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Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia

E Pagani, A Tarducci, A Borrelli, B Iotti, M Tursi, R Zanatta
Ultrasonographic evaluation of the adrenal glands was performed in 85 dogs, followed by macroscopic and histopathological examination either post-mortem or after adrenalectomy. This retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated the difference between gross and ultrasonographic measurements to determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in the evaluation of canine adrenal gland size. The differences were assessed for gland length, thickness at cranial, middle and caudal regions, and surface area. In our sample, ultrasound error accuracy ranged between 0% in measurement of the right adrenal gland surface area and 25...
October 17, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
W Pérez, N Vazquez, R Ungerfeld
The aims of this study were to describe the anatomy of the mouth and pharynx of the pampas deer, and to consider its evolutionary feeding niche according to those characteristics. Gross dissections of the mouth and pharynx were performed in 15 animals, 10 adult females and five young animals under 1 year (three males and two females), all dead by causes unrelated to this anatomical region. The upper lip entered in the constitution of a pigmented nasolabial plane. The masseter muscles weighed 43.8 ± 3.5 g and represented 0...
October 17, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
P Przyborowska, Z Adamiak, P Holak, Y Zhalniarovich
The intention of the comparison of both low and high field was to examine which anatomical brain structures of cats were visible on low field images, as in clinical veterinary practice, 3 Tesla (T) magnets were of limited availability. The research was performed on 20 European short-haired male and female cats, aged 1-3 years, with body weight of 2-4 kg. 0.25 T magnetic resonance images of neurocranium were acquired in all using T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences with repetition time (TR) of 4010 ms and echo time (TE) of 90 ms in dorsal and transverse plane, and T2-weighted fast spine echo sequences with TR of 4290 ms and TE of 120 ms in sagittal plane...
September 25, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
A I Gasisova, A B Atkenova, N B Ahmetzhanova, L M Murzabekova, A C Bekenova
This article provides comprehensive consideration of the age-dependent morphofunctional state of organs and tissues of the immune system (thymus, spleen, superficial and deep lymph nodes) in cattle. The morphofunctional maturity of organs and tissues of the immune system in cattle will be taken into account in various experimental studies, preventive and therapeutic measures. Performed analysis provides description of the spleen formation as well as the thymus and lymph nodes in post-natal ontogenesis and the macro- and microscopic structure of lymphoid cells and macrophages...
September 21, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
D Phoophitphong, S Srisuwatanasagul, P Tummaruk
Luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) is a specific membrane receptor on the granulosa and theca cells that bind to luteinizing hormone (LH), resulting in androgen and progesterone production. Hence, the regulation of LHR expression is necessary for follicle maturation, ovulation and corpus luteum formation. We examined the immunolocalization of LHR in cyclic gilt ovaries. The ovaries were obtained from 21 gilts aged 326.0 ± 38.7 days and weighing 154.6 ± 15.7 kg. The ovarian tissues were incubated with rabbit anti-LHR polyclonal antibody...
September 9, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
L S Alves, M Midon, A L Filadelpho, L C Vulcano
This study used 20 nine-banded armadillo, four in vivo and 16 cadavers, to describe the osteoarticular anatomy of the axial skeleton by means of digital radiography and computed tomography. Vertebral formula obtained in this sample specimens was seven cervical, 10 thoracic, five lumbar, nine vertebrae related to the synsacrum and 20-27 free caudal vertebrae. Peculiar features of this species were noted as the presence of xenarthrous processes in the caudal thoracic vertebra to the last lumbar vertebra, with prominent mammillary processes in the thoracolumbar segment, fused cervical vertebra from the second to fourth vertebra and the presence of synsacrum related to sacral and caudal vertebra fused to the pelvis...
September 9, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
C Sauer, M F Bertelsen, P Lund, M R Weisbjerg, M Clauss
Quantitative data on digestive anatomy of the world's largest ruminant, the giraffe, are scarce. Data were collected from a total of 25 wild-caught and 13 zoo-housed giraffes. Anatomical measures were quantified by dimension, area or weight and analysed by allometric regression. The majority of measures scaled positively and isometrically to body mass. Giraffes had lower tissue weight of all stomach compartments and longer large intestinal length than cattle. When compared to other ruminants, the giraffe digestive tract showed many of the convergent morphological adaptations attributed to browsing ruminants, for example lower reticular crests, thinner ruminal pillars and smaller surface area of the omasal laminae...
October 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
R A-M Kenngott, W Scholz, F Sinowatz
The aim of this investigation was to study the ultrastructural features during the development of fetal bovine ovaries (crown rump length ranging from 11.4 to 94.0 cm). An interesting observation was the occurrence of big elongated cells containing a variety of electron dense granules and light homogenous vacuoles/bodies. They were located between the stroma cells surrounding the germ cell cord ends, adjacent to the first formed primordial follicles, typically situated near blood vessels. ER alpha and ER beta receptor positive cells could be detected in the same regions by means of immunohistochemistry...
October 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Cathrine Sauer, Mads F Bertelsen, Sven Hammer, Peter Lund, Martin R Weisbjerg, Marcus Clauss
The digestive tract anatomy of 14 blackbucks (Antilope cervicapra) and seven Arabian sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica) was quantified by dimensions, area and weight. Data from the two small-sized antilopinae were evaluated against a larger comparative data set from other ruminants classified as having either a 'cattle-type' or 'moose-type' digestive system. The digestive anatomy of the blackbuck resembled that of 'cattle-type' ruminants, which corresponds to their feeding ecology and previous studies of solute and particle retention time; however, a surprising exception was the remarkably small omasum in this species, which makes the blackbuck stand out from the general rule of a relatively large omasum in grazing ruminants...
October 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
M F Grandi, E A Crespo, S L Dans
We present the first record and description of an anembryonic gestation in a wild South America sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Carnivora, Pinniped). This is the first report of an anembryonic gestation in a wild marine mammal species. This description furthers the knowledge of general aspects of the reproduction of an otariid species, which presents the particularities of delayed implantation and polygynic breeding system, and adds information on a reproductive abnormality in marine mammals.
October 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
M I Crișan, A Damian, I Morar, E Páll, C Peștean, I Șt Groza
The ability to choose the sex of the offspring is of upmost economic importance for horse breeders. Unlike other species, horses present several reproductive peculiarities that interfere with assisted reproductive technologies used in other large animals (such as bovine) and make them difficult to apply. Thus, there is a great interest to determine the sex of the offspring as soon as possible. This has led to the development of several technologies to serve this purpose, which can be classified into two categories...
October 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
A Bonsmann, M H Stoffel, M Burkhart, J-M Hatt
This study aims to enhance the anatomical knowledge of the ear of the adult quail (Coturnix coturnix) through the creation of a scaled 3D model utilizing data from micro-CT images. In addition, 17 annotated histological sections of the quail's ear are aligned to their 3D position in the model. The resulting anatomical atlas provides an intuitive insight into the 3D anatomy and can be used for medical education. The model also allows measuring anatomical structures and can thus serve as reference for the quail's auricular anatomy and as a basis to evaluate clinical diagnostic imaging results...
October 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
R Pascalau, C C Aldea, V A Padurean, B Szabo
The spatial anatomy of the white matter tracts is a subject of growing interest not only for researchers but also for clinicians. Imagistic methods have some limitations so that they should be confronted with dissection studies. The aim of this paper was to provide a three-dimensional view of the major white matter tracts in equine, feline and canine brains by use of the fibre dissection technique. Twenty cerebral hemispheres (six equine, four feline and 10 canine brains) were prepared according to the Klingler method...
October 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
I S Stefanov, A P Vodenicharov, N S Tsandev, D Sevrieva
The study presented in detail the localization and density of mast cells (MCs) in the intramural part of the common bile duct (CBD) and in the major duodenal papilla (MDP) of domestic swine. MCs' density (number/mm(2) ) in different layers of both of the duct and papilla was evaluated after toluidine blue staining. Their number was higher in the lamina propria mucosae than in the tunica muscularis of the studied structures. The localization of berberine-positive, (heparin containing) MCs and the ratio between them and toluidine blue-positive MCs with γ-ma metachromasia was also established...
October 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
S More, A Watson, L E Stein
The origin of the pair of common carotid arteries in the cat is inadequately described, and there are conflicting accounts in English veterinary anatomy textbooks published in the USA. We found one-quarter of 40 adult domestic cats dissected had a bicarotid trunk (5 female, 5 male). When present, the bicarotid trunk arose from the brachiocephalic trunk approximately midway between the expected origins of the more frequently independently arising left and right common carotid arteries, and on average, it was 5...
October 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Y Akbulut, Y Demiraslan, K Aslan, A Coban
This study was carried out to reveal the formation of the sacral plexus in the Eurasian Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo) and the nerves originating from this plexus. Five EEOs, three of them were male and two were female, were provided from Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Kafkas University and used as materials. Following the euthanizing of the animals, abdominal cavity was opened. The nerves of plexus sacrales were dissected and photographed. It was detected that the sacral plexus was formed by the ventral ramus of five synsacral nerves...
October 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
G P Lopes, A B Brito, F P Paim, R R Santos, H L Queiroz, S F S Domingues
Morphological information on the reproductive system allows the understanding of ecological and behavioural aspects of different species as well as supports the development of conservational strategies. Unfortunately, for many species, not enough relevant and precise information is available. In the present study, we describe for the first time the macroscopic and histological aspects of female genital organs and external female genitalia of Saimiri macrodon, Saimiri cassiquiarensis and Saimiri vanzolinii. We perform a comparison between these three peripatric species and investigate the possibility of their reproductive morphology to act as a factor of reproductive isolation...
August 29, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Doaa M Mokhtar, Enas A Abd-Elhafez
Histological examination of the peripheral circulation of the ovary of 18 females of the one-humped camel revealed a series of blood vessels with special structures. Throttle or occlusive artery was recorded in the ovarian zona vasculosa and in the cortex, and it showed an intimal cushion-like thickening made up of intimal bolsters that formed of smooth muscle fibres and glomus cells. The smooth muscle cells of the tunica media and the tunica adventitia of throttle artery pursued a circumferential pattern. Anastomosis arteriovenosa included simple bridge-like anastomotic vessels between arteria and venae, and glomus vessels of typical structure were demonstrated...
August 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
L Miguel Carreira, A Ferreira
We characterized the anatomical morphology of the transverse venous sinus (TVS) of 69 canine adult cadavers belonging to three groups: brachycephalic (B), dolichocephalic (D) and mesaticephalic (M). In addition, we outlined its path over the skull using five classic human craniometric points (CPs): the asterion (ast), the bregma (b), the glabella (g), the stephanion (st) and the pterion (pt). The study aimed to establish anatomical differences in the TVS between groups and in the relationship between the TVS and skull...
August 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
T Cavusoglu, J Popken, T Guengoer, O Yilmaz, Y Uyanikgil, U Ates, M Baka, E Oztas, V Zakhartchenko
Cryopreservation is the process of freezing and preserving cells and tissues at low temperatures. Controlled slow freezing and vitrification have successfully been used for cryopreservation of mammalian embryos. We investigated the effect of these two cryopreservation methods on in vitro produced four-cell stage bovine embryos which were classified according to their quality and separated into three groups. The first group was maintained as untreated controls (n = 350). Embryos of the second (n = 385) and the third (n = 385) groups were cryopreserved either by controlled slow freezing or by vitrification...
August 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
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