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Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321684/left-ventricular-flow-propagation-velocity-measurement-is-it-cast-in-stone
#1
Bee Ting Chan, Hak Koon Yeoh, Yih Miin Liew, Yang Faridah Abdul Aziz, Ganiga Srinivasaiah Sridhar, Christian Hamilton-Craig, David Platts, Einly Lim
This study aims to investigate the measurement of left ventricular flow propagation velocity, V p, using phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging and to assess the discrepancies resulting from inflow jet direction and individual left ventricular size. Three V p measuring techniques, namely non-adaptive (NA), adaptive positions (AP) and adaptive vectors (AV) method, were suggested and compared. We performed the comparison on nine healthy volunteers and nine post-infarct patients at four measurement positions, respectively, at one-third, one-half, two-thirds and the conventional 4 cm distances from the mitral valve leaflet into the left ventricle...
March 20, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321683/resistance-training-using-a-novel-robotic-walker-for-over-ground-gait-rehabilitation-a-preliminary-study-on-healthy-subjects
#2
Kyung-Ryoul Mun, Brandon Bao Sheng Yeo, Zhao Guo, Soon Cheol Chung, Haoyong Yu
Strength training is an aspect of gait rehabilitation, which complements balance control and weight-bearing training. However, conventional strength training does not show positive gait outcomes, due to lack of task specificity. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the effects of a resistance force applied at the center of mass (CoM) and to investigate whether this exercise can be used for effective task-specific gait training. Using a novel robotic walker, a consistent resistive force was applied to the CoM of subjects in the posterior direction...
March 20, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316038/the-impact-of-the-aortic-valve-impairment-on-the-distant-coronary-arteries-hemodynamics-a-fluid-structure-interaction-study
#3
Hossein Mohammadi, Raymond Cartier, Rosaire Mongrain
Atherosclerosis is still the leading cause of death in the developed world. Although its initiation and progression is a complex multifactorial process, it is well known that blood flow-induced wall shear stress (WSS) is an important factor involved in early atherosclerotic plaque initiation. In recent clinical studies, it was established that the regional pathologies of the aortic valve can be involved in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. However, the impact of hemodynamic effects is not yet fully elucidated for disease initiation and progression...
March 18, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251444/combining-novelty-detectors-to-improve-accelerometer-based-fall-detection
#4
Carlos Medrano, Raúl Igual, Iván García-Magariño, Inmaculada Plaza, Guillermo Azuara
Research on body-worn sensors has shown how they can be used for the detection of falls in the elderly, which is a relevant health problem. However, most systems are trained with simulated falls, which differ from those of the target population. In this paper, we tackle the problem of fall detection using a combination of novelty detectors. A novelty detector can be trained only with activities of daily life (ADL), which are true movements recorded in real life. In addition, they allow adapting the system to new users, by recording new movements and retraining the system...
March 1, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247185/cell-segmentation-in-histopathological-images-with-deep-learning-algorithms-by-utilizing-spatial-relationships
#5
Nuh Hatipoglu, Gokhan Bilgin
In many computerized methods for cell detection, segmentation, and classification in digital histopathology that have recently emerged, the task of cell segmentation remains a chief problem for image processing in designing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. In research and diagnostic studies on cancer, pathologists can use CAD systems as second readers to analyze high-resolution histopathological images. Since cell detection and segmentation are critical for cancer grade assessments, cellular and extracellular structures should primarily be extracted from histopathological images...
February 28, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243966/robustness-of-two-different-methods-of-monitoring-respiratory-system-compliance-during-mechanical-ventilation
#6
Gaetano Perchiazzi, Christian Rylander, Mariangela Pellegrini, Anders Larsson, Göran Hedenstierna
Robustness measures the performance of estimation methods when they work under non-ideal conditions. We compared the robustness of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and multilinear fitting (MLF) methods in estimating respiratory system compliance (C RS) during mechanical ventilation (MV). Twenty-four anaesthetized pigs underwent MV. Airway pressure, flow and volume were recorded at fixed intervals after the induction of acute lung injury. After consecutive mechanical breaths, an inspiratory pause (BIP) was applied in order to calculate CRS using the interrupter technique...
February 27, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238175/classification-of-multi-class-motor-imagery-with-a-novel-hierarchical-svm-algorithm-for-brain-computer-interfaces
#7
Enzeng Dong, Changhai Li, Liting Li, Shengzhi Du, Abdelkader Nasreddine Belkacem, Chao Chen
Pattern classification algorithm is the crucial step in developing brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. In this paper, a hierarchical support vector machine (HSVM) algorithm is proposed to address an EEG-based four-class motor imagery classification task. Wavelet packet transform is employed to decompose raw EEG signals. Thereafter, EEG signals with effective frequency sub-bands are grouped and reconstructed. EEG feature vectors are extracted from the reconstructed EEG signals with one versus the rest common spatial patterns (OVR-CSP) and one versus one common spatial patterns (OVO-CSP)...
February 25, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224272/biomechanical-evaluation-of-reconstruction-plates-with-locking-nonlocking-and-hybrid-screws-configurations-in-calcaneal-fracture-a-finite-element-model-study
#8
Ching-Hsuan Chen, Chinghua Hung, Yu-Chun Hsu, Chen-Sheng Chen, Chao-Ching Chiang
Calcaneal fractures are the most common fractures of the tarsal bones. The stability of fixation is an important factor for successful reconstruction of calcaneal fractures. The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanical influence of plate fixation with different combinations of locking and nonlocking screws during early weight-bearing phase. A three-dimensional FE foot model was established using ANSYS software, which comprised bones, cartilages, plantar fascia, and soft tissue. Calcaneal plate was fixed with whole locking (WLS), whole nonlocking (WNS), and hybrid screw configurations for FE analysis...
February 21, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204998/discrimination-between-emboli-and-artifacts-for-outpatient-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-data
#9
Blaise Kévin Guépié, Bruno Sciolla, Fabien Millioz, Marilys Almar, Philippe Delachartre
This paper addresses the detection of emboli in transcranial Doppler ultrasound data acquired from an original portable device. The challenge is the removal of several artifacts (motion and voice) intrinsically related to long-duration (up to 1 h 40 mn per patient) outpatient signals monitoring from this device, as well as high intensities due to the stochastic nature of blood flow. This paper proposes an adapted removal procedure. This firstly consists of reducing the background noise and detecting the blood flow in the time-frequency domain using a likelihood method for contour detection...
February 15, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197810/a-wrist-sensor-and-algorithm-to-determine-instantaneous-walking-cadence-and-speed-in-daily-life-walking
#10
Benedikt Fasel, Cyntia Duc, Farzin Dadashi, Flavien Bardyn, Martin Savary, Pierre-André Farine, Kamiar Aminian
In daily life, a person's gait-an important marker for his/her health status-is usually assessed using inertial sensors fixed to lower limbs or trunk. Such sensor locations are not well suited for continuous and long duration measurements. A better location would be the wrist but with the drawback of the presence of perturbative movements independent of walking. The aim of this study was to devise and validate an algorithm able to accurately estimate walking cadence and speed for daily life walking in various environments based on acceleration measured at the wrist...
February 14, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194649/numerical-modeling-of-percutaneous-auricular-vagus-nerve-stimulation-a-realistic-3d-model-to-evaluate-sensitivity-of-neural-activation-to-electrode-position
#11
Amine M Samoudi, Stefan Kampusch, Emmeric Tanghe, Jozsef C Széles, Luc Martens, Eugenijus Kaniusas, Wout Joseph
OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (pVNS) by miniaturized needle electrodes in the auricle gained importance as a treatment for acute and chronic pain. The objective is to establish a realistic numerical model of pVNS and investigate the effects of stimulation waveform, electrodes' depth, and electrodes' position on nerve excitation threshold and the percentage of stimulated nerves. METHODS: Simulations were performed with Sim4Life...
February 13, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194648/epileptic-seizure-classifications-of-single-channel-scalp-eeg-data-using-wavelet-based-features-and-svm
#12
Suparerk Janjarasjitt
In this study, wavelet-based features of single-channel scalp EEGs recorded from subjects with intractable seizure are examined for epileptic seizure classification. The wavelet-based features extracted from scalp EEGs are simply based on detail and approximation coefficients obtained from the discrete wavelet transform. Support vector machine (SVM), one of the most commonly used classifiers, is applied to classify vectors of wavelet-based features of scalp EEGs into either seizure or non-seizure class. In patient-based epileptic seizure classification, a training data set used to train SVM classifiers is composed of wavelet-based features of scalp EEGs corresponding to the first epileptic seizure event...
February 13, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188471/visualization-of-vascular-injuries-in-extremity-trauma
#13
Kwitae Chong, Chenfanfu Jiang, Daniel Ram, Anand Santhanam, Demetri Terzopoulos, Peyman Benharash, Erik Dutson, Joseph Teran, Jeff D Eldredge
A tandem of particle-based computational methods is adapted to simulate injury and hemorrhage in the human body. In order to ensure anatomical fidelity, a three-dimensional model of a targeted portion of the human body is reconstructed from a dense sequence of CT scans of an anonymized patient. Skin, bone and muscular tissue are distinguished in the imaging data and assigned with their respective material properties. An injury geometry is then generated by simulating the mechanics of a ballistic projectile passing through the anatomical model with the material point method...
February 11, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188470/modeling-the-effect-of-tilting-passive-leg-exercise-and-functional-electrical-stimulation-on-the-human-cardiovascular-system
#14
Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi, Jan Okle, Verena Klamroth-Marganska, Robert Riener
Long periods of bed rest negatively affect the human body organs, notably the cardiovascular system. To avert these negative effects and promote functional recovery in patients dealing with prolonged bed rest, the goal is to mobilize them as early as possible while controlling and stabilizing their cardiovascular system. A robotic tilt table allows early mobilization by modulating body inclination, automated passive leg exercise, and the intensity of functional electrical stimulation applied to leg muscles (inputs)...
February 10, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188469/investigation-of-interaction-phenomena-between-crural-fascia-and-muscles-by-using-a-three-dimensional-numerical-model
#15
Piero G Pavan, Paola Pachera, Antonella Forestiero, Arturo N Natali
The focus of this work is the numerical modeling of the anterior compartment of the human leg with particular attention to crural fascia. Interaction phenomena between fascia and muscles are of clinical interest to explain some pathologies, as the compartment syndrome. A first step to enhance knowledge on this topic consists in the investigation of fascia biomechanical role and its interaction with muscles in physiological conditions. A three-dimensional finite element model of the anterior compartment is developed based on anatomical data, detailing the structural conformation of crural fascia, composed of three layers, and modeling the muscles as a unique structure...
February 10, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185050/a-unified-canonical-correlation-analysis-based-framework-for-removing-gradient-artifact-in-concurrent-eeg-fmri-recording-and-motion-artifact-in-walking-recording-from-eeg-signal
#16
Junhua Li, Yu Chen, Fumihiko Taya, Julian Lim, Kianfoong Wong, Yu Sun, Anastasios Bezerianos
Artifacts cause distortion and fuzziness in electroencephalographic (EEG) signal and hamper EEG analysis, so it is necessary to remove them prior to the analysis. Particularly, artifact removal becomes a critical issue in experimental protocols with significant inherent recording noise, such as mobile EEG recordings and concurrent EEG-fMRI acquisitions. In this paper, we proposed a unified framework based on canonical correlation analysis for artifact removal. Raw signals were reorganized to construct a pair of matrices, based on which sources were sought through maximizing autocorrelation...
February 9, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185049/developing-a-novel-epileptic-discharge-localization-algorithm-for-electroencephalogram-infantile-spasms-during-hypsarrhythmia
#17
Supachan Traitruengsakul, Laurie E Seltzer, Alex R Paciorkowski, Behnaz Ghoraani
Infantile spasms (ISS) is a devastating epileptic syndrome that affects children under the age of 1 year. The diagnosis of ISS is based on the semiology of the seizure and the electroencephalogram (EEG) background characterized by hypsarrhythmia (HYPS). However, even skilled electrophysiologists may interpret the EEG of children with ISS differently, and commercial software or existing epilepsy detection algorithms are not helpful. Since EEG is a key factor in the diagnosis of ISS, misinterpretation could result in serious consequences including inappropriate treatment...
February 9, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176266/effects-on-the-torsional-vibration-behavior-in-the-investigation-of-dental-implant-osseointegration-using-resonance-frequency-analysis-a-numerical-approach
#18
Min Zhai, Bing Li, Dehua Li
Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) methods are widely used to assess implant stability, particularly the Osstell(®) device. The potential effects associated with this method have been discussed in the literature. Torsional RFA (T-RFA), mentioned in our previous study, could represent a new measurement method. The purpose of this study was to simulate T-shaped and Osstell(®) transducer-implant-bone system models; compare their vibration modes and corresponding resonance frequencies; and investigate the effects of their parameters, such as the effective implant length (EIL), bone quality, and osseointegration level, on the torsional resonance frequency (TRF) and bending resonance frequency (BRF) using three-dimensional finite element analysis...
February 7, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176265/deformation-of-facial-model-for-complete-denture-prosthesis-using-arap-group-method-and-elastic-properties
#19
Cheng Cheng, Xiaosheng Cheng, Ning Dai, Yuchun Sun, Xiaotong Jiang, Weiwei Li
With the development of 3D printing and computer graphics technology, mouth rehabilitation has increasingly adopted digital methods. This research proposes a new method to transform the appearance of facial model after complete denture prosthesis. A feature template with few feature points is first constructed according to the facial muscle anatomy and facial deformation after complete denture prosthesis. Next, the traditional as-rigid-as-possible (ARAP) method is optimised by clustering based on facial muscles...
February 7, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176264/the-integration-of-neural-information-by-a-passive-kinetic-stimulus-and-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-in-the-lateral-vestibular-nucleus
#20
Gyutae Kim, Kyu-Sung Kim, Sangmin Lee
Despite an easy control and the direct effects on vestibular neurons, the clinical applications of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) have been restricted because of its unclear activities as input. On the other hand, some critical conclusions have been made in the peripheral and the central processing of neural information by kinetic stimuli with different motion frequencies. Nevertheless, it is still elusive how the neural responses to simultaneous GVS and kinetic stimulus are modified during transmission and integration at the central vestibular area...
February 7, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
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