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Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing

M Nardelli, A Greco, O P Danzi, C Perlini, F Tedeschi, E P Scilingo, L Del Piccolo, G Valenza
Emphatic doctor-patient communication has been associated with improved psycho-physiological well-being involving cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses. Nevertheless, a comprehensive assessment of heartbeat linear and nonlinear dynamics throughout the communication of a life-threatening disease has not been performed yet. To this extent, we studied linear heartbeat dynamics through the extraction of time-frequency domain measurements, as well as heartbeat nonlinear and complex dynamics through novel approaches to compute multi-scale and multi-lag series analyses: namely, the multi-scale distribution entropy and lagged Poincaré plot symbolic analysis...
July 14, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Shuchao Pang, Anan Du, Mehmet A Orgun, Zhezhou Yu
With the advent of biomedical imaging technology, the number of captured and stored biomedical images is rapidly increasing day by day in hospitals, imaging laboratories and biomedical institutions. Therefore, more robust biomedical image analysis technology is needed to meet the requirement of the diagnosis and classification of various kinds of diseases using biomedical images. However, the current biomedical image classification methods and general non-biomedical image classifiers cannot extract more compact biomedical image features or capture the tiny differences between similar images with different types of diseases from the same category...
July 12, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Maristella Lucchini, Nina Burtchen, William P Fifer, Maria G Signorini
Infants born at 35-37 weeks' gestational age (GA) are at higher risk for a range of pathological conditions and poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, mechanisms responsible are not fully understood. The purpose of this paper is to use traditional and novel techniques to assess newborn autonomic development as a function of GA at birth, focusing on cardiorespiratory regulation. ECG and respiration were acquired during sleep on 329 healthy newborns. Infants were divided into GA groups: 35-36 weeks (late preterm (LPT)), 37-38 weeks (early term (ET)), and 39-40 weeks (full term (FT))...
July 10, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Li-Xin Guo, Jia-Yu Yin
Recently, interspinous stabilization with Coflex-F implant has become an alternative to treat lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). However, little attention focused on modifying the structure of the device to obtain the better clinic application. The purpose of this study was to design a new interspinous implant using topology optimization methods and evaluate its biomechanical performance. The finite element models of healthy lumbar spine and surgical lumbar spine with Coflex-F and Coflex-NEW (the new designed implant) were constructed...
July 7, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Subhayan Mukherjee, Irene Cheng, Steven Miller, Ting Guo, Vann Chau, Anup Basu
White matter injury (WMI) is the most prevalent brain injury in the preterm neonate leading to developmental deficits. However, detecting WMI in magnetic resonance (MR) images of preterm neonate brains using traditional WM segmentation-based methods is difficult mainly due to lack of reliable preterm neonate brain atlases to guide segmentation. Hence, we propose a segmentation-free, fast, unsupervised, atlas-free WMI detection method. We detect the ventricles as blobs using a fast linear maximally stable extremal regions algorithm...
July 6, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Sukun Tian, Ning Dai, Xiaosheng Cheng, Linlin Li, Yuchun Sun, Haihua Cui
The abnormal occlusal contact can disrupt the coordination and health of the oral jaw system. Therefore, the dynamic adjustment of the occlusal surface is of great significance for assessing the status of occlusal contact and clarifying jaw factors of stomatognathic system diseases. To solve this problem, a trajectory subtraction algorithm based on screw theory to improve the accuracy of the occlusal movement trajectory is proposed in our paper. Driving by the relative trajectory, a virtual dynamic occlusal adjustment system is developed to realize 3D occlusal movement simulating, automatic occluding relation detection, and automatic occlusal adjustment...
July 2, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Longfei Ma, Weipeng Jiang, Boyu Zhang, Xiaofeng Qu, Guochen Ning, Xinran Zhang, Hongen Liao
It is challenging to achieve high implant accuracy in dental implant placement, because high risk tissues need to be avoided. In this study, we present an augmented reality (AR) surgical navigation with an accurate cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-patient registration method to provide clinically desired dental implant accuracy. A registration device is used for registration between preoperative data and patient outside the patient's mouth. After registration, the registration device is worn on the patient's teeth for tracking the patient...
July 2, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Eleni I Georga, José C Príncipe, Dimitrios I Fotiadis
This study aims at presenting a nonlinear, recursive, multivariate prediction model of the subcutaneous glucose concentration in type 1 diabetes. Nonlinear regression is performed in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space, by either the fixed budget quantized kernel least mean square (QKLMS-FB) or the approximate linear dependency kernel recursive least-squares (KRLS-ALD) algorithm, such that a sparse model structure is accomplished. A multivariate feature set (i.e., subcutaneous glucose, food carbohydrates, insulin regime and physical activity) is used and its influence on short-term glucose prediction is investigated...
July 2, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Narendra Kurnia Putra, Pramudita Satria Palar, Hitomi Anzai, Koji Shimoyama, Makoto Ohta
The stent geometrical design (e.g., inter-strut gap, length, and strut cross-section) is responsible for stent-vessel contact problems and changes in the blood flow. These changes are crucial for causing some intravascular abnormalities such as vessel wall injury and restenosis. Therefore, structural optimization of stent design is necessary to find the optimal stent geometry design. In this study, we performed a multiobjective stent optimization for minimization of average stress and low wall shear stress ratio while considering the wall deformation in 3D flow simulations of triangular and rectangular struts...
July 2, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Qi Xing, Victor Huynh, Thales Guimaraes Parolari, Claudia Vianna Maurer-Morelli, Nathalia Peixoto, Qi Wei
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a powerful animal model used in many areas of genetics and disease research. Despite its advantages for cardiac research, the heartbeat pattern of zebrafish larvae under different stress conditions is not well documented quantitatively. Several effective automated heartbeat detection methods have been developed to reduce the workload for larva heartbeat analysis. However, most require complex experimental setups and necessitate direct observation of the larva heart. In this paper, we propose the Zebrafish Heart Rate Automatic Method (Z-HRAM), which detects and tracks the heartbeats of immobilized, ventrally positioned zebrafish larvae without direct larva heart observation...
July 2, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Hairong Yu, Lin Ye, Ganesh R Naik, Rong Song, Hung T Nguyen, Steven W Su
This paper applies a nonparametric modelling method with kernel-based regularization to estimate the carbon dioxide production during jogging exercises. The kernel selection and regularization strategies have been discussed; several commonly used kernels are compared regarding the goodness-of-fit, sensitivity, and stability. Based on that, the most appropriate kernel is then selected for the construction of the regularization term. Both the onset and offset of the jogging exercises are investigated. We compare the identified nonparametric models, which include both impulse response models and step response models for the two periods, as well as the relationship between oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production...
June 28, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
S Roeles, P J Rowe, S M Bruijn, C R Childs, G D Tarfali, F Steenbrink, M Pijnappels
Perturbation-based gait assessment has been used to quantify gait stability in older adults. However, knowledge on which perturbation type is most suitable to identify poor gait stability is lacking. We evaluated the effects of ipsi- and contra-lateral sway, belt acceleration and deceleration, and visual and auditory perturbations on medio-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) margins of stability (MoS) in young and older adults. We aimed to evaluate (1) which perturbation type disturbed the gait pattern substantially, (2) how participants recovered, and (3) whether recovery responses could discriminate between young and older adults...
June 27, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
E Fotiadou, J O E H van Laar, S G Oei, R Vullings
Extraction of a clean fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) from non-invasive abdominal recordings is one of the biggest challenges in fetal monitoring. An ECG allows for the interpretation of the electrical heart activity beyond the heart rate and heart rate variability. However, the low signal quality of the fetal ECG hinders the morphological analysis of its waveform in clinical practice. The time-sequenced adaptive filter has been proposed for performing optimal time-varying filtering of non-stationary signals having a recurring statistical character...
June 25, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Rasmus Elbæk Andersen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Pascal Madeleine
Vibroarthrography (VAG) has been proposed as a diagnostic tool for knee joint disorders. The methodological aspects of VAG assessments, such as sensor placement and outcomes measures have not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sensor placement and the effect of the knee extension and flexion movements using different added loads on six parameters extracted from VAGs of asymptomatic subjects. We hypothesized non-uniform distribution of VAGs during knee movement resulting from the underlying biomechanical features...
June 21, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Ahmad Chaddad, Siham Sabri, Tamim Niazi, Bassam Abdulkarim
We propose a multiscale texture features based on Laplacian-of Gaussian (LoG) filter to predict progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients newly diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM). Experiments use the extracted features derived from 40 patients of GBM with T1-weighted imaging (T1-WI) and Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images that were segmented manually into areas of active tumor, necrosis, and edema. Multiscale texture features were extracted locally from each of these areas of interest using a LoG filter and the relation between features to OS and PFS was investigated using univariate (i...
June 19, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Rabah M Al Abdi, Ahmad E Alhitary, Enas W Abdul Hay, Areen K Al-Bashir
The aim of this study was to design a system to diagnose chronic stress, based on blunted reactivity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to cognitive load (CL). The system concurrently measures CL-induced variations in pupil diameter (PD), heart rate (HR), pulse wave amplitude (PWA), galvanic skin response (GSR), and breathing rate (BR). Measurements were recorded from 58 volunteers whose stress level was identified using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Number-multiplication questions were used as CLs...
June 18, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Pornchai Phukpattaranont, Sirinee Thongpanja, Khairul Anam, Adel Al-Jumaily, Chusak Limsakul
Electromyography (EMG) in a bio-driven system is used as a control signal, for driving a hand prosthesis or other wearable assistive devices. Processing to get informative drive signals involves three main modules: preprocessing, dimensionality reduction, and classification. This paper proposes a system for classifying a six-channel EMG signal from 14 finger movements. A feature vector of 66 elements was determined from the six-channel EMG signal for each finger movement. Subsequently, various feature extraction techniques and classifiers were tested and evaluated...
June 18, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Begoña García-Zapirain, Mohammed Elmogy, Ayman El-Baz, Adel S Elmaghraby
A 3D convolution neural network (CNN) of deep learning architecture is supplied with essential visual features to accurately classify and segment granulation, necrotic eschar, and slough tissues in pressure ulcer color images. After finding a region of interest (ROI), the features are extracted from both the original and convolved with a pre-selected Gaussian kernel 3D HSI images, combined with first-order models of current and prior visual appearance. The models approximate empirical marginal probability distributions of voxel-wise signals with linear combinations of discrete Gaussians (LCDG)...
June 15, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
María Prados-Privado, Sérgio A Gehrke, Rosa Rojo, Juan Carlos Prados-Frutos
The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mechanical behavior of an external hexagonal implant connection (ø3.5 mm, 10-mm length) with an in vitro study, a three-dimensional finite element analysis, and a probabilistic fatigue study. Ten implant-abutment assemblies were randomly divided into two groups, five were subjected to a fracture test to obtain the maximum fracture load, and the remaining were exposed to a fatigue test with 360,000 cycles of 150 ± 10 N. After mechanical cycling, all samples were attached to the torque-testing machine and the removal torque was measured in Newton centimeters...
June 11, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Edgar García-Cano, Fernando Arámbula Cosío, Luc Duong, Christian Bellefleur, Marjolaine Roy-Beaudry, Julie Joncas, Stefan Parent, Hubert Labelle
While classification is important for assessing adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), it however suffers from low interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Classification using ensemble methods may contribute to improving reliability using the proper 2D and 3D images of spine curvature features. In this study, we present two new techniques to describe the spine, namely, leave-one-out and fan leave-one-out. Using these techniques, three descriptors are computed from a stereoradiographic 3D reconstruction to describe the relationship between a vertebra and its neighbors...
June 9, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
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