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Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia

Miguel Lorenzale, Borja Fernández, Ana Carmen Durán, Miguel A López-Unzu, Valentín Sans-Coma
The cardiac outflow tract of chondrichthyans is composed of the myocardial conus arteriosus, equipped with valves at its luminal side, and the bulbus arteriosus devoid of myocardium. Knowledge of the histomorphology of the conal valves is scarce despite their importance in preventing blood backflow to the heart. Current information on the subject refers to a single shark species. The present report is the first to describe the structure of the conal valves of a batoid species, namely, Raja asterias. Hearts from seven starry rays were examined using scanning electron microscopy and histochemical techniques for light microscopy...
October 31, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Fatma A Madkour, Alsayed A Mohamed
The rock pigeon (RP) and the laughing dove (LD) are common and widely distributed species in African countries, including Egypt. The present work was carried out to characterize the comparative features of the glandular stomach (proventriculus) in these two birds, which share diets and habitats. In both species, the proventriculus is an elongated spindle obliquely situated in the cranial two-thirds of the body cavity. The length and weight of the proventriculus in the RP were about one and half times greater than that of the LD...
October 28, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Joshua A Rowe, Federica Morandi, Dustin R Osborne, Jonathan S Wall, Stephen J Kennel, Robert B Reed, Amy K LeBlanc
3'-deoxy-3'-[18 F]fluorothymidine (18 FLT) is a radiopharmaceutical tracer used with positron emission tomography (PET), often in combination with computed tomography (CT), to image DNA synthesis, and thus, cellular proliferation. Characteristic accumulation of the tracer within haematopoietic bone marrow provides a noninvasive means to assess marrow activity and distribution throughout the living animal. The present study utilizes three-dimensional analysis of 18 FLT-PET/CT scans to quantify the relative skeletal distribution of active marrow by anatomic site in the dog...
October 23, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Fumiao Zhang, Ranran Feng, Wei Fang, Yanhui Shi, Liguo An, Guiwen Yang
Fish are the most diverse species of all vertebrate groups, and their blood cells have shown variable characteristics in terms of morphology. Cytochemical staining for enzyme activity in blood leukocytes will help assess the immune function of fish. We characterize blood cells from crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) by using a Diff-Quick stain as well as different cytochemical methods. Blood specimens obtained from crucian carp and grass carp were evaluated after cytochemical staining for acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), naphthol AS chloroacetate esterase (AS-DNCE), naphthyl acetate esterase (NAE), α-naphthyl butyrate esterase (NBE), peroxidase (MPO) and periodic acid-Schiff's reaction (PAS) using commercial kits...
October 23, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Lucia Olexikova, Marsia Miranda, Barbora Kulikova, Andrej Baláži, Peter Chrenek
Sperm plasma membrane is an essential structure of sperm resistance to freezing. Signs of cryodamage can be visible on the sperm plasma membrane. The aim of our study was to evaluate the appearance of plasma membrane and acrosome in fresh and frozen-thawed chicken sperm using electron and fluorescence microscopy. Semen was collected from 12 sexually mature roosters of Ross PM3 heavy line, diluted with Kobidil+ extender with 16% of ethylene glycol (KEG; control) or with KEG in combination with one of following non-permeating cryoprotectants: trehalose (KEG-TRE) or glycine (KEG-GLY)...
October 17, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Hideki Endo, Masataka Yoshida, Truong Son Nguyen, Yuki Akiba, Masahiro Takeda, Kohei Kudo
Semiaquatic walking has resulted in the evolution of functional and morphological changes in various hoofed mammals, such as hippopotamus and Brazilian tapir. The biomechanics of skilful walking in wetlands or at the bottom of a waterbody involve the medio-lateral opening and closing of the feet to effectively support and stabilize the body on soft ground and to reduce the water resistance during recovery stroke, respectively. We demonstrate that the opening and closing of the feet in hippopotamus and Brazilian tapir are mediated by the adduction and abduction of the most medial and lateral phalanges from the CT examination...
October 14, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Artur Pałasz, Łukasz Mielańczyk, Natalia Matysiak, Yolanda Segovia, Mariia Savchyna, Kinga Mordecka-Chamera, John J Worthington
Ribbon synapses located exclusively within retinal, cochlear and vestibular connections belong to the most interesting cellular structures but their molecular nature and functions had remained unclear. The study has provided a descriptive morphological analysis of rat eye ribbon synapses using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). An original collection of untypical, rarely present in the literature sagittal or tangential sections through the single RIBEYE domain of the particular ribbon have been delivered...
September 23, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Ahmed M Abdellatif, Mohamed A Hamed, El-Sayed El-Shafaey, Haitham Eldoumani
Buffaloes represent a major source of milk production, especially in developing countries including Egypt. The buffalo foot is frequently involved in a large proportion of lameness cases. The relatively small size and complexity of its structures often render the radiographic evaluation of the foot challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive imaging technique that is regarded as both safe and accurate for assessment of the foot disorders in both man and animals. The purpose of the current investigation was to describe the MRI anatomy of buffalo foot using cadaveric hind feet...
September 16, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Andhika Yudha Prawira, Savitri Novelina, Huda Salahudin Darusman, Wartika Rosa Farida, Srihadi Agungpriyono
Skin becomes the largest organ in the body and protects its own inner layer. The structure and chemical composition of the skin contribute to skin condition and affect the habitat of certain bacteria. The Sunda Porcupine is one of endemic animals of Indonesia which possesses quill as the main derivate of its skin and as a defence tool against predators. The present study used nine adults (five females and four males) of Sunda Porcupine and aimed to observe the correlation of skin structure with bacterial population at the surface level...
September 11, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Bruno C Schimming, Maria D Cesario, Selma M M Matheus
Opossums, the largest marsupials found in Brazil, are animals of great interest due to their commonality in large urban centres and their frequent use as laboratory animals. Thus, this study was designed to describe the vaginal complex in ten female opossums by gross anatomy and light microscopy. The vaginal complex comprises two lateral vaginae, a vaginal cul-de-sac and a urogenital sinus. No marked morphological contrast of the vaginal complex was observed in the proestrus and metestrus phases of the females studied...
September 7, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Yanping Ding, Na Zhang, Jialong Li, Yiran Jin, Baoping Shao
Ghrelin is a very important brain-gut peptide that modulates appetite and energy metabolism in mammals. The yak is the only large mammal that can adapt to the cold temperatures and hypoxia conditions present in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, there are no reports on ghrelin molecular characterization and expression in the hypothalamus-pituitary-digestive tract axis of the yak to date. In this study, the coding region sequence of the yak ghrelin, containing a complete ORF (351) encoding for 117 amino acids, was cloned...
September 3, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Christian Roski, Christiane Langrock, Nicole Körber, Gunnar Habermann, Eberhard Buse, Andreas Reichenbach, Thomas Pannicke, Mike Francke
Ca2+ -binding proteins are differentially expressed in the nervous system; their functional role often remains unclear. This immunohistochemical study aimed at characterising and comparing the expression pattern of the Ca2+ -binding proteins calbindin (Calb), calretinin (Calr) and parvalbumin (Parv) in the retina of four species of macaque monkeys: Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus macaque), M. mulatta (rhesus macaque), M. thibetana (Tibetan macaque) and M. fuscata (Japanese macaque). Calb was found in cone photoreceptors and in a subset of bipolar cells...
August 28, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Manuel L Sánchez, Eliana de Souza, Luis A Aguilar, Rafael Coveñas
Using an immunocytochemical technique, we have studied in the alpaca brainstem the distribution of immunoreactive structures containing prodynorphin (alpha-neoendorphin)- and pro-opiomelanocortin (adrenocorticotrophin hormone (18-39) (ACTH), beta-endorphin (1-27))-derived peptides. No peptidergic-immunoreactive cell body was observed. Immunoreactive fibres were widely distributed, although in most of the brainstem nuclei the density of the peptidergic fibres was low or very low. In general, the distribution of the immunoreactive fibres containing the peptides studied was very similar...
October 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Kongkiat Srisuwatanasagul, Nawarus Prapaiwan, Sayamon Srisuwatanasagul, Annop Kunavongkrit, Atthaporn Roongsitthichai
This study aimed to investigate the immunoexpression of Ki-67 protein, androgen receptor (AR), and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in testicular tissues of male pigs immunocastrated using GnRH vaccine (Improvac™, Zoetis Co., Ltd., Thailand) with different times. Totally, 30 male pigs were classified by castration protocol into three groups: T1 (n = 10) consisted of pigs immunocastrated at 14 and 18 weeks of age, T2 (n = 10) included pigs immunocastrated at 9 and 19 weeks of age, and C (n = 10) contained intact pigs...
October 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Mike M Mpango, Mary-Cathrine Madekurozwa
This study describes ciliated, nonciliated and mitochondrial luminal epithelial cells of the isthmus in laying and moulting domestic fowls using histological and ultrastructural techniques. The ciliated cells were nonsecretory, while numerous electron-dense secretory granules were present in the nonciliated cells of laying birds. Mitochondrial cells, occurring in two morphologically distinct forms, constituted the third type of epithelial cell present in the isthmus. The SEM study showed that the luminal epithelium was dominated by ciliated cells, the cilia of which partially obscured adjacent nonciliated cells...
October 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Olivia Garcia-Suarez, Roberto Cabo, Francesco Abbate, Basilio Randazzo, Rosaria Laurà, Giuseppe Piccione, Antonino Germanà, Maria Levanti
Leptin is an anorectic hormone secreted mainly by peripheral adipocytes but also by other central and peripheral tissues. It acts by means of a receptor called OB-R, influencing not only appetite and body mass but being also involved in many fields like endocrinology, metabolism and reproduction. Immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR techniques were, respectively, used to demonstrate the presence of leptin and its receptor in the gut of adult zebrafish and to evaluate the leptin gene expression response to feeding and fasting...
October 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Rafaela N Moreira, Sandra A Marinho, Flaviana D Verli, Dhelfeson W Douglas-de-Oliveira, Ana Terezinha Mesquita, Nádia L Lima
The aim of this study was to measure changes in epithelial thickness in the lingual mucosa of golden hamsters submitted to the topical application of distilled alcoholic beverages. Forty golden hamsters were randomly divided into: Group 1-cachaça 48° GL and Group 2-whisky 40° GL. Alcohol was applied to the right side of the tongue, the left side served as control. Seventy microscopic fields were evaluated. The data were submitted to descriptive statistics, the Wilcoxon test and the Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0...
October 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Hak-Jin Kim, Kyeong-Mee Park, Hye-Jin Tak, Ji Wook Choi, Sang-Hoon Kang, Wonse Park, Helios Bertin, Pierre Corre, Sang-Hwy Lee
This study aimed to divide the mandible into skeletal units based on three-dimensional (3D) muscular anatomy with microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) of Sprague-Dawley rat. Five normal rats were micro-CT scanned at 12 weeks of age before and after contrast enhancements for the masticatory muscles. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the mandible was performed from the initial micro-CT images, followed by segmentation of the masticatory muscles using the second enhanced micro-CT data. Bone and muscle models were superimposed based on the teeth and bony structures to evaluate muscular orientation and attachment...
October 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Aimi Nadia Binti Razlan, Muzammil Ullah, Marina Yurievna Kapitonova, Norhayati Binti Liaqat Ali Khan, Syed Baharom Syed Ahmad Fuad
The aim of the study was to investigate the location of motor neuron somata of geniohyoid muscle in rat. Nine Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Operations were performed under general anaesthesia. Nembutal sodium, 40 mg per kg intraperitoneally was used for anaesthesia. 0.02 to 0.05 ml of 30% horseradish peroxidase (Sigma Type VI) solution in normal saline was injected into the exposed right geniohyoid muscle. After 48 hr, the animals were fixed by perfusion through left ventricle of heart, first by 100 ml normal saline and then with 500 ml of 1...
October 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Mohamed A A Mahdy, Kamal E H Abdalla, Salma A Mohamed
The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology of the goat hard palate by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in addition to gross and morphometric analysis. A total of twelve goat heads, from normal adult and apparently healthy goats of both sexes, were collected from local slaughterhouses in Qena province, Egypt. Samples were subjected to gross examination, morphometric analysis, light microscopy and SEM. The hard palate in the goats was long and could be divided into a rostral narrow part and a caudal wide part with about 12-15 transverse palatine ridges from which the rostral palatine ridges were serrated on their free caudal edges...
October 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
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