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Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia

M Arribart, J Ognard, C Tavernier, Y Richaudeau, C Guintard, W Dabin, D Ben Salem, J-L Jung
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans were used to analyse, respectively, the soft tissues and the bones of the heads of four common dolphins and three harbour porpoises. This imaging study was completed by an examination of anatomical sections performed on two odontocete heads (a subadult common dolphin and a subadult harbour porpoise). The three complementary approaches allowed to illustrate anatomical differences in the echolocation systems of the common dolphin and the harbour porpoise...
October 19, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
T Matsui, K Tanaka, Y Kobayashi
Histochemical organization of the Caudata olfactory system remains largely unknown, despite this amphibian order showing phylogenetic diversity in the development of the vomeronasal organ and its primary centre, the accessory olfactory bulb. Here, we investigated the glycoconjugate distribution in the olfactory bulb of a semi-aquatic salamander, the Japanese sword-tailed newt (Cynops ensicauda), by histochemical analysis of the lectins that were present. Eleven lectins showed a specific binding to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerves as well as to the olfactory glomeruli...
October 19, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
E P Paksuz, S Hayretdağ, K Olgun
Order Chiroptera is the second largest mammal group after rodents. An understanding of the development of the bats, which is a very special mammal group in terms of their lifestyles, morphology and their ability to fly, is very important because most of the adult anatomical differences characterizing species occur during organogenesis. In this study, developmental stages were determined for Myotis myotis species based on external morphological characteristics from embryos obtained from wild-caught pregnant females...
October 6, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
L R Inamassu, M J Mamprim, C R Dadalto, F C Cavaletti, M C Mello, B C Schimming
Patella, the kneecap, is the best known and largest of the sesamoid bones and is present in the quadriceps femoris tendon. Typical patella appears in all extant mammals, with the exception of some marsupials and bats. No description about the white-eared opossum stifle was found in the available literature up to now. Thus, the knee joints of 16 Didelphis albiventris were examined by gross anatomy, histology, radiography and computed tomography images to determine the presence or absence of ossified patella in this animal...
October 4, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
M Beyes, N Nause, M Bleyer, F-J Kaup, S Neumann
The embryonic stage of development is defined as the period between fertilization and the establishment of most of the organ systems by the end of this period. Development in this stage is rapid. In many mammalian species, particularly in humans, the interval between fertilization and implantation is exactly determined and continuous without intermission. However, European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) embryos undergo a reversible retardation of development. This interesting reproduction strategy is called embryonic diapause (delayed implantation)...
September 27, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
S M Farouk, S A Hassan, M A Emam
Ten apparently healthy, adult laughing doves were used to document detailed histological, histochemical and surface ultrastructural features of the nasal cavity and to investigate the structure-function relationship of the nasal cavity in this species. We observed that the nasal cavity of the laughing dove was composed of three main regions: nasal vestibule, respiratory and olfactory. Each region presented a characteristic epithelial lining. The epithelium varied along the nasal vestibule from keratinized stratified squamous rostrally to non-keratinized stratified squamous in the middle and stratified cuboidal in the caudal region of the nasal vestibule...
September 27, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
R C Siqueira, S C Rahal, L R Inamassu, M J Mamprim, M Felix, M S Castilho, L R Mesquita, V L Ribeiro, C R Teixeira, F B Rassy
This study describes the osteology and radiology of the pelvic limb in maned wolves. Ten (five live and five dead) maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), five males and five females, aged from 2 to 7 years old were used. Digital radiographs were taken and recorded for both pelvic limbs in all animals. Osteology was correlated with the radiographic images. The pelvis had a rectangular shape, and the obturator foramen (foramen obturatum) was oval. The femoral neck (collum femoris) was short and thick. The greater trochanter (trochanter major) extended proximally to near the dorsum of the femoral head (caput ossis femoris)...
September 20, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
S V Bavdek, Z Golob, F Janžekovič, C S Rutland, V Kubale
The skull of the grey heron (Ardea cinerea) was examined with an emphasis on describing the orbital region. In the young (circa sixteen to seventeen days old) heron, the frontal bone (os frontale) and nasal bone (os nasale) comprised separate paired bones, connected by sutures (sutura interfrontalis, sutura internasalis and sutura frontonasalis plana). In adult animals, the relationship between these bones was different: the left and right frontal bone and the left and right nasal bone had grown together, and the frontal bone and nasal bone had fused into a common frontonasal bone (os frontonasale)...
September 20, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
E Moura, B Thon, C T Pimpão
A female pair of conjoined twins of the Lhasa Apso canine breed was subjected to tomographic and anatomical examinations. The twins had only one head and neck. The two ribcages were joined, extending to the umbilicus, with duplicated structures thereafter. They had three thoracic limbs and two pelvic girdles with four limbs, as well as a number of abnormalities in their internal organs. The data obtained were compared with the rare canine cases reported so far and with human cases.
September 20, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
L C Machado, K C S Roballo, F S Cury, C E Ambrósio
The sprawl of the urbanization and road network process without building ecological corridors contributes to the high mortality rates and a threat to the population decline of wild species such as the crab-eating fox. A strategy for the ex situ conservation is the study of the reproductive biology of the species and cryopreservation of their genetic heritage through the formation of an animal germplasm bank. This research is in accordance with the principles adopted by Brazilian College of Animal Experimentation...
September 15, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
J H Park, J H Ahn, S Y Choi, J H Cho, T-K Lee, I H Kim, J-C Lee, J H Choi, I K Hwang, Y J Lee, E Lee, S Park, J Lim, K Seo, M-H Won
Few studies regarding the anatomical distribution of motor neurons innervating muscles of the arm have been demonstrated in avian brains. The purpose of this study was to finely determine the localization of cerebral neurons innervating the biceps brachii muscle in the pigeon. The cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) was employed as a retrograde tracer to determine the location of neurons controlling the biceps brachii muscle in the telencephalon following intramuscular injection in male pigeons (n = 7), which were killed 14 days after intramuscular injection with CTB...
September 12, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
H Wang, J Yan, Z Zhang
Materials suitable for anatomical research of raptorial birds are rare. Bird-eating raptors show distinct inter-sexual differences in body size and parental roles. The large females catch larger prey and prepare small morsels to feed their young using their hooked beaks. Here, we investigated the architectural properties of different jaw muscles of the Japanese sparrowhawk (Accipiter gularis) and examined whether there is sexual dimorphism in their architectural design. The results showed that musculus depressor mandibulae, the opener of the lower jaw, was characterized by relatively long fascicle length, whereas musculus pterygoideus was characterized by its larger mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) in both sexes...
September 11, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
P Gao, X-H Qiao, L-M Gou, Y Huang, Q-H Li, L-J Li, X-Y Wang, C-J Li
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays several crucial regulatory roles in multiple physiological and pathological processes. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of TGF-β1 in branching morphogenesis of salivary gland. We harvested and cultured submandibular salivary glands (SMGs) from murine embryos, which were then treated with exogenous TGF-β1, or its neutralized antibody, Smad3 inhibitor, or Smad3 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Our results suggested that TGF-β1 attenuated branching morphogenesis of embryonic murine SMG via Smad3 activation, thus playing a negative regulatory role in salivary gland development...
September 7, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Rodolfo Ungerfeld, Matías Villagrán, Lorena Lacuesta, Noelia Vazquez, William Pérez
Information about gonadal asymmetries in ruminants is very scarce. In this work, we performed three complementary studies to compare characteristics of both testes: (i) weight and size of offspring and adult dead males; (ii) the tissue:fluid relationship determined by ultrasound scanning; and (iii) the spermatogenic status using fine needle aspiration cytology. The right testis was heavier than the left one in both offspring and adult animals and had greater width and volume in adult males than the left one...
September 7, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
H Tay, T Vandecasteele, W Van den Broeck
Recently, a new interstitial cell type called telocyte has been identified. Telocytes are found in many organs including the heart, where they are especially well described. However, their presence in the porcine heart has not yet been proven. The pig is a valuable animal model in research because of its resemblance with man, making it interesting to determine whether telocytes can be found in pigs as well. The focus of this study is the identification and ultrastructural description of telocytes in the heart tissue of pig...
September 7, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
L M Barrios-Arpi, J-L Rodríguez Gutiérrez, B Lopez-Torres
The histomorphometric features of umbilical cord constituents in seven foetuses of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) from Cerro de Pasco, Department, Peru, were determined. Sections of 2-5 cm of umbilical cord were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and processed for light microscopy. Standard histological slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome and Van Gieson's trichrome were obtained. Histologically, common features of umbilical artery and vein were observed as well as mucous connective tissue, some cell features that compound this tissue constituted by cells presented features of myofibroblasts...
September 7, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
B M Assis, L A F Silva, C R O Lima, F J F Sant'Ana, G P Santos, V A S Vulcani, R E Rabelo
The aim of this study was to describe the microstructure of the pigmented and depigmented hoof capsule of Girolando cattle by bi- and tridimensional microtomography and nanoindentation, analysing the possible relation between these findings and the susceptibility of such animals to podal diseases. To carry out the microtomography and the nanoindentation, duplicated samples were collected from the dorsal wall, abaxial wall and pre-bulbar sole of the hoof capsule. Material collection was performed in 40 medial digits of thoracic limbs and 40 lateral digits of pelvic limbs...
August 31, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
M Makungu, B Merere
The objective of this study was to provide the detailed normal gross osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb in goats as a reference for clinical use and in biomedical research. Radiography of the thoracic limb was performed in five small East African goats. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from four adult small East African goats. The scapula was narrow. The major tubercle was large and extended proximally above the head of the humerus. The lateral supracondylar crest was less prominent...
August 31, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
N E R El-Bakary, M M A Abumandour
This work was conducted to describe the morphological characters of the tongue of Egyptian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The lingual root and the dorsal middle region of apex and body in addition to the dorsal and ventral surface of lingual tip were devoided from any fungiform papillae. The lingual tip contains conical papillae only. The ventral surface of lingual apex was divided into two portions by the U-shaped fungiform line into papillary and non-papillary region. Histological investigation on the lingual surface epithelium and lamina propria submucosa reflects differences in these layers in different parts of the tongue...
August 22, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
H Smodlaka, I Galex, L Palmer, J A Borovac, W A Khamas
Vibrissae (whiskers) play a key role in underwater orientation in foraging phocids through vibrotactile sensation processing. Our aim was to evaluate the structure of northern elephant seal (NES) vibrissae by means of light (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in order to elucidate their function. Vibrissal follicles were processed using standardized laboratory methods and LM/TEM techniques. Individual follicular axonal numbers were counted and axonal diameter measured and averaged. NES have mystacial, rhinal, supraorbital and labial vibrissae...
August 21, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
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