Read by QxMD icon Read

Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Virginia A Hill, G Neil Stowe, Ryan B Paulsen, Michael Schaffer
Analysis of nail clippings may be a useful back-up for hair analysis when hair is unavailable. One aspect of using nails or hair is the ability to analyze whether drug present is from ingestion or from contamination. A common method of three 15-s rinses in methanol failed to remove drug from nails that had been soaked in either 5 or 50 μg/mL cocaine, methamphetamine or morphine for 1 h. While methanol rinsing did not remove contaminating drug, washing the nails soaked with 5 and 50 μg/mL of these drugs with an extended wash, a method developed for hair analysis and consisting of a 15-min isopropanol wash, and three 30-min and two 60-min phosphate buffer-0...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Megan Grabenauer, Katherine N Moore, Nichole D Bynum, Robert M White, John M Mitchell, Eugene D Hayes, Ronald Flegel
Recent advances in analytical capabilities allowing for the identification and quantification of drugs and metabolites in small volumes at low concentrations have made oral fluid a viable matrix for drug testing. Oral fluid is an attractive matrix option due to its relative ease of collection, reduced privacy concerns for observed collections and difficulty to adulterate. The work presented here details the development and validation of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the quantification of codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone and oxymorphone in neat oral fluid...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Alex J Krotulski, Amanda L A Mohr, Donna M Papsun, Barry K Logan
The number of emerging novel stimulants modified based on beta-keto variations of amphetamine-like substances continues to rise. Dibutylone reports described in the medical and toxicological literature are limited, therefore little information is available in terms of quantitative confirmation or metabolism. During this study, authentic human specimens, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, oral fluid and liver were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for the presence of dibutylone and butylone, with paired case history and demographic information...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Donatella Desideri, Carla Roselli, Ivan Fagiolino, Maria Assunta Meli
The occurrence and mobility of different elements in oral smokeless tobacco products (STPs) were determined because the effects on human health must take into account their availability. In this research, the elemental analysis of 15 oral STPs of different brands purchased in local specialty stores in Europe, and the determination of % extraction of the different elements into an artificial salivary juice during the sucking or chewing operations were performed. In all samples analyzed, cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) (total) levels were <0...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Michiel Vandenbosch, Tomas Somers, Eva Cuypers
In forensic toxicology, when extended time has elapsed before discovery of the body, the most commonly analyzed specimens are often degraded or not available at all due to decomposition. In this case, skeletal tissue may be the only specimen left. Nevertheless, very limited research is found on the drug disposition in bone, making toxicological interpretation very difficult. Since methadone is linked to almost 50% of drug abuse fatalities in Belgium, an easy extraction and quantification method was developed and validated to investigate the distribution pattern of methadone and its metabolites in skeletal tissue after chronic dosing...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Melissa M Goggin, Stephanie D Gozum, Anna Miller, Gregory C Janis
The recent increase in illicit opioids sold on the black market, cut into heroin and masqueraded as prescription pills prompts a significant public health concern. Most designer opioids possess unknown potencies and unknown pharmacokinetics and their unregulated, variable dosages lead to rashes of overdoses. Additionally, many of the designer opioids, especially the fentanyl analogs are significantly more potent than heroin. High-profile cases involving overdoses of U-47700 and carfentanil have been reported in the media; however, the true prevalence of these and other designer opioids is unknown...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Marion A Coe, Rebecca A Jufer Phipps, Edward J Cone, Sharon L Walsh
The pharmacokinetic profile of oral cocaine has not been fully characterized and prospective data on oral bioavailability are limited. A within-subject study was performed to characterize the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of oral cocaine. Fourteen healthy inpatient participants (six males) with current histories of cocaine use were administered two oral doses (100 and 200 mg) and one intravenous (IV) dose (40 mg) of cocaine during three separate dosing sessions. Plasma samples were collected for up to 24 h after dosing and analyzed for cocaine and metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Amy Alexander, Liaqat Abbas, Mary Jones, Joseph Jones, Douglas Lewis, Adam Negrusz
Our laboratory received segments of umbilical cord that originated from identical twins for routine toxicology analysis. The specimens were analyzed multiple times by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The umbilical cord from newborn #1 was positive for hydromorphone only (1.06 ng/g), and the umbilical cord from newborn #2 was positive for hydromorphone (0.81 ng/g) and benzoylecgonine (5.41 ng/g). The hydromorphone results are consistent with maternal administration of hydromorphone; however, the cause of the discrepant benzoylecgonine results in the umbilical cords from the identical twins is unknown...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Gregory S Doran, Ralph Deans, Carlo De Filippis, Chris Kostakis, Julia A Howitt
Storage of drug-based evidence inside sealed safes may allow chemical vapors to accumulate, creating concerns of drug exposure by inhalation, or the possibility of cross-contamination of drug evidence. Air samples were taken from inside eight drug safes and one small storage room at nine city and country police stations, as well as a large centralized drug evidence storage vault, in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Sorbent tubes containing charcoal were used to determine whether any drug residues could be detected in the air, and to identify the types of chemicals present...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Alice Ameline, Camille Richeval, Jean-Michel Gaulier, Jean-Sébastien Raul, Pascal Kintz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Lars Radünz, Hannah Reuter, Hilke Andresen-Streichert
Modafinil is used because of its wakefulness-promoting properties for treatment of diseases associated with extreme sleepiness (i.e., narcolepsy). Additionally, it is misused as a "cognitive enhancer" to increase alertness and to improve concentration. We present modafinil concentrations in serum samples in five cases of our routine work measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photo diode array detector after solid-phase extraction. One sample was analyzed for clinical toxicology purposes...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Yuming Liu, Xinyu Zhang, Jiaolun Li, Zhibin Huang, Zebin Lin, Jingru Wang, Chengqiang Zhang, Yulan Rao
Background: The lack of systematic studies on the stability of ethanol's non-oxidative metabolites in postmortem specimens restricts their use in forensic cases. This study aimed to compare the stability of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate (EtS), phosphatidylethanols (PEths) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in postmortem human blood. Method: Three groups were established based on the level and source of ethanol: the blank group, the ethanol-spiked group and the ethanol-positive group...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Hallvard Gjerde, Grethe Brennhovd Clausen, Espen Andreassen, Håvard Furuhaugen
Reliable field testing devices for psychoactive drugs would be useful tools for the police for detecting drug-impaired drivers. The Norwegian Mobile Police Service (NMPS) started using Dräger DrugTest 5000 (DDT5000) in 2015 as an on-site screening instrument for drugs in samples of oral fluid. The aim of this study was to compare the results of field testing of DDT5000 with drug findings in blood and oral fluid samples taken from drivers suspected for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). In total, 369 drivers were included in this field testing; blood samples were obtained from all of them, while oral fluid samples were collected with the Intercept device from 301 of them...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Cecilie Hasselø Thaulow, Åse Marit Leere Øiestad, Sidsel Rogde, Ritva Karinen, Gerd Wenche Brochmann, Jannike Mørch Andersen, Gudrun Høiseth, Marte Handal, Jørg Mørland, Marianne Arnestad, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad, Dag Helge Strand, Vigdis Vindenes
In some forensic autopsies blood is not available, and other matrices are sampled for toxicological analysis. The aims of the present study were to examine whether heroin metabolites can be detected in different post-mortem matrices, and investigate whether analyses in other matrices can give useful information about concentrations in peripheral blood. Effects of ethanol on the metabolism and distribution of heroin metabolites were also investigated. We included 45 forensic autopsies where morphine was detected in peripheral blood, concomitantly with 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) detected in any matrix...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Hui Yan, Hang Chen, Zhengdong Li, Min Shen, Xianyi Zhuo, Hejian Wu, Ping Xiang
Phosphine is an insecticide for the fumigation of grains, animal feed, and leaf-stored tobacco, and it was used as a rodenticide in bulk grain stores. Phosphine poisoning may occur after accidental inhalation of phosphine, sometimes leading to death. Analysis of phosphine and its metabolites in postmortem specimens from seven fatal cases was conducted in this study, as well as postmortem specimens collected from rabbits exposed to phosphine. The total phosphine in postmortem specimens was analyzed by headspace gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Josiah McKenna, Rachel Jett, Kevin Shanks, Nicholas E Manicke
Immunoassays and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) are both widely used methods for drug screening in toxicology. We investigated an alternative approach for rapid drug screening: paper spray MS (PS-MS). In paper spray, the biofluid sample is spotted onto a paper substrate. Upon application of a spray solvent and an electric potential, extraction and ionization occur directly from the paper without any need for additional sample preparation. We developed two paper spray high-resolution MS/MS targeted drug screening assays using a quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer, one the positive ion mode and one in the negative ion mode...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
A Pouliopoulos, E Tsakelidou, A Krokos, H G Gika, G Theodoridis, N Raikos
The aim of the study was to develop a LC-MS-MS method able to detect and quantify a number of frequently prescribed antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs for toxicological purposes. Separation of compounds was performed on a C-18 RP column by Ultra High-Pressure Chromatography over a 11 min run. A modified single step QuEChERS protocol consisted essentially by the addition of acetonitrile, potassium carbonate and magnesium sulfate in 100 μL of sample, vortexing, centrifugation and evaporation has been selected...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
C Santos, D Oppolzer, A Gonçalves, M Barroso, E Gallardo
The aim of our work was to develop a method for the determination of six organophosphorous pesticides (Ops) (azynphos-ethyl (AZP), diazinon (DZN), chlorpyrifos (CLP), chlorfenvinfos (CLF), parathion-ethyl (PRT) and quinalphos (QLP)) in whole blood using microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and analysis by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The optimization of the MEPS procedure was performed using a design of experiments (DOE) approach, assessing different factors that significantly affected the extraction efficiency...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Darryl P Arfsten, Erick Roman Perez, Neal C Goebel
Calculating measurement uncertainty is a helpful exercise for identifying components or steps in a forensic analytical procedure that contribute to measurement variance. In this study, we used a bottom up approach to identify components in our procedures that contribute to measurement variance in our Department of Defense (DoD) Drug Demand Reduction Program (DDRP) Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS) analytical procedures for benzoylecgonine (BZE) and the THC metabolite, 11-nor-Δ9-THC-9-carboxylic acid (THCA) at 125% the DDRP concentration threshold (cutoff)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Emma Partridge, Stephen Trobbiani, Peter Stockham, Timothy Scott, Chris Kostakis
A broad drug screening method for toxicologically significant drugs and metabolites in whole blood using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOF) was developed and comprehensively validated. The method qualitatively screens for 320 compounds while simultaneously quantifying 39. Compounds were extracted from the blood using alkaline liquid/liquid extraction and chromatographic separation was achieved in 12 min. The QTOF was operated using positive mode electrospray ionization using data dependent acquisition...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"