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Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia

T Vandecasteele, P Cornillie, K Vandevelde, A Logothetidou, L Couck, G van Loon, W Van den Broeck
Ganglia and telocytes were identified inside the porcine pulmonary veins wall near myocardial sleeve tissue at the atriopulmonary junction. These structures are reported to play a role in the initiation of pulses from outside the heart, which potentially can cause cardiac conduction disorders such as atrial fibrillation. In-depth knowledge on the fine structure of the pulmonary vein wall is a pre-requisite to better understand the underlying pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation and the origin and conduction of ectopic pulses...
April 19, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
D Blecker, M I Elashry, M Heimann, S Wenisch, S Arnhold
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be obtained from different adipose tissue sources within the body. It is an abundant cell pool, easily accessible, suitable for cultivation and expansion in vitro and preparation for therapeutic approaches. Amongst these therapeutic approaches are tissue engineering and nervous system disorders such as spinal cord injuries. For such treatment, ASCs have to be reliably differentiated in to the neuronal direction. Therefore, we investigated the neural differentiation potential of ASCs using protocols with neurogenic inductors such as valproic acid and forskolin, while dog brain tissue served as control...
April 11, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
T Pitakarnnop, K Buddhachat, T Euppayo, W Kriangwanich, K Nganvongpanit
This study demonstrates sexual dimorphism of feline bones, based on a morphometric analysis of 38 dried feline skulls and pelvic bones (20 males, 18 females). A total of 44 parameters (skull = 12, mandible = 10, pelvis = 22) were measured using a digital vernier calliper. In morphological observation of these bones, there were three hallmarks indicating a remarkable difference between sexes: the coronoid process of the mandible (accuracy rate = 88.2%); and the os coxae - caudal ventral iliac spine (accuracy rate = 94...
March 14, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
S A Tahas, O Martin Jurado, S Hammer, A Arif, S Reese, J-M Hatt, M Clauss
Differences in macroscopic measurements of the gastrointestinal tract have been hypothesized to correlate with the browser-grazer continuum in the natural diet of ruminants. However, to what extent these characteristics represent species-specific traits, or respond to the actually ingested diet, remains to be investigated. Twelve surplus addax antelope (Addax nasomaculatus) were divided into two groups and fed, for 3 months, either their usual diet, consisting of a concentrate feed with a limited amount of hay, or a diet of unlimited hay only...
March 12, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
G Cakmak, Z Soyguder, M C Ragbetli
In this study, volume densities of white and grey matters of cervical segments of spinal cords of quail were investigated stereologically. In both sexes, mature, six quails were used as material of this study. All animals were fixed by perfusing in 10% buffered formalin. Tissue specimens were obtained from cervical spinal cords. These tissue specimens were cut every fiftieth section at 5 μm thickness by a microtome. And mean six or seven sections were examined from every block by this method at microscope...
March 1, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
C P Crijns, H J Van Bree, B J G Broeckx, S Schauvliege, G Van Loon, A Martens, K Vanderperren, W B Dingemanse, I M Gielen
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of the size, age and sex of the horse on the size of the pituitary gland and determine the possibility of using the pituitary gland height-to-brain area ratio (P:B ratio) to allow comparison of different sized and aged horses. Thirty-two horses without pituitary pars inter-media dysfunction that underwent a contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) examination were included in a cross-sectional study. On the CT images, the pituitary gland height was measured and the P:B ratio was calculated...
February 27, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
L Olexiková, J Pivko, A V Makarevich, E Kubovičová, A Ostró, J Živčák, P Chrenek
Morphology of important cell organelles (mitochondria, lipid droplets, vacuoles, inclusion bodies and apoptotic bodies) in embryos derived from cows with different body condition score (BCS) was analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Embryos were recovered on 7th day after the insemination by a standard non-surgical flushing of the uterine horns from superovulated Holstein Friesian cows with BCS 2, 3, 4 and 5. Thereafter, the good quality blastocysts were processed for TEM. The electronograms were evaluated by stereological analysis...
February 27, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
D Phoophitphong, S Srisuwatanasagul, P Tummaruk
Luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) is a specific membrane receptor on the granulosa and theca cells that bind to luteinizing hormone (LH), resulting in androgen and progesterone production. Hence, the regulation of LHR expression is necessary for follicle maturation, ovulation and corpus luteum formation. We examined the immunolocalization of LHR in cyclic gilt ovaries. The ovaries were obtained from 21 gilts aged 326.0 ± 38.7 days and weighing 154.6 ± 15.7 kg. The ovarian tissues were incubated with rabbit anti-LHR polyclonal antibody...
February 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
M-C Madekurozwa, D Booyse
Manipulation of the reproductive activity of jackals is dependent on a thorough understanding of the reproductive biology of this species. This study describes seasonal morphological changes in the adult testis of the black-backed jackal in relation to the immunoexpression of the basement membrane marker, laminin and the cytoskeletal proteins, cytokeratin, smooth muscle actin and vimentin. Laminin was immunolocalized in basement membranes surrounding seminiferous tubules, as well as in basement membranes associated with Leydig, peritubular myoid and vascular smooth muscle cells...
February 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
A A M Cruceño, C I Aguilera-Merlo, E M Chaves, F H Mohamed
The morphological variations and the androgen receptor (AR) expression were studied in viscacha epididymis in relation to sexual maturity. The animals were divided into immature, pre-pubertal and adult, according to their corporal weight and testicular histology. The epididymides were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry for AR and morphometric analysis. In pre-pubertal and adult animals, four well-differentiated segments (initial, caput, corpus and cauda) were observed, while in immature animals, three segments were identified (initial-caput segment, corpus and cauda)...
February 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
E A Eshrah
The aim of this study was to prove that the nasal plane (Planum nasale) present in camel (Camelus dromedarius). Furthermore, it was the first description of the gross and primary microscopic anatomy as well as the epidermal ultrastructure of the camel nasal plane. Grossly, the camel rhinarium was formed of the glabrous grayish-black skin that extended to cover the philtrum and the medial nasal angles. It was composed of two perinasal parts and an inter-labial part. A shallow groove was passed across its middle...
February 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
K V Papageorgiou, I Grivas, M Chiotelli, E Panteris, N Papaioannou, H Nauwynck, S K Kritas
Myelination, the ensheathing of neuronal axons by myelin, is important for the proper function of both central and peripheral nervous systems. Various studies have investigated the quantitative parameters of myelination in certain species. Pigs are among the species of which their use as laboratory animals in neuroscience research increased the past few decades. However, there is limited data regarding the myelination process in the pig. Moreover, the maxillary nerve is crucial for Pseudorabies Virus (PrV) neuropathogenesis...
February 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
M Jordana, P Cornillie, M Oosterlinck, P Simoens, F Pille, A Martens
During endoscopy (tenoscopy) of the distal aspect of the equine digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS), the digital manica flexoria can be visualized connecting the distal branches of the superficial digital flexor tendon. However, this structure has been inconsistently described and variably named in the veterinary literature. The objectives of this study were to describe the presence, configuration and variability of the digital manica flexoria in the equine distal limb. Dissection of 144 equine cadaveric limbs revealed the presence of this structure in all the feet, although different types and conformations were identified...
February 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
K Nganvongpanit, T Pitakarnnop, K Buddhachat, M Phatsara
This study presents the results from a morphometric analysis of 52 dry Retriever dog pelvic bones (30 male, 22 female). A total of 20 parameters were measured using an osteometric board and digital vernier caliper. Six parameters were found to be significantly higher (P < 0.05) in males than in females, while one parameter was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in females than in males. However, none of the measured parameters demonstrated clear cut-off values with no intersect between males and females...
February 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
J Schneevoigt, C Fabian, C Leovsky, J Seeger, M Bahramsoltani
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of hyaline cartilage is perfectly suited to transmit articular pressure load to the subchondral bone. Pressure is transferred by a high amount of aggrecan-based proteoglycans and collagen type II fibres in particular. After any injury, the hyaline cartilage is replaced by fibrocartilage, which is low in proteoglycans and contains collagen type I predominantly. Until now, long-term results of therapeutic procedures including cell-based therapies like autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) lead to a replacement tissue meeting the composition of fibrocartilage...
February 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
M C Mosto
This work is the first myological dissection performed in detail on the hindlimb of Tyto alba. Six specimens were dissected and their muscle masses were obtained. T. alba has the classical myological pattern present in other species of Strigiformes, such as a well-developed m. flexor digitorum longus and the absence of the m. plantaris, flexor cruris lateralis and ambiens. Also, T. alba lacks the m. extensor propius digiti III, m. extensor propius digiti IV and m. lumbricalis, present in the Strigidae...
February 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
U Schwittlick, J Junginger, K Hahn, A Habierski, M Hewicker-Trautwein
Histamine is an important mediator of many physiological processes including gastrointestinal function that acts via four different histamine receptors (H1R to H4R). Elevated histamine levels and increased HR messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) have been shown in humans with gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome or allergic intestinal diseases. As there is limited knowledge concerning the distribution of histamine receptors (HR) in dogs, one aim of this study was to investigate the expression of histamine 1 receptor (H1R), histamine 2 receptor (H2R) and histamine 4 receptor (H4R) in the canine gastrointestinal tract at protein level using immunohistochemistry...
February 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Z X Zheng, Y Tang, J Fang, X Peng, J D Fan, H M Cui, L Z Yang
The ultrastructural and cytochemical properties of peripheral blood cells of Gymnocypris eckloni were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and a range of cytochemical techniques to provide clear insight into the structure and function of blood cells from this fish. Ultrastructurally, erythrocytes, leucocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes), thrombocytes and plasma cells were identified in the peripheral blood of G. eckloni. The most special ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in this fish were that neutrophils exhibited only one type of cytoplasmic granules containing an eccentric, spherical or oval electron-dense core, and eosinophils presented two types of granules with non-uniform electronic density and without crystalloids in their cytoplasm...
February 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
A Ali
The aim of this study was to investigate whether multiple corpora lutea (CL) in dromedary camels were associated with multiple pregnancies. Three experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, reproductive tracts of 124 slaughtered female camels were examined for the incidence of multiple CL and the pregnancy status. In the second experiment, uteri and ovaries of 50 females were examined by ultrasound between the fourth and fifteenth weeks of pregnancy to estimate the number and location of the embryos/fetuses and the number of associated CL...
February 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
A Ehrle, L Ressel, E Ricci, E R Singer
Pain related to the osseous thoracolumbar spine is common in the equine athlete, with minimal information available regarding soft tissue pathology. The aims of this study were to describe the anatomy of the equine SSL and ISL (supraspinous and interspinous ligaments) in detail and to assess the innervation of the ligaments and their myofascial attachments including the thoracolumbar fascia. Ten equine thoracolumbar spines (T15-L1) were dissected to define structure and anatomy of the SSL, ISL and adjacent myofascial attachments...
January 25, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
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