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Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia

E Pasicka, K Tarnawski, A Chrószcz, H Geringer de Oedenberg
The study was carried out on 126 mares of the Polish Konik horse breed. Mares were bred under a stable system housing and they came from five leading conservation breeding centres. The mares were divided into three age groups: 3-5 years old, 6-9 years old and over 10 years old. Each animal was characterized using 40 morphometric measurements. Discriminant analysis proved the exterior differences of mares in terms of the analysed metric values. It was concluded that the morphotype of modern Polish Konik mares is statistically significantly influenced by the following traits: neck ventral length, forearm circumference, distance between the vascular notch (incisura vasorum facialium) and the oral angle (angulus oris), distance between the margo coronalis ungulae and the margo solearis ungulae of the thoracic limb, thorax circumference and pelvis width...
January 20, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
I Biasato, G Lanteri, F Guarda, M T Capucchio, F Marino, G Briguglio, F Macrì
A 2-months-old male German shepherd puppy was referred for regurgitation and delayed growth. Radiographic and endoscopic investigations revealed a precardiac megaoesophagus and oesophageal constriction at the level of the heart base. At post-mortem examination, a specific form of persistent right aortic arch characterized by an aberrant left subclavian artery in combination with a ligamentum arteriosum originating at the aberrant left subclavian artery (PRAA-SA-LA) was detected. A complete-type persistent left cranial vena cava (PLCVC) was also observed...
January 3, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
M Levanti, A Germanà, G Montalbano, M C Guerrera, M Cavallaro, F Abbate
The oral cavity of vertebrates has a very important role in many functions strictly related to the food processing. Two species, sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and seabream Sparus aurata, are mainly involved in the aquaculture industry in the mediterranean area; moreover, the white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus was recently chosen as the best candidate for the diversification of species of commercial interest. This investigation was carried out, using the standard procedures for light and scanning electron microscopy, to analyse the morphology of the tongue dorsal surface in order to show whether relationships are present between the tongue morphology and the nutritional choices of these species...
December 19, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
M Arribart, J Ognard, C Guintard, F Domergue, S Hassani, D Ben Salem, J-L Jung
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to scan the head of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in order to visualize the different adipose tissues involved in echolocation functioning and to precisely delineate their anatomical topology. MRI scans were performed on the head taken from a freshly stranded carcass and repeated after a 2-week freezing time followed by thawing. The main fatty organs of the head, that is the melon, the mandibula bulba, the bursae cantantes, and their different connections with surrounding tissues were identified and labelled...
December 18, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Z X Zheng, Y Tang, J Fang, X Peng, J D Fan, H M Cui, L Z Yang
The ultrastructural and cytochemical properties of peripheral blood cells of Gymnocypris eckloni were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and a range of cytochemical techniques to provide clear insight into the structure and function of blood cells from this fish. Ultrastructurally, erythrocytes, leucocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes), thrombocytes and plasma cells were identified in the peripheral blood of G. eckloni. The most special ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in this fish were that neutrophils exhibited only one type of cytoplasmic granules containing an eccentric, spherical or oval electron-dense core, and eosinophils presented two types of granules with non-uniform electronic density and without crystalloids in their cytoplasm...
February 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
A Ali
The aim of this study was to investigate whether multiple corpora lutea (CL) in dromedary camels were associated with multiple pregnancies. Three experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, reproductive tracts of 124 slaughtered female camels were examined for the incidence of multiple CL and the pregnancy status. In the second experiment, uteri and ovaries of 50 females were examined by ultrasound between the fourth and fifteenth weeks of pregnancy to estimate the number and location of the embryos/fetuses and the number of associated CL...
February 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
U Hagag, M Tawfiek, W Brehm, K Gerlach
The objective of this study was to provide a detailed multiplanar computed tomographic (CT) anatomic reference for the bovine tarsus. The tarsal regions from twelve healthy adult cow cadavers were scanned in both soft and bone windows via a 16-slice multidetector CT scanner. Tarsi were frozen at -20(o) C and sectioned to 10-mm-thick slices in transverse, dorsal and sagittal planes respecting the imaging protocol. The frozen sections were cleaned and then photographed. Anatomic structures were identified, labelled and compared with the corresponding CT images...
December 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
L A Cope
The canine right atrioventricular valve cusps are anchored to papillary muscles by chordae tendineae. During ventricular systole, these tendineae keep the cusps from being pushed into the atrium. While this is the general description for chordae tendineae, several researchers have briefly documented chordae tendineae in animal and human hearts that do not attach to papillary muscles. In the 39 canine hearts examined, atypical chordae tendineae were observed in two hearts. In both dogs, a single stranded chordae tendineae extended from the free edge of the parietal cusp of the right atrioventricular valve to the ventricular free wall...
December 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
M Santos, L M Carreira
This study was performed in a sample of 20 dogs (n = 20) and aimed to: (1) characterize the mandible height (Mh), mandibular canal height (MCh) and distance between the inter-dental alveolar margin and the mandibular canal (dIAM-MC) dimensions, and (2) to develop mathematical models that express the insight's mandible anatomy of those important mandible structural elements allowing the prediction of their dimensions using physical parameters such as patient body weight (Wg) and the canine tooth width at the free gingival margin level-(wCGM)...
December 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
E Muggli, E Weidmann, P Kircher, K Nuss
The digital skeleton of the hindlimbs was evaluated radiographically in 27 standing Brown Swiss heifers. The lateral digital skeleton was significantly longer than its medial counterpart on both a hard (wooden block) and a softer (wooden block covered with a thin rubber mat) surface. There were no significant differences between lengths measured on the hard and the soft surface. The difference between the length of the lateral and medial digits originated at the level of the condyles and increased with P1 and P2...
December 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
I Duritis, A Mugurevics
The role of goblet cell secretion, containing mucopolysaccharides, in the formation of a protective barrier of intestinal mucosa and transportation of the intestinal content has been described quite extensively. However, information on the quality composition of mucopolysaccharides and its changes in the intestinal tract of ostrich chicks, especially in the large intestinal segments, is unavailable. In the current study, ostrich embryos/chicks (n = 6/36) of both sexes were used shortly before hatching and during the first months of the post-hatch period...
December 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
M Joscht, M Martin, M Henin, J F Nisolle, N Kirschvink, A Dugdale, B Godart, H Coulon, V Simon, F Hontoir, R Graffin, Y De Raeve, J M Vandeweerd
External iliac artery atherosclerotic disease and aneurism occur in man. For treatment, imaging is required to facilitate minimally invasive introduction and advancement of stents within the intended vessels. Sheep are commonly used to test and improve stents. However, little information is published regarding the angiographic anatomy of the iliac arteries in the ovine species. The objective of this study was to describe the angiographic anatomy of the iliac arteries in the sheep. Computed tomography (CT) angiography and gross anatomical dissection were performed in, respectively, 10 and 43 adult ewes...
December 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
R Perrin, A C Diguet, P Cantet, C Bailly, L Brogniez, A Dugdale, J F Nisolle, J M Vandeweerd
Synovitis of the navicular bursa is common in performance horses. The objective of this study was to describe an ultrasound-guided technique to inject a distended navicular bursa and to evaluate its feasibility for use by a clinician not trained in the technique. Twenty distal limbs of horses of various breeds and sizes were used. To produce synovial distension, the navicular bursa of each limb was injected with contrast medium using a lateral approach and radiography was performed to confirm that the contrast medium was distending the bursa...
December 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
L A Cope
The trabecula septomarginalis dextra is a structure routinely mentioned in veterinary anatomy. While there are several studies on the morphology of this structure in select animal species, there are some characteristics that are not adequately described. The purpose of this study was to describe and classify this trabecula in the domestic dog using the number of branches that insert onto the ventricular free wall. In the 39 examined hearts, 17.95% were single stranded (type I) and 2.56% were y-shaped (IA). Then, 28...
December 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Y Kimura, S Karakama, M Kobayashi, N Machida
The incidence, distribution, and macro- and microscopic structures of left ventricular false tendons (LVFTs) in the cat heart were studied using 25 normal and 57 diseased hearts. The fibrous bands were observed in the left ventricle of all 82 cat hearts examined and most commonly extended between the papillary muscles and the ventricular septum. Histologically, the LVFTs were composed of central Purkinje fibres and surrounding dense collagenous fibres covered by endothelium. There was no appreciable difference in the incidence, distribution or morphology of LVFTs between the normal and the diseased hearts, indicating that LVFTs are a common anatomic variant in the cat heart...
December 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
D Rodler
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) play a paramount role in the regulation of normal and pathologic angiogenesis in the ovary of mammals. Very little is known on the expression of these two growth factors in the avian ovary. The aim of this study was to determine for the first time the localization of VEGF and FGF-2 in the ovary of the ostrich using immunohistochemical techniques to investigate the vascularization of the rapidly growing huge ostrich oocyte. At the oocyte periphery, distinct VEGF-positive granules are visible...
December 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
A Pelagalli, C Squillacioti, A De Luca, M E Pero, G Vassalotti, P Lombardi, L Avallone, N Mirabella
Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane channel proteins that play a role in regulating water permeability in many tissues. To date, seven isoforms of AQPs have been reported in the gastrointestinal tract in different mammalian species. In contrast, both tissue distribution and expression of AQPs are unknown in the buffalo. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of both AQP4 and AQP5 mRNAs and their relative proteins in the large intestinal tracts of buffalo calves after colostrum suckling using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry...
December 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
K Harfoush, C Guintard, J C Desfontis, C Thorin, C Douart, M Y Mallem, E Betti
Dysfunction of venous valves can lead to hemodynamic disorders causing venous stasis, which would favour the occurrence of equine laminitis. However, very few studies have investigated venous valves in the horse digit. The purpose of this study was to compare valvular density between thoracic and pelvic limbs and to study the relationship between valvular density of veins and their location, diameter and wall thickness. After dissection, valvular density was calculated based on the number of valves counted in the principal veins of 7 thoracic and 7 pelvic limbs from 7 horses...
December 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
E Pagani, A Tarducci, A Borrelli, B Iotti, M Tursi, R Zanatta
Ultrasonographic evaluation of the adrenal glands was performed in 85 dogs, followed by macroscopic and histopathological examination either post-mortem or after adrenalectomy. This retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated the difference between gross and ultrasonographic measurements to determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in the evaluation of canine adrenal gland size. The differences were assessed for gland length, thickness at cranial, middle and caudal regions, and surface area. In our sample, ultrasound error accuracy ranged between 0% in measurement of the right adrenal gland surface area and 25...
October 17, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
W Pérez, N Vazquez, R Ungerfeld
The aims of this study were to describe the anatomy of the mouth and pharynx of the pampas deer, and to consider its evolutionary feeding niche according to those characteristics. Gross dissections of the mouth and pharynx were performed in 15 animals, 10 adult females and five young animals under 1 year (three males and two females), all dead by causes unrelated to this anatomical region. The upper lip entered in the constitution of a pigmented nasolabial plane. The masseter muscles weighed 43.8 ± 3.5 g and represented 0...
October 17, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
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