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Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435706/detail-enhanced-multimodality-medical-image-fusion-based-on-gradient-minimization-smoothing-filter-and-shearing-filter
#1
Xingbin Liu, Wenbo Mei, Huiqian Du
In this paper, a detail-enhanced multimodality medical image fusion algorithm is proposed by using proposed multi-scale joint decomposition framework (MJDF) and shearing filter (SF). The MJDF constructed with gradient minimization smoothing filter (GMSF) and Gaussian low-pass filter (GLF) is used to decompose source images into low-pass layers, edge layers, and detail layers at multiple scales. In order to highlight the detail information in the fused image, the edge layer and the detail layer in each scale are weighted combined into a detail-enhanced layer...
February 13, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435705/vision-based-gait-impairment-analysis-for-aided-diagnosis
#2
Javier Ortells, María Trinidad Herrero-Ezquerro, Ramón A Mollineda
Gait is a firsthand reflection of health condition. This belief has inspired recent research efforts to automate the analysis of pathological gait, in order to assist physicians in decision-making. However, most of these efforts rely on gait descriptions which are difficult to understand by humans, or on sensing technologies hardly available in ambulatory services. This paper proposes a number of semantic and normalized gait features computed from a single video acquired by a low-cost sensor. Far from being conventional spatio-temporal descriptors, features are aimed at quantifying gait impairment, such as gait asymmetry from several perspectives or falling risk...
February 12, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430594/fast-in-silico-assessment-of-physical-stress-for-peripheral-nerves
#3
Elisabetta Giannessi, Maria Rita Stornelli, Pier Nicola Sergi
The level of physical stress rules the adaptative response of peripheral nerves, which is crucial to assess their physiological and pathological states. To this aim, in this work, different computational approaches were presented to model the stress response of in vitro peripheral nerves undergoing longitudinal stretch. More specifically, the effects of geometrical simplifications were studied with respect to the amount of computational time needed to obtain relevant information. Similarly, the variation of compressibility of the peripheral nervous tissue was investigated with respect to the variation of longitudinal stress and transversal stretch variations, and with reference to the computational time needed for simulations...
February 12, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411247/automatic-deformable-pet-mri-registration-for-preclinical-studies-based-on-b-splines-and-non-linear-intensity-transformation
#4
Stéphanie Bricq, Hiliwi Leake Kidane, Jorge Zavala-Bojorquez, Alexandra Oudot, Jean-Marc Vrigneaud, François Brunotte, Paul Michael Walker, Alexandre Cochet, Alain Lalande
PET images deliver functional data, whereas MRI images provide anatomical information. Merging the complementary information from these two modalities is helpful in oncology. Alignment of PET/MRI images requires the use of multi-modal registration methods. Most of existing PET/MRI registration methods have been developed for humans and few works have been performed for small animal images. We proposed an automatic tool allowing PET/MRI registration for pre-clinical study based on a two-level hierarchical approach...
February 7, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399728/vessel-segmentation-and-catheter-detection-in-x-ray-angiograms-using-superpixels
#5
Hamid R Fazlali, Nader Karimi, S M Reza Soroushmehr, Shahram Shirani, Brahmajee K Nallamothu, Kevin R Ward, Shadrokh Samavi, Kayvan Najarian
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death around the world. One of the most common imaging methods for diagnosing CAD is the X-ray angiography (XRA). Diagnosing using XRA images is usually challenging due to some reasons such as, non-uniform illumination, low contrast, presence of other body tissues, and presence of catheter. These challenges make the diagnosis task hard and more prone to misdiagnosis. In this paper, we propose a new method for coronary artery segmentation, catheter detection, and centerline extraction in X-ray angiography images...
February 5, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392547/vibroarthrography-for-early-detection-of-knee-osteoarthritis-using-normalized-frequency-features
#6
Nima Befrui, Jens Elsner, Achim Flesser, Jacqueline Huvanandana, Oussama Jarrousse, Tuan Nam Le, Marcus Müller, Walther H W Schulze, Stefan Taing, Simon Weidert
Vibroarthrography is a radiation-free and inexpensive method of assessing the condition of knee cartilage damage during extension-flexion movements. Acoustic sensors were placed on the patella and medial tibial plateau (two accelerometers) as well as on the lateral tibial plateau (a piezoelectric disk) to measure the structure-borne noise in 59 asymptomatic knees and 40 knees with osteoarthritis. After semi-automatic segmentation of the acoustic signals, frequency features were generated for the extension as well as the flexion phase...
February 1, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374348/driver-electronics-design-and-control-for-a-total-artificial-heart-linear-motor
#7
Kristin Unthan, Elena Cuenca-Navalon, Benedikt Pelletier, Thomas Finocchiaro, Ulrich Steinseifer
For any implantable device size and efficiency are critical properties. Thus, a linear motor for a Total Artificial Heart was optimized with focus on driver electronics and control strategies. Hardware requirements were defined from power supply and motor setup. Four full bridges were chosen for the power electronics. Shunt resistors were set up for current measurement. Unipolar and bipolar switching for power electronics control were compared regarding current ripple and power losses. Here, unipolar switching showed smaller current ripple and required less power to create the necessary motor forces...
January 27, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368264/classification-of-micro-calcification-in-mammograms-using-scalable-linear-fisher-discriminant-analysis
#8
Zobia Suhail, Erika R E Denton, Reyer Zwiggelaar
Breast cancer is one of the major causes of death in women. Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems are being developed to assist radiologists in early diagnosis. Micro-calcifications can be an early symptom of breast cancer. Besides detection, classification of micro-calcification as benign or malignant is essential in a complete CAD system. We have developed a novel method for the classification of benign and malignant micro-calcification using an improved Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) approach for the linear transformation of segmented micro-calcification data in combination with a Support Vector Machine (SVM) variant to classify between the two classes...
January 25, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359257/speedup-computation-of-hd-semg-signals-using-a-motor-unit-specific-electrical-source-model
#9
Vincent Carriou, Sofiane Boudaoud, Jeremy Laforet
Nowadays, bio-reliable modeling of muscle contraction is becoming more accurate and complex. This increasing complexity induces a significant increase in computation time which prevents the possibility of using this model in certain applications and studies. Accordingly, the aim of this work is to significantly reduce the computation time of high-density surface electromyogram (HD-sEMG) generation. This will be done through a new model of motor unit (MU)-specific electrical source based on the fibers composing the MU...
January 23, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354890/angular-relational-signature-based-chest-radiograph-image-view-classification
#10
K C Santosh, Laurent Wendling
In a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system, especially for chest radiograph or chest X-ray (CXR) screening, CXR image view information is required. Automatically separating CXR image view, frontal and lateral can ease subsequent CXR screening process, since the techniques may not equally work for both views. We present a novel technique to classify frontal and lateral CXR images, where we introduce angular relational signature through force histogram to extract features and apply three different state-of-the-art classifiers: multi-layer perceptron, random forest, and support vector machine to make a decision...
January 22, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352433/development-and-clinical-application-of-vertebral-metrics-using-a-stereo-vision-system-to-assess-the-spine
#11
Ana Teresa Gabriel, Cláudia Quaresma, Mário Forjaz Secca, Pedro Vieira
The biomechanical changes in the spinal column are considered to be the main responsible for rachialgia. Although radiological techniques use ionizing radiation, they are the most applied tools to assess the biomechanics of the spine. To face this problem, non-invasive techniques must be developed. Vertebral Metrics is an ionizing radiation-free instrument designed to detect the 3D position of each vertebrae in a standing position. Using a stereo vision system combined with low intensity UV light, recognition is achieved with software capable of distinguishing fluorescent marks...
January 20, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344902/occupational-exposure-to-electromagnetic-fields-in-magnetic-resonance-environment-basic-aspects-and-review-of-exposure-assessment-approaches
#12
Valentina Hartwig, Stefania Romeo, Olga Zeni
The purpose of this review is to make a contribution to build a comprehensive knowledge of the main aspects related to the occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environments. Information has been obtained from original research papers published in international peer-reviewed journals in the English language and from documents published by governmental bodies and authorities. An overview of the occupational exposure scenarios to static magnetic fields, motion-induced, time-varying magnetic fields, and gradient and radiofrequency fields is provided, together with a summary of the relevant regulation for limiting exposure...
January 18, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340899/assessing-sensorimotor-excitability-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-reflex-testing-method-based-on-cycling-with-afferent-stimulation
#13
Stefano Piazza, Diego Torricelli, Julio Gómez-Soriano, Diego Serrano-Muñoz, Gerardo Ávila-Martín, Iriana Galán-Arriero, José Luis Pons, Julian Taylor
Several studies have examined spinal reflex modulation during leg cycling in healthy and spinal cord injury (SCI) subjects. However, the effect of cutaneous plantar afferent input on spinal excitability during leg cycling after SCI has not been characterised. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility of using controlled leg cycling in combination with plantar cutaneous electrical stimulation (ES) cycling to assess lower limb spinal sensorimotor excitability in subjects with motor complete or incomplete SCI...
January 17, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335929/computational-model-to-investigate-the-relative-contributions-of-different-neuromuscular-properties-of-tibialis-anterior-on-force-generated-during-ankle-dorsiflexion
#14
Ariba Siddiqi, Sridhar Poosapadi Arjunan, Dinesh Kant Kumar
This study describes a new model of the force generated by tibialis anterior muscle with three new features: single-fiber action potential, twitch force, and pennation angle. This model was used to investigate the relative effects and interaction of ten age-associated neuromuscular parameters. Regression analysis (significance level of 0.05) between the neuromuscular properties and corresponding simulated force produced at the footplate was performed. Standardized slope coefficients were computed to rank the effect of the parameters...
January 16, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327335/classification-and-characterization-of-postural-transitions-using-instrumented-shoes
#15
Christopher Moufawad El Achkar, Constanze Lenbole-Hoskovec, Anisoara Paraschiv-Ionescu, Kristof Major, Kamiar Aminian, Christophe Büla
The frequency and quality of sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit postural transitions decrease with age and are highly relevant for fall risk assessment. Accurate classification and characterization of these transitions in daily life of older adults are therefore needed. In this study, we propose to use instrumented shoes for postural transition classification as well as transition duration estimation from insole force signals. In the first part, data were collected with 10 older adults and 10 young participants performing transitions in the laboratory while wearing the instrumented shoes, without arm assistance...
January 12, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327334/a-masked-least-squares-smoothing-procedure-for-artifact-reduction-in-scanning-emg-recordings
#16
Íñigo Corera, Adrián Eciolaza, Oliver Rubio, Armando Malanda, Javier Rodríguez-Falces, Javier Navallas
Scanning-EMG is an electrophysiological technique in which the electrical activity of the motor unit is recorded at multiple points along a corridor crossing the motor unit territory. Correct analysis of the scanning-EMG signal requires prior elimination of interference from nearby motor units. Although the traditional processing based on the median filtering is effective in removing such interference, it distorts the physiological waveform of the scanning-EMG signal. In this study, we describe a new scanning-EMG signal processing algorithm that preserves the physiological signal waveform while effectively removing interference from other motor units...
January 11, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318442/an-exudate-detection-method-for-diagnosis-risk-of-diabetic-macular-edema-in-retinal-images-using-feature-based-and-supervised-classification
#17
D Marin, M E Gegundez-Arias, B Ponte, F Alvarez, J Garrido, C Ortega, M J Vasallo, J M Bravo
The present paper aims at presenting the methodology and first results of a detection system of risk of diabetic macular edema (DME) in fundus images. The system is based on the detection of retinal exudates (Ex), whose presence in the image is clinically used for an early diagnosis of the disease. To do so, the system applies digital image processing algorithms to the retinal image in order to obtain a set of candidate regions to be Ex, which are validated by means of feature extraction and supervised classification techniques...
January 10, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308547/higher-order-total-variation-regularization-for-eit-reconstruction
#18
Bo Gong, Benjamin Schullcke, Sabine Krueger-Ziolek, Fan Zhang, Ullrich Mueller-Lisse, Knut Moeller
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) attempts to reveal the conductivity distribution of a domain based on the electrical boundary condition. This is an ill-posed inverse problem; its solution is very unstable. Total variation (TV) regularization is one of the techniques commonly employed to stabilize reconstructions. However, it is well known that TV regularization induces staircase effects, which are not realistic in clinical applications. To reduce such artifacts, modified TV regularization terms considering a higher order differential operator were developed in several previous studies...
January 8, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308546/fluid-mechanics-of-windkessel-effect
#19
C C Mei, J Zhang, H X Jing
We describe a mechanistic model of Windkessel phenomenon based on the linear dynamics of fluid-structure interactions. The phenomenon has its origin in an old-fashioned fire-fighting equipment where an air chamber serves to transform the intermittent influx from a pump to a more steady stream out of the hose. A similar mechanism exists in the cardiovascular system where blood injected intermittantly from the heart becomes rather smooth after passing through an elastic aorta. In existing haeodynamics literature, this mechanism is explained on the basis of electric circuit analogy with empirical impedances...
January 8, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308545/a-novel-high-input-impedance-front-end-for-capacitive-biopotential-measurement
#20
Rongrong Wu, Yue Tang, Zhiyu Li, Limin Zhang, Feng Yan
For capacitive biopotential measurement, a novel high input impedance front-end is proposed. The input impedance of the front-end can achieve more than 100 GΩ by matching the peripheral parameters. The front-end's noise model is provided, and noise optimization is given further. The analysis shows the proposed front-end can achieve at least two orders of input impedance more than the non-inverting amplifier circuit with the same peripheral parameters at the cost of only increasing twice input-referred noise...
January 8, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
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