Large inter-individual variability of methadone pharmacokinetics causes discordance in the relationship between dose, plasma concentrations and side effects. The purpose of this study was to determine if one or more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the CYP2B6 gene contributes to a poor metabolizer phenotype for methadone in these fatal cases...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Eva Cuypers, Elien Rosier, Sara Loix, Wim Develter, Wouter Van Den Bogaert, Joke Wuestenbergs, Wim Van de Voorde, Jan Tytgat
In recent years, the increasing number of asphyxiation cases due to helium inhalation is remarkable. All described cases in the literature where diagnosed as suicide. In this article, however, we describe a triple infant homicide in which helium, as balloon gas, was administered to three young children after sedation causing asphyxiation and death through the medical findings and toxicological analysis. During autopsy, in addition to standard toxicological samples, gas samples from lungs as well as lung tissue itself were directly collected into headspace vials...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Mark R Fresquez, Nathalie Gonzalez-Jimenez, Naudia Gray, Liza Valentin-Blasini, Clifford H Watson, R Steven Pappas
Chromium is transported in mainstream tobacco smoke at very low concentrations. However, when chromium is deposited too deeply in the lungs for mucociliary clearance, or is in a particle that is too large to pass directly through tissues, it bioaccumulates in the lungs of smokers. It is important to determine the concentrations of chromium that are transported in mainstream smoke. Several reliable studies have resulted in reports of chromium concentrations in smoke particulate that were below limits of detection (LODs) for the instruments and methods employed...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Luke N Rodda, Jennifer L Pilgrim, Matthew Di Rago, Kerryn Crump, Dimitri Gerostamoulos, Olaf H Drummer
The prevalence of opioid use in therapeutic and recreational settings has steadily increased throughout the western world. The addition of fentanyl into heroin products can produce potentially dangerous consequences, even to opioid tolerant individuals who may be unaware of such additions. Following an observed spike of heroin-fentanyl related deaths in Melbourne, Australia, a study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of these cases. All reportable deaths occurring in Victoria during 2015 and submitted to the toxicology laboratory were analysed using LC-MS-MS to confirm the combination of the heroin marker 6-acetylmorphine and/or morphine, and fentanyl...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Monika Zidkova, Tomas Hlozek, Martin Balik, Ondrej Kopecky, Pavel Tesinsky, Jan Svanda, Marie Anna Balikova
3-Methoxy-phencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) is a structural derivative of the dissociative hallucinogen phencyclidine (PCP). Although PCP toxicity is well documented, little is known about this new psychoactive substance despite being available on the black market even in central Europe. The objective of this case report is to present clinical and laboratory data of analytically confirmed non-fatal intoxication of two subjects with 3-MeO-PCP. A preliminary assessment of potential metabolites excreted into urine was enabled using the liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometric method...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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