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Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Davide Guerrieri, Fanny Kjellqvist, Robert Kronstrand, Henrik Gréen
Every year new fentanyl analog compounds, or fentanyls, appear on the drug scene. Development of immunoassays dedicated for screening individual molecules is challenging due to the short-lived presence of these compounds on the recreational drug market. Therefore, we investigated the detecting capabilities of the immunalysis fentanyl direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit against fentanyl in whole blood, and determined the cross-reactivity of nine fentanyl analogs (2-fluorofentanyl, acetylfentanyl, acrylfentanyl, carfentanil, cyclopropylfentanyl, tetrahydrofuranylfentanyl, furanylfentanyl, ocfentanil, valerylfentanyl) to confirm its validity for the general screening of fentanyls...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Joana Carvalho, Tiago Rosado, Mário Barroso, Eugenia Gallardo
The present work describes the development and validation of an analytical method for the determination of the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine and its active metabolite carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, in oral fluid using liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector. Correlation between plasma and oral fluid for these compounds has been proven before, making this matrix a great non-invasive alternative for drug-monitoring purposes. The adaptation of cards, commonly applied in dried blood spots (DBS) sampling, to oral fluid resulted in dried saliva spots (DSS)...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Matthew Feldhammer, Alec Saitman, Ly Nguyen, Bryan Milstid
Adulteration of samples submitted for toxicological analyses can present unique challenges to non-forensic clinical laboratories. With the number of overdose-related deaths expected to surpass 60,000 in 2018, it is incumbent on all members of the healthcare team to be active participants in curbing opioid dependence and identifying prescription drug misuse and diversion. Recently published guidelines have sought to provide guidance to laboratories overseeing prescription drug-monitoring programs. We present a case of sample adulteration in an attempt to conceal prescription non-compliance...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Christina Haddad, Rola Salman, Ahmad El-Hellani, Soha Talih, Alan Shihadeh, Najat Aoun Saliba
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are battery-powered devices that heat and vaporize solutions containing propylene glycol (PG) and/or vegetable glycerin (VG), nicotine and possible trace flavorants to produce an inhalable aerosol. The heating process can lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are linked to various oxidative damage-initiated diseases. Several studies in the literature have addressed ROS emissions in ECIG aerosols, but the effects of power, ECIG device design and liquid composition on ROS are relatively unknown...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Wonho Lee, Beom Jun Ko, Yeong Eun Sim, Sungill Suh, Dahye Yoon, Suhkmann Kim
Urine was most commonly used biological sample in drug test. To create a false-negative test result, some drug abusers were reported to submit animal urine instead of their own. So, the purpose of this study was to compare and differentiate human from animal urine (Rat 370, Pig 12, Horse 10, Cat 8, Dog 13, Cow 10, Monkey 10) samples through the uses of quantitative 1H-NMR and to find biomarkers that can be used for the discrimination of human urine from animal urine. The 1H-NMR spectroscopy was employed and metabolomic analysis with multivariate statistics was carried out...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Jayne B Morrow, Jeri D Ropero-Miller, Megan L Catlin, Agnes D Winokur, Amy B Cadwallader, Jessica L Staymates, Shannan R Williams, Jonathan G McGrath, Barry K Logan, Michael M McCormick, Kurt B Nolte, Thomas P Gilson, M J Menendez, Bruce A Goldberger
In many jurisdictions, public safety and public health entities are working together to enhance the timeliness and accuracy of the analytical characterization and toxicology testing of novel synthetic opioids. The improved sharing and early detection of these analytical data are intended to inform surveillance, interdiction efforts, patient intervention and treatment, all of which are critical to curbing the opioid epidemic. Forensic practitioners working to identify novel synthetic opioids struggle to provide timely results when encountering new or unknown substances, such as the fentanyl analogs...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Michelle Williams, Jennifer Martin, Peter Galettis
Workplace drug testing in Australia is governed by two standards AS/NZS 4308:2008 for testing in urine and AS 4760:2006 for oral fluid. These standards are prescriptive and describe the drugs tested, procedures for analysis and collection devices. However, the drugs listed are not exhaustive and workers may consume novel psychoactive substances without detection. Here we present a validated method for the detection and quantitation of 19 synthetic cannabinoids in oral fluid. These drugs are AM2233, JWH-200, AB-005, AB-FUBINACA, AB-PINACA, AB-CHMINACA, AM2201, RCS-4, JWH-250, STS-135, JWH-73, XLR-11, JWH-251, JWH-18, JWH-122, JWH-19, UR-144, JWH-20 and AKB-48...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Claudia Vignali, Matteo Moretti, Angelo Groppi, Antonio Marco Maria Osculati, Luca Tajana, Luca Morini
We report the analysis of the synthetic cathinones α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone (α-PHP) and α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP), both pyrovalerone derivatives, in blood, urine, gastric contents, main tissues and hair of a deceased person. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed by LC-MS-MS. All the biological samples were collected during autopsy and extracted/purified onto a solid phase extraction cartridge before instrumental analysis. The method was validated for blood and urine and proved to be highly sensitive and specific for both the synthetic cathinones (limit of detection: 0...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
B J Collins, D Slade, K Ryan, R Mathias, A Shan, J Algaier, K Aillon, S Waidyanatha
Tris(chloropropyl)phosphate (TCPP) is an organophosphorus flame retardant (OPFR) and plasticizer increasingly used in consumer products and as a replacement for brominated flame retardants. Commercially available TCPP is a mixture of four structural isomers the most abundant of which is tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TCPP-1). Although there is a widespread use of TCPP and potential for human exposure, there is limited data on the safety or toxicity of TCPP. The National Toxicology Program is conducting long-term studies to examine the toxicity of the TCPP in rats after lifetime exposure, including perinatal oral exposure...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Shrila Mazumder, Rayaj A Ahamed, Ernest McGahee, Lanqing Wang, Tiffany H Seyler
Cigarette smoking significantly increases the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases as well as premature death. Aromatic amines (AAs) such as o-toluidine, 2-aminonaphthalene and 4-aminobiphenyl are found in cigarette smoke and are well-established human bladder carcinogens presumably acting via the formation of DNA adducts. These amines may be metabolized in the liver to acetylated or glucuronidated forms or oxidized to a hydroxylamine which may react with protein and DNA to form adducts. Free, acetylated and glucuronidated AAs are excreted in urine and can be measured as exposure biomarkers...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
John P Buchweitz, Douglas Mader, Andreas F Lehner
A case of canine intoxication and fatality with the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin is described. A 5-year-old female spayed Pit Bull Terrier was off leash and unsupervised at home for 15-20 min prior to discovery by her owner. The patient was in lateral recumbency, having what the owner described as a seizure. The patient was transported to an emergency veterinary hospital where she presented with tachycardia, tachypnea and intractable tremors/seizures. Despite aggressive medical intervention, the patient went into respiratory and cardiac arrest and died at 28 h after presentation...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Jin Young Kim, Sunglll Suh, Jaehyeong Park, Moon Kyo In
Despite the efforts to prevent the spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) such as synthetic amphetamine derivatives, it is apparent that newer types of NPS are still emerging on the market in recent years. Due to high potential for their abuse, reliable analytical methods are required to determine these substances in biological samples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate the gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 13 amphetamine-related NPS (amphetamine; AP, 4-fluoroamphetamine; 4FA, methamphamine; MA, 4-fluoromethamphetamine; 4FMA, 4-chloroamphetamine; 4CA, para-methoxyamphetamine; PMA, 4-chloromethamphetamine; 4CMA, 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran; 6APB, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; MDA, para-methoxymethamphetamine; PMMA, 6-(2-methylaminopropyl)benzofuran; 6MAPB, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA, 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane; MDAI) in urine...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Emma Partridge, Stephen Trobbiani, Peter Stockham, Cheryl Charlwood, Chris Kostakis
The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) available is constantly increasing, making it difficult for toxicology laboratories to keep screening methods up to date. Full scan high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is a versatile technique which allows for progressive updating of spectral databases to increase the scope of screening. It also allows for retrospective screening of data-specifically, reprocessing of data files using an updated spectral database without the need for re-extraction or reanalysis...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Marek Dziadosz
In this work, an alternative LC-MS-MS strategy for the analysis of urinary creatinine in abstinence control was presented and discussed. The two-way electrospray ionization consisted of two different precursor ions in which fragmentation was used in multiple reaction monitoring experiments. A creatinine adduct ion with sodium and sodium acetate together with the conventional analyte protonation was investigated. Adduct formation and fragmentation was explored by appropriate infusion experiments performed with analyte solutions prepared in different concentrations...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Kamilla Nyborg Günther, Sys Stybe Johansen, Petra Wicktor, Jytte Banner, Kristian Linnet
Analysis of drugs in hair differs from their analysis in other tissues due to the extended detection window, as well as the opportunity that segmental hair analysis offers for the detection of changes in drug intake over time. The antipsychotic drug chlorprothixene is widely used, but few reports exist on chlorprothixene concentrations in hair. In this study, we analyzed hair segments from 20 deceased psychiatric patients who had undergone chronic chlorprothixene treatment, and we report hair concentrations of chlorprothixene and its metabolite desmethylchlorprothixene...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Samantha L Isenberg, Melissa D Carter, Michael A Miller, Aleksandra I Noras, Mike A Mojica, Sean T Carlsen, Chinthaka P Bulathsinghala, Jerry D Thomas, Rudolph C Johnson
Ricin and abrin are toxic ribosome-inactivating proteins found in plants. Exposure to these toxins can be detected using the biomarkers ricinine and abrine, which are present in the same plant sources as the toxins. The concentration of the biomarkers in urine and blood will be dependent upon the purification of abrin or ricin, the route of exposure, and the length of time between exposure and sample collection. Here, we present the first diagnostic assay for the simultaneous quantification of both ricinine and abrine in blood matrices...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Emma Partridge, Eric Teoh, Christine Nash, Timothy Scott, Cheryl Charlwood, Chris Kostakis
Tapentadol is a centrally acting synthetic analgesic which is prescribed for the treatment of a range of chronic pain conditions. Its use in treating various pain conditions is increasing and, as with other opioids, it has the potential to be abused. We describe a three-stage incorporation of tapentadol into validated screening and quantitative methods through: (i) addition of retention time/mass spectral data to a database, (ii) qualitative validation and (iii) quantitative validation. This represents an efficient and flexible approach to the incorporation of new compounds of interest to existing screening methods...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
R M Coleman, G Ojeda-Torres, W Bragg, D Fearey, P McKinney, L Castrodale, D Verbrugge, K Stryker, E DeHart, M Cooper, E Hamelin, J Thomas, R C Johnson
A case of an elderly female with suspected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is presented. The patient shared a meal of recreationally-harvested shellfish with her family and soon began to experience nausea and weakness. She was taken to the local emergency department and then transported to a larger hospital in Anchorage where she was admitted to the intensive care unit with respiratory depression and shock. Her condition improved, and she was discharged from the hospital 6 days later. No others who shared the meal reported symptoms of PSP...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Åse Marit Leere Øiestad, Ritva Karinen, Sidsel Rogde, Stian Nilsen, Kari-Beate Boye Eldor, Gerd-Wenche Brochmann, Marianne Arnestad, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad, Mariana Dadalto Peres, Lena Kristoffersen, Vigdis Vindenes
Peripheral blood (PB) is considered to be the golden standard for measuring postmortem drug concentrations. In several cases, PB is however not available, but information regarding drug findings might still be crucial in order to determine the cause of death. Antidepressants are frequently detected in postmortem samples from forensic toxicology cases, but the literature investigating concentrations in other matrices than peripheral and heart blood is limited.We here describe a study for comparison of concentrations for a large number of different drugs in six different matrices...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Bassam Mahboub, Ayesha Begum Mohammad, Ayssar Nahlé, Mayank Vats, Omar Al Assaf, Hamdan Al-Zarooni
In the Middle East, there is no precise data and literature on tobacco-based products, such as dokha and shisha. The proposed study aims to quantify the levels of nicotine and tar in different kinds of dokha and shisha products that are sold in the local marketplace. The amount of nicotine in dokha and shisha products can be quantitatively determined using a combination of the "kissling" and "silicotungstic acid" method proposed by Robert M. Chapin. The tar residue from the smoke sample was collected on a glass wool placed before the stopcock (tap) of a separatory funnel as the smoke passes through the inlet of an electronically controlled vacuum pump...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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