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Microbiology and Immunology

Ko Sato, Oshi Watanabe, Suguru Ohmiya, Fumiko Chiba, Masahiro Hayashi, Tamio Suzuki, Kazuyoshi Kawakami, Hidekazu Nishimura
Isolation of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) serotypes 1 and 3 from clinical specimens is not very efficient due to the lack of a cell culture system capable of cytopathic effect (CPE). In this study, we demonstrated the utility of a melanoma cell line, MNT-1, that allows HPIV growth and displays CPE. Particularly, the isolation efficiencies of HPIV1 and HPIV3 using MNT-1 were higher than those of cell lines conventionally used for HPIV isolation. Our demonstrated efficacy of HPIV1 and HPIV3 isolation with apparent CPE using the MNT-1 cell culture system would improve the virus isolation from the clinical specimens...
October 20, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Gamal Allam, Imad A A Mohamed, Khaled A Alswat, Said H Abbadi, Raad Nassif, Bader J Alharthi, Amre Nasr
Tuberculosis (TB) considers one of the most common infectious diseases all over the world. IL-37, a novel member of the IL-1 family, exhibits anti-inflammatory activities. Various cytokine genes polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with susceptibility to TB infection. However, association between genetic variations in the IL-37 gene with susceptibility to TB infection is not known. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to identify the association of IL-37 genetic polymorphisms with TB infection in Saudi population...
October 20, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Çiğdem Yılmaz, Aycan Apak, Erkan Özcengiz, Gülay Özcengiz
Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis. Although availability of effective pertussis vaccines seems to decrease the incidence of the disease, B. pertussis circulation in population has not been eliminated. Thus, finding new protein candidates with high immune protective capacities is necessary to enhance the efficacy of current acellular pertussis (Pa) vaccines. In this study, iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) gene (sodB) was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and recombinant FeSOD protein was purified...
October 20, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Semmannan Kalaiyarasu, Manoj Kumar, Dhanapal Senthil Kumar, Sandeep Bhatia, Sandeep Kumar Dash, Sushant Bhat, Rohit K Khetan, Shanmugasundaram Nagarajan
One of the major causes of death in highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in chicken is due to acute induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine (cytokine storm) which leads to severe pathology and acute mortality. Dendritic cells and macrophages of respiratory tract are the major antigen presenting cells (APCs) getting exposed to mucosal pathogens. We hypothesized that chicken dendritic cells might be a major target for H5N1 HPAIV for induction of cytokine dysregulation. Infection of chMoDCs with H5N1 HPAIV produced high titers of progeny virus with more rounding and cytotoxicity than H9N2 LPAIV...
October 12, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Maryam Alinejad Dizaj, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani, Payam Tabarsi, Hamed Ahari, Ahmad Ebrahimi, Seyed Alireza Nadji, Habib Emami, Esmaeil Mortaz
Hypercoagulable state in Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterium Disease (MSMD) patients who are prone to mycobacterium infection has been established in a few studies and thrombosis considered as a rare. In a case-control study, the prevalence of factor V Leiden (FVL), Prothrombin (PTH) G20210A and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C mutations, were investigated among mycobacterium infected patients. The study were compromised 30 patients with mycobacterium infections (Invasive, disseminated and/ or recurrent infections with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or non Tuberculosis Mycobacterium (NTM) and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB), with positive result for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB), and Tuberculin skin test (TST)) and 30 normal healthy controls...
September 30, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Masashi Izumigawa, Yoshiaki Hasegawa, Ryota Ikai, Toshi Horie, Megumi Inomata, Takeshi Into, Noriyuki Kitai, Fuminobu Yoshimura, Yukitaka Murakami
Phosphorylation of serine (Ser), threonine (Thr), and tyrosine (Tyr) is a central mechanism for regulating the structure and function of proteins in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, the action of phosphorylated proteins present in Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major periodontopathogen, is not fully understood. Here, we identified six novel phosphoproteins that possess metabolic activities, namely PGN_0004, PGN_0375, PGN_0500, PGN_0724, PGN_0733, and PGN_0880, separated using phosphate-affinity chromatography...
September 24, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Takafumi Tasaki, Souichi Nukuzuma, Tsutomu Takegami
We investigated the role of the autophagy adaptor protein p62/SQSTM1 in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) replication in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Compared with the wild-type cells, JEV RNA and the E protein levels were significantly decreased in p62-deficient cells at 24 hr post infection (p.i.). JEV RNA quantitation and the viral plaque assay were performed and showed a significant reduction in the viral titer in the p62-deficient cell culture fluid. Our results indicate that JEV replication is impaired in p62-deficient MEFs...
September 14, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Allison Palmer, Joseph Painter, Hayley Hassler, Vincent P Richards, Terri Bruce, Shatavia Morrison, Ellen Brown, Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Claressa Lucas, Tamara L McNealy
A novel Legionella species was identified based on sequencing, cellular fatty acid analysis, biochemical reactions, and biofilm characterization. Strain D5610 was originally isolated from the bronchial wash of a patient in Ohio. The bacteria were Gram negative, rod shaped, and exhibited a green fluorescence under long wave UV light. Phylogenetic analysis and fatty acid composition revealed a distinct separation within the genus. The strain grows between 26-45°C and forms biofilms equivalent to L. pneumophila Philadelphia 1...
September 13, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Lucia Pulzova, Zuzana Flachbartova, Elena Bencurova, Lenka Potocnakova, Lubos Comor, Eva Schreterova, Mangesh Bhide
Outer surface protein C of Borrelia stimulates remarkable immune responses during early infection and is currently considered as a leading diagnostic and vaccine candidate. Sensitivity and specificity of serological test based on whole protein OspC is still an issue in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. The minimal B-cell epitopes are key in the development of reliable immunodiagnostic tool. Using OspC fragments displayed on phage particles (phage library) and anti-OspC antibodies isolated from sera of naturally infected patients we identified six OspC epitopes capable of distinguishing between LD patient and healthy control sera...
September 13, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Mayo Yasugi, Keisuke Otsuka, Masami Miyake
Clostridium perfringens type A is a common source of food-borne illness in humans. Ingested vegetative cells sporulate in the small intestinal tract and produce C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) during sporulation. Although sporulation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of food-borne illness, the molecules triggering/inhibiting sporulation are still largely unknown. We previously reported that sporulation was induced in C. perfringens strain NCTC8239 co-cultured with Caco-2 cells in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM)...
September 5, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Gourav Dhiman, Neha Lohia, Sahil Jain, Manoj Baranwal
The concept of peptide-based vaccines against cancer has made noteworthy progress. Metadherin (MTDH) overexpression and its role in the development of diverse cancers make it an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. In the current study, six different T cell epitope prediction tools were run to identify MTDH peptides with multiple immunogenic regions. Further, molecular docking was performed to assess HLA-peptide binding interactions. Nine and eleven peptides fragments containing multiple CD8 (+) and CD4 (+) T-cell epitopes, ranging from 9 to 20 amino acids, respectively, were obtained using a consensus immunoinformatics approach...
September 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Jun Sato, Motohiro Miki, Hiromi Kubota, Jun Hitomi, Hajime Tokuda, Reiko Todaka-Takai, Kazuhiko Katayama
Human noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Public and personal hygiene is one of the most important countermeasures for preventing spread of NoV infection. However, no a practicable cell culture system for NoV had been developed, initial tests of the virucidal effectiveness of anti-NoV disinfectants and sanitizers have been performed using surrogate viruses. In this study, NoV virus-like particles (VLPs) were used as a new surrogate for NoVs and a method for evaluating NoV inactivation using them developed...
September 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Manli Wu, Min Li, Yan Yue, Wei Xu
DNA-based vaccine is a promising candidate for immunization and induction of a T-cell-focused protective immune response against infectious pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). To induce multi-functional T response against multi-TB antigens, a multi-epitope DNA vaccine and a 'protein backbone grafting' design method is adopted to graft five discontinuous T-cell epitopes into HSP65 scaffold protein of M. tb for enhancement of epitope processing and immune presentation. A DNA plasmid with five T-cell epitopes derived from ESAT-6, Ag85B, MTB10...
September 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Momoko Saito, Keita Odanaka, Nao Otsuka, Kazunari Kamachi, Mineo Watanabe
Bordetella holmesii is recognized as the third causative agent of pertussis (whooping cough) in addition to Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. Pertussis caused by B. holmesii is not rare around the world. However, to date, there is no effective vaccine against B. holmesii. We examined the protective potency of pertussis vaccines available in Japan and vaccines prepared from B. holmesii. A murine model of respiratory infection was exploited to evaluate protective potency. No Japanese commercial pertussis vaccines were effective against B...
September 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Jie Gao, Lei Fan, Wei Ma, Huan Xiao
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as the primary etiological factor in cervical cancer as well as in subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. The two HPV viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, are uniquely and consistently expressed in all HPV-infected cells and are therefore promising targets for therapeutic vaccination. In order to achieve a synergistic antitumor and anti-angiogenesis effect, we designed and constructed a novel DNA vaccine that can express the HPV 16 E6E7 fusion protein and VEGFR2 in the same reading frame...
September 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Suthathip Trongjit, Sunpetch Angkittitrakul, Rungtip Chuanchuen
Nine hundred and forty-one samples were collected in Sa Keao, Thailand (n = 554) and Banteay Meanchey, Cambodia (n = 387) from July 2014 to January 2015. A total of 667 Escherichia coli isolates (381 isolates from Sa Keao and 286 isolates from Banteay Meanchey) were obtained and examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, class 1 integrons, ESBL genes and horizontal transfer of resistance determinants. Prevalence of E. coli in pig and broiler carcass samples from slaughterhouses and fresh markets was 36-85% in Sa Keao and 11-69% in Banteay Meanchey...
September 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Maria Raquel Cosate, Gabriela Hase Siqueira, Gisele Oliveira de Souza, Silvio Arruda Vasconcellos, Ana Lucia T O Nascimento
A severe re-emergingzoonosis, leptospirosis, is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Several studies have identified leptospiral surface proteins with the ability to bind ECM and plasma components, which could mediate adhesion and invasion through the hosts. It has been shown that Mce of pathogenic Leptospira spp. is an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp)-motif-dependent virulence factor, responsible for infection of cells and animals. In the present article, we decided to further study the repertoire of the Mce activities in leptospiral biological properties...
September 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Victoria Maneu, Agustina Noailles, Violeta Gómez-Vicente, Nuria Carpena, Nicolás Cuenca, M Luisa Gil, Daniel Gozalbo
Although its actual role in the progression of degenerative processes is not fully known, the persistent activated state of retinal microglia and the concurrent secretion of inflammatory mediators may contribute to neuronal death and permanent vision loss. Our objective was to determine whether non-ocular conditions (immunosuppression and peripheral inflammation) could lead to activation of retinal microglia. Mouse models of immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide and/or peripheral inflammation by chemically induced sublethal colitis in C57BL/6J mice were used...
September 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
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August 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Edoardo Virgilio, Paolo Mercantini, Mario Ferri, Marco Cavallini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
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