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Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing

F G A Silva, M F S F de Moura, N Dourado, J Xavier, F A M Pereira, J J L Morais, M I R Dias, P J Lourenço, F M Judas
Fracture characterization of human cortical bone under mode II loading was analyzed using a miniaturized version of the end-notched flexure test. A data reduction scheme based on crack equivalent concept was employed to overcome uncertainties on crack length monitoring during the test. The crack tip shear displacement was experimentally measured using digital image correlation technique to determine the cohesive law that mimics bone fracture behavior under mode II loading. The developed procedure was validated by finite element analysis using cohesive zone modeling considering a trapezoidal with bilinear softening relationship...
October 25, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Xiaoran Duan, Yongli Yang, Shanjuan Tan, Sihua Wang, Xiaolei Feng, Liuxin Cui, Feifei Feng, Songcheng Yu, Wei Wang, Yongjun Wu
The purpose of the study was to explore the application of artificial neural network model in the auxiliary diagnosis of lung cancer and compare the effects of back-propagation (BP) neural network with Fisher discrimination model for lung cancer screening by the combined detections of four biomarkers of p16, RASSF1A and FHIT gene promoter methylation levels and the relative telomere length. Real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR was used to detect the levels of three-gene promoter methylation, and real-time PCR method was applied to determine the relative telomere length...
October 20, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Shasha Yuan, Weidong Zhou, Junhui Li, Qi Wu
Epilepsy is a serious chronic neurological disorder, which affects more than 50 million people worldwide, and automatic seizure detection on EEG recordings is extremely required in the diagnosis and monitoring of epilepsy. This paper presents a novel seizure detection method using sparse representation-based Earth Mover's Distance (SR-EMD). In the proposed algorithm, wavelet decomposition is executed on the original EEG recordings with five scales, and the scales 3, 4 and 5 are selected to structure the distributions of EEG signals...
October 20, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Haiying Quan, Wenrui Hao, Lu Li, Ming Sun, Kuan Zhang
The whole-room indirect calorimeter is considered as important equipment for human energy expenditure measurement, but noise reduction in the system remains a challenge. A selective filtering method (SFM) was designed to improve the accuracy of the computation of O2 consumption rate ([Formula: see text]) and CO2 production rate ([Formula: see text]), based on two facts: (1) the rapid changes of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and respiratory quotient (RQ) in human should be accompanied by physical activity; (2) the oxygen consumption and the carbon dioxide production should not be negative because living humans do not generate oxygen, nor consume carbon dioxide...
October 20, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Antonio Oseas de Carvalho Filho, Aristófanes Corrêa Silva, Anselmo Cardoso de Paiva, Rodolfo Acatauassú Nunes, Marcelo Gattass
Using images from the Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI), we developed a methodology for classifying lung nodules. The proposed methodology uses image processing and pattern recognition techniques. To classify volumes of interest into nodules and non-nodules, we used shape measurements only, analyzing their shape using shape diagrams, proportion measurements, and a cylinder-based analysis. In addition, we use the support vector machine classifier. To test the proposed methodology, it was applied to 833 images from the LIDC-IDRI database, and cross-validation with k-fold, where [Formula: see text], was used to validate the results...
October 17, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Tieh-Cheng Fu, Wen-Chen Lin, Jong-Shyan Wang, Chao-Hung Wang, Chun-Tien Chang, Cheng-Lun Tsai, Yun-Shien Lee, Kang-Ping Lin
Exercise periodic breathing (EPB) is associated with exercise intolerance and poor prognosis in patients with heart failure (HF). However, EPB detection during cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is difficult. The present study investigated the use of a wireless monitoring device to record the EPB during CPET and proposed quantization parameter estimates for the EPB. A total of 445 patients with HF were enrolled and underwent exercise tests. The ventilation data from the wearable device were compared with the data obtained during the CPET and were analyzed based on professional opinion and on 2 automated programs (decision tree [DT] and oscillatory pattern methods)...
October 15, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Stefan Candefjord, Johan Winges, Ahzaz Ahmad Malik, Yinan Yu, Thomas Rylander, Tomas McKelvey, Andreas Fhager, Mikael Elam, Mikael Persson
Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of death and severe disability for young people and a major public health problem for elderly. Many patients with intracranial bleeding are treated too late, because they initially show no symptoms of severe injury and are not transported to a trauma center. There is a need for a method to detect intracranial bleedings in the prehospital setting. In this study, we investigate whether broadband microwave technology (MWT) in conjunction with a diagnostic algorithm can detect subdural hematoma (SDH)...
October 13, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Filippo Molinari, Daniele Rimini, William Liboni, U Rajendra Acharya, Marianno Franzini, Sergio Pandolfi, Giovanni Ricevuti, Francesco Vaiano, Luigi Valdenassi, Vincenzo Simonetti
Ozone major autohemotherapy is effective in reducing the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but its effects on brain are still not clear. In this work, we have monitored the changes in the cerebrovascular pattern of MS patients and normal subjects during major ozone autohemotherapy by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as functional and vascular technique. NIRS signals are analyzed using a combination of time, time-frequency analysis and nonlinear analysis of intrinsic mode function signals obtained from empirical mode decomposition technique...
October 12, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Milad Samaee, Mohammad Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Hamed Alavi
Many cardiovascular diseases are closely associated with hemodynamic parameters. The main purpose of this study is mimicking a physiological blood flow in stenotic arteries to provide an understanding of hemodynamic parameters. An experimental setup was designed to produce original pulsatile flow and measure pressure pulse waves through a compliant tube. Moreover, a numerical model considering fluid-solid interaction was developed to investigate wall shear stress and circumferential stress waves, based on the results of the experiments...
October 5, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Antonio Oseas de Carvalho Filho, Aristófanes Corrêa Silva, Anselmo Cardoso de Paiva, Rodolfo Acatauassú Nunes, Marcelo Gattass
Lung cancer is the major cause of death among patients with cancer worldwide. This work is intended to develop a methodology for the diagnosis of lung nodules using images from the Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI). The proposed methodology uses image processing and pattern recognition techniques. To differentiate the patterns of malignant and benign forms, we used a Minkowski functional, distance measures, representation of the vector of points measures, triangulation measures, and Feret diameters...
October 3, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Meng Chen, Congyu Liao, Song Chen, Qiuping Ding, Darong Zhu, Hui Liu, Xu Yan, Jianhui Zhong
The aim of this work is to quantify individual and regional differences in the relative concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in human brain with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectral editing Mescher-Garwood point resolved spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS) sequence and GABA analysis toolkit (Gannet) were used to detect and quantify GABA in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and occipital cortex (OCC) of healthy volunteers. Residual bootstrap, a model-based statistical analysis technique, was applied to resample the fitting residuals of GABA from the Gaussian fitting model (referred to as GABA+ thereafter) in both individual and group data of ACC and OCC...
October 1, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
A L Tosi, L G Campana, F Dughiero, M Forzan, M Rastrelli, E Sieni, C R Rossi
Tissue electrical conductivity is correlated with tissue characteristics. In this work, some soft tissue sarcomas (STS) excised from patients have been evaluated in terms of histological characteristics (cell size and density) and electrical resistance. The electrical resistance has been measured using the ex vivo study on soft tissue tumors electrical characteristics (ESTTE) protocol proposed by the authors in order to study electrical resistance of surgical samples excised by patients in a fixed measurement setup...
October 1, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Athena Jalalian, Francis E H Tay, Soheil Arastehfar, Gabriel Liu
Load-displacement relationships of spinal motion segments are crucial factors in characterizing the stiffness of scoliotic spine models to mimic the spine responses to loads. Although nonlinear approach to approximation of the relationships can be superior to linear ones, little mention has been made to deriving personalized nonlinear load-displacement relationships in previous studies. A method is developed for nonlinear approximation of load-displacement relationships of spinal motion segments to assist characterizing in vivo the stiffness of spine models...
September 26, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
M Simão, J M Ferreira, J Mora-Rodriguez, J Fragata, H M Ramos
This study explores the analysis of a new stent geometry from two typical stents used to treat the coronary artery disease. Two different finite element methods are applied with different boundary conditions to investigate the stenosis region. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models including fluid-structure interaction are used to assess the haemodynamic impact of two types of coronary stents implantation: (1) type 1-based on a strut-link stent geometry and (2) type 2-a continuous helical stent. Using data from a recent clinical stenosis, flow disturbances and consequent shear stress alterations introduced by the stent treatment are investigated...
September 26, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Naomi Yagi, Shinsuke Nagami, Meng-Kuan Lin, Toru Yabe, Masataka Itoda, Takahisa Imai, Yoshitaka Oku
: The assessment of swallowing function is important for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. We developed a new swallowing monitoring system that uses respiratory flow, swallowing sound, and laryngeal motion. We applied this device to 11 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with dysphagia. Videofluoroscopy (VF) was conducted simultaneously with swallowing monitoring using our device. We measured laryngeal rising time (LRT), the time required for the larynx to elevate to the highest position, and laryngeal activation duration (LAD), the duration between the onset of rapid laryngeal elevation and the time when the larynx returned to the lowest position...
September 24, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Elina Soifer, Dar Weiss, Gil Marom, Shmuel Einav
Understanding the hemodynamics surrounding the venous valve environment is of a great importance for prosthetic valves design. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of leaflets' stiffening process on the venous valve hemodynamics, valve's failure on the next proximal valve hemodynamics and valve's failure in a secondary daughter vein on the healthy valve hemodynamics in the main vein when both of these valves are distal to a venous junction. Fully coupled, two-way fluid-structure interaction computational models were developed and employed...
September 23, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Tadeja Forjanič, Damijan Miklavčič
The effectiveness of electrochemotherapy, a local treatment using electric pulses to increase the uptake of chemotherapeutic drug, includes several antitumor mechanisms. In addition to the cytotoxic action of chemotherapeutic drug, treatment outcome also depends on antitumor immune response. In order to assess the contribution of different antitumor mechanisms to the observed treatment outcome, we designed a model of tumor volume dynamics, which is able to quantify early and late treatment effects. Model integrates characteristics of both main posttreatment processes, namely removal of lethally damaged cells from tumor volume and tumor-immune interaction...
September 22, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Walther H W Schulze, Zhong Chen, Jatin Relan, Danila Potyagaylo, Martin W Krueger, Rashed Karim, Manav Sohal, Anoop Shetty, YingLiang Ma, Nicholas Ayache, Maxime Sermesant, Herve Delingette, Julian Bostock, Reza Razavi, Kawal S Rhode, Christopher A Rinaldi, Olaf Dössel
ECG imaging is an emerging technology for the reconstruction of cardiac electric activity from non-invasively measured body surface potential maps. In this case report, we present the first evaluation of transmurally imaged activation times against endocardially reconstructed isochrones for a case of sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT). Computer models of the thorax and whole heart were produced from MR images. A recently published approach was applied to facilitate electrode localization in the catheter laboratory, which allows for the acquisition of body surface potential maps while performing non-contact mapping for the reconstruction of local activation times...
September 20, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Yunyong Punsawad, Yodchanan Wongsawat
Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) are widely employed in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications, especially to control machines. However, the use of SSVEPs leads to eye fatigue and causes lower accuracy over the long term, particularly when multi-commands are required. Therefore, this paper proposes a half-field steady-state visual stimulation pattern and paradigm to increase the limited number of commands that can be achieved with existing SSVEP-based BCI methods. Following the theory of vision perception and existing half-field SSVEP-based BCI systems, the new stimulation pattern generates four commands using only one frequency flickering stimulus and has an average classification accuracy of approximately 75 %...
September 20, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Martin Proença, Fabian Braun, Josep Solà, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Mathieu Lemay
Current monitoring modalities for patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) are limited to invasive solutions. A novel approach for the noninvasive and unsupervised monitoring of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in patients with PH was proposed and investigated. The approach was based on the use of electrical impedance tomography (EIT), a noninvasive and safe monitoring technique, and was tested through simulations on a realistic 4D bio-impedance model of the human thorax. Changes in PAP were induced in the model by simulating multiple types of hypertensive conditions...
September 17, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
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