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Microbiology and Immunology

Tomoko Kohda, Keiji Nakamura, Koji Hosomi, Yasushi Torii, Shunji Kozaki, Masafumi Mukamoto
First, we would like to provide some further explanation of the potency assay. We used two types of potency assay because the BoNT subtype B6 (BoNT/B6) was purified from strain Osaka05, which was isolated relatively recently (1). To compare the potency of BoNT/B6 with each of the subtypes reported previously, we first investigated its potency in mice using an intraperitoneal bioassay. Based on the results of this assay, we used an intravenous time-to-death mouse bioassay to construct a standard curve for BoNT/B6...
November 8, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Yusuke Ohsaki, Ryoichi Kubo, Jonathan Hobson, Mya Davies, Shunsuke Osaka, Wataru Hayashi, Yui Taniguchi, Shota Koide, Yukiko Nagano, Noriyuki Nagano
Not only detection of carbapenemases but also identification of their types accurately and rapidly in Enterobacteriaceae is still a major challenge for clinical laboratories in order to prevent the intrusion and the transmission of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the MASTDISCS® combi Carba plus disc system in the identification of different carbapenemase types, including OXA-48-type carbapenemase for which no specific enzyme inhibitors have so far been available...
November 8, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Toshiyuki Masuzawa, Keiko Sakakibara, Mitsumasa Saito, Yusuke Hidaka, Sharon Y A M Villanueva, Yasutake Yanagihara, Shin-Ichi Yoshida
Leptospira was isolated from soil obtained from Hokkaido, the northernmost island, to Okinawa, the southernmost island, in Japan using sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, amphotericin B, fosfomycin, and 5- fluorouracil (STAFF). Fifty out of 132 soil samples (37.9%) were culture-positive. Based on 16S-rDNA sequences, 12 were classified into a pathogenic species clade and were closely associated with L. alstonii and L. kmetyi. Nine isolates were classified into intermediate species, which were similar to L. licerasiae...
November 6, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Amanda Ap Seribelli, Miliane R Frazão, Marta I Cazentini Medeiros, Eliana G Stehling, Juliana P Falcão
Shigella sonnei is generally associated with dysentery in developed countries; but it has recently emerged in developing countries. Specifically, in Brazil there are few published studies that molecularly characterized this species. The aims of this study were to analyze the efficacy of the MLVA typing method, to study the phylogeny by MLST and to assess the presence of some beta-lactam resistance genes in S. sonnei strains isolated from human diarrhoeic faeces in the São Paulo State in Brazil between 1983-2014...
October 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Yukari Nishino, Yukako Shimojima, Yasunori Suzuki, Miki Ida, Rie Fukui, Sumiyo Kuroda, Akihiko Hirai, Kenji Sadamasu
We investigated the presence of the mcr-1 gene in Escherichia coli from retail meat in Japan. Nine E. coli isolates (eight from chickens and one from pork) carried the mcr-1 gene on the plasmid. In six isolates from domestic chickens, mcr-1 was located on the IncI2 plasmid, which was approximately 60 kb in size. In the remaining three isolates from imported chicken and pork, mcr-1 was located on the IncX4 plasmid (30 kb).
October 20, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Hongxiang Lu, Gangjun Zong, Shanshan Zhou, Yuanyuan Jiang, Rong Chen, Zhaoliang Su, Yan Wu
Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays critical roles in modulation of circulatory homeostasis and activation of innate and adaptive immunity and has also been implicated in several mouse models of autoimmune disease. However, how ANG II regulates macrophages and is involved in development of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to address the above question and explore possible mechanisms. EAM was induced in BALB/c mice. ANG II was quantitated by ELISA and hematoxylin and eosin staining was employed to analyze pathological changes and macrophage infiltration...
October 20, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Kosuke Okuya, Norihiro Kanazawa, Takehiro Kanda, Masakazu Kuwahara, Aya Matsuu, Masayuki Horie, Tatsunori Masatani, Shigehisa Toda, Makoto Ozawa
An influenza A virus of H4N6 subtype was isolated from the Izumi plain, Japan, in 2013. Genetic analyses revealed that two viral genes (M and NS gene segments) of this isolate were genetically distinct from those of the H4N6 virus isolated from the same place in 2012. Furthermore, three viral genes (PB2, PB1, and M gene segments) of our isolate share high similarity with those of the North American isolates of 2014. These results suggest a high frequency of the genetic reassortment of avian influenza viruses in Asian waterfowl and intercontinental movements of avian influenza viruses via migratory waterfowl...
October 12, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Majid Asadi-Ghalehni, Mohamad Javad Rasaee, Masoumeh RajabiBazl, Masood Khosravani, Majid Motaghinejad, Masoud Javanmardi, Saeed Khalili, Helmout Modjtahedi, Esmaeil Sadroddiny
Over-expression of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) has been reported in a number of human malignancies. High levels of expression of this receptor have been associated with poor survival in many such patients. Active immunizations that elicit antibodies of the desired type could be an appealing alternative for conventional passive immunization. In this regard, we decide to construct a novel recombinant peptide vaccine capable of prophylactic and therapeutic effects. A novel fusion recombinant peptide base vaccine consisting of L2 domain of murine ECD-EGFR and EGFR mimotope (EM-L2) was constructed and its prophylactic and therapeutic effects on the Lewis lung carcinoma mice (C57/BL6) model were evaluated...
October 10, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Andy Pickett
With little doubt, our knowledge about different types of botulinum toxin (BoNT), especially the numerous subtypes, has expanded significantly in recent times. As more subtypes are found, these must be studied in detail and characterised in comparison to the main members of each group. Their pharmacological properties are especially important since any changes, especially in biological activity/potency, need to be identified.
October 5, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Wook-Bin Lee, Ji-Jing Yan, Ji-Seon Kang, Seok Chung, Lark Kyun Kim
Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM), or cord factor, is a crucial stimulus of immune responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Although TDM has immuno-stimulatory properties, including adjuvant activity and the ability to induce granuloma formation, the mechanisms underlying this activity remain unknown. We hypothesized that TDM stimulates transendothelial migration of neutrophils, which are the first immune cells to infiltrate the tissue upon infection. Here, we show that TDM enhances N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced chemotaxis and transendothelial movement by prolonging AKT phosphorylation in human neutrophils...
October 4, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Miwako Saikusa, Naganori Nao, Chiharu Kawakami, Shuzo Usuku, Tadayoshi Sasao, Takahiro Toyozawa, Makoto Takeda, Ichiro Okubo
In 2017, we detected novel human metapneumovirus (HMPV) A2b subgroup strains with a 111-nucleotide duplication in the G gene. These were related to previously identified HMPV A2b strains with a 180-nucleotide duplication, but appeared to be different strains, produced by an independent duplication event. The recent evolution of HMPV suggests that careful monitoring of this virus is required.
September 29, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Ko Sato, Oshi Watanabe, Suguru Ohmiya, Fumiko Chiba, Akira Suzuki, Michiko Okamoto, Jiang Younghuang, Akihiro Hata, Hiroyuki Nonaka, Setsuko Kitaoka, Yukio Nagai, Kazuhisa Kawamura, Masahiro Hayashi, Satoru Kumaki, Tamio Suzuki, Kazuyoshi Kawakami, Hidekazu Nishimura
Isolation of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) from clinical specimens is currently inefficient due to the lack of a cell culture system exhibiting a distinct cytopathic effect (CPE). The cell lines LLC-MK2, Vero, and Vero E6 are used for isolation of HMPV; however, the CPE in these cell lines is subtle and usually requires a long observation period and sometimes blind passages. Thus, a cell line that exhibits an early and distinct CPE following HMPV inoculation is highly desired by clinical virology laboratories...
September 20, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Keita Odanaka, Masato Iwatsuki, Tomomitsu Satho, Mineo Watanabe
Culture supernatants of Bordetella pertussis are a brilliant yellow; however, the structure and biological role of the responsible pigment have not been investigated. In this study, a brilliant yellow-colored fraction was extracted from culture supernatants of B. pertussis and analyzed by HPLC. UV-visible spectral analysis and mass spectrometry identified the brilliant yellow pigment as riboflavin. Riboflavin production was high in lag and early log phases and riboflavin was found to enhance growth of B. pertussis in low-density cultures...
September 14, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Tomoko Kohda, Keiji Nakamura, Koji Hosomi, Yasushi Torii, Shunji Kozaki, Masafumi Mukamoto
Clostridium botulinum produces the highly potent neurotoxin, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), which is classified into seven serotypes, A-G, and the subtype classification is confirmed by the diversity of the amino acid sequence among the serotypes. The BoNT from the Osaka05 strain is associated with type B infant botulism and has been divided into BoNT/B subtype B6 (BoNT/B6) by phylogenetic analysis and the antigenicity of its C-terminal heavy chain (HC) domain. However, the molecular basis for its properties, including the potency, is poorly understood...
September 12, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Mark A Strom, Derek Y Hsu, Jonathan I Silverberg
Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) is a superantigen-mediated illness characterized by rash, hypotension and multi-organ dysfunction. The predictors of TSS and related morbidity and mortality are poorly defined. We analyzed data on 61,959,084 hospitalizations from the 2003-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a 20% stratified sample of US hospitalizations. ICD-9-CM coding was used to identify 4,491 hospitalizations with a diagnosis of TSS. Incidence, in-hospital mortality rate, comorbidities, length of stay and costs of care due to TSS were determined...
September 11, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Alena Vrablikova, Lydie Czernekova, Romana Cahlikova, Zbynek Novy, Milos Petrik, Saima Imran, Zdenek Novak, Michal Krupka, Vaclav Cerovsky, Jaroslav Turanek, Milan Raska
Lasioglossins are a group of peptides with identified antimicrobial activity. The inhibitory effects of two synthetic lasioglossin derivatives, LLIII and D-isomeric variant LLIII-D, on morphological changes in Candida albicans in vitro and the effect of local administration of LLIII during experimental murine candidiasis were investigated. C. albicans blastoconidia were grown in the presence of lasioglossin LLIII or LLIII-D at concentrations of 11.5 μM and 21 μM, respectively, for 1, 2 and 3 days and their viability determined by flow cytometry using eosin Y staining...
September 11, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Araceli Posadas-Mondragón, José Leopoldo Aguilar-Faisal, Adolfo Chávez-Negrete, Edith Guillén-Salomón, Verónica Alcántara-Farfán, Lucero Luna-Rojas, Amanda Marineth Ávila-Trejo, Judith Del Carmen Pacheco-Yépez
Heterologous secondary infections are at increased risk of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) because of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). IgG subclasses can fix and activate complement and bind to Fcɣ receptors. These factors may also play an important role in the development of ADE and thus in the pathogenesis of DHF. The aim of this study was to analyze the indices of anti-dengue IgG subclasses in adult patients with febrile and hemorrhagic dengue in the acute phase. In 2013, 129 patients with dengue fever (DF) and 57 with DHF in Veracruz, Mexico were recruited for this study and anti-dengue IgM and IgG determined by capture ELISA...
October 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Manabu Nakano, Hiroyuki Wakabayashi, Hirosuke Sugahara, Toshitaka Odamaki, Koji Yamauchi, Fumiaki Abe, Jin-Zhong Xiao, Kohji Murakami, Kentaro Ishikawa, Shouji Hironaka
The oral microbiota influences health and disease states. Some gram-negative anaerobic bacteria play important roles in tissue destruction associated with periodontal disease. Lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are antimicrobial proteins found in saliva; however, their influence on the whole oral microbiota currently remains unknown. In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, the effects of long-term ingestion of LF and LPO-containing tablets on the microbiota of supragingival plaque and tongue coating were assessed...
October 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Evelina Shikova, Zina Ivanova, Dora Alexandrova, Mihail Shindov, Andrey Lekov
A possible association between high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) and lung cancer has been investigated for decades with discrepant results. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV16 and 18 in Bulgarian patients with lung cancer. Two hundred and nine biopsy specimens from patients with histologically proven lung cancer and without cancer were analyzed. Each sample was subjected to three parallel PCRs using broad spectrum GP5+/6+ primers and type-specific (TS) primers for HPV types 16 and 18...
October 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Rajanya Banerjee, Bhakti Patel, Madhubanti Basu, Saswati S Lenka, Mahismita Paicha, Mrinal Samanta, Surajit Das
The primordial immunoglobulin class, IgD, was the first non-IgM isotype discovered in teleosts. The crucial roles of IgM and IgZ in imparting systemic and mucosal immunity, respectively, in various fish species have been widely established. However, the putative function of a unique IgD isotype during pathogenic invasions has not been well explored. The present study reports the existence of an IgD ortholog in freshwater carp, Catla catla, and further evaluates its differential expression profile in response to bacterial, parasitic and viral antigenic exposure and pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) stimulation...
October 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
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