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Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626855/a-scaling-method-to-individualise-muscle-force-capacities-in-musculoskeletal-models-of-the-hand-and-wrist-using-isometric-strength-measurements
#1
Benjamin Goislard de Monsabert, G Rao, A Gay, E Berton, L Vigouroux
Because the force-generating capacities of muscles are currently estimated using anatomical data obtained from cadaver specimens, hand musculoskeletal models provide only a limited representation of the specific features of individual subjects. A scaling method is proposed to individualise muscle capacities using dynamometric measurements and electromyography. For each subject, a strength profile was first defined by measuring net moments during eight maximum isometric contractions about the wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints...
June 19, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626854/spatial-indices-of-repolarization-correlate-with-non-st-elevation-myocardial-ischemia-in-patients-with-chest-pain
#2
Salah Al-Zaiti, Ervin Sejdić, Jan Nemec, Clifton Callaway, Prem Soman, Robert Lux
Mild-to-moderate ischemia does not result in ST segment elevation on the electrocardiogram (ECG), but rather non-specific changes in the T wave, which are frequently labeled as non-diagnostic for ischemia. Robust methods to quantify such T wave heterogeneity can have immediate clinical applications. We sought to evaluate the effects of spontaneous ischemia on the evolution of spatial T wave changes, based on the eigenvalues of the spatial correlation matrix of the ECG, in patients undergoing nuclear cardiac imaging for evaluating intermittent chest pain...
June 19, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623452/enhanced-visualization-of-the-retinal-vasculature-using-depth-information-in-oct
#3
Joaquim de Moura, Jorge Novo, Pablo Charlón, Noelia Barreira, Marcos Ortega
Retinal vessel tree extraction is a crucial step for analyzing the microcirculation, a frequently needed process in the study of relevant diseases. To date, this has normally been done by using 2D image capture paradigms, offering a restricted visualization of the real layout of the retinal vasculature. In this work, we propose a new approach that automatically segments and reconstructs the 3D retinal vessel tree by combining near-infrared reflectance retinography information with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) sections...
June 17, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593507/a-stochastic-algorithm-for-automatic-hand-pose-and-motion-estimation
#4
Francesca Cordella, Francesco Di Corato, Bruno Siciliano, Loredana Zollo
In this paper, a novel, robust, and simple method for automatically estimating the hand pose is proposed and validated. The method uses a multi-camera optoelectronic system and a model-based stochastic algorithm. The approach is marker-based and relies on an Unscented Kalman Filter. A hand kinematic model is introduced for constraining relative marker's positions and improving the algorithm robustness with respect to outliers and possible occlusions. The algorithm outputs are 3D coordinate measures of markers and hand joint angle values...
June 8, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593506/conformal-mapping-of-carotid-vessel-wall-and-plaque-thickness-measured-from-3d-ultrasound-images
#5
Gary P T Choi, Yimin Chen, Lok Ming Lui, Bernard Chiu
Measurements of vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness (VWT) from 3D carotid ultrasound have been shown to be sensitive to the effect of pharmaceutical interventions. Since the geometry of carotid arteries is highly subject-specific, quantitative comparison of the distributions of point-wise VWT measured for different patients or for the same patients at different ultrasound scanning sessions requires the development of a mapping strategy to adjust for the geometric variability of different carotid surface models...
June 7, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589373/3d-structural-complexity-analysis-of-cerebellum-in-chiari-malformation-type-i
#6
Engin Akar, Sadık Kara, Hidayet Akdemir, Adem Kırış
Chiari malformation type I (CM-I), described by a descent of the cerebellar tonsils, is assumed to be a neurological developmental disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate morphological variance in cerebellar sub-structures, including gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), using magnetic resonance (MR) images with three-dimensional (3D) fractal dimension (FD) analysis in patients with CM-I. MRI data of 16 patients and 15 control subjects were obtained, and structural complexity analyses were performed using a box-counting FD algorithm...
June 7, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585067/modelling-accidental-hypothermia-effects-on-a-human-body-under-different-pathophysiological-conditions
#7
Alberto Coccarelli, Etienne Boileau, Dimitris Parthimos, Perumal Nithiarasu
Accidental exposure to cold water environment is one of the most challenging situations in which hypothermia occurs. In the present work, we aim to characterise the energy balance of a human body subjected to such extreme environmental conditions. This study is carried out using a recently developed computational model and by setting boundary conditions needed to simulate the effect of cold surrounding environment. A major finding is the capacity of the body core regions to maintain their temperature high for a substantial amount of time, even under the most extreme environmental conditions...
June 5, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553694/investigation-of-different-classifiers-and-channel-configurations-of-a-mobile-p300-based-brain-computer-interface
#8
Simone A Ludwig, Jun Kong
Innovative methods and new technologies have significantly improved the quality of our daily life. However, disabled people, for example those that cannot use their arms and legs anymore, often cannot benefit from these developments, since they cannot use their hands to interact with traditional interaction methods (such as mouse or keyboard) to communicate with a computer system. A brain-computer interface (BCI) system allows such a disabled person to control an external device via brain waves. Past research mostly dealt with static interfaces, which limit users to a stationary location...
May 29, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550413/glottal-gap-tracking-by-a-continuous-background-modeling-using-inpainting
#9
Gustavo Andrade-Miranda, Juan Ignacio Godino-Llorente
The visual examination of the vibration patterns of the vocal folds is an essential method to understand the phonation process and diagnose voice disorders. However, a detailed analysis of the phonation based on this technique requires a manual or a semi-automatic segmentation of the glottal area, which is difficult and time consuming. The present work presents a cuasi-automatic framework to accurately segment the glottal area introducing several techniques not explored before in the state of the art. The method takes advantage of the possibility of a minimal user intervention for those cases where the automatic computation fails...
May 27, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536978/a-6-dof-parallel-bone-grinding-robot-for-cervical-disc-replacement-surgery
#10
Heqiang Tian, Chenchen Wang, Xiaoqing Dang, Lining Sun
Artificial cervical disc replacement surgery has become an effective and main treatment method for cervical disease, which has become a more common and serious problem for people with sedentary work. To improve cervical disc replacement surgery significantly, a 6-DOF parallel bone-grinding robot is developed for cervical bone-grinding by image navigation and surgical plan. The bone-grinding robot including mechanical design and low level control is designed. The bone-grinding robot navigation is realized by optical positioning with spatial registration coordinate system defined...
May 24, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536977/finite-element-simulations-of-different-hamstring-tendon-graft-lengths-and-related-fixations-in-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#11
Chao Wan, Zhixiu Hao, Zhichang Li, Jianhao Lin
As one of the most frequently used grafts in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, hamstring tendon (HT) grafts are prepared with different lengths and fixed by specific fixations in knee joints. However, there are incomplete studies to investigate both the joint kinematics and graft biomechanics in the ACL reconstructions with different HT graft lengths. In this paper, three different graft lengths (i.e., 30, 50, and 70 mm) were developed in the ACL reconstruction and analyzed using finite element method under two usual clinical test loads (i...
May 23, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500478/effect-of-stenosis-eccentricity-on-the-functionality-of-coronary-bifurcation-lesions-a-numerical-study
#12
Catherine Pagiatakis, Jean-Claude Tardif, Philippe L L'Allier, Rosaire Mongrain
Interventional cardiologists still rely heavily on angiography for the evaluation of coronary lesion severity, despite its poor correlation with the presence of ischemia. In order to improve the accuracy of the current diagnostic procedures, an understanding of the relative influence of geometric characteristics on the induction of ischemia is required. This idea is especially important for coronary bifurcation lesions (CBLs), whose treatment is complex and is associated with high rates of peri- and post-procedural clinical events...
May 13, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493093/insights-from-mathematical-modeling-for-convection-enhanced-intraputamenal-delivery-of-gdnf
#13
Elena Belova, Christopher L Shaffer, Patrick E Trapa
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potential therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) promoting survival and functional recovery of dopaminergic neurons when delivered to the degenerated striatum. To study the aspects of intraputamenal delivery of GDNF, a mathematical model of recombinant methionyl human GDNF (r-metHuGDNF) convection in the human putamen has been developed. The convection-enhanced delivery infusions of r-metHuGDNF were simulated at rates up to 5 μL/min. The high-rate infusions (≥1 μL/min) permit rapid and uniform distribution of drug with up to 75% of the distribution volume having a concentration within 5% of the infusate concentration...
May 11, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488157/foreword-to-the-special-issue-electroporation-for-biomedical-applications
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474182/homogenous-scaffold-based-cranial-skull-implant-modelling-and-structural-analysis-unit-cell-algorithm-meshless-approach
#15
V Phanindra Bogu, Y Ravi Kumar, Asit Kumar Khanra
This computational study explores a unique modelling approach of the cranial implant, homogenous scaffold algorithm and meshless method, respectively. This meshless method is employed to review the implant underneath intracranial pressure (ICP) conditions with a standard ICP range of 7 mm of Hg to 15 mm of Hg. The algorithm is used to introduce uniform porosity within the implant enabling the implant behaviour with respect to ICP conditions. However, increase in the porosity leads to variation in deformation and equivalent stress, respectively...
May 5, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462498/refined-multiscale-fuzzy-entropy-based-on-standard-deviation-for-biomedical-signal-analysis
#16
Hamed Azami, Alberto Fernández, Javier Escudero
Multiscale entropy (MSE) has been a prevalent algorithm to quantify the complexity of biomedical time series. Recent developments in the field have tried to alleviate the problem of undefined MSE values for short signals. Moreover, there has been a recent interest in using other statistical moments than the mean, i.e., variance, in the coarse-graining step of the MSE. Building on these trends, here we introduce the so-called refined composite multiscale fuzzy entropy based on the standard deviation (RCMFEσ) and mean (RCMFEμ) to quantify the dynamical properties of spread and mean, respectively, over multiple time scales...
May 2, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462497/a-coaxial-slot-antenna-with-frequency-of-433%C3%A2-mhz-for-microwave-ablation-therapies-design-simulation-and-experimental-research
#17
Yingxu Jiang, Jinzhe Zhao, Weitao Li, Yamin Yang, Jia Liu, Zhiyu Qian
Investigation of the structures and properties of antennas is important in the design of microwave ablation (MWA) system. In this study, we studied the performance of the novel tri- and single-slot antennas with frequency of 433 MHz in ex vivo conditions. The dielectric properties of liver tissue under different thermal coagulation levels were explored, which was beneficial to evaluate ablation condition of tissue and simulate temperature field. Then, the performances of the antennas were analyzed by using numerical method based on finite element method (FEM)...
May 2, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390003/modifying-motor-unit-territory-placement-in-the-fuglevand-model
#18
Jason W Robertson, Jamie A Johnston
The Fuglevand model is often used to address challenging questions in neurophysiology; however, there are elements of the neuromuscular system unaccounted for in the model. For instance, in some muscles, slow and fast motor units (MUs) tend to reside deep and superficially in the muscle, respectively, necessarily altering the development of surface electromyogram (EMG) power during activation. Thus, the objective of this study was to replace the randomized MU territory (MUT) placement algorithm in the Fuglevand model with an optimized method capable of reflecting these observations...
April 8, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390002/a-tool-for-validating-mri-guided-strategies-a-digital-breathing-ct-mri-phantom-of-the-abdominal-site
#19
Chiara Paganelli, Paul Summers, Chiara Gianoli, Massimo Bellomi, Guido Baroni, Marco Riboldi
Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as the elected image modality for organ motion quantification and management in image-guided radiotherapy. However, the lack of validation tools is an open issue for image guidance in the abdominal and thoracic organs affected by organ motion due to respiration. We therefore present an abdominal four-dimensional (4D) CT/MRI digital phantom, including the estimation of MR tissue parameters, simulation of dedicated abdominal MR sequences, modeling of radiofrequency coil response and noise, followed by k-space sampling and image reconstruction...
April 8, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361357/increasing-accuracy-of-pulse-transit-time-measurements-by-automated-elimination-of-distorted-photoplethysmography-waves
#20
Marit H N van Velzen, Arjo J Loeve, Sjoerd P Niehof, Egbert G Mik
Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a widely available non-invasive optical technique to visualize pressure pulse waves (PWs). Pulse transit time (PTT) is a physiological parameter that is often derived from calculations on ECG and PPG signals and is based on tightly defined characteristics of the PW shape. PPG signals are sensitive to artefacts. Coughing or movement of the subject can affect PW shapes that much that the PWs become unsuitable for further analysis. The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm that automatically and objectively eliminates unsuitable PWs...
March 30, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
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