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Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing

A Miranda, S Staelens, S Stroobants, J Verhaeghe
Motion tracking with finite time sampling causing an associated unknown residual motion between two motion measurements is one of the factors contributing to resolution loss in small animal PET motion correction. The aim of this work is (i) to provide a means to estimate the effect of the finite motion sampling on the spatial resolution of the motion correction reconstructions and (ii) to correct for this residual motion thereby minimizing resolution loss. We calculate a tailored spatially variant deconvolution kernel from the measured motion data which is then used to deconvolve the motion corrected image using a 3D Richardson-Lucy algorithm...
September 22, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
K Kim, S Kang, W Kim, C Park, D Lee, H Cho, W Kang, S Park, G Kim, H Lim, H Lee, J Park, D Jeon, Y Lim, T Woo, J Oh
In common radiography, image contrast is often limited due mainly to scattered x-rays and noise, decreasing the quantitative usefulness of x-ray images. Several scatter reduction methods based on software correction schemes have been extensively investigated in an attempt to overcome these difficulties, most of which are based on measurement, mathematical-physical modeling, or a combination of both. However, those methods require special equipment, system geometry, and extra manual work to measure scatter characteristics...
September 19, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Sibylle Fallet, Mathieu Lemay, Philippe Renevey, Célestin Leupi, Etienne Pruvot, Jean-Marc Vesin
This study aims at evaluating the potential of a wrist-type photoplethysmographic (PPG) device to discriminate between atrial fibrillation (AF) and other types of rhythm. Data from 17 patients undergoing catheter ablation of various arrhythmias were processed. ECGs were used as ground truth and annotated for the following types of rhythm: sinus rhythm (SR), AF, and ventricular arrhythmias (VA). A total of 381/1370/415 10-s epochs were obtained for the three categories, respectively. After pre-processing and removal of segments corresponding to motion artifacts, two different types of feature were derived from the PPG signals: the interbeat interval-based features and the wave-based features, consisting of complexity/organization measures that were computed either from the PPG waveform itself or from its power spectral density...
September 15, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Christopher Ornelas-Vences, Luis Pastor Sánchez-Fernández, Luis Alejandro Sánchez-Pérez, Juan Manuel Martínez-Hernández
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive disorder that affects motor regulation. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale sponsored by the Movement Disorder Society (MDS-UPDRS) quantifies the illness progression based on clinical observations. The leg agility is an item in this scale, yet only a visual detection of the features is used, leading to subjectivity. Overall, 50 patients (85 measurements) with varying motor impairment severity were asked to perform the leg agility item while wearing inertial sensor units on each ankle...
September 13, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Andoni Elola, Elisabete Aramendi, Unai Irusta, Javier Del Ser, Erik Alonso, Mohamud Daya
Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in the industrialized world. Pulse detection is essential for the recognition of the arrest and the recognition of return of spontaneous circulation during therapy, and it is therefore crucial for the survival of the patient. This paper introduces the first method based exclusively on the ECG for the automatic detection of pulse during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Random forest classifier is used to efficiently combine up to nine features from the time, frequency, slope, and regularity analysis of the ECG...
September 13, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Hua Shen, Siqi Li, Yu Wang, Kai-Rong Qin
In order to investigate the contribution of arterial radius and center-line velocity to the blood conductivity and electrical impedance of pulsatile flow in the human common carotid artery, we proposed three simplified mathematical models to describe the relationship between the center-line velocity, the arterial radius, and the blood conductivity. By comparing the fitting results with those obtained from our previously proposed elastic-tube hemodynamic model, we found that the change in center-line velocity had more notable effect on the blood conductivity than the change in arterial radius...
September 4, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Andraž Rihar, Matjaž Mihelj, Jure Pašič, Giuseppina Sgandurra, Francesca Cecchi, Giovanni Cioni, Paolo Dario, Marko Munih
Infant posture and motor pattern development are normally analyzed by clinical assessment scales. Lately, this approach is combined with the use of sensor-supported systems, such as optical, inertial, and electromagnetic measurement systems, as well as novel assessment devices, such as CareToy. CareToy is a modular device for assessment and rehabilitation of preterm infants, comprising pressure mattresses, inertial and magnetic measurement units, and sensorized toys. Since such integrated sensor system combination is new to the field of sensor-supported infant behavior assessment and rehabilitation, dedicated methods for data analysis were developed and presented...
September 4, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Antonio Alberto Rodríguez Sousa, Jesús M Barandica Fernández, Jonathan Miller, Matías Mir-Montejano
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) that affects the respiratory system. Current treatment is palliative, but there is a gene therapy under investigation which involves inserting a functional CFTR gene into affected cells. Given the clinical variety of the disease, it is necessary to characterize key indicators in its evolution (e.g., the number of functional alveolar sacs and its relationship with a healthy lung function), to anticipate its advancement...
September 1, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Bilal Amin, Muhammad Adnan Elahi, Atif Shahzad, Emily Porter, Barry McDermott, Martin O'Halloran
Osteoporosis is one of the most common diseases that leads to bone fractures. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is currently employed to measure the bone mineral density and to diagnose osteoporosis. Alternatively, the dielectric properties of bones are found to be influenced by bone mineral density; hence, dielectric properties of bones may potentially be used to diagnose osteoporosis. Microwave tomographic imaging is currently in development to potentially measure in vivo dielectric properties of bone. Therefore, the foci of this work are to summarize all available dielectric data of bone in the microwave frequency range and to analyze the confounders that may have resulted in variations in reported data...
August 29, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Javier Mas-Cabo, Gema Prats-Boluda, Alfredo Perales, Javier Garcia-Casado, José Alberola-Rubio, Yiyao Ye-Lin
As one of the main aims of obstetrics is to be able to detect imminent delivery in patients with threatened preterm labor, the techniques currently used in clinical practice have serious limitations in this respect. The electrohysterogram (EHG) has now emerged as an alternative technique, providing relevant information about labor onset when recorded in controlled checkups without administration of tocolytic drugs. The studies published to date mainly focus on EHG-burst analysis and, to a lesser extent, on whole EHG window analysis...
August 29, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Yang Li, Peng Li, Xinpei Wang, Chandan Karmakar, Changchun Liu, Chengyu Liu
This study aimed to test how different QT interval variability (QTV) indices change in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and congestive heart failure (CHF). Twenty-nine healthy volunteers, 29 age-matched CAD patients, and 20 age-matched CHF patients were studied. QT time series were derived from 5-min resting lead-II electrocardiogram (ECG). Time domain indices [mean, SD, and QT variability index (QTVI)], frequency-domain indices (LF and HF), and nonlinear indices [sample entropy (SampEn), permutation entropy (PE), and dynamical patterns] were calculated...
August 25, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Mahnaz Etehadtavakol, Zahra Emrani, E Y K Ng
Early detection of breast tumors, feet pre-ulcers diagnosing in diabetic patients, and identifying the location of pain in patients are essential to physicians. Hot or cold regions in medical thermographic images have potential to be suspicious. Hence extracting the hottest or coldest regions in the body thermographic images is an important task. Lazy snapping is an interactive image cutout algorithm that can be applied to extract the hottest or coldest regions in the body thermographic images quickly with easy detailed adjustment...
August 20, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Dawn Tan, Yong-Hao Pua, Shaminian Balakrishnan, Aileen Scully, Kelly J Bower, Kumar Manharlal Prakash, Eng-King Tan, Jing-Si Chew, Evelyn Poh, Siok-Bee Tan, Ross A Clark
Instrumenting physical assessments in people with Parkinson's disease can provide valuable and sensitive information. This study aimed to investigate whether variables derived from a Kinect-based system can provide incremental value over standard habitual gait speed (HGS) and timed up and go (TUG) variables by evaluating associations with (1) motor and (2) postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD) subscales of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Sixty-two individuals with Parkinson's disease (age 66 ± 7 years; 74% male) undertook an instrumented HGS and modified TUG tests, in addition to the UPDRS...
August 20, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Yue Zhou, Huiqi Li, Wanjun Zhang, Jiayi Xu, Xiaojun Li, Baohua Ji
Cytoskeleton and nucleus are two important anatomic components in eukaryotic cells. Cell fluorescence images are employed to study their realignment and deformation during cell extrusion. Quantitative analysis and modeling of cell orientation are investigated in this paper. For orientation measurement, alignment orientation of microfilaments is calculated using structure tensor method. Nuclei is segmented and fitted to ellipses in nuclei images. Based on the fitted ellipse, orientation and aspect ratio of each nucleus are computed...
August 16, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Xianbin Zhang, Hanna Tiainen, Håvard J Haugen
TiO2 scaffolds have previously shown to have promising osteoconductive properties in previous in vivo experiments. Appropriate mechanical stimuli can further promote this osteoconductive behaviour. However, the complex mechanical environment and the mechanical stimuli enhancing bone regeneration for porous bioceramics have not yet been fully elucidated. This paper aims to compare and evaluate mechanical environment of TiO2 scaffold with three commercial CaP biomaterials, i.e. Bio-Oss, Cerabone and Maxresorb under simulated perfusion culture conditions...
August 16, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Hongtao Wang, Ting Li, Anastasios Bezerianos, Hui Huang, Yuebang He, Peng Chen
Multiple degrees of freedom (DOF) commands are required for a brain-actuated virtual automatic car, which makes the brain-computer interface (BCI) control strategy a big challenge. In order to solve the challenging issue, a mixed model of BCI combining P300 potentials and motor imagery had been realized in our previous study. However, compared with single model BCI, more training procedures are needed for the mixed model and more mental workload for users to bear. In the present study, we propose a multiple patterns of motor imagery (MPMI) BCI method, which is based on the traditional two patterns of motor imagery...
August 13, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Mika Yamamuro, Yoshiyuki Asai, Koji Yamada, Yoshiaki Ozaki, Masao Matsumoto, Takamichi Murakami
Glandularity has a marked impact on the incidence of breast cancer and the missed lesion rate of mammography. The aim of this study was to develop a novel model for predicting glandularity and patient radiation dose using physical factors that are easily determined prior to mammography. Data regarding glandularity and mean glandular dose were obtained from 331 mammograms. A stepwise multiple regression analysis model was developed to predict glandularity using age, compressed breast thickness and body mass index (BMI), while a model to predict mean glandular dose was created using quantified glandularity, age, compressed breast thickness, height and body weight...
August 11, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Adriana Arza, Jorge Mario Garzón-Rey, Jesús Lázaro, Eduardo Gil, Raul Lopez-Anton, Conchita de la Camara, Pablo Laguna, Raquel Bailon, Jordi Aguiló
Social and medical problems associated with stress are increasing globally and seriously affect mental health and well-being. However, an effective stress-level monitoring method is still not available. This paper presents a quantitative method for monitoring acute stress levels in healthy young people using biomarkers from physiological signals that can be unobtrusively monitored. Two states were induced to 40 volunteers, a basal state generated with a relaxation task and an acute stress state generated by applying a standard stress test that includes five different tasks...
August 9, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Seyyed Mostafa Anjam, Nooshin Banaee, Hojjat Rahmani, Hassan Ali Nedaie
The purpose of this study is to determine and verify the exact location of radiation therapy fields by using port-film and digital reconstruction radiograph (DRR) as a low-cost tool. Initially, an appropriate algorithm was written for the application of port film in the megavoltage beam irradiation. Detectable contrast was created for the image and then by using appropriate markers and developed written program by MATLAB as DRrPortRegistartion. Semi-automatic and automatic registration between port-film and DRR images were performed for pelvic and chest phantoms...
August 9, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Fengjun Zhao, Bin Wu, Fei Chen, Xin Cao, Huangjian Yi, Yuqing Hou, Xiaowei He, Jimin Liang
Detection of different classes of atherosclerotic plaques is important for early intervention of coronary artery diseases. However, previous methods focused either on the detection of a specific class of coronary plaques or on the distinction between plaques and normal arteries, neglecting the classification of different classes of plaques. Therefore, we proposed an automatic multi-class coronary atherosclerosis plaque detection and classification framework. Firstly, we retrieved the transverse cross sections along centerlines from the computed tomography angiography...
August 7, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
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