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Microbiology and Immunology

Jung Heon Kim, Jiyeon Kim, Jin Roh, Chan-Sik Park, Ju-Young Seoh, Eung-Soo Hwang
Previous studies examined various immune evasion strategies of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to understand HCMV pathogenesis. Although the mechanism that underlies immunocyte destruction near HCMV-infected lesions has yet to be established, we show that substances produced by HCMV-infected cells induce death in several types of immunocytes, but not in fibroblasts or astrocytomas. These substances contain HCMV proteins and were termed HCMV-associated insoluble substance (HCMVAIS). We characterized this mechanism of cell death induced by HCMVAIS to understand the death of immunocytes near HCMV-infected lesions...
January 19, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yasuhisa Iwao, Noboru Nakata
Three different katG sequences (katGI, katGII, and katGIII) were identified in the Mycobacterium smegmatis genome. The contribution of the three katG genes to survival of the bacterium was examined by constructing gene disruptants of these three genes. The katGIII sequence did not produce a functional catalase-peroxidase. Analyses of peroxidase activity and mRNA expression revealed that in wild type M. smegmatis, expression dominance between KatGI and KatGII was switched in the exponential growth phase and the stationary growth phase...
January 18, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Chisato Kurisaka, Teruaki Oku, Saotomo Itoh, Tsutomu Tsuji
The staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs) exhibit no superantigenic activity but have recently been considered to act as immune suppressors. It was previously reported that SSL5 bound to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, leading to inhibition of leukocyte adhesion and invasion. These interactions were suggested to depend on sialic acid-containing glycans of MMP-9, but the roles of sialic acids in the interaction between SSL5 and MMP-9 are still controversial...
January 12, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Chikako Ono, Junki Hirano, Toru Okamoto, Yoshiharu Matsuura
Insect expression systems based on baculovirus are widely used for the generation of recombinant proteins. Here, we evaluated the infectivity of baculoviruses under the physiological stresses of 'freeze- thaw' and sonication, and the baculoviral contamination of recombinant proteins after protein purification. Our findings suggest that Nonidet™ P-40 (NP-40) treatment of baculoviruses completely abolishes their infectivity and that recombinant proteins purified with affinity beads do not include infectious baculoviruses...
January 11, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Tuan Hai Nguyen, Tho Duc Pham, Naomi Higa, Hanako Iwashita, Taichiro Takemura, Makoto Ohnishi, Kouichi Morita, Tetsu Yamashiro
Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, the pathogen responsible for the current cholera pandemic became pathogenic by acquiring virulent factors including Vibrio seventh pandemic islands (VSP)-I and -II. Diversity of VSP-II are well recognized, however, studies addressing attachment sequence left (attL) sequences of VSP-II are few. In this report, a wide variety of V. cholerae strains were analyzed for the structure and distribution of VSP-II in relation to their attachment sequences. Of 188 V. cholerae strains analyzed, 81% (153/188) strains carried VSP-II, of those, typical VSP-II, and a short variant was found in 36% (55/153), and 63% (96/153), respectively...
January 8, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Dan Zhang, Kongwang He, Libin Wen, Hongjie Fan
The capsid protein is the major immunogenic protein of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). The nucleotide sequence of porcine-circovirus-like virus P1shares high homology with open reading frame (ORF) 2 of PCV2, and ORF1 of P1 encodes its structural protein. Mice were vaccinated twice intramuscularly with a plasmid expressing the P1 ORF1 protein (pcDNA3.1(+)-ORF1) at 2-week intervals. All animals vaccinated with pcDNA3.1(+)-ORF1 developed higher specific anti-P1 antibody levels, and had less PCV2 viremia and milder histopathological changes than PCV2-challenged mice in the control group...
January 8, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Deuk-Ki Lee, Eun-Young Lee, Ryoon-Ho Kim, Hye-Won Kwak, Joo Young Kim, Hun Kim, Kyung-Won Kang, Sang-Myeong Lee, Jong-Hwan Park, Jun Chang, Jae-Hwan Nam
Host factors such as nutritional status and immune cell state are important for vaccine efficacy. Inflammasome activation may be important for triggering vaccine-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Formulations with alum as a typical adjuvant to overcome the effects of host factors have recently been shown to induce inflammasome activation, which augments vaccine efficacy. Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) is one of main components of inflammasomes, but it is not clear whether ASC affects the vaccine-induced immune response...
January 8, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Kazuo Satoh, Takashi Tamura, Koichi Makimura
Candida auris, which we described in 2009 (1), has become a global health threat (2). Due to the increasing interest in C. auris, we have received a number of questions regarding this topic. On re-examining the data to respond to these queries, a single important error was found in our manuscript. Therefore, we have issued an erratum.
January 8, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Cenrong Zhang, Wei Xu, Jian Chen, Ran Guan, Shicheng Bi, Haibo Jin, Xuemei Cui, Fushan Shi, Songhua Hu
The adjuvant effect of soybean oil containing ginseng root saponins (SO-GS-R) on the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (FMDV) in mice was investigated in this study. When immunized with FMDV antigen emulsified in an SO-GS-R formulation, mice generated remarkably higher serum antibody and cytokine responses than mice immunized with FMDV antigen alone. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the adjuvant effect of SO-GS-R, we measured cytokines in the serum and muscle tissue after intramuscular injection of SO-GS-R...
December 27, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Masahiko Toyama, Daisuke Kudo, Tetsuji Aoyagi, Tomomitsu Miyasaka, Keiko Ishii, Emi Kanno, Mitsuo Kaku, Shigeki Kushimoto, Kazuyoshi Kawakami
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a pathological condition that involves diffuse lung injury and severe hypoxemia caused by pulmonary and systemic diseases. We have established a mouse model of severe ARDS, developed by intratracheal injection of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), an activator of natural killer T (NKT) cells, followed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the present study, we used this model to investigate the regulatory mechanism in the early inflammatory response during acute lung injury...
December 21, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Sho Amatsu, Takuhiro Matsumura, Masahiro Yutani, Yukako Fujinaga
Hemagglutinin (HA) is one of the components of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) complexes and it promotes the absorption of BoNT through the intestinal epithelium by at least two specific mechanisms: cell surface attachment by carbohydrate binding, and epithelial barrier disruption by E-cadherin binding. It is known that HA forms a three-arm structure, in which each of three protomers has three carbohydrate-binding sites and one E-cadherin-binding site. A three-arm form of HA is considered to bind to these ligands simultaneously...
December 20, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Keisuke Yamamoto, Noriko Ogasawara, Soh Yamamoto, Kenichi Takano, Tsukasa Shiraishi, Toyotaka Sato, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi, Tetsuo Himi, Shin-Ichi Yokota
The plaque-forming assay is the standard technique for determining viral titer, and a critical measurement for investigating viral replication. However, this assay is highly dependent on experimental technique and conditions. In the case of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in particular, it can be difficult to objectively confirm the accuracy of plaque-forming assay because the plaques made by RSV are often small and unclear. In recent studies, reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) methods have emerged as a supportive procedure for assessment of viral titer, yielding highly sensitive and reproducible results...
December 20, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Tetsuo Nakayama, Yasuyo Kashiwagi, Hisashi Kawashima
Vaccines based on pathogen components require adjuvants to enhance the antigen-specific adaptive immune response. Intramuscular injection of adjuvanted-vaccines induces inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory nodules at the injection sites within 48 hours after injection (Vaccine 2014; 32: 3393-3401). In the present study, the long-term regulation of cytokine production was investigated at 3, 6, 24, and 48 h, 5 and 7 days, and 2 and 4 weeks after immunization with human papilloma virus (HPV), diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with acellular pertussis (DTaP), haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), and conjugated pneumococcal (PCV) vaccines in mouse models...
December 20, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Li Zhao, Yangzhen Suolang, Dandan Zhou, Yu Tang, Yan Zhang
The goal of this study was explore the role of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the therapeutic effect of probiotics on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Trinitro-benzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) was used to induce colitis in mice, and 1-methyltryptophan (1-MT) was used to block the expression of IDO. Clinical manifes-tations, macroscopic and microscopic colonic alterations were assessed using the dis-ease activity index (DAI), Wallace-Keenan, and Curtner scoring systems, respectively. The expression of colonic IDO was detected by western blot...
December 11, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Yuri Sakai, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Kyosuke Nagata, Takatsugu Hirokawa
M2 protein of influenza A virus is a proton channel spanning the viral envelope. This proton channel activity is required for uncoating of viral particles and equilibrating the pH across the trans-Golgi apparatus to prevent a conformational change of hemagglutinin. Amantadine is an anti-influenza A virus drug which inhibits M2 proton channel activity by binding to the channel pore, however, the majority of currently circulating influenza A viruses are amantadine-resistant. The most prevalent resistant mutation is a substitution from Ser31 to Asn31 in M2...
December 6, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Goro Matsuzaki, Masayuki Umemura
Interleukin (IL)-17 family cytokines consisting of six members participate in immune response in infections, autoimmune diseases and inflammatory diseases. The prototype cytokine of the family, IL-17A, was originally identified from CD4+ T cells which are now termed Th17. Later IL-17A-producing cells are expanded to various hematopoietic cells including CD8+ T cells (Tc17), invariant NKT cells, γ δ T cells, non-T non-B lymphocytes termed type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), and neutrophils. Some members of the IL-17 family cytokines other than IL-17A were also expressed by CD4+ T cells: IL-17E by Th2 cells, and IL-17F by Th17 cells...
December 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Akihito Sawada, Kiyokazu Yunomae, Tetsuo Nakayama
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory infections in infants. Effective vaccines are now under investigation, but no vaccine is currently available. In our previous report, recombinant AIK-C measles vaccine expressing the RSV fusion protein (MVAIK/RSV/F) was developed, and protective immunity against RSV was demonstrated in cotton rats. In this study, the immunogenicity and protective effects were investigated in three cynomolgus monkeys immunized with MVAIK/RSV/F. Neutralizing test antibodies against RSV were detected and no infectious virus was recovered after the challenge from the lungs of monkeys immunized with MVAIK/RSV/F...
November 30, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Natsuki Hannya, Hiromi Ogita-Nakanishi, Ryuji Kato, Yoshio Ijiri, Tetsuya Hayashi, Kazuhiko Tanaka, Ryo Kawata, Hiroshi Takenaka, Takahiro Kubota, Ryotaro Yoshida
There was a significant amount of non-specific, but not of allergen (e.g., papain, mite feces, and 4 kinds of pollen)-specific, IgE antibodies (Abs) in the serum of normal mice. An intranasal (i.n.) injection of each allergen without adjuvant into mice caused an increase in total IgE Ab titers with a similar time course in the serum; but the stage in the initiation of allergy varied from allergen to allergen. Submandibular lymph node cells from normal mice contained papain-, but not mite feces- or pollen-specific IgE+ cells; and an i...
November 29, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Dong-Won Seo, Yong-Il Cho, Suna Gu, Da-Hee Kim, Young-Joo Yi, Sang-Myeong Lee
The inflammasome is a multiprotein signaling complex that mediates inflammatory innate immune responses through caspase 1 activation and subsequent IL-1β secretion. Nonetheless, its aberrant activation often leads to inflammatory diseases. Therefore, targeting the inflammasome holds promise for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases. Our study showed that a hot-water extract of Sanguisorba officinalis (HSO) effectively suppressed inflammasome activation triggered by ATP, nigericin, microbial pathogens, and dsDNA in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs)...
November 29, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Deyu Tian, Akihiko Uda, Eun-Sil Park, Akitoyo Hotta, Osamu Fujita, Akio Yamada, Kazuhiro Hirayama, Kozue Hotta, Yuuki Koyama, Mika Azaki, Shigeru Morikawa
Francisella tularensis, which causes tularemia, is an intracellular and Gram-negative bacterium. F. tularensis has received significant attention in recent decades because of their history as biological weapons. Thus, the development of novel vaccines directed against tularemia has been an important goal. The attenuated F. tularensis strain δpdpC, in which the pathogenicity determinant protein C gene (pdpC) was disrupted by TargeTron mutagenesis, was investigated as a potential vaccine candidate for tularemia in the present study...
November 24, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
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