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Journal of Analytical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637216/qualitative-analysis-and-detection-of-the-pyrolytic-products-of-jwh-018-and-11-additional-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-the-presence-of-common-herbal-smoking-substrates
#1
Stephen Raso, Suzanne Bell
Synthetic cannabinoids have become a ubiquitous challenge in forensic toxicology and seized drug analysis. Thermal degradation products have yet to be identified and evaluated for toxicity in comparison to parent and metabolic compounds. An investigation into these pyrolytic products, as the major route of ingestion is inhalation, may produce additional insight to understand the toxicity of synthetic cannabinoids. The pyrolysis of JWH-018 and 11 additional synthetic cannabinoids and six herbal plant substrates were conducted using an in-house constructed smoking simulator...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633318/evaluation-of-oral-fluid-as-a-specimen-for-duid
#2
Allison M Veitenheimer, Jarrad R Wagner
Drugged driving has become more prevalent than drunk driving and is quickly gaining national attention due to increased prescription drug abuse and recent cannabis legalization. Unlike alcohol, police officers do not generally have access to approved devices to screen for drugs at the roadside. Onsite drug screening devices do exist and are used in other countries, but have not garnered widespread approval for use in the United States in driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases. One reason for this is that the devices are designed to test oral fluid, which is not a commonly accepted specimen for DUID...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633314/qualitative-identification-of-fentanyl-analogs-and-other-opioids-in-postmortem-cases-by-uhplc-ion-trap-msn
#3
Elisa N Shoff, M Elizabeth Zaney, Joseph H Kahl, George W Hime, Diane M Boland
Since 2013, the Miami-Dade County Medical Examiner Department has experienced an increase in the number of opioid-related deaths. The majority of cases coincided with the introduction of fentanyl into the local heroin supply. From 2014 to 2015, Miami-Dade County experienced a near 600% increase in fentanyl-related deaths, followed by an additional 200% increase in 2016. In 2015, two novel fentanyl analogs were identified in medical examiner cases: beta-hydroxythiofentanyl and acetyl fentanyl. In 2016, four additional fentanyl analogs emerged: para-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl, butyryl fentanyl, furanyl fentanyl and carfentanil, as well as the synthetic opioid U-47700...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575422/fatalities-involving-carfentanil-and-furanyl-fentanyl-two-case-reports
#4
Dina M Swanson, Laura S Hair, Selly R Strauch Rivers, Brianna C Smyth, Sara C Brogan, Alexis D Ventoso, Samantha L Vaccaro, Julia M Pearson
Carfentanil is a fentanyl analog frequently used in large animal veterinary medicine. Recently, carfentanil has been discovered in postmortem and antemortem cases throughout the United States in the heroin supply either alone or mixed with heroin and/or other fentanyl analogs. The potency of carfentanil is ~10,000 times greater than morphine and 100 times greater than fentanyl. In two recent cases, carfentanil was identified and ruled to be the cause of death, either alone or in combination with other drugs...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541461/screening-with-quantification-for-64-drugs-and-metabolites-in-human-urine-using-uplc-ms-ms-analysis-and-a-threshold-accurate-calibration
#5
Thomas G Rosano, Patrice Y Ohouo, Michelle Wood
Drug and metabolite (analytes) identification together with quantification is an important analytical tool in forensic and clinical toxicology. We report the development and validation of a definitive detection and quantification method (UPLC-MS-MS) for initial screening of 64 analytes in urine. The principle of the method is a quantitative extension of a recently reported threshold accurate calibration (TAC) technique which employs a rapid dual-specimen analysis i.e., with and without addition of a reference-analyte standard for normalization of matrix effects...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541419/acute-toxicity-from-intravenous-use-of-the-tricyclic-antidepressant-tianeptine
#6
Sara K Dempsey, Justin L Poklis, Kacie Sweat, Kirk Cumpston, Carl E Wolf
Tianeptine (7-[([3-chloro-6,11]-dihydro-6-methyldibenzo[c,f][1,2]thiazepin-11-yl) amino] heptanoic acid S, S dioxide) is a tricyclic compound prescribed as an antidepressant in European countries, but is not currently approved for use in the United States. There are few published case reports of tianeptine intoxication. Presented is the first case of acute toxicity associated with the intravenous use of tianeptine. A 36-year-old male intentionally injected tianeptine powder intravenously to "help him see into the future"...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541406/cost-benefit-analysis-of-case-management-policies-in-a-dui-lab
#7
Nicholas B Tiscione, Russell Miller, Xiaoqin Shan, Dustin Tate Yeatman
A study was previously conducted and published describing the magnitude of the under-reporting of drugs in driving under the influence (DUI) cases by using a blood drug screen (BDS) case management protocol and to determine whether not reporting those drugs would have a meaningful impact on the DUI cases. A follow-up study presented herein was conducted to generate a larger dataset for evaluation and to compare the results to the original study. For this follow-up study of 576 cases, the laboratory BDS protocol was modified so that a BDS was performed for all felony cases and all misdemeanor cases with a BAC < 0...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472358/metabolic-profile-determination-of-nbome-compounds-using-human-liver-microsomes-and-comparison-with-findings-in-authentic-human-blood-and-urine
#8
Keith-Dane H Temporal, Karen S Scott, Amanda L A Mohr, Barry K Logan
The emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) such as hallucinogenic NBOMes (N-methoxybenzyl derivatives of 2C phenethylamines) in the past few years into the recreational drug market has introduced various challenges in forensic analytical toxicology in regard to adequate and timely detection of these compounds. This is especially true in samples from individuals who have experienced severe and fatal intoxications. The aim of this research was to identify the major Phase I metabolites of selected NBOMe compounds to generate a predicted human metabolic pathway of these substances...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459969/reports-of-adverse-events-associated-with-use-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-2013-2016-a-review
#9
Barry K Logan, Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Alex J Krotulski, Donna M Papsun, Sherri L Kacinko, Jeri D Ropero-Miller, Marilyn A Huestis
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) represent significant analytical and interpretive challenges to forensic and clinical toxicologists. Timely access to case reports and reports of adverse incidents of impairment or toxicity is imperative to clinical diagnosis and treatment, as well as to interpretation of forensic results. Delays in identifying the presence of a novel intoxicating agent have significant consequences for public health and public safety. Adverse effects of intoxications with novel cannabinoids, stimulants, hallucinogens, benzodiazepines and opioids spanning January 2013 through December 2016 as reported in emergency departments, death investigations, impaired driving cases and other forensic contexts are the subject of this review...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453638/etg-ets-in-serum-by-uhplc-ms-ms-in-suspected-sexual-assault-cases
#10
Solfrid Hegstad, Arne Helland, Cecilie Hagemann, Olav Spigset
A method including semi-automated extraction of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) from serum followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) has been developed and validated. Sample preparation prior to UHPLC-MS-MS analysis consisted of protein precipitation and filtration through a phospholipid removal plate. Chromatography was achieved using an HSS T3 column and gradient elution with formic acid in water in combination with methanol. The mass spectrometer was monitored in the negative mode with multiple reaction monitoring...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419252/sensitive-determination-of-cannabinoids-in-whole-blood-by-lc-ms-ms-after-rapid-removal-of-phospholipids-by-filtration
#11
Lambert K Sørensen, Jørgen B Hasselstrøm
Direct analysis of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids in crude acetonitrile extracts of whole blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using pneumatically assisted electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS-MS) was subjected to pronounced ion suppression from co-eluting phospholipids (PLs). The interferences were mainly caused by the lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine classes of PLs. The PLs were easily removed from crude extracts by filtration through a sorbent with Lewis acid properties, which typically increased the THC and cannabinol (CBN) signal intensities by a factor of 5...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387807/validated-lc-ms-ms-method-for-simultaneous-analysis-of-17-barbiturates-in-horse-plasma-for-doping-control
#12
Ying Liu, Cornelius E Uboh, Xiaoqing Li, Fuyu Guan, Youwen You, George A Maylin, Fengchang Zhu, Lawrence R Soma
A rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous screening, quantification and confirmation of 17 barbiturates in horse plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described. Analytes were recovered from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction using methyl tert-butyl ether, separated on a C18 column, and analyzed in negative electrospray ionization mode. Multiple-reaction monitoring was employed for screening and quantification. Confirmation for the presence of the analytes was achieved by comparing ion intensity ratio...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379393/profiting-from-probability-combining-low-and-high-probability-isotopes-as-a-tool-extending-the-dynamic-range-of-an-assay-measuring-amphetamine-and-methamphetamine-in-urine
#13
Anna M Miller, Melissa M Goggin, An Nguyen, Stephanie D Gozum, Gregory C Janis
A wide range of concentrations are frequently observed when measuring drugs of abuse in urine toxicology samples; this is especially true for amphetamine and methamphetamine. Routine liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmatory methods commonly anchored at a 50 ng/mL lower limit of quantitation can span approximately a 100-fold concentration range before regions of non-linearity are reached deteriorating accurate quantitation and qualitative assessments. In our experience, approximately a quarter of amphetamine and methamphetamine positive samples are above a 5,000 ng/mL upper limit of quantitation and thus require reanalysis with dilution for accurate quantitative and acceptable qualitative results...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369647/developing-a-uhplc-qtof-ms-and-automated-library-search-method-for-screening-drugs-and-toxic-compounds-in-postmortem-specimens
#14
Hsiu-Chuan Liu, Chu-An Yang, Ray H Liu, Dong-Liang Lin
Screening and confirming the presence of drugs and toxic compounds in various matrices are important and challenging tasks routinely faced by forensic and clinical laboratories. Recent advances in the liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric technologies have provided an opportunity for the development of more specific and effective approaches to achieve the "screening" and "confirmation" goals in a single analytical step. The objectives of this study are: (i) the establishment of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic, quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric mass spectrometric and MS-MS spectral database, including 1,200 compounds of interest; and (ii) the development of an effective protocol, using this database and three searching algorithms, for general unknown screening of these compounds...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369523/desomorphine-screening-using-commercial-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assays
#15
Jessica Winborn, Sarah Kerrigan
Desomorphine ("Krokodil") is a semi-synthetic opioid that has drawn attention as a recreational drug, particularly in Russia, neighboring former Soviet Republics, Eastern and Central Europe. It has no accepted medicinal uses and is currently a schedule I drug in the United States. In clandestine environments, desomorphine is synthesized from codeine using red phosphorous, hydroiodic acid and gasoline. Residual starting materials in illicit preparations have been associated with severe dermatological effects and extensive tissue necrosis...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369517/identification-of-unique-metabolites-of-the-designer-opioid-furanyl-fentanyl
#16
Melissa M Goggin, An Nguyen, Gregory C Janis
The illicit drug market has seen an increase in designer opioids, including fentanyl and methadone analogs, and other structurally unrelated opioid agonists. The designer opioid, furanyl fentanyl, is one of many fentanyl analogs clandestinely synthesized for recreational use and contributing to the fentanyl and opioid crisis. A method has been developed and validated for the analysis of furanyl fentanyl and furanyl norfentanyl in urine specimens from pain management programs. Approximately 10% of samples from a set of 500 presumptive heroin-positive urine specimens were found to contain furanyl fentanyl, with an average concentration of 33...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335036/validated-method-for-the-screening-and-quantification-of-baclofen-gabapentin-and-pregabalin-in-human-post-mortem-whole-blood-using-protein-precipitation-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#17
Limon Nahar, Amy Smith, Rajan Patel, Rebecca Andrews, Sue Paterson
There has been a rapid increase in the number of prescriptions for baclofen (BLF), gabapentin (GBP) and pregabalin (PGL) in the UK since their introduction to therapy. Recent studies across the European Union and USA have shown the illicit abuse potential of these drugs and deaths have been observed. A simple, reliable and fully validated method was developed for the screening and quantification of BLF, GBP and PGL in human post-mortem (PM) blood. The analytes and their deuterated analogs as internal standard were extracted from blood using a single addition acetonitrile protein precipitation reaction followed by analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with triggered dynamic multiple reaction monitoring mode for simultaneous confirmation and quantification...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335030/urinary-kinetics-of-heroin-metabolites-in-pigs-shortly-after-intake
#18
Gudrun Høiseth, André Gottås, Thomas Berg, Marianne Arnestad, Per Steinar Halvorsen, Liliana C Bachs
In previous experimental studies on heroin metabolites excretion in urine, the first sample was often collected a few hours after intake. In forensic cases, it is sometimes questioned if a positive urine result is expected e.g., 30 min after intake. The aim of this study was to investigate urinary excretion of heroin metabolites (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G)) every 30 min until 330 min after injection of a 20 mg heroin dose in six pigs. Samples were analyzed using a previously published, fully validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334957/quechers-based-method-for-pesticides-analysis-in-adipose-tissue-associated-with-rat-ovaries
#19
Nathalie Zamariola, Pedro Toledo Netto, Carla Adriene da Silva Franchi, João Lauro Viana de Camargo, Mary Rosa Rodrigues de Marchi
The concomitant exposure to low doses of various pesticides is one of the most relevant issues in human toxicology today. An experimental toxicology study was developed to evaluate the effects of this type of exposure on the reproductive capacity of females of three species of rats that were exposed to mixtures of dicofol, dieldrin, endosulfan and permethrin at low doses (LOAEL and NOAEL). In this context, we have developed a method for determining pesticides in adipose tissue (0.5 g, 49% lipid) associated with the ovaries, based on the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) strategy...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334921/internal-hydrolysis-indicator-for-sample-specific-monitoring-of-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-activity
#20
Lacy L Taylor, Noah A Flint, Vinh Ma, Brandy M Hill, Chantry J Clark, Frederick G Strathmann
Metabolized forms of benzodiazepines (benzos) can cause issues with mass spectrometry identification. Benzodiazepines undergo a process called glucuronidation during metabolism that attaches a glucuronic acid for increased solubility. Often in clinical testing an enzymatic hydrolysis step is implemented to increase the sensitivity of benzodiazepines by hydrolyzing β-D-glucuronic acid from benzodiazepine-glucuronide conjugates in urine samples using the β-Glucuronidase enzyme. In this study resorufin β-D-glucuronide, a substrate of the β-Glucuronidase enzyme, was added to patient samples to determine if proper hydrolysis had occurred...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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