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Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia

Durmuş Bolat, Aytül Kürüm, Sıla Canpolat
The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ associated with photoperiodic regulation in mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pineal gland at the pre-pubertal, pubertal and post-pubertal periods by means of morphology and stereology. The study examined at total of 24 ovine pineal glands collected from healthy female Akkaraman breed. Thick sections (40 μm) were cut and treated with synaptophysin. Following each thick section, six consecutive sections at a thickness of 5 μm were cut. Each thin section was stained with one of the following dyes: Crossman's modified triple dye, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), melatonin marker, periodic acid-Schiff, Von Kossa and AgNOR...
May 18, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Seyyid Said Sabanci, Mehmet Kamil Ocal
Orthopaedic diseases are common in the pelvic limbs of dogs, and reference values for large muscle groups of the pelvic limb may aid in diagnosis such diseases. As such, the objective of this study was to compare the large muscle groups of the pelvic limb in seven breeds of dogs. A total of 126 dogs from different breeds were included, and the widths of the quadriceps, hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles were measured from images of the lateral radiographies. The width of the quadriceps was not different between the breeds, but the widths of the hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles were significantly different between the breeds...
May 14, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
C A Ramos, O T F da Costa, W L P Duncan, M N Fernandes
The gill structure of the Amazonian fish Arapaima gigas (Cuvier 1829) shows ontogenetic changes during development, particularly due the transition from the aquatic to the obligatory air breathing mode of respiration. However, three main cell types can be found in the gills: mitochondrial rich cells, pavement cells and mucous cells (MCs). The MCs are involved in the secretory pathway. The functions of the secreted molecules include mechanical protection of epithelia, protection against parasites and bacterial infection, and role on ion regulation...
May 7, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
R Laurà, F Abbate, G P Germanà, G Montalbano, A Germanà, M Levanti
The mechanosensory lateral line system of fish is responsible for several functions such as balance, hearing, and orientation in water flow and is formed by neuromast receptor organs distributed on head, trunk and tail. Superficial and canal neuromasts can be distinguished for localization and morphological differences. Several information is present regarding the superficial neuromasts of zebrafish and other teleosts especially during larval and juvenile stages, while not as numerous data are so far available about the ultrastructural characteristics of the canal neuromasts in adult zebrafish...
March 26, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
L Meomartino, M P Pasolini, B Lamagna, G Mennonna, L Auletta, C Murino, G Della Valle, L Esposito
The aim of this work is to assess the normal ultrasonographic features and dimensions of eyes in European hares. Corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous chamber depth and eye axial length were measured by ultrasound in 40 healthy hares (Lepus europaeus), 20 males and 20 females, mean age of 5.5 months (range 2-15 months). The effects of sex, side, age and body weight on each feature were recorded. Results show that ocular dimensions were not affected by considered variables except for the lenses thickness and axial length that were correlated with age and body weight...
March 14, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
A Lang, G Wirth, H Gasse
The surface architecture of the equine telencephalon is far more complex and complicated than, for example, that of the carnivore's brain, and basic organization patterns are more difficult to recognize. This is due to species differences, to interindividual variations and even to asymmetries between right and left hemispheres. Moreover, a very heterogeneous anatomical terminology, especially in the pioneering older literature, does not allow easy access to a unanimous topographical orientation. This review article presents the key features of this heterogeneity and its anatomical and terminological backgrounds, focusing on the cerebral sulci...
March 14, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
I N Hirota, L S Alves, M G Gandolfi, M Félix, J J T Ranzani, C V S Brandão
The objective of this study was to describe the reference values of cranial measurements of capybaras, correlating the ocular orbit with the nasolacrimal duct. The documentation of its results can contribute to standardizing characteristics of anatomical normality and favouring the correct diagnosis and treatment of changes. The capybara carcasses, maintained by freezing, were distributed in two groups (G) designated GA (n = 12) adult animals (A) and GY (n = 13) for young animals (Y). All subjects underwent dacryocystography examination by computed tomography (CT) and cranial measurements...
March 12, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
B Güney Saruhan, H Sağsöz, E Akbalık, M A Ketani, S Erdoğan
The mammalian testis possesses a special immunological environment because of its properties of remarkable immune privilege and effective local innate immunity. The testicular immune privilege protects immunogenic germ cells from systemic immune attack, and local innate immunity is important in preventing testicular microbial infections. Thus, this study aimed to immunohistochemically demonstrate the distribution and localization of CD68-, CD8-, MHCI- and MHCII-positive immune cells in the testes and epididymes...
March 12, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
T Ertugrul, S Tutuncu, M Kabak, B Onuk
This study was conducted with the aim of determining the morphology, distribution and heterogeneity of mast cells in the tongues of seagull (Larus fuscus), common buzzard (Buteo buteo), goose (Anser anser), white stork (Ciconia ciconia) and Gerze rooster. The study used five samples of tongue material from each of the healthy adult avian species. The samples were fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin (NBF) solution, then, after routine tissue follow-up, the samples blocked with paraplast. Cross-sections with 5-6 μm of thickness were stained with the 0...
March 1, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
S A Tahas, U Hetzel, B Altenbrunner-Martinek, O Martin Jurado, S Hammer, A Arif, J-M Hatt, M Clauss
Subacute ruminal acidosis is a common disease in captive non-domesticated ruminants and is mainly diagnosed by rumen fluid pH and rumen histology. Furthermore, differences in ruminant gastrointestinal histology have been hypothesized to correlate with the browser-grazer continuum. Twelve surplus addax antelope (Addax nasomaculatus) were divided into two groups, fed either their usual diet, consisting of a concentrate feed with a limited amount of hay, or a diet of unlimited hay only, for 3 months. After culling, descriptive and morphometric histology and pH measurements were compared between groups...
June 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
M G Wagener, S Leonhard-Marek, J-D Häger, C Pfarrer
Mastitis is a common economically relevant problem in dairy farming. As the major entry for pathogens is the papillary duct, one of the first defence mechanisms is the teat sphincter. This sphincter shows a rhythmic contractility of yet unknown origin. Searching for possible modulatory pacemaker cells, teat sphincters of eight cows were stained immunohistochemically with antibodies against CD117 and vimentin and evaluated microscopically for the presence of telocytes. CD117- and vimentin-positive telocytes with telopodes were found in close contact with smooth muscle cells...
June 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
K Pawlak, Z Nieckarz, A Sechman, D Wojtysiak, B Bojarski, B Tombarkiewicz
The level of artificial electromagnetic field (EMF) has steadily increased with the development of human civilization. The developing chicken embryo has been considered a good model to study the effects of EMF on living organisms. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a 1800 MHz electromagnetic field during embryogenesis on the frequency of chick embryo malformations, morphometric parameters of the heart and liver and concentration of corticosterone in blood plasma, lipid and glycogen content in the liver of newly hatched chicks...
June 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
M A Olude, S T Bello, O A Mustapha, F E Olopade, J Plendl, A O Ihunwo, J O Olopade
Oligodendrocyte and myelin-related studies have been pivotal in understanding disruption of central nervous system (CNS) myelin through injury, toxicological, pathological degeneration or genetic intervention. The African giant rat (AGR) has been postulated as an indigenous wild-type model within the African context. This work thus describes oligodendrocyte morphologies and myelin components of the developing African giant rat brain using histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural techniques. Five types, precursor-progenitor oligodendrocytes, pre-oligodendrocytes, immature oligodendrocytes, mature non-myelinating oligodendrocytes and mature myelinating oligodendrocytes, were identified...
June 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
G C Brombini, S C Rahal, B C Schimming, I F C Santos, M H Tsunemi, M J Mamprim, L S Alves, A L Filadelpho, C R Teixeira
This study aimed to describe the radiographic anatomy and osteology and to evaluate angular radiographic measurements-Norberg angle, inclination angle and anteversion angle-of the pelvic limbs in free-ranging capybaras. Twenty cadavers of free-ranging capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), including five adults and 15 subadults, were studied. Ventrodorsal, craniocaudal, dorsoplantar and mediolateral radiographic views of the pelvic limbs were obtained. The radiographic features were described together with bone samples...
June 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
B M C Gorissen, C F Wolschrijn, B van Rietbergen, L Rieppo, S Saarakkala, P R van Weeren
Horses are precocial animals and able to stand and walk within hours after birth. To cope with associated loading, intrauterine bone development has shown to be anticipative. This study provides further insight into the post-natal development of structurally important features of trabecular and subchondral bone of the talus and sagittal ridge of the tibia of warm-blooded horses. In all areas studied, the average bone volume fraction showed a gradual increase over time, which was the result of a significant increase in trabecular thickness, without significant changes in the degree of anisotropy...
June 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
M S Castilho, S C Rahal, M J Mamprim, L R Inamassu, A Melchert, F S Agostinho, L R Mesquita, R H F Teixeira, C R Teixeira
Life expectancy of crab-eating foxes in captivity is approximately 11 years, which favours the development of diseases including orthopaedic disorders. However, to understand disorders that may affect these animals, it is worth determining a normal range of measurements. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate radiographic measurements of joint angles of the hindlimbs and the ratio of patellar ligament length to patellar length in healthy crab-eating foxes. Fifteen captive crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), eight males and seven females, aged more than 1 year old, weighing 5...
June 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
R M Nagel, G Forstenpointner, J T Soley, G E Weissengruber
The structure of the limbs of elephants is unusual among mammals. In African elephants (Loxodonta africana, Blumenbach 1797), the front limbs serve to support the greatest part of the body mass of the largest land animal. In this study, we present new and detailed anatomical data regarding muscular and specific fascial structures of the lower front limb which were examined by means of standard anatomical and histological techniques. The muscles and tendons of the forearm (antebrachium) and hand (manus) are tightly surrounded by thick, highly elastic fascial layers which fuse with the lacertus (lac...
June 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
N Saipin, J Noophun, P Chumyim, R Rungsiwiwut
Mammary epithelial cells (MECs) used to study mammary gland function in vitro are typically isolated from mammary tissue. Breast milk offers an alternative source of MECs to replace mammary gland tissue. This study aimed to isolate and culture MECs from goat milk. Samples of fresh goat milk were collected from early and late-lactating Saanen goats. Samples were subjected to isolation, culture and characterization for putative MECs. The cells adhered to the culture dishes 1 day after isolation and displayed a monolayer pattern, epithelial-like cobblestone morphology, and formed alveoli-like structures that are typical of MECs...
June 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
F M Gür, S Timurkaan, B Gençer Tarakçi, M H Yalçin, Z E Özkan, S B Baygeldi, S Yilmaz, H Eröksüz
Irisin is mainly secreted by heart and skeletal muscle cells. It is an exercise-induced protein that converts white adipose tissue to brown. Increased irisin expression was lead to weight loss and improved glucose tolerance. We investigated irisin immunoreactivity in various tissues of the dwarf hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii). Tissues were processed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 5 μm and stained immunohistochemically for irisin. In the retina, irisin was found almost all layers, except outer nuclear layer...
April 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
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