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Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing

Hasan Koyuncu, Rahime Ceylan, Semih Asoglu, Hakan Cebeci, Mustafa Koplay
On adrenal glands, benign tumours generally change the hormone equilibrium, and malign tumours usually tend to spread to the nearby tissues and to the organs of the immune system. These features can give a trace about the type of adrenal tumours; however, they cannot be observed all the time. Different tumour types can be confused in terms of having a similar shape, size and intensity features on scans. To support the evaluation process, biopsy process is applied that includes injury and complication risks...
November 14, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Tae Joon Jun, Soo-Jin Kang, June-Goo Lee, Jihoon Kweon, Wonjun Na, Daeyoun Kang, Dohyeun Kim, Daeyoung Kim, Young-Hak Kim
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a syndrome caused by a decrease in blood flow in the coronary arteries. The ACS is usually related to coronary thrombosis and is primarily caused by plaque rupture followed by plaque erosion and calcified nodule. Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) is known to be the most similar lesion morphologically to a plaque rupture. In this paper, we propose methods to classify TCFA using various machine learning classifiers including feed-forward neural network (FNN), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), random forest (RF), and convolutional neural network (CNN) to figure out a classifier that shows optimal TCFA classification accuracy...
November 14, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Naoki Takeishi, Tomohiro Miki, Tomohiro Otani, Satoshi Ii, Keiichi Morita, Shigeo Wada
Tracheal flow in infants with congenital tracheal stenosis (CTS) was numerically investigated using subject-specific airway models before and after reconstructive surgery. We quantified tracheal flow based on airway resistance during inhalation, and compared it between controls and patients before and after surgery. The airway resistance in each subject was assessed using geometrical parameters of the trachea: the minimum cross-sectional area Amin , the minimum cross-sectional area normalized by the standard deviation of the cross-sectional area Amin /σA , the area ratio of the minimum and maximum cross-sectional area Amin /Amax , and ratio of the normalized standard deviation of cross-sectional area to the mean cross-sectional area σA /Amean ...
November 13, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Hritwick Banerjee, Bibhas Roy, Kaustav Chaudhury, Babji Srinivasan, Suman Chakraborty, Hongliang Ren
Low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound has demonstrated an impetus in bone signaling and tissue healing for decades now. Though this technology is clinically well proven, still there are breaches in studies to understand the fundamental principle of how osteoblast tissue regenerates physiologically at the cellular level with ultrasound interaction as a form of acoustic wave stimuli. Through this article, we illustrate an analysis for cytomechanical changes of cell membrane periphery as a basic first physical principle for facilitating late downstream biochemical pathways...
November 10, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Zengsheng Chen, Sofen K Jena, Guruprasad A Giridharan, Michael A Sobieski, Steven C Koenig, Mark S Slaughter, Bartley P Griffith, Zhongjun J Wu
Modulation of pump speed has been proposed and implemented clinically to improve vascular pulsatility in continuous flow ventricular assist device patient. The flow dynamics of the HVAD with a promising asynchronous pump speed modulation and its potential risk for device-induced blood trauma was investigated numerically. The boundary conditions at the pump inlet and outlet were defined using the pressure waveforms adapted from the experimentally recorded ventricular and arterial pressure waveforms in a large animal ischemic heart failure (IHF) model supported by the HVAD operated at constant and modulated pump speeds...
November 8, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Giovanni F Solitro, Florian Mainnemare, Farid Amirouche, Ankit Mehta
Vertebral compression fractures are a significant clinical issue with an annual incidence of approximately 750,000 cases in the USA alone. Mechanical properties of vertebrae are successfully evaluated through finite element (FE) models based on vertebrae CT. However, clinical drawbacks associated to radiation transmission encouraged to explore the possibility to use selected or reduced portions of the vertebra. The objective of our study was to develop a new procedure to predict vertebral compression fracture from sub-volumes...
November 7, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Celal Alagoz, Saran Phatharodom, Allon Guez
Human atrial tissue electrophysiology is modeled upon biophysical details obtained from cellular level measurements. Data collected for this purpose typically represent a unique state of the tissue. As reproducing dynamic cases such as subject-varied and/or disorder-varied electrophysiological properties is in question, such complex models are typically hard to use. Hence, there is a need for simpler yet biophysically accurate and mathematically tractable models to be used for case-specific reproductions and simulations...
November 6, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Peter C Raffalt, John McCamley, William Denton, Jennifer M Yentes
Sample entropy (SaEn) has been used to assess the regularity of lower limb joint angles during walking. However, changing sampling frequency and the number of included strides can potentially affect the outcome. The present study investigated the effect of sample frequency and the number of included strides on the calculations of SaEn in joint angle signals recorded during treadmill walking. Eleven subjects walked at their preferred walking speed for 10 min, and SaEn was calculated on sagittal plane hip, knee, and ankle angle signals extracted from 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 strides at sampling frequencies of 60, 120, 240, and 480 Hz...
November 3, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Vikramjit Singh, Amit Gupta, J S Sohal, Amritpal Singh
This paper presents a unified approach based on the recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and approximate entropy (ApEn) for the classification of heart rate variability (HRV). In this paper, the optimum tolerance threshold (ropt ) corresponding to ApEnmax has been used for RQA calculation. The experimental data length (N) of RR interval series (RRi ) is optimized by taking ropt as key parameter. ropt is found to be lying within the recommended range of 0.1 to 0.25 times the standard deviation of the RRi , when N ≥ 300...
November 3, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
He Kunjin, Zhang Xiang, Zhang Yuxue
To quickly construct and conveniently modify the ideal orthopedic plates for individuals, a novel approach for designing the customized orthopedic plates is put forward based on bone template and plate semantic parameters, thus avoiding the need for the detailed geometric operations and the design of orthopedic plates from scratch each time. Firstly, an average bone model (ABM) is created from the existing bone models, among which each bone has an equal contribution to the ABM, and then the template, which contains region of interest (ROI) and segmentation regions, is constructed based on the ABM...
November 3, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Alireza Rezvani-Sharif, Mohammad Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Alberto Avolio
Stiffness of the arterial wall and atherosclerotic plaque components is a determinant of the stress field within plaques, which has been suggested to be an indicator of plaque vulnerability. The diversity and inhomogeneous structure of atherosclerotic lesions complicate the characterization of plaque components. In the present study, stiffness of the arterial wall and atherosclerotic plaque components in human coronary arteries was examined in early and developed atherosclerotic lesions. The force-spectroscopy mode of the atomic force microscope and histological examination were used for determination of elastic moduli at specified locations within samples...
October 29, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Rakesh Krishnan, Niclas Björsell, Elena M Gutierrez-Farewik, Christian Smith
In this survey, we review the field of human shoulder functional kinematic representations. The central question of this review is to evaluate whether the current approaches in shoulder kinematics can meet the high-reliability computational challenge. This challenge is posed by applications such as robot-assisted rehabilitation. Currently, the role of kinematic representations in such applications has been mostly overlooked. Therefore, we have systematically searched and summarised the existing literature on shoulder kinematics...
October 26, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
N Pinho, C F Castro, C C António, N Bettencourt, L C Sousa, S I S Pinto
The hemodynamics conditioned by coronary geometry may play an important role in the creation of a pro-atherogenic environment in specific locations of the coronary tree. The aim of this study is to identify how several geometric parameters of the left coronary artery - cross-section areas, proximal left anterior descending artery length, angles between the branches and the septum, curvature and tortuosity - can be related with hemodynamic descriptors, using a computational fluid-structure interaction method...
October 24, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Sebastian Becker, S C F A von Werder, A-K Lassek, C Disselhorst-Klug
The assessment of muscular interactions between biceps, triceps, and brachioradialis can be used as an approach for the detection of spasticity in the upper limbs. A crucial prerequisite for the aforementioned validation of muscular interactions is the calculation of time frequencies due to the non-stationary characteristics of electromyographic (EMG) signals and thus the estimation of coherences. Adding biomechanical parameters increases the validity of the assessment process and simplifies the comparison of EMG data as a result of categorization...
October 23, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Gilberto Perpiñan, Erika Severeyn, Sara Wong, Miguel Altuve
This paper focuses on the effect of a sudden increase of plasma glucose concentration in the cardiac autonomic modulation using time-domain and frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) measures. Plasma glucose and insulin levels, measured each 30 min during an oral glucose tolerance test, and [Formula: see text] (mean of the RR interval), SDNN (standard deviation of normal-to-normal heartbeats), rMSSD (root-mean-square of successive differences between normal heartbeats), TP (total spectral power), LF and HF (power of the low- and high-frequency bands), LF norm and HF norm (LF and HF in normalized units), and LF/HF ratio of the HRV signal, obtained from 5-min-long ECG recordings during each phase of the test, were analyzed for subjects with the metabolic syndrome, marathon runners, and a control group...
October 22, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Tae Keun Yoo, Joon Yul Choi, Jeong Gi Seo, Bhoopalan Ramasubramanian, Sundaramoorthy Selvaperumal, Deok Won Kim
Recently, researchers have built new deep learning (DL) models using a single image modality to diagnose age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Retinal fundus and optical coherence tomography (OCT) images in clinical settings are the most important modalities investigating AMD. Whether concomitant use of fundus and OCT data in DL technique is beneficial has not been so clearly identified. This experimental analysis used OCT and fundus image data of postmortems from the Project Macula. The DL based on OCT, fundus, and combination of OCT and fundus were invented to diagnose AMD...
October 22, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Sk Tanvir Ahmed, Celia Shahnaz, Shaikh Anowarul Fattah
The task of heart rate estimation using photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal is challenging due to the presence of various motion artifacts in the recorded signals. In this paper, a fast algorithm for heart rate estimation based on modified SPEctral subtraction scheme utilizing Composite Motion Artifacts Reference generation (SPECMAR) is proposed using two-channel PPG and three-axis accelerometer signals. First, the preliminary noise reduction is obtained by filtering unwanted frequency components from the recorded signals...
October 22, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Abdulkadir Albayrak, Gokhan Bilgin
The analysis of cell characteristics from high-resolution digital histopathological images is the standard clinical practice for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. Yet, it is a rather exhausting process for pathologists to examine the cellular structures manually in this way. Automating this tedious and time-consuming process is an emerging topic of the histopathological image-processing studies in the literature. This paper presents a two-stage segmentation method to obtain cellular structures in high-dimensional histopathological images of renal cell carcinoma...
October 16, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Hongfei Sun, Tao Lin, Kai Xie, Liugang Gao, Jianfeng Sui, Xinye Ni
The purpose of this study is to create a new pseudo-computed tomography (CT) imaging approach under superposed ultrasound (US) deformation fields based on step-by-step local registration. Scanned CT and US 3D image datasets of three patients with postoperative cervical carcinoma were selected, including CT (CTsim) and US images (USsim) acquired during simulated positioning process and cone beam CT (CBCT) and US images for positioning verification (USpv) acquired after treatment for 10 times. Regions of interest such as urinary bladders were segmented out and accepted local registration to obtain different deformation fields...
October 15, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Yucheng Fu, Rong Liu, Yang Liu, Jiawei Lu
Understanding intertrochanteric fracture distribution is an important topic in orthopedics due to its high morbidity and mortality. The intertrochanteric fracture can contain high-dimensional information including complicated 3D fracture lines, which often make it difficult to visualize or to obtain valuable statistics for clinical diagnosis and prognosis applications. This paper proposed a map projection technique to map the high-dimensional information into a 2D parametric space. This method can preserve the 3D proximal femur surface and structure while visualizing the entire fracture line with a single plot/view...
October 12, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
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