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Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Shrila Mazumder, Rayaj A Ahamed, Ernest McGahee, Lanqing Wang, Tiffany H Seyler
Cigarette smoking significantly increases the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases as well as premature death. Aromatic amines (AAs) such as o-toluidine, 2-aminonaphthalene and 4-aminobiphenyl are found in cigarette smoke and are well-established human bladder carcinogens presumably acting via the formation of DNA adducts. These amines may be metabolized in the liver to acetylated or glucuronidated forms or oxidized to a hydroxylamine which may react with protein and DNA to form adducts. Free, acetylated and glucuronidated AAs are excreted in urine and can be measured as exposure biomarkers...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
John P Buchweitz, Douglas Mader, Andreas F Lehner
A case of canine intoxication and fatality with the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin is described. A 5-year-old female spayed Pit Bull Terrier was off leash and unsupervised at home for 15-20 min prior to discovery by her owner. The patient was in lateral recumbency, having what the owner described as a seizure. The patient was transported to an emergency veterinary hospital where she presented with tachycardia, tachypnea and intractable tremors/seizures. Despite aggressive medical intervention, the patient went into respiratory and cardiac arrest and died at 28 h after presentation...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Jin Young Kim, Sunglll Suh, Jaehyeong Park, Moon Kyo In
Despite the efforts to prevent the spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) such as synthetic amphetamine derivatives, it is apparent that newer types of NPS are still emerging on the market in recent years. Due to high potential for their abuse, reliable analytical methods are required to determine these substances in biological samples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate the gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 13 amphetamine-related NPS (amphetamine; AP, 4-fluoroamphetamine; 4FA, methamphamine; MA, 4-fluoromethamphetamine; 4FMA, 4-chloroamphetamine; 4CA, para-methoxyamphetamine; PMA, 4-chloromethamphetamine; 4CMA, 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran; 6APB, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; MDA, para-methoxymethamphetamine; PMMA, 6-(2-methylaminopropyl)benzofuran; 6MAPB, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA, 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane; MDAI) in urine...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Emma Partridge, Stephen Trobbiani, Peter Stockham, Cheryl Charlwood, Chris Kostakis
The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) available is constantly increasing, making it difficult for toxicology laboratories to keep screening methods up to date. Full scan high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is a versatile technique which allows for progressive updating of spectral databases to increase the scope of screening. It also allows for retrospective screening of data-specifically, reprocessing of data files using an updated spectral database without the need for re-extraction or reanalysis...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Marek Dziadosz
In this work, an alternative LC-MS-MS strategy for the analysis of urinary creatinine in abstinence control was presented and discussed. The two-way electrospray ionization consisted of two different precursor ions in which fragmentation was used in multiple reaction monitoring experiments. A creatinine adduct ion with sodium and sodium acetate together with the conventional analyte protonation was investigated. Adduct formation and fragmentation was explored by appropriate infusion experiments performed with analyte solutions prepared in different concentrations...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Kamilla Nyborg Günther, Sys Stybe Johansen, Petra Wicktor, Jytte Banner, Kristian Linnet
Analysis of drugs in hair differs from their analysis in other tissues due to the extended detection window, as well as the opportunity that segmental hair analysis offers for the detection of changes in drug intake over time. The antipsychotic drug chlorprothixene is widely used, but few reports exist on chlorprothixene concentrations in hair. In this study, we analyzed hair segments from 20 deceased psychiatric patients who had undergone chronic chlorprothixene treatment, and we report hair concentrations of chlorprothixene and its metabolite desmethylchlorprothixene...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Samantha L Isenberg, Melissa D Carter, Michael A Miller, Aleksandra I Noras, Mike A Mojica, Sean T Carlsen, Chinthaka P Bulathsinghala, Jerry D Thomas, Rudolph C Johnson
Ricin and abrin are toxic ribosome-inactivating proteins found in plants. Exposure to these toxins can be detected using the biomarkers ricinine and abrine, which are present in the same plant sources as the toxins. The concentration of the biomarkers in urine and blood will be dependent upon the purification of abrin or ricin, the route of exposure, and the length of time between exposure and sample collection. Here, we present the first diagnostic assay for the simultaneous quantification of both ricinine and abrine in blood matrices...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Michael Nedahl, Sys Johansen, Kristian Linnet
The antipsychotic drug olanzapine may be subject to postmortem redistribution. This complicates the toxicological evaluation in postmortem cases and a supplementary analysis of brain tissue may be an advantage. We report reference brain and blood concentrations of olanzapine from 40 forensic autopsy cases. Each case was assigned to one of three groups according to the cause of death: (A) fatal intoxication by olanzapine alone; (B) fatal intoxication by olanzapine in combination with other drugs and (C) olanzapine was not related to the cause of death...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
A W Jones, A Holmgren, F C Kugelberg, F P Busardò
This article reports the concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in femoral blood and bladder urine in a case series of drug intoxication deaths (N = 37). GHB was determined in blood (B-GHB) and urine (U-GHB) by a GC-FID-GBL method and 30 mg/L was used as a cut-off concentration for reporting positive results. The mean (median) and range of GHB concentrations in bladder urine were 2,818 mg/L (1,900 mg/L) and 120-13,000 mg/L, respectively. These concentrations were appreciably higher than those in femoral blood, 637 mg/L (260 mg/L) and 30-9,200 mg/L, respectively...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
R M Coleman, G Ojeda-Torres, W Bragg, D Fearey, P McKinney, L Castrodale, D Verbrugge, K Stryker, E DeHart, M Cooper, E Hamelin, J Thomas, R C Johnson
A case of an elderly female with suspected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is presented. The patient shared a meal of recreationally-harvested shellfish with her family and soon began to experience nausea and weakness. She was taken to the local emergency department and then transported to a larger hospital in Anchorage where she was admitted to the intensive care unit with respiratory depression and shock. Her condition improved, and she was discharged from the hospital 6 days later. No others who shared the meal reported symptoms of PSP...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Åse Marit Leere Øiestad, Ritva Karinen, Sidsel Rogde, Stian Nilsen, Kari-Beate Boye Eldor, Gerd-Wenche Brochmann, Marianne Arnestad, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad, Mariana Dadalto Peres, Lena Kristoffersen, Vigdis Vindenes
Peripheral blood (PB) is considered to be the golden standard for measuring postmortem drug concentrations. In several cases, PB is however not available, but information regarding drug findings might still be crucial in order to determine the cause of death. Antidepressants are frequently detected in postmortem samples from forensic toxicology cases, but the literature investigating concentrations in other matrices than peripheral and heart blood is limited.We here describe a study for comparison of concentrations for a large number of different drugs in six different matrices...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Junhui Lee, Jiwon Park, Ahra Go, Heesung Moon, Sujin Kim, Sohee Jung, Wonjoon Jeong, Heesun Chung
To intoxicated patients in the emergency room, toxicological analysis can be considerably helpful for identifying the involved toxicants. In order to develop a urine multi-drug screening (UmDS) method, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) were used to determine targeted and unknown toxicants in urine. A GC-MS method in scan mode was validated for selectivity, limit of detection (LOD) and recovery. An LC-MS-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method was validated for lower LOD, recovery and matrix effect...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Bassam Mahboub, Ayesha Begum Mohammad, Ayssar Nahlé, Mayank Vats, Omar Al Assaf, Hamdan Al-Zarooni
In the Middle East, there is no precise data and literature on tobacco-based products, such as dokha and shisha. The proposed study aims to quantify the levels of nicotine and tar in different kinds of dokha and shisha products that are sold in the local marketplace. The amount of nicotine in dokha and shisha products can be quantitatively determined using a combination of the "kissling" and "silicotungstic acid" method proposed by Robert M. Chapin. The tar residue from the smoke sample was collected on a glass wool placed before the stopcock (tap) of a separatory funnel as the smoke passes through the inlet of an electronically controlled vacuum pump...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
R Steven Pappas, Clifford H Watson, Liza Valentin-Blasini
A quantitative method for the analysis of aluminum in tobacco products was developed, validated and applied to select samples. Samples were prepared using standard microwave digestion of tobacco from various products. Detection and quantification utilized sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Method applicability to analyze aluminum in a range of tobacco products was demonstrated with quantitative analyses of smokeless tobacco products, cigarette tobacco, little cigar tobacco and roll-your-own/pipe tobacco...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Melissa F Fogarty, Donna M Papsun, Barry K Logan
Methoxyacetylfentanyl and cyclopropylfentanyl are two of the newest illicit opioids that are infiltrating the heroin market. Methoxyacetylfentanyl and cyclopropylfentanyl were reported by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in their third quarter report of 2017 to have been chemically identified seven and five times, respectively, from drug evidence analyzed by the DEA's lab system; Q3 was the first time cyclopropylfentanyl was identified by the DEA's lab system, while methoxyacetylfentanyl was reported one time in Q2 2017...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Sheng Feng, Oneka T Cummings, Gregory McIntire
Zolpidem (Ambien®) is one of the "Z" drugs often used to improve sleep in older patients and those suffering from insomnia. Schwope, D.M., DePriest, A., Black, D.L., Caplan, Y.H., Cone, E.J., Heltsley, R. (2014) Determing zolpidem compliance: urinary metabolite detection and prevalence in chronic pain patients . Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 38, 513-518 reported that zolpidem in urine is not very prevalent being present <23% of the time in patient urine while the major metabolite, zolpidem 4-phenyl carboxylic acid (ZCA), is much more prevalent in urine with positive rates as high as 50% of the patient samples reviewed...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Trista H Wright
Mitragynine is a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) that has emerged as a designer opioid being distributed on the street. Mitragynine, also known as kratom, has dose-dependent pharmacological effects and possesses both stimulant-like and sedative effects due to dual-binding of α-adrenergic and μ-opioid receptors. This herbal remedy readily available online has caused adverse effects including tachycardia, agitation, tremors, hallucination and death; however, this is the first reported suspected driving under the influence case involving mitragynine...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Gabriella Roda, Sebastiano Arnoldi, Michele Dei Cas, Valeria Ottaviano, Eleonora Casagni, Fausto Tregambe, Giacomo Luca Visconti, Fiorenza Farè, Rino Froldi, Veniero Gambaro
A man was found dead in a hotel located near Rome (Italy). The man was still holding a syringe attached to a butterfly needle inserted in his left forearm vein. The syringe contained a cloudy pinkish fluid. In the hotel room the Police found a broken propofol glass vial plus four sealed ones, an opened NaCl plastic vial and six more still sealed, and a number of packed smaller disposable syringes and needles. An opened plastic bottle containing a white crystalline powder labeled as potassium cyanide was also found...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Jin Young Lee, Changhwan Kim, Yong Han Lee
A sensitive method for the purification and determination of two protein adducts, organophosphorus (OP)-BChE and OP-albumin adducts, in a single sample using a simultaneous sample preparation method was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. First, we isolated O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methyl phosphonothiolate (VX) and O-pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (soman, GD)-BChE adducts using an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method and the HiTrap™ Blue affinity column was subsequently used to isolate and purify VX and GD-albumin adducts from the plasma of rhesus monkeys exposed to nerve agents...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Marion A Coe, Rebecca A Jufer Phipps, Edward J Cone, Sharon L Walsh
The pharmacokinetic profile of oral cocaine has not been fully characterized and prospective data on oral bioavailability are limited. A within-subject study was performed to characterize the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of oral cocaine. Fourteen healthy inpatient participants (six males) with current histories of cocaine use were administered two oral doses (100 and 200 mg) and one intravenous (IV) dose (40 mg) of cocaine during three separate dosing sessions. Plasma samples were collected for up to 24 h after dosing and analyzed for cocaine and metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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