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Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Alan D Brailsford, Christiaan Bartlett, Andrew T Kicman, David A Cowan
The administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been reported to augment the increase in growth hormone (GH) secretion associated with the onset of sleep. The ability of GHB to stimulate GH production in the absence of sleep in both male and female volunteers was investigated as part of a GHB administration study. Twelve healthy volunteers (six men and six women) were given a small oral dose (25 mg/kg) of GHB (as Xyrem(®)) at 10:00 h. Basal blood samples (as serum) were taken 10 min prior to GHB administration, with additional samples taken at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 360 and 480 min post-administration...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Xiulu Ruan, Srinivas Chiravuri, Alan D Kaye
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Zhen Zhao, Xu Gu, Xiaoou Su, Junguo Li, Jun Li, Yingchao Dong, Yujuan Yang, Ting Yao, Yuchang Qin
This study investigated the ractopamine (RAC) distribution and depletion process in goat plasma, urine and various muscle tissues which were associated with a potential risk for consumer health. The experiment was carried out in 21 goats (18 treated and 3 controls). Treated animals were administered orally a dose of 1 mg/kg body mass per day for 28 consecutive days and randomly sacrificed on Days 0.25, 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 of the withdrawal period. RAC in goat samples was analyzed by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Oneka T Cummings, J Enders, G L McIntire
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Madeline Montgomery, Marc LeBeau, Cynthia Morris-Kukoski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Simonetta Lambiase, Angelo Groppi, Denise Gemmellaro, Luca Morini
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are specific and sensitive biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute or chronic alcohol abuse. Due to postmortem alcohol production in biological tissues, they have recently been evaluated as potential biomarkers of ethanol ingestion. This in vitro study aimed to evaluate all developmental stages of the fly Calliphora vicina L. (Calliphoridae). Different pig substrates were used during the in vitro experiments to rear C. vicina Experiments were performed to: (i) assess the presence of EtG and EtS in larvae, pupae and insects; (ii) study variability due to the substrates characteristics; (iii) evaluate the possibility of false positives due to external alcohol contamination; and (iv) estimate the potential metabolism of ethanol by the insects...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Damon Borg, Anna Tverdovsky, Richard Stripp
Synthetic cannabinoids are a group of psychoactive compounds that mimic the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive constituent of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L). The Drug Enforcement Administration has classified many of the most common cannabinoids as Schedule 1 controlled substances. As a result, several novel synthetic cannabinoid series have emerged in the illicit drug market, including PINACA, FUBINACA, PB-22, AKB-48 and multiple derivatives of these compounds. Our laboratory developed and validated an analytical method for the analysis 32 synthetic cannabinoid metabolites in urine samples...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Kai Zhang, Xiaowei Liang, Junmin Zhang, Qingyu Zhao, Shengsheng Liu, Chaohua Tang, Chuanyou Su, Qingshi Meng
This study measured the concentrations of salbutamol residues in red and white hair of cattle during and after salbutamol administration. Three Chinese Simmental beef cattle received an oral administration of 150 μg/kg body weight/d salbutamol for 21 consecutive days. Salbutamol concentrations were determined on Days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of administration and on Days 7, 14, 28, 42, and 70 following the last administration dose using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of salbutamol that eluted from hair were determined...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Vera Alves, Carlota Conceição, João Gonçalves, Helena M Teixeira, José S Câmara
This paper reports, for the first time, the development of a modified Quick, Easy, Cheap Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) combined with a dispersive SPE (d-SPE) based clean-up procedure as a new and powerful strategy for the simultaneous and efficient isolation of two different antidepressants, fluoxetine and clomipramine, and their active metabolites in human urine samples. A univariate experimental design with four independent variables such as sample volume, extraction solvent, buffered salts and clean-up step, was performed and used to investigate the effect of process variables on the extraction efficiency...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Giovanni Ottaviani, Roberto Cameriere, Marta Cippitelli, Rino Froldi, Giovanna Tassoni, Massimiliano Zampi, Mariano Cingolani
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to detect drugs of abuse in a single sample of tooth. Pulverized samples of dental materials were subjected to acid hydrolysis to detect opiates, cocaine and their metabolites. The residual dental materials from these analyses were subjected to basic extraction to detect cannabis products (Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol). The method showed a good linearity between 0.05 and 2 ng/mg for all substances...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Camille Cohier, Bruno Mégarbane, Olivier Roussel
Driving after illicit drug use is a worldwide growing concern requiring rapid and sensitive screening at the roadside. It is noteworthy that the sampling method used to collect oral fluid (OF) may significantly influence drug concentrations in the collected sample and thus alter the accuracy of the measurement. We evaluated two OF collection devices, Quantisal(®) and Certus(®) collectors, for their suitability for collecting samples to allow laboratory confirmation of driving after illicit drug use. Four parameters were studied including (i) the collected OF volume; (ii) the recovery efficiency using OFs spiked with opiates, cannabinoids, amphetamines, cocaine and its metabolites; (iii) drug stability after storage for 1, 7 and 14 days at -20°C, +4°C and room temperature; and (iv) the impact of mouth cells present in the collected OF on drug stability...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Alexander James Frank Lawson, Kate Elizabeth Shipman, Stephen Andrew George, Indranil Dasgupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
F E Dussy, S Hangartner, C Hamberg, C Berchtold, U Scherer, G Schlotterbeck, D Wyler, T A Briellmann
A 24-year-old man known to consume illegal drugs was found dead in his apartment. A reclosable plastic zipper bag containing several hundred milligrams of a brown powder was found close to the dead body and the first assumption of the investigators was death due to heroin intoxication. Therefore, a legal autopsy was ordered. The following toxicological analysis revealed ocfentanil in urine and in the brown powder. Four different approaches for the determination of the ocfentanil concentrations in peripheral whole blood are described...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
A Kinnell, R Cole, R Thakrar, P R Smith, P Patel, P Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Sher Lynn Gardner, Robert J Geller, Robyn Hannigan, Yu Sun, Anil Mangla
CONTEXT: Screening for lead poisoning is necessary in young children, but obtaining the needed blood sample is unpleasant and sometimes very difficult. Use of an alternative screening method that is less unpleasant and less difficult would likely help to increase the percent of children receiving screening. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the correlation of oral fluid and blood lead in a clinical setting, and to ascertain the acceptability and feasibility of obtaining oral fluid from a young child in the clinical setting...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Li-Jun Hu, Xiao-Fang Li, Jin-Qing Hu, Xiao-Jia Ni, Hao-Yang Lu, Jia-Jia Wang, Xiang-Ning Huang, Chao-Xian Lin, De-Wei Shang, Yu-Guan Wen
The kynurenine pathway, in which tryptophan is metabolized to kynurenine and kynurenic acid, has been linked to depression. A rapid and highly reproducible liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method were established for determining tryptophan, kynurenine and kynurenic acid in human serum. Biological samples were precipitated with methanol before separation on an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18. The stable-isotope-labeled internal standards (kynurenine-(13)C4 (15)N and kynurenic acid-d5) were used for quantification...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Donna Papsun, Sherri L Kacinko, David Buzby, Barry K Logan
Following series of synthetic cannabinoid and synthetic cathinone derivatives, the illicit drug market has begun to see increased incidence of synthetic opioids including fentanyl and its derivatives, and other chemically unrelated opioid agonists including AH-7921 and MT-45. Among the most frequently encountered compounds in postmortem casework have been furanyl fentanyl (N-(1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylfuran-2-carboxamide, Fu-F) and U-47700 (trans-3,4-dichloro-N-(2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl)-N-methylbenzamide)...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Tomáš Hložek, Miroslava Bursová, Pavel Coufal, Radomír Čabala
A simple, sensitive and robust method for simultaneous determination of antiepileptic drugs (gabapentin, pregabalin and vigabatrin) in human serum using GC-MS was developed and validated for clinical toxicology purposes. This method employs an emerging class of derivatization agents - alkyl chloroformates allowing the efficient and rapid derivatization of both the amino and carboxylic groups of the tested antiepileptic drugs within seconds. The derivatization protocol was optimized using the Design of Experiment statistical methodology, and the entire sample preparation requires less than 5 min...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Roger L Bertholf, Rohit Sharma, Gary M Reisfield
Urine drug testing (UDT) has become an essential component in the management of patients prescribed opioid analgesics for the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain. Several laboratory methods are available to monitor adherence with the pharmacological regimen and abstinence from illicit or unauthorized medications. Immunochemical screening methods are rapid and economical, but they have limitations, including lack of specificity, and confirmatory methods are often necessary to verify presumptive positive results...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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