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Microbiology and Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906022/identification-and-characterization-of-a-brilliant-yellow-pigment-produced-by-bordetella-pertussis
#1
Keita Odanaka, Masato Iwatsuki, Tomomitsu Satho, Mineo Watanabe
Culture supernatant of Bordetella pertussis has a brilliant yellow color; however, the structure and biological role of the pigment have not been investigated. We extracted the brilliant yellow-colored fraction from the culture supernatant of B. pertussis and analyzed it by HPLC. UV-visible spectral analysis and mass spectrometry identified the brilliant yellow pigment as riboflavin. Riboflavin production was high in lag and early log phases and riboflavin enhanced the growth of B. pertussis in low-density cultures...
September 14, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898517/characterization-of-the-functional-activity-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-subtype-b6
#2
Tomoko Kohda, Keiji Nakamura, Koji Hosomi, Yasushi Torii, Shunji Kozaki, Masafumi Mukamoto
Clostridium botulinum produces the highly potent neurotoxin, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), which is classified into seven serotypes, A-G, and the subtype classification is confirmed by the diversity of the amino acid sequence among the serotypes. The BoNT from the Osaka05 strain is associated with type B infant botulism and has been divided into BoNT/B subtype B6 (BoNT/B6) by phylogenetic analysis and the antigenicity of its C-terminal heavy chain (HC) domain. However, the molecular basis for its properties, including the potency, is poorly understood...
September 12, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892185/prevalence-comorbidities-and-mortality-of-toxic-shock-syndrome-in-united-states-children-and-adults
#3
Mark A Strom, Derek Y Hsu, Jonathan I Silverberg
Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) is a superantigen-mediated illness characterized by rash, hypotension and multi-organ dysfunction. The predictors of TSS and related morbidity and mortality are poorly defined. We analyzed data on 61,959,084 hospitalizations from the 2003-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a 20% stratified sample of US hospitalizations. ICD-9-CM coding was used to identify 4,491 hospitalizations with a diagnosis of TSS. Incidence, in-hospital mortality rate, comorbidities, length of stay and costs of care due to TSS were determined...
September 11, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892177/lasioglossins-lliii-affects-the-morphogenesis-of-candida-albicans-and-reduces-the-duration-of-experimental-vaginal-candidiasis-in-mice
#4
Alena Vrablikova, Lydie Czernekova, Romana Cahlikova, Zbynek Novy, Milos Petrik, Saima Imran, Zdenek Novak, Michal Krupka, Vaclav Cerovsky, Jaroslav Turanek, Milan Raska
Lasioglossins represent a group of peptides with identified antimicrobial activity. We investigated the inhibitory effects of two synthetic lasioglossin derivatives LLIII and D-isomeric variant LLIII-D on the morphological changes of Candida albicans in vitro and the effect of local administration of LLIII during experimental murine candidiasis. C. albicans blastoconidia were grown in the presence of lasioglossin LLIII or LLIII-D at the concentration of 11.5 μM and 21 μM for 1, 2, and 3 days and the viability was determined by flow cytometry using Eosin Y staining...
September 11, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881485/indices-of-anti-dengue-immunoglobulin-g-subclasses-in-adult-mexican-patients-with-febrile-and-hemorrhagic-dengue-in-the-acute-phase
#5
Araceli Posadas-Mondragón, José Leopoldo Aguilar-Faisal, Adolfo Chávez-Negrete, Edith Guillén-Salomón, Verónica Alcántara-Farfán, Lucero Luna-Rojas, Amanda Marineth Ávila-Trejo, Judith Del Carmen Pacheco-Yépez
Heterologous secondary infections are at increased risk of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). The immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses can fix and activate complement and bind to Fcɣ receptors. These factors may also play an important role in the development of ADE and thus in the pathogenesis of DHF. The aim of this study was to analyze the indices of anti-dengue IgG subclasses in adult patients with febrile and hemorrhagic dengue in the acute phase. In 2013, we recruited129 patients with dengue fever (DF) and 57 with DHF in Veracruz, Mexico...
September 7, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881387/effects-of-lactoferrin-and-lactoperoxidase-containing-food-on-the-oral-microbiota-in-the-elderly
#6
Manabu Nakano, Hiroyuki Wakabayashi, Hirosuke Sugahara, Toshitaka Odamaki, Koji Yamauchi, Fumiaki Abe, Jin-Zhong Xiao, Kohji Murakami, Kentaro Ishikawa, Shouji Hironaka
The oral microbiota influences health and disease states. Some Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria play an important role in tissue destruction associated with periodontal disease. Lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are antimicrobial proteins found in saliva; however, their influence on the whole oral microbiota currently remains unknown. We herein assessed the effects of the long-term ingestion of LF- and LPO-containing tablets on the microbiota of supragingival plaque and tongue coating in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study...
September 7, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881043/human-papillomavirus-prevalence-in-lung-carcinomas-in-bulgaria
#7
Evelina Shikova, Zina Ivanova, Dora Alexandrova, Mihail Shindov, Andrey Lekov
The possible association between high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) and lung cancer has been investigated for decades but the results are quite discrepant. This study aimed to screen Bulgarian lung cancer patients for the prevalence of HPV16 and 18. We analyzed 209 biopsy specimens from patients with histologically proven lung cancer and non-cancer cases. Each sample was subjected to three parallel PCRs using broad spectrum GP5+/6+ primers and type-specific (TS) primers for HPV types 16 and 18. Of the 132 lung carcinoma samples 33(25 %) were positive for HPV16 and/or HPV18 by TS PCR and only 5(3...
September 7, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877365/molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-of-immunoglobulin-d-igd-on-pathogen-challenge-and-pamps-stimulation-in-freshwater-carp-catla-catla
#8
Rajanya Banerjee, Bhakti Patel, Madhubanti Basu, Saswati S Lenka, Mahismita Paicha, Mrinal Samanta, Surajit Das
The primordial immunoglobulin class, IgD is the first non-IgM isotype discovered in teleosts. The crucial role of IgM and IgZ in imparting systemic and mucosal immunity respectively has been widely established in various fish species. However, the putative function of unique IgD isotype during pathogenic invasions has not been explored much. The present study reports the existence of IgD ortholog in freshwater carp, Catla catla and further evaluates its differential expression profile in response to bacterial, parasitic, viral antigenic exposure and (pathogen associated molecular patterns) PAMPs stimulations...
September 6, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862321/expression-of-hla-dra-and-cd74-mrna-in-whole-blood-during-the-course-of-complicated-and-uncomplicated-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#9
Gunlög Rasmussen, Sara Cajander, Anders Bäckman, Jan Källman, Bo Söderquist, Kristoffer Strålin
In order to improve patient management in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB), better understanding of host-pathogen interactions is needed. In vitro studies have shown that S. aureus bacteria induce a dose-dependent immunosuppression, in terms of reduced expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II on antigen presenting cells. Thus, we aimed to study if the expressions of the MHC class II-related genes HLA-DRA and CD74 are more reduced in complicated SAB, with probably higher loads of S...
September 1, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857261/a-recombinant-iron-transport-protein-from-bordetella-pertussis-confers-protection-against-bordetella-parapertussis
#10
Jimena Alvarez Hayes, Juan Marcos Oviedo, Hugo Valdez, Juan Martín Laborde, Fabricio Maschi, Miguel Ayala, Rohan Shah, Marcelo Fernandez Lahore, Maria Eugenia Rodriguez
Whooping cough is a reemerging disease caused by Bordetella parapertussis and B. parapertussis. New protective antigens are needed to improve the efficacy of current vaccines against both species. Using proteomic tools we here found that B. parapertussis expresses a homolog of AfuA, a previously reported new vaccine candidate against B. pertussis. We found that this homolog, named as AfuABpp , is expressed during B. parapertussis infection, exposed on the surface of the bacteria and recognized by specific antibodies induced by the recombinant AfuA cloned from B...
August 31, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833387/characterization-of-an-anti-varicella-zoster-virus-compound-that-targets-the-portal-protein-encoded-by-orf54
#11
Ruka Yasui, Chinatsu Yoshida, Toyofumi Yamaguchi, Naoki Inoue
An anti-varicella-zoster virus compound, a 5-chlorobenzo[b]thiophen derivative (45B5), was characterized. Its 50% effective concentration against the cell-free vaccine Oka strain and 50% cytotoxic concentration in human fibroblasts were 16.9 μM and more than 100 μM, respectively. Treatment with 45B5 decreased viral DNA synthesis as well as IE62 expression weakly but significantly. All 45B5-resistant viral clones isolated had at least one mutation in ORF54 that encodes the portal protein. There were no effects on the interaction of the portal protein with the scaffold protein...
August 19, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815716/characterization-of-h5n6-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-isolated-from-wild-and-captive-birds-in-the-winter-season-of-2016-2017-in-northern-japan
#12
Takahiro Hiono, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Keita Matsuno, Atsushi Haga, Ritsuko Iwata, Lam Thanh Nguyen, Mizuho Suzuki, Yuto Kikutani, Hiroshi Kida, Manabu Onuma, Yoshihiro Sakoda
On November 15, 2016, a suspected case of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a dead black swan was reported from a zoo in Akita prefecture, northern Japan, and an HPAI virus (HPAIV) belonging to the H5N6 subtype was isolated from specimens taken from the bird. After the initial report, 230 cases of HPAI caused by H5N6 viruses were reported from wild birds, captive birds, and domestic poultry farms throughout the country during the winter season. In the present study, we further characterized 66 H5N6 HPAIVs isolated from northern Japan...
August 16, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776750/generation-of-a-non-transmissive-borna-disease-virus-vector-lacking-both-matrix-and-glycoprotein-genes
#13
Kan Fujino, Yusuke Yamamoto, Takuji Daito, Akiko Makino, Tomoyuki Honda, Keizo Tomonaga
Borna disease virus (BoDV), a prototype of mammalian bornavirus, is a non-segmented, negative strand RNA virus that often causes severe neurological disorders in infected animals, including horses and sheep. Unique among animal RNA viruses, BoDV transcribes and replicates non-cytopathically in the cell nucleus, leading to the establishment of a long-lasting persistent infection. This striking feature of BoDV indicates its potential as an RNA virus vector system. In a previous study, we demonstrated that recombinant BoDV (rBoDV) lacking an envelope glycoprotein (G) gene develops a persistent infection in the transduced cells without loss of the viral genome...
August 4, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752940/protective-effects-of-in-vivo-expressed-autotransporters-against-bordetella-pertussis-infection
#14
Koichiro Suzuki, Naoaki Shinzawa, Keisuke Ishigaki, Keiji Nakamura, Hiroyuki Abe, Aya Fukui-Miyazaki, Kazuyoshi Ikuta, Yasuhiko Horiguchi
Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough, a severe and prolonged respiratory disease that results in high morbidity and mortality rates, particularly in developing countries. The number of whooping cough cases is increasing in many countries despite high vaccine coverage. Causes for the re-emergence of the disease include the limited duration of protection conferred by the acellular pertussis vaccines (aP) and pathogenic adaptations that involve antigenic divergence from vaccine strains. Therefore, current vaccines need to be improved...
July 28, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736993/molecular-characterization-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-particularly-serotype19a-st320-that-emerged-in-krasnoyarsk-russia
#15
Irina N Protasova, Tsai-Wen Wan, Natalya V Bakhareva, Wei-Chun Hung, Wataru Higuchi, Yasuhisa Iwao, Tatyana A Yelistratova, Natalya A Ilyenkova, Yelena S Sokolovskaya, Galina P Martynova, Ivan V Reva, Galina V Reva, Sergey V Sidorenko, Lee-Jene Teng, Olga V Peryanova, Alla B Salmina, Tatsuo Yamamoto
Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common human pathogen, colonizes the nasopharynx and causes diseases including acute otitis media (AOM). We herein report pneumococcal serotype distributions in children before and after PCV7 vaccination and in patients with pneumococcal disease in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk). Analyses included antimicrobial susceptibility testing, ST typing, a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, virulence-related surface protein gene (VSG) typing with novel primers, and a structural analysis by scanning electron microscopy...
July 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696017/reassortant-ds-1-like-g1p-4-rotavirus-a-strains-generated-from-co-circulating-strains-in-vietnam-2012-2013
#16
Chantal Ama Agbemabiese, Toyoko Nakagomi, Minh Quang Nguyen, Punita Gauchan, Osamu Nakagomi
One major mechanism by which Rotavirus A (RVA) evolves is genetic reassortment between strains possessing different genotype constellations. The parental strains of the reassortants generated are however seldom identified. Here, we examined the whole genome of two suspected reassortants RVA/Human-wt/VNM/SP127/2013/G1P[4] and RVA/Human-wt/VNM/SP193/2013/G1P[4] with short RNA electropherotypes by Illumina MiSeq sequencing and reconstructed their ancestral phylogenies. Their genotype constellation - G1-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 indicated that they were G1 VP7 mono-reassortants possessing DS-1-like genetic backbones...
July 11, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675506/determination-of-the-cell-tropism-of-serotype-1-feline-infectious-peritonitis-virus-using-the-spike-affinity-histochemistry-in-paraffin-embedded-tissues
#17
Tat-Chuan Cham, Yen-Chen Chang, Pei-Shiue Tsai, Ching-Ho Wu, Hui-Wen Chen, Chian-Ren Jeng, Victor Fei Pang, Hui-Wen Chang
Unlike serotype II feline coronaviruses (FCoV II), the cellular receptor for serotype I FCoV (FCoV I), the most prevalence FCoV serotype, is unknown. To provide a platform to assess attachment pattern of the FCoV I with its host receptor(s), we established HEK293 cell lines that stably expressed the ectodomains of the spike (S) proteins derived from a FCoV I feline enteric coronavirus strain UU7 (FECV UU7) and a feline infectious peritonitis virus strain UU4 (FIPV UU4). Using the recombinant S proteins as probes to perform S protein affinity histochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissues, despite no tissue or enteric binding of FECV UU7 S protein was detected, we showed that the tissue distribution of FIPV UU4 S protein-bound cells correlated with that of FIPV antigen-positive cells by immunohistochemistry and lesions associated with FIP; and the affinity binding of FIPV UU4 S protein on macrophages was not affected by the enzymatic removal of host cell-surface sialic acid with neuraminidase...
July 4, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718957/large-numbers-of-interleukins-22-and-17a-producing-t-helper-cells-in-cholangiocarcinoma-related-to-liver-fluke-infection
#18
Si-Biao Su, Jian-Feng Zhang, Fei-Fei Huang, Yu Cen, Hai-Xing Jiang
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) associated with liver fluke infection involves inflammatory and immune processes; however, whether these involve the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17A and proliferative cytokine IL-22 remains unclear. Here, numbers of IL-22- and IL-17A-producing Th cells and cytokine concentrations in 30 patients with CCA and long-term liver fluke infection, 40 patients with liver-fluke infection but not CCA, and 16 healthy controls were compared. Analyses were performed using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, ELISA and RT-PCR...
August 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710778/a-method-for-detecting-rash-and-fever-illness-associated-viruses-using-multiplex-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction
#19
Yuki Matsushima, Tomomi Shimizu, Ikuko Doi, Fuminori Mizukoshi, Koo Nagasawa, Akihide Ryo, Hideaki Shimizu, Masae Kobayashi, Keiji Funatogawa, Noriko Nagata, Mariko Ishikawa, Ayako Komane, Nobuhiko Okabe, Yoshio Mori, Makoto Takeda, Hirokazu Kimura
In this study, a new multiplex RT-PCR method for detecting various viral genes in patients with rash and fever illnesses (RFIs) was constructed. New primer sets were designed for detection of herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV1 and 2), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The newly designed and previously reported primer sets were used to detect 13 types of RFI-associated viruses by multiplex RT-PCR assay systems. Moreover, to eliminate non-specific PCR products, a double-stranded specific DNase was used to digest double-stranded DNA derived from the templates in clinical specimens...
August 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685856/the-performance-of-a-resazurin-chromogenic-agar-plate-with-a-combined-disc-method-for-rapid-screening-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamases-and-co-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-enterobacteriaceae
#20
Yothin Teethaisong, Katie Evans, Ismini Nakouti, Kanokwan Tiamyom, James R Ketudat-Cairns, Glyn Hobbs, Griangsak Eumkeb
A promising means of rapid screening of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, and co-production of ESBL and AmpC that combines resazurin chromogenic agar (RCA) with a combined disc method is here reported. Cefpodoxime (CPD) discs with and without clavulanic acid (CA), cloxacillin (CX) and CA+CX were evaluated against 86 molecularly confirmed β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, including 15 ESBLs, 32 AmpCs, nine co-producers of ESBL and AmpC and 30 carbapenemase producers. The CA and CX synergy test successfully detected all ESBL producers (100% sensitivity and 98...
August 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
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