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Microbiology and Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332721/rapid-detection-and-quantification-of-ebola-zaire-virus-by-one-step-real-time-quantitative-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction
#1
Young-Tae Ro, Anysha Ticer, Ricardo Carrion, Jean L Patterson
Since Ebola virus causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with mortality rates as high as 90%, the rapid and accurate detection of the virus is essential both for controlling the infection and for preventing further transmission. Here, we introduce one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays for the rapid and quantitative detection of an Ebola Zaire strain using GP, VP24 or VP40 gene as a target. Routine assay conditions for hydrolysis probe detection were established by the manufacturer's protocol used in the assays...
March 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262966/serologic-evidence-of-brucella-infection-in-pinnipeds-along-the-coast-of-hokkaido-the-northernmost-main-island-of-japan
#2
Erika Abe, Kazue Ohishi, Tsuyoshi Ishinazaka, Ke Fujii, Tadashi Maruyama
Brucella infection in Hokkaido was serologically surveyed in four species of pinnipeds inhabiting Cape Erimo during 2008-2013 and the Shiretoko Peninsula in 1999, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Brucella abortus and B. canis as antigens. Anti-Brucella positive sera showed higher absorbance to B. abortus than B. canis in almost all samples. Anti-B. abortus antibodies were detected in serum samples from 24% (n=55) of Western Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina stejnegeri) in Cape Erimo, and from 66% (n=41) of spotted seals (P...
March 6, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261862/a-putative-tir-domain-protein-from-helicobacter-pylori-is-dimeric-in-solution-and-interacts-with-human-tlr-adaptor-myeloid-differentiation-primary-response-88
#3
Burcu Kaplan Türköz
Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen capable of causing persistent infection with minimal immune response. The first line of defense during H. pylori infection is through gastric epithelial cells that present Toll like receptors (TLR), a family of bacterial proteins which share homology with the Toll/IL1 receptor (TIR) domain. Bacterial TIR proteins (BTP) mimic human TIR domain proteins and act on MyD88 signaling pathways to suppress TLR signaling. H. pylori might also produce a similar protein...
March 6, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258689/dual-recombinant-lactococcus-lactis-for-enhanced-delivery-of-dna-vaccine-reporter-plasmid-pperdby
#4
Bhrugu Yagnik, Drashya Sharma, Harish Padh, Priti Desai
Food grade Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) has been widely used as an antigen and DNA delivery vehicle. We had previously reported the use of non-invasive L. lactis for the delivery of newly constructed immunostimulatory DNA vaccine reporter plasmid, pPERDBY. In the present report, we outline the construction of dual recombinant L. lactis expressing Internalin A of Listeria monocytogenes and harbouring pPERDBY (LL InlA+ pPERDBY) to enhance the DNA delivery efficiency of L. lactis. After confirmation and validation of LL InlA+ pPERDBY, its DNA delivery potential was compared with previously developed non-invasive r- L...
March 4, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247494/extraintestinal-infection-of-helicobacter-cinaedi-induced-in-balb-c-mice-by-experimental-oral-administration
#5
Takako Taniguchi, Yuji Saeki, Akihiko Okayama, Tetsuya Hayashi, Naoaki Misawa
Although Helicobacter cinaedi was initially considered an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients, it was later shown to also infect immunocompetent patients and even healthy individuals. Sporadic bacteremia due to H. cinaedi has been frequently reported, but it remains unclear whether the bacterium can be translocated after passage through the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, we developed a preclinical small animal model that can faithfully reproduce H. cinaedi infection in humans. Balb/c male mice were orally inoculated with a single dose of 6...
March 1, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225165/the-contrasting-role-of-th17-immunity-in-human-health-and-disease
#6
Edwin Hoe, Jeremy Anderson, Jordan Nathanielsz, Zheng Quan Toh, Rachel Marimla, Anne Balloch, Paul V Licciardi
The human immune system is a tightly regulated network that protects the host from disease. An important aspect of this is the balance between pro-inflammatory Th17 cells and anti-inflammatory Treg cells in maintaining immune homeostasis. Foxp3+ Treg are critical for sustaining immune tolerance through IL-10 and TGF-β while RORγt+ Th17 cells promote immunopathology and auto-inflammatory diseases through the actions of IL-17A, IL-21 and IL-22. Therefore, the imbalance between Treg and Th17 cells can result in serious pathology in many organs and tissues in the body...
February 22, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206680/an-ssdna-aptamer-against-mannose-capped-lipoarabinomannan-enhances-anti-tuberculosis-activity-of-macrophages-through-downregulation-of-lipid-sensing-nuclear-receptor-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-expression
#7
Qin Pan, Jiamin Yan, Qi Liu, Chunhui Yuan, Xiao-Lian Zhang
Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) is an immunomodulatory epitope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We previously generated an aptamer (ZXL1) that specifically binds to ManLAM from the virulent Mtb H37Rv strain and reported that ZXL1 functioned as an antagonist, inhibiting the ManLAM-induced immunosuppression of dendritic cells (DCs). In the present study, we found that ZXL1 inhibited Mtb entry into murine macrophages. ZXL1 enhanced IL-1β and IL-12 mRNA expression and cytokine production in ManLAM-treated macrophages but decreased IL-10 production...
February 16, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150868/identification-of-second-arginine-glycine-aspartic-acid-motif-of-ovine-vitronectin-as-the-complement-c9-binding-site-and-its-implication-in-bacterial-infection
#8
Prasada Rao T, Lakshmi Prasanth T, Parvathy R, Murugavel S, Karuna Devi, Paritosh Joshi
Vitronectin (Vn), a multifunctional protein of blood and extracellular matrix interacts with complement C9. This interaction may modulate innate immunity. Details of Vn-C9 interaction are limited. An assessment of Vn-C9 interaction was made employing goat homologous system. Vn binding to C9 was observed in three different assays. Using recombinant fragments, the C9 binding was mapped to the N-terminus of Vn. Site directed mutagenesis was performed to alter the second RGD sequence (RGD-2) of Vn. Change of R to G or D to A in RGD-2 caused significant decrease in Vn binding to C9 whereas change of R to G in the first RGD motif (RGD-1) had no effect on Vn binding to C9...
February 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111826/regulation-systems-of-protease-and-hemolysin-production-in-vibrio-vulnificus
#9
Abdelaziz Elgaml, Shin-Ichi Miyoshi
Vibrio vulnificus is a gram-negative halophilic estuarine bacterium. It is an opportunistic human pathogen causing rapidly progressive fatal septicemia and necrotizing wound infection. This species also causes hemorrhagic septicemia called vibriosis in cultured eels. A range of virulence factors have been proposed to play a role in pathogenesis of the bacterium during human and/or eel infection. Among these factors, the metalloprotease (V. vulnificus protease: VVP) and the cytolytic toxin (V. vulnificus hemolysin: VVH) are significantly important...
January 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111794/selection-of-broad-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-the-feces-of-healthy-dogs-after-first-generation-cephalosporin-administration
#10
Ayako Kimura, Montira Yossapol, Sanae Shibata, Tetsuo Asai
Although antimicrobial products are essential for the treatment of bacterial disease, antimicrobial treatment selects for antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of first-generation cephalosporin administration on the development of resistant Escherichia coli in dog feces. The proportions of cephalexin (LEX)-resistant E. coli in fecal samples of three healthy dogs treated intravenously with cefazolin before castration and then orally with LEX for 3 days post-operation (PO) were examined using DHL agar with or without LEX (50 μg/mL)...
January 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042666/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-broiler-chickens-pigs-and-meat-products-in-the-thailand-cambodia-border-provinces
#11
Suthathip Trongjit, Sunpetch Angkititrakul, R Emerson Tuttle, Jiratchaya Poungseree, Pawin Padungtod, Rungtip Chuanchuen
This study aimed to examine prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the Salmonella isolates from broilers, pigs and their associated meat products in the Thailand-Cambodia border provinces. A total of 941 samples were collected from pigs and broilers at slaughter houses and from carcasses at local fresh markets in Sa Kaeo, Thailand (n = 554) and Banteay Meanchey, Cambodia (n = 387) in 2014 and 2015. Three hundred-forty five Salmonella isolates were collected from Sa Keao (n = 145; 23%) and Banteay Meanchey (n = 200; 47%) and assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility, class 1 integrons and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes...
January 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042660/determination-of-minimum-biofilm-eradication-concentrations-of-orbifloxacin-for-canine-bacterial-uropathogens-over-different-treatment-periods
#12
Takae Shimizu, Kazuki Harada
Biofilm formation can cause refractory urinary tract infections (UTIs) in dogs; however, minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs) of veterinary drugs against canine uropathogens remain to be investigated. In this study, we determined the MBECs of orbifloxacin (OBFX), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMS), and amoxicillin/clavulanate (ACV) over different time periods for treatment of canine uropathogenic Escherichia coli (n = 10). We also determined the MBECs of OBFX for other bacterial uropathogens, including Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (n = 5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=5), and Proteus mirabilis (n=5)...
January 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042656/the-emetic-activity-of-staphylococcal-enterotoxins-sek-sel-sem-sen-and-seo-in-a-small-emetic-animal-model-house-musk-shrew
#13
Hisaya K Ono, Shouhei Hirose, Ikunori Naito, Yusuke Sato'o, Krisana Asano, Dong-Liang Hu, Katsuhiko Omoe, Akio Nakane
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus are the most recognizable causative agents of emetic food poisoning in humans. New types of SEs and SE-like (SEl) toxins have been reported. Several epidemiological investigations have shown that the SEs and SEls genes, particularly, SEK, SEL, SEM, SEN and SEO genes, were highly detected in the strains isolated from food poisoning cases. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the emetic activity of the recently identified SEs using a small emetic animal model, house musk shrew...
January 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111792/inhibition-of-propionibacterium-acnes-lipase-activity-by-the-antifungal-agent-ketoconazole
#14
Mizuki Unno, Otomi Cho, Takashi Sugita
The common skin disease acne vulgaris is caused by Propionibacterium acnes. A lipase secreted by this microorganism metabolizes sebum and the resulting metabolites evoke inflammation in human skin. The antifungal drug ketoconazole inhibits P. acnes lipase activity. We previously showed that the drug also inhibits the growth of P. acnes. Thus, ketoconazole may serve as an alternative treatment for acne vulgaris, which is important because the number of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes strains has been increasing...
January 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004421/comparison-of-neutrophil-functions-between-two-strains-of-inbred-mice
#15
Xiaohuan Zhang, Sainan Zhao, Luping Sun, Wenqing Li, Michael Glogauer, Yan Hu
In this study, differences in neutrophil function represented by Rac1 expression, chemotaxis, NADPH oxidase activity, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) from 2 strains of inbred mice were determined. Neutrophils from CBA/CaH mice exhibited decreased Rac1 expression and a reduced speed in the chemotactic gradient compared to BALB/c mice. Furthermore, the level of superoxide and NETs generated by PMA- or fMLP-stimulated neutrophils from CBA/CaH mice was much lower compared to stimulated neutrophils from BALB/c mice...
December 22, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004418/sublingual-immunization-with-japanese-encephalitis-virus-vaccines-induces-effective-immunity-through-both-cellular-and-humoral-immune-responses-in-mice
#16
Eun-Young Lee, Joo-Young Kim, Deuk-Ki Lee, Il-Sub Yoon, Hae Li Ko, Ji-Woo Chung, Jun Chang, Jae-Hwan Nam
The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis. Although there are four classes of vaccines against JEV, the immunization routes for all vaccines are subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. In here, we investigated the effectiveness of sublingual administration of the JEV live-attenuated vaccine or the recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine including JEV prM/E. The mice were immunized three times intramuscularly (i.m.) or sublingually (s.l.). One week after the final immunization by both s...
December 22, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981613/induction-of-multiple-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-responses-in-mice-by-a-multiepitope-dna-vaccine-against-dengue-virus-serotype-1
#17
Xin Yu Chen, De Zhou Li, Xiao Zhi Zhong, Bokun Chen, Zhi Liang Duan, Jin Sheng Wen
Dengue virus (DENV) is still the major threat to the health of humans in most tropical and subtropical countries and regions. In the present study, based on the eukaryotic expressing plasmid pcDNA(TM) 3.1/myc-His(-) A, we constructed a multiepitope DNA vaccine which encodes fifteen immunogenic and conserved HLA-A*0201-, HLA-A*1101-, HLA-A*2402-restricted CTL epitopes from DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1). Immunization of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice, HLA-A*1101 transgenic mice and HLA-A*2402 transgenic mice with the recombinant plasmid pcDNA(TM) 3...
December 16, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925289/seroepidemiology-of-human-parechovirus-types-1-3-and-6-in-yamagata-japan-in-2014
#18
Shizuka Tanaka, Yoko Aoki, Yohei Matoba, Kazue Yahagi, Tsutomu Itagaki, Yoko Matsuzaki, Katsumi Mizuta
To clarify the seroepidemiology of human parechovirus type 1 (HPeV1), 3 and 6, neutralizing antibodies (NT Abs) were measured in 214 serum specimens collected in 2014 in Yamagata, Japan. The seroprevalence against HPeV1 was 100% for all age groups, while that against HPeV3 and HPeV6 among all residents was 79.4% and 66.8%, respectively. The genometric mean titers of NT Abs against HPeV1, 3 and 6 among all residents were 755.2, 255.0 and 55.8, respectively. Our study indicated that HPeV1 is the most prevalent HPeV circulating in Yamagata, followed by HPeV3 and HPeV6...
December 7, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925288/genomic-sequence-and-virulence-evaluation-of-mn184a-like-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-japan
#19
Hiroshi Iseki, Takeya Morozumi, Michihiro Takagi, Kenji Kawashima, Tomoyuki Shibahara, Hirohide Uenishi, Hiroshi Tsunemitsu
This study characterized a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that was isolated in Japan from a 9-week-old diseased pig on a farm with an increased mortality rate during 2007-2008. This unique isolate, designated as Jpn5-37, did not have a high nucleotide identity in open reading frame 5 against any Japanese isolates. Among all available type 2 PRRSV complete genome sequences, Jpn5-37 shared the highest nucleotide identity (93.6%) with virulent strain MN184A. The genomic characteristics of Jpn5-37 were highly conserved with respect to the virulent MN184A, including a continuous 8-amino acid deletion in the nonstructural protein 2 region...
December 7, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921343/complete-genome-sequence-of-streptococcus-troglodytae-tku31-isolated-from-an-oral-cavity-of-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes
#20
Masaaki Okamoto, Mariko Naito, Mayu Miyanohara, Susumu Imai, Yoshiaki Nomura, Wataru Saito, Yasuko Momoi, Kazuko Takada, Takako Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Masaki Tomonaga, Nobuhiro Hanada
Streptococcus troglodytae TKU31 was isolated from an oral cavity of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and it is the most closely related species to Streptococcus mutans among the mutans group streptococci. The complete sequence of TKU31 genome consisted of a single circular chromosome that was 2,097,874 base pairs in length, with a G + C content of 37.18%. It possessed a total of 2,082 coding sequences (CDSs), 65 tRNAs and five rRNA operons (15 rRNAs). Two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), six insertion sequences (IS) and two predicted prophage elements were identified...
December 6, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
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