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Journal of Analytical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329431/a-validated-method-for-the-screening-of-320-forensically-significant-compounds-in-blood-by-lc-qtof-with-simultaneous-quantification-of-selected-compounds
#1
Emma Partridge, Stephen Trobbiani, Peter Stockham, Timothy Scott, Chris Kostakis
A broad drug screening method for toxicologically significant drugs and metabolites in whole blood using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOF) was developed and comprehensively validated. The method qualitatively screens for 320 compounds while simultaneously quantifying 39. Compounds were extracted from the blood using alkaline liquid/liquid extraction and chromatographic separation was achieved in 12 min. The QTOF was operated using positive mode electrospray ionization using data dependent acquisition...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329388/a-series-of-deaths-involving-carfentanil-in-the-uk-and-associated-post-mortem-blood-concentrations
#2
Simon P Elliott, Elena Hernandez Lopez
The potent opioid and veterinary drug, carfentanil has recently entered the illicit drug market, especially in relation to heroin and cocaine. Recent publications have reported carfentanil concentrations found in fatalities occurring in the USA. This article presents the toxicological findings in seven heroin/cocaine cases occurring in the UK within a short period of time where carfentanil was detected and measured. Carfentanil was detected along with other drugs in all cases with no alcohol detected in the post-mortem blood in any of the cases...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309651/suspect-screening-using-lc-qqtof-is-a-useful-tool-for-detecting-drugs-in-biological-samples
#3
Jennifer M Colby, Katie L Thoren, Kara L Lynch
High-resolution mass spectrometers (HRMS), including quadrupole time of flight mass analyzers (QqTOF), are becoming more prevalent as screening tools in clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories. Among other advantages, HRMS instruments can collect untargeted, full-scan mass spectra. These datasets can be analyzed retrospectively using a combination of techniques, which can extend the drug detection capabilities. Most laboratories using HRMS in production settings perform untargeted data collection, but analyze data in a targeted manner...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301050/field-detection-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-oral-fluid-using-the-alere%C3%A2-dds%C3%A2-2-mobile-test-system-with-confirmation-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-lc-ms-ms
#4
Alex J Krotulski, Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Barry K Logan
The collection and analysis of drugs in oral fluid (OF) at the roadside has become more feasible with the introduction of portable testing devices such as the Alere™ DDS®2 Mobile Test System (DDS®2). The objective of this study was to compare the on-site results for the DDS®2 to laboratory-based confirmatory assays with respect to detection of drugs of abuse in human subjects. As part of a larger Institutional Review Board approved study, two OF samples were collected from each participant at a music festival in Miami, FL, USA...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301034/impact-of-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-mediated-hydrolysis-on-haldol%C3%A2-urinalysis
#5
Oneka T Cummings, Erin C Strickland, Jeffrey R Enders, Gregory McIntire
Reports have suggested that patients with mental health disorders including major depressive disorder and schizophrenia have dramatically low adherence levels to prescribed medications. Patients on haloperidol (Haldol®) therapy, regardless of their disease, were found to have higher adherence levels-though still strikingly low. This work shows that high levels of the glucuronidated form of haloperidol are present in patient urine samples. Time-of-Flight (TOF) mass spectrometry experiments are consistent with both the presence of haloperidol glucuronide and that hydrolysis of haloperidol patient urine samples leads to significantly increased concentrations of free haloperidol...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301016/movantik%C3%A2-and-the-frequency-of-positive-naloxone-in-urine
#6
Justin Wotring, Sky Countryman, Frank N Wallace, Erin C Strickland, Oneka T Cummings, Gregory L McIntire
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301012/diagnosis-of-heroin-overdose-in-an-8-year-old-boy-reliable-contribution-of-toxicological-investigations
#7
M Soichot, S Julliand, J Filatriau, A Hurbain, E Bourgogne, A Mihoubi, H Gourlain, B Delhotal-Landes
Toxicological investigations are often required by clinicians in comatose patients with suspected poisoning. However, the usefulness of toxicological analyses to support a diagnosis of acute poisoning is debated among clinicians and the interpretation of laboratory tests is challenging given the wide diversity of analytical techniques available. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who was admitted to an intensive care unit with severe respiratory depression and neurological impairment. In order to formulate appropriate hypothesizes about the diagnosis and circumstances of intoxication, clinicians consulted toxicologists for a comprehensive toxicological screening...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300983/interpretation-of-tramadol-findings-in-hair-concentrations-after-a-single-exposure-and-application-to-a-munchausen-s-syndrome-by-proxy-case
#8
Pascal Kintz, Alice Ameline, Jean-Sébastien Raul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300967/the-validation-of-elisa-screening-according-to-swgtox-recommendations
#9
Nicholas B Tiscione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300962/pharmacokinetic-characterization-of-11-nor-9-carboxy-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-in-urine-following-acute-oral-cannabis-ingestion-in-healthy-adults
#10
Nicolas J Schlienz, Edward J Cone, Evan S Herrmann, Natalie A Lembeck, John M Mitchell, George E Bigelow, Ronald Flegel, Charles P LoDico, Eugene D Hayes, Ryan Vandrey
Understanding the urine excretion profile for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolites is important for accurate detection and interpretation of toxicological testing for cannabis use. Prior literature has primarily evaluated the urinary pharmacokinetics of the non-psychoactive THC metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) following smoked cannabis administration. The present study examined the urine THCCOOH excretion profile following oral cannabis administration in 18 healthy adults...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300918/detection-of-cocaine-and-metabolites-in-bone-following-decomposition-using-2d-lc-ms-ms
#11
Malorie Mella, Brendan Schweitzer, Claude R Mallet, Tara Moore, Sabra Botch-Jones
Introduction: In forensic toxicology, challenges exist with quantification analysis of cocaine and metabolites in postmortem samples following extensive decomposition. Alternative matrices, such as bone could prove useful when other specimens are not available. Detection and quantification of drugs in complex matrices require time-consuming extraction processes. The objective of this study was to develop a robust extraction and clean-up methodology to efficiently extract cocaine, and its metabolites, in bone and reach target limits of detection using multidimensional chromatography...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300899/tissue-distribution-of-suvorexant-in-three-forensic-autopsy-cases
#12
Brian Waters, Kenji Hara, Natsuki Ikematsu, Mio Takayama, Aya Matsusue, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Shin-Ichi Kubo
Suvorexant (Belsomra®) is a relatively new insomnia medication that has been available in USA and Japan since 2014. It is a dual orexin receptor antagonist that promotes sleep by inhibiting the binding of orexin neurons to the OX1R and OX2R receptors. In this report, we describe the detection and quantitation of suvorexant from the postmortem specimens of three separate autopsy cases handled by our department. Suvorexant was identified by fast gas chromatography/mass spectrometry during routine screening, and quantitated by a fully validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy method...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272445/evaluation-of-intraosseous-fluid-as-an-alternative-biological-specimen-in-postmortem-toxicology
#13
Luke N Rodda, Justin A Volk, Ellen Moffat, Chinyere M Williams, Kara L Lynch, Alan H B Wu
The postmortem redistribution phenomenon is an important factor in the interpretation of blood drug concentrations as a cause or factor in death. Intraosseous fluid (IOF) may serve as an alternative matrix for drug testing. Intraosseous fluid was collected from the left and right tibias and humerus of 29 decedents using the Arrow EZ-IO Intraosseous Vascular Access System. Standard autopsy specimens including blood were also collected at the same time during autopsy. Blood and IOF specimens were screened by immunoassay for opioids, fentanyl analogs, oxycodone, methadone, cocaine, methamphetamine, amphetamines, phencyclidine, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cannabinoids, using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244082/quantitation-of-cocaine-and-metabolites-phencyclidine-butalbital-and-phenobarbital-in-meconium-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#14
Triniti L Scroggin, Gwendolyn A McMillin
In this study, a quantitative polarity switching liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to detect and quantify cocaine and metabolites (cocaethylene, benzoylecgonine and meta-hydroxybenzoylecgonine), phencyclidine (PCP) and barbiturates (phenobarbital and butalbital) in meconium. Accuracy and precision samples at 0.0125% and 75% of the upper limit of quantitation (ULOQ) were analyzed in triplicate over 5 days with accuracy above 84% and average %CV values below 11%...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244080/quantification-of-methadone-and-main-metabolites-in-nails
#15
Teresa Patrícia Magalhães, Sara Cravo, Diana Dias da Silva, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Carlos Afonso, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Helena Carmo
The quantification of drugs of abuse in keratinized matrices is becoming of special relevance for monitoring consumption and for post-mortem investigations. We aimed to implement an analytical method for the simultaneous detection of morphine (MORF), 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), methadone (MET), 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and 2-ethyl-5-methyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EMDP) in nails. After decontamination, the nail samples (30 mg) were submitted to an alkaline digestion followed by a two-step liquid-liquid and SPE extraction using mixed-mode cation exchange cartridges...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244076/reference-brain-blood-concentrations-of-citalopram-duloxetine-mirtazapine-and-sertraline
#16
Michael Nedahl, Sys Stybe Johansen, Kristian Linnet
Postmortem blood samples may not accurately reflect antemortem drug concentrations, as the levels of some drugs increase due to postmortem redistribution (PMR). The brain has been suggested as an alternative sampling site. The anatomically secluded site of the brain limits redistribution and prolongs the detection window, thereby enabling sampling from deceased individuals where blood is no longer suitable for analysis. We report concentrations in brain tissue and blood from 91 cases for the four antidepressants citalopram, duloxetine, mirtazapine and sertraline...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206963/occupational-exposure-to-alcohol-based-hand-sanitizers-the-diagnostic-role-of-alcohol-biomarkers-in-hair
#17
A Salomone, A Bozzo, D Di Corcia, E Gerace, M Vincenti
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair are effective direct biomarkers of ethanol ingestion, whose analytical determination can be used to discriminate between chronic and occasional ethanol intake. Ethanol is a compound widely used in some workplaces (e.g., clinics, hospitals) and is present in considerable amounts in mouthwash for oral cleaning, medications, cosmetic products, hydro-alcoholic disinfectants and antiseptics for hands. This study examined the ethyl alcohol exposure derived from hand disinfectants (in gel form) by simulating the typical occupational situation of medical-health workers (healthcare workers, nurses, surgeons, etc...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194549/stability-of-synthetic-cathinones-in-urine
#18
Lindsay Glicksberg, Sarah Kerrigan
In this report, we evaluate the concentration, pH, temperature and analyte-dependent effects on cathinone stability in preserved human urine. A total of 22 synthetic cathinones were evaluated at 100 ng/mL and 1,000 ng/mL in pH 4 and pH 8 urine over 6 months. Specimens were stored at -20°C, 4°C, 20°C and 32°C. The stability of synthetic cathinones was highly dependent on urine pH and storage temperature. Cathinones were considerably more stable in acidic urine (pH 4) at low temperature. In alkaline urine (pH 8) at 32°C, significant losses (>20%) were observed within hours for the majority of drugs...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194519/development-of-an-analytical-procedure-for-the-determination-of-multiclass-compounds-for-forensic-veterinary-toxicology
#19
Bartosz Sell, Tomasz Sniegocki, Jan Zmudzki, Andrzej Posyniak
Reported here is a new analytical multiclass method based on QuEChERS technique, which has proven to be effective in diagnosing fatal poisoning cases in animals. This method has been developed for the determination of analytes in liver samples comprising rodenticides, carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides, coccidiostats and mycotoxins. The procedure entails addition of acetonitrile and sodium acetate to 2 g of homogenized liver sample. The mixture was shaken intensively and centrifuged for phase separation, which was followed by an organic phase transfer into a tube containing sorbents (PSA and C18) and magnesium sulfate, then it was centrifuged, the supernatant was filtered and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186585/fatality-following-ingestion-of-tetrahydrofuranylfentanyl-u-49900-and-methoxy-phencyclidine
#20
Alex J Krotulski, Donna M Papsun, Melissa Friscia, Jennifer L Swartz, Brian D Holsey, Barry K Logan
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS), and specifically novel opioids, continue to cause adverse events, including death, within drug-using populations. As the number of opioid-related overdoses continues to increase, laboratories have identified the emergence of new fentanyl analogues and other synthetic opioid-related drugs. Tetrahydrofuranylfentanyl (THFF) has been identified in Europe and the United States as an emerging novel opioid, causing death in at least 15 drug-using individuals to date. THFF is structurally similar to furanylfentanyl, a previously characterized novel opioid responsible for numerous adverse events, including death...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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