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Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823052/sensitivity-analysis-of-ventricular-activation-and-electrocardiogram-in-tailored-models-of-heart-failure-patients
#1
C Sánchez, G D'Ambrosio, F Maffessanti, E G Caiani, F W Prinzen, R Krause, A Auricchio, M Potse
Cardiac resynchronization therapy is not effective in a variable proportion of heart failure patients. An accurate knowledge of each patient's electroanatomical features could be helpful to determine the most appropriate treatment. The goal of this study was to analyze and quantify the sensitivity of left ventricular (LV) activation and the electrocardiogram (ECG) to changes in 39 parameters used to tune realistic anatomical-electrophysiological models of the heart. Electrical activity in the ventricles was simulated using a reaction-diffusion equation...
August 19, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815426/identification-and-red-blood-cell-automated-counting-from-blood-smear-images-using-computer-aided-system
#2
Vasundhara Acharya, Preetham Kumar
Red blood cell count plays a vital role in identifying the overall health of the patient. Hospitals use the hemocytometer to count the blood cells. Conventional method of placing the smear under microscope and counting the cells manually lead to erroneous results, and medical laboratory technicians are put under stress. A computer-aided system will help to attain precise results in less amount of time. This research work proposes an image-processing technique for counting the number of red blood cells. It aims to examine and process the blood smear image, in order to support the counting of red blood cells and identify the number of normal and abnormal cells in the image automatically...
August 17, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812203/assessment-of-methodologies-to-calculate-intraventricular-pressure-differences-in-computational-models-and-patients
#3
Francisco J Londono-Hoyos, Abigail Swillens, Joris Van Cauwenberge, Brett Meyers, Maheswara Reddy Koppula, Pavlos Vlachos, Julio A Chirinos, Patrick Segers
Intraventricular pressure differences (IVPDs) govern left ventricular (LV) efficient filling and are a significant determinant of LV diastolic function. Our primary aim is to assess the performance of available methods (color M-mode (CMM) and 1D/2D MRI-based methods) to determine IVPDs from intracardiac flow measurements. Performance of three methods to calculate IVPDs was first investigated via an LV computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. CFD velocity data were derived along a modifiable scan line, mimicking ultrasound/MRI acquisition of 1D (IVPDCMM/IVPD1D MRI) and 2D (IVPD2D MRI) velocity-based IVPD information...
August 16, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808900/varying-ultrasound-power-level-to-distinguish-surgical-instruments-and-tissue
#4
Hongliang Ren, Banani Anuraj, Pierre E Dupont
We investigate a new framework of surgical instrument detection based on power-varying ultrasound images with simple and efficient pixel-wise intensity processing. Without using complicated feature extraction methods, we identified the instrument with an estimated optimal power level and by comparing pixel values of varying transducer power level images. The proposed framework exploits the physics of ultrasound imaging system by varying the transducer power level to effectively distinguish metallic surgical instruments from tissue...
August 15, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798988/hemodynamic-assessments-of-the-ascending-thoracic-aortic-aneurysm-using-fluid-structure-interaction-approach
#5
Han Hung Yeh, Simon W Rabkin, Dana Grecov
Current assessment and management of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA) rely heavily on the diameter of the ATAA and blood pressure rather than biomechanical and hemodynamic parameters such as arterial wall deformation or wall shear stress. The objective of the current study was to develop an accurate computational method for modeling the mechanical responses of the ATAA to provide additional information in patient evaluations. Fully coupled fluid structure interaction simulations were conducted using data from cases with ATAA with measured geometrical parameters in order to evaluate and analyze the change in biomechanical responses under normotensive and hypertensive conditions...
August 11, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795334/mathematical-modeling-of-extracorporeal-co2-removal-therapy-a-validation-carried-out-on-ten-pigs
#6
Simon Habran, Thomas Desaive, Philippe Morimont, Bernard Lambermont, Pierre Dauby
The extracorporeal CO2 removal device (ECCO2RD) is used in clinics to treat patients suffering from respiratory failures like acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this device is to decarboxylate blood externally with low blood flow. A mathematical model is proposed to describe protective ventilation, ARDS, and an extracorporeal CO2 removal therapy (ECCO2RT). The simulations are compared with experimental data carried out on ten pigs. The results show a good agreement between the mathematical simulations and the experimental data, which provides a nice validation of the model...
August 9, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785849/a-review-of-computational-models-of-bone-fracture-healing
#7
REVIEW
Monan Wang, Ning Yang, Xinyu Wang
In the process of fracture healing, there are many cellular and molecular events that are regulated by mechanical stimuli and biochemical signals. To explore the unknown mechanisms underlying bone fracture healing, optimal fixation configurations, and the design of new treatment strategies, computational healing models provide a good solution. With the simulation of mechanoregulatory healing models, bioregulatory healing models and coupled mechanobioregulatory healing models, healing outcomes can be predicted...
August 8, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785848/image-based-haptic-roughness-estimation-and-rendering-for-haptic-palpation-from-in-vivo-skin-image
#8
Kwangtaek Kim
Despite the advancement of measuring technologies, there was a need for palpation by hands to be able to better diagnose skin diseases and to learn about the tactile properties of in vivo skin surface. However, directly touching in vivo skin surface can cause secondary infections or damages. Therefore, a technology providing infection- and damage-free skin palpations and precise haptic skin roughness rendering is needed. A multidimensional (2D and 3D) rendering system was developed for multimodal (visual and haptic) rendering that can run with any given in vivo input skin images...
August 8, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770425/the-effects-of-paranodal-myelin-damage-on-action-potential-depend-on-axonal-structure
#9
Ehsan Daneshi Kohan, Behnia Shadab Lashkari, Carolyn Jennifer Sparrey
Biophysical computational models of axons provide an important tool for quantifying the effects of injury and disease on signal conduction characteristics. Several studies have used generic models to study the average behavior of healthy and injured axons; however, few studies have included the effects of normal structural variation on the simulated axon's response to injury. The effects of variations in physiological characteristics on axonal function were mapped by altering the structure of the nodal, paranodal, and juxtaparanodal regions across reported values in three different caliber axons (1, 2, and 5...
August 3, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766106/a-piecewise-function-of-resistivity-of-liver-determining-parameters-with-finite-element-analysis-of-radiofrequency-ablation
#10
Ricardo Possebon, Yansheng Jiang, Stefaan Mulier, Chong Wang, Feng Chen, Yuanbo Feng, Yicheng Ni
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a widely used thermal treatment for liver tumors. Knowledge about the resistivity of liver is a prerequisite for the predictability of producible thermo-necrosis with RFA. Most research to date has focused on performing specific experiments to determine the resistivity of a given liver. This work aims to determine the resistivity from the time course of impedance obtained in RFA. We assume that the liver resistivity obeys a piecewise function of temperature. We determine in this work the means and standard derivations of parameters in the resistivity function with finite element analysis of ex vivo bipolar RFA...
August 2, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766105/the-development-of-a-novel-knowledge-based-weaning-algorithm-using-pulmonary-parameters-a-simulation-study
#11
Hasan Guler, Ugur Kilic
Weaning is important for patients and clinicians who have to determine correct weaning time so that patients do not become addicted to the ventilator. There are already some predictors developed, such as the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), the pressure time index (PTI), and Jabour weaning index. Many important dimensions of weaning are sometimes ignored by these predictors. This is an attempt to develop a knowledge-based weaning process via fuzzy logic that eliminates the disadvantages of the present predictors...
August 2, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762017/a-gpu-based-symmetric-non-rigid-image-registration-method-in-human-lung
#12
Babak Haghighi, Nathan D Ellingwood, Youbing Yin, Eric A Hoffman, Ching-Long Lin
Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the lungs plays an increasing role in identifying sub-phenotypes of pathologies previously lumped into broad categories such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Methods for image matching and linking multiple lung volumes have proven useful in linking structure to function and in the identification of regional longitudinal changes. Here, we seek to improve the accuracy of image matching via the use of a symmetric multi-level non-rigid registration employing an inverse consistent (IC) transformation whereby images are registered both in the forward and reverse directions...
August 1, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744828/review-of-numerical-methods-for-simulation-of-mechanical-heart-valves-and-the-potential-for-blood-clotting
#13
Mohamad Shukri Zakaria, Farzad Ismail, Masaaki Tamagawa, Ahmad Fazli Abdul Aziz, Surjatin Wiriadidjaja, Adi Azrif Basri, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad
Even though the mechanical heart valve (MHV) has been used routinely in clinical practice for over 60 years, the occurrence of serious complications such as blood clotting remains to be elucidated. This paper reviews the progress that has been made over the years in terms of numerical simulation method and the contribution of abnormal flow toward blood clotting from MHVs in the aortic position. It is believed that this review would likely be of interest to some readers in various disciplines, such as engineers, scientists, mathematicians and surgeons, to understand the phenomenon of blood clotting in MHVs through computational fluid dynamics...
July 26, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741170/decreased-global-field-synchronization-of-multichannel-frontal-eeg-measurements-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorders
#14
Mehmet Akif Özçoban, Oğuz Tan, Serap Aydin, Aydin Akan
Global field synchronization (GFS) quantifies the synchronization level of brain oscillations. The GFS method has been introduced to measure functional synchronization of EEG data in the frequency domain. GFS also detects phase interactions between EEG signals acquired from all of the electrodes. If a considerable amount of local brain neurons has the same phase, these neurons appear to interact with each other. EEG data were received from 17 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and 17 healthy controls (HC)...
July 25, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736791/control-of-standing-balance-at-leaning-postures-with-functional-neuromuscular-stimulation-following-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Musa L Audu, Brooke M Odle, Ronald J Triolo
This study systematically explored the potential of applying feedback control of functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) for stabilizing various erect and leaning standing postures after spinal cord injury (SCI). Perturbations ranging from 2 to 6% body weight were applied to two subjects with motor complete thoracic level SCI who were proficient at standing with implanted multichannel neural stimulators to activate the ankle, knee, hip and trunk muscles. The subjects stood with four different postures: erect, forward, forward-right and forward-left...
July 24, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762016/ica-based-muscle-tendon-units-localization-and-activation-analysis-during-dynamic-motion-tasks
#16
Xiang Chen, Shaoping Wang, Chengjun Huang, Shuai Cao, Xu Zhang
This study proposed an independent component analysis (ICA)-based framework for localization and activation level analysis of muscle-tendon units (MTUs) within skeletal muscles during dynamic motion. The gastrocnemius muscle and extensor digitorum communis were selected as target muscles. High-density electrode arrays were used to record surface electromyographic (sEMG) data of the targeted muscles during dynamic motion tasks. First, the ICA algorithm was used to decompose multi-channel sEMG data into a weight coefficient matrix and a source matrix...
July 18, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726074/error-performances-of-a-model-based-biplane-fluoroscopic-system-for-tracking-knee-prosthesis-during-treadmill-gait-task
#17
Arnaud Barré, Kamiar Aminian
Roentgen stereophotogrammetry analysis technique allows an accurate measurement of knee joint prosthesis position and orientation using two X-ray images. Although this technique is used generally during static procedure, it is possible to use it with a biplane fluoroscopic system to measure the prosthesis kinematics during functional tasks (e.g., gait, squat, jump) performed in a laboratory environment. However, the performance of the system in terms of errors for the measurements and the model-based matching algorithm are not well known for dynamic tasks such as walking...
July 18, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714049/vision-based-fluid-type-tactile-sensor-for-measurements-on-biological-tissues
#18
Youngwoo Kim, Goro Obinata, Bongseop Kawk, Jiuk Jung, Suwoong Lee
Hardness, dimensions, and location of biological tissues are important parameters for electronic palpation protocols with standardized performance. This study presents a novel fluid-type tactile sensor able to measure size and depth of heterogeneous substances in elastic bodies. The new sensor is very simple and can be easily fabricated. It consists of an image sensor, LED lights, and a touchpad filled with translucent water. The intensity field of the light traveling in the touchpad is analyzed to estimate the touchpad shape which conforms to the shape of an object in contact...
July 17, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712014/do-you-see-what-i-see-mobile-eye-tracker-contextual-analysis-and-inter-rater-reliability
#19
S Stuart, D Hunt, J Nell, A Godfrey, J M Hausdorff, L Rochester, L Alcock
Mobile eye-trackers are currently used during real-world tasks (e.g. gait) to monitor visual and cognitive processes, particularly in ageing and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, contextual analysis involving fixation locations during such tasks is rarely performed due to its complexity. This study adapted a validated algorithm and developed a classification method to semi-automate contextual analysis of mobile eye-tracking data. We further assessed inter-rater reliability of the proposed classification method...
July 15, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712013/a-novel-approach-to-an-automated-needle-insertion-in-brachytherapy-procedures
#20
Ivan M Buzurovic, Slavisa Salinic, Peter F Orio, Paul L Nguyen, Robert A Cormack
One of the most challenging phases in interstitial brachytherapy is the placement of the needles. In these medical procedures, the needles are inserted inside the tissue to guide the positioning of the radioactive sources. The low-dose-rate radioactive sources are placed inside the tissue permanently, whereas a radioactive source in the high-dose-rate brachytherapy is temporarily placed in the desired positions so that the delivery of the prescription dose to the clinical targets can be achieved. Consequently, the precise needle placement directly influences the radiation dose delivery and the treatment outcomes of patients...
July 15, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
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