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Microbiology and Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603864/ediii-denv3-nanospheres-drive-immature-dendritic-cells-into-a-mature-phenotype-in-an-in-vitro-model
#1
Nattika Nantachit, Panya Sunintaboon, Sukathida Ubol
Domain III of E protein of DENV is one of the targets for vaccine development. Unfortunately, this protein-based platform has generally low immunogenicity. To circumvent this problem, we investigated the use of an adjuvant-nanoparticle delivery system to facilitate immunogenicity of soluble DENV-EDIII protein. One of the key features of this delivery system is its ability to simultaneously deliver antigens and exert adjuvanticity to specialized immune cells. In this study, we generated N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles (NPs) to be used as adjuvant and carrier for the soluble E-domain III of dengue virus serotype 3 (sEDIII-D3)...
June 12, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593659/il-17-induced-expression-of-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-in-cardiac-myocytes-requires-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-through-the-phosphorylation-of-p65
#2
Yan Shen, Xin Xie, Zhuolun Li, Yan Huang, Li Ma, Xinhe Shen, Yanyue Liu, Yuxia Zhao
IL-17 plays a key role in a variety of autoimmune diseases. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is involved in the infiltration of mononuclear cells of myocardium in viral myocarditis (VMC). However, the relationship between IL-17 and MCP-1 in myocardial injury remains unclear. In this study, the expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein in cardiac myocytes were detected with qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. It was found that IL-17A induced MCP-1 expression in a dose and time dependent manner in cardiac myocytes, which could be blocked by IL-17A and IL-17RA neutralizing antibodies...
June 7, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593634/first-isolation-of-rickettsia-monacensis-from-a-patient-south-korea
#3
Yeon-Sook Kim, Yeon-Joo Choi, Kyung-Min Lee, Kyu-Joong Ahn, Heung-Chul Kim, Terry Klein, Ju Jiang, Allen Richards, Kyung-Hee Park, Won-Jong Jang
A Rickettsia sp. was isolated from blood of a patient with acute febrile illness using the shell vial technique and the isolate was named as CN45Kr. The CN45Kr was identified as Rickettsia monacensis, which was recognized as a pathogen for the first time in Spain, by molecular assay. In sequencing analysis, gltA sequence of the isolate was identical to those of Rickettsia sp. IRS3. The ompA-5' fragment sequence showed 100% identity to R. monacensis and Rickettsia sp. In56 and ompA-3' fragments showed 99.9% similarity to Rickettsia sp...
June 7, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561305/genetic-fusion-protein-3%C3%A3-sta-ovalbumin-is-an-effective-coating-antigen-in-elisa-to-titrate-anti-sta-antibodies
#4
Qiangde Duan, Weiping Zhang
Heat-stable toxin type I (STa)-ovalbumin chemical conjugates are currently used as the only coating antigen in enzyme-links immune sorbent assay (ELISA) to titrate anti-STa antibodies for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine candidates. STa-ovalbumin chemical conjugation requires STa toxin purification, a process can be carried out by only a couple of laboratories and often with a low yield. Alternative ELISA coating antigens are needed for anti-STa antibody titration for ETEC vaccine development...
May 31, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543875/unconjugated-interferon-stimulated-gene-15-specifically-interacts-with-the-hepatitis-c-virus-ns5a-protein-via-domain-i
#5
Nanae Minami, Takayuki Abe, Lin Deng, Chieko Matsui, Takasuke Fukuhara, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Ikuo Shoji
Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a ubiquitin-like protein induced by type I interferon. Although several groups have reported ISGylation of the HCV NS5A protein, it is still unclear whether ISGylation of NS5A has anti-viral or pro-viral effects in HCV infection. In the present study, we examined the role of ISGylation-independent, unconjugated ISG15 in HCV infection. Immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that ISG15 specifically interacted with NS5A domain I. The ISG15 mutants lacking a C-terminal glycine residue essential for ISGylation still interacted with NS5A protein...
May 25, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543309/adenovirus-vector-expressing-keratinocyte-growth-factor-using-cag-promoter-impaired-pulmonary-function-of-elastase-induced-emphysema
#6
Hiroshi Oki, Takuya Yazawa, Yasuko Baba, Yumi Kanegae, Hanako Sato, Seiko Sakamoto, Takahisa Goto, Izumu Saito, Kiyoyasu Kurahashi
Pulmonary emphysema impairs quality of life and increases mortality. Previous studies demonstrated that administration of KGF before elastase instillation prevented pulmonary emphysema in mice. We hypothesized that KGF could improve pulmonary function, and that the therapeutic administration of KGF would restore damaged lungs caused by elastase instillation in an animal model. We constructed KGF expressing adenovirus vector, which prevented bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis in the previous study. Adenovirus vector (1...
May 24, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543534/a-chimeric-protein-of-cfa-i-cs6-subunits-and-ltb-sta-toxoid-could-protect-immunized-mice-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#7
Narges Zeinalzadeh, Ali Hatef Salmanian, Goli Goujani, Jafar Amani, Ghasem Ahangari, Asal Akhavian, Mahyat Jafari
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) strains are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in children in developing countries and travelers to these areas. Colonization factors (CFs) and enterotoxins are the main virulence determinants in ETEC pathogenesis. Heterogeneity of CFs commonly considered as the bottleneck to achieve an effective vaccine. On the other hand, it is believed that a broad spectrum protection against ETEC would be available when the anti-CF and anti-enterotoxin immunity were induced simultaneously...
May 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504455/mycoplasma-bovis-isolates-from-dairy-calves-in-japan-have-reduced-susceptibility-to-all-approved-macrolides-resulting-from-a-point-mutation-g748a-combined-with-multiple-species-specific-nucleotide-alterations-in-23s-rrna
#8
Toyotaka Sato, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Shin-Ichi Yokota, Yutaka Tamura
Erythromycin, tylosin, and tilmicosin are approved for use in cattle in Japan, and later two are used for treatment of Mycoplasma bovis infection. In this study, 58 M. bovis isolates obtained from Japanese dairy calves all exhibited reduced susceptibility to these macrolides. The widespread reduced susceptibility to the macrolides resulted from a few dominant lineages. All 58 isolates contained the G748A variant in both the rrl3 and rrl4 alleles of 23S rRNA, whereas a reference strain (PG45) did not. G748 localizes in the central loop of domain II (from C744 to A753) of 23S rRNA that participates in binding to mycinose, a sugar residue present in both tylosin and tilmicosin...
May 15, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500746/higher-viral-load-and-genetic-diversity-of-hiv-1-in-the-seminal-compartments-than-in-the-blood-of-seven-chinese-homosexual-men-with-early-hiv-1-infection
#9
Yan-Mei Jiao, Guang-Lei Chen, Wei-Jun Zhu, Hui-Huang Huang, Jun-Liang Fu, Wei-Wei Chen, Ming Shi, Tong Zhang, Hao Wu, Fu-Sheng Wang
To date, there have been no reports characterizing the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) in the semen of Chinese men having sex with men (MSM) with early infection of HIV-1.We examined genetic diversity and viral load of HIV-1 in the seminal compartments and blood of Chinese MSM with early HIV-1 infection in this study. Viral load and genetic diversity of HIV-1 in paired samples of semen and blood were analyzed in seven homosexual patients who were with early HIV-1 infection. Levels of HIV-1 RNA and DNA were tested by real-time PCR assays...
May 13, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500733/bordetella-effector-bopn-is-translocated-into-host-cells-via-its-n-terminal-residues
#10
Akio Abe, Ryutaro Nishimura, Asaomi Kuwae
Bordetella bronchiseptica infects a wide variety of mammals, and the type III secretion system (T3SS) is involved in the long-term colonization of Bordetella in the trachea and lung. The T3SS translocates virulence factors (commonly referred to as effectors) into host cells, leading to alteration of the host physiological function. The Bordetella effectors BopN and BteA are known to have roles in the up-regulation of IL-10 and the cytotoxicity, respectively. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which BopN is translocated into host cells has not been examined in sufficient detail...
May 13, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463465/dendritic-cell-targeting-dna-based-nasal-adjuvants-for-protective-mucosal-immunity-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#11
REVIEW
Kosuke Kataoka, Yoshiko Fukuyama, David E Briles, Tatsuro Miyake, Kohtaro Fujihashi
In order to develop safe vaccines for effective mucosal immunity to major pulmonary bacterial infections, one must consider appropriate vaccine antigens (Ags), delivery systems and nontoxic molecular adjuvants. Such vaccine constructs can induce Ag-specific immune responses which provide effective protection from mucosal infections. In particular, it has been shown that adjuvant-based mucosal vaccine preparations are relatively easy to construct by simply mixing the adjuvant with the bacterial Ag, and the resulting vaccine can elicit protective immunity...
May 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463406/cpt11-prevents-virus-replication-in-jci-cells-persistently-infected-with-jc-polyomavirus
#12
Souichi Nukuzuma, Chiyoko Nukuzuma, Masanori Kameoka, Shigeki Sugiura, Kazuo Nakamichi, Takafumi Tasaki, Tsutomu Takegami
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is the causative agent of the demyelinating disease in the central nervous system, known as PML in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, PML occurred in patients treated with natalizumab for MS or Crohn's disease as natalizumab-related PML. Many antiviral agents are being investigated due to the lack of drugs currently available for PML. The previous study demonstrated that the topoisomerase I inhibitors topotecan and β-lapachone have inhibitory effects on JCPyV replication in IMR-32 cells...
May 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429374/immune-response-of-highly-conserved-influenza-a-virus-matrix-1-peptides
#13
Neha Lohia, Manoj Baranwal
Influenza vaccine development is considered to be complicated and challenging. Constantly evolving influenza viruses require continuous global monitoring and reformulation of the vaccine strains. Peptide conserved among different strains and subtypes of influenza A virus are well-thought-out to be attractive targets for development of cross protective influenza vaccine based on cellular response. Three highly conserved (> 90%) matrix 1 peptides ILGFVFTLTVPSERGLQRRRF (PM 1), LIRHENRMVLASTTAKA (PM 2) and LQAYQKRMGVQMQR (PM 3) containing multiple T cell epitopes have been assessed for their immunogenic potential in vitro, subjecting peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers to repetitive stimulation of these chemically synthesised peptides and measuring their interferon (IFN)-γ level and proliferation by ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419615/involvement-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-ul13-protein-kinase-in-the-induction-of-socs-genes-the-negative-regulator-of-cytokine-signaling
#14
Yuka Sato, Tetsuo Koshizuka, Kei Ishibashi, Koichi Hashimoto, Ken Ishioka, Kazufumi Ikuta, Shin-Ichi Yokota, Nobuhiro Fujii, Tatsuo Suzutani
The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family consists of 8 members and suppresses various cytokine signaling pathways including interferon (IFN) signaling. Therefore, some viruses have evolved molecular mechanisms to induce SOCS proteins in order to escape from host immunity. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has a mechanism for escaping from type I IFN by induction of SOCS1 and SOCS3 as well. In this study, expression of 8 members of the SOCS family by HSV-1 infection was comparatively analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR...
April 17, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419512/predicting-receptor-functionality-of-signaling-lymphocyte-activation-molecule-for-measles-virus-hemagglutinin-from-docking-simulation
#15
Yoshiyuki Suzuki
Predicting susceptibility to a virus in various species is desirable for risk assessment of interspecies transmission. For screening of susceptibility, it may be useful to evaluate the receptor functionality. Here the docking simulation was conducted for measles virus hemagglutinin (MV-H) and immunoglobulin-like variable domain of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM-V). It wasobserved that the docking score of MV-H and SLAM-V was correlated with the activity of SLAM as MV receptor. These results suggest that the receptor functionality may be predicted from the docking score of virion surface proteins and cellular receptor molecules...
April 17, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378925/evaluation-of-recombinant-adenovirus-vaccines-based-on-glycoprotein-d-and-truncated-ul25-against-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-in-mice
#16
Wei Liu, Yan Zhou, Ziyan Wang, Zeqiang Zhang, Qizhi Wang, Weiheng Su, Yan Chen, Yan Zhang, Feng Gao, Chunlai Jiang, Wei Kong
The high prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infections in humans necessitates the development of a safe and effective vaccine that will need to induce vigorous T-cell responses to control the viral infection and transmission. We designed rAd-gD2rAd-gD2▵UL25rAd-▵UL25 to investigate whether recombinant replication-defective adenoviruses vaccine could induce specific T cell responses and protect mice against intravaginal HSV-2 challenge compared with FI-HSV-2. The recombinant adenovirus-based HSV-2 showed higher reductions in mortality and stronger antigen-specific T cell responses compared with FI-HSV-2 and the severity of genital lesions in the mice immunized with rAd-gD2▵UL25 was significantly decreased via eliciting IFN-γ-secreting T responses compared with rAd-gD2 and rAd-▵UL25 group in present study...
April 5, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370382/rapid-g0-1-transition-and-cell-cycle-progression-in-cd8-t-cells-compared-to-cd4-t-cells-following-in-vitro-stimulation
#17
Takuya Mishima, Shotaro Fukaya, Shoko Toda, Yoshiaki Ando, Tsukasa Matsunaga, Manabu Inobe
T cell population consists of two major subsets, CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells, which can be distinguished by the expression of CD4 or CD8 molecules, respectively. Although they play quite different roles in an immune system, many of their basic cellular processes such as proliferation following stimulation are presumably common. In this study, we have carefully analyzed time course of G0/1 transition as well as cell cycle progression in the two subsets of quiescent T cell population following in vitro growth stimulation...
April 1, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370432/antigenic-diversity-of-h5-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-of-clade-2-3-4-4-isolated-in-asia
#18
Ayako Ohkawara, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Makoto Ozawa, Duc-Huy Chu, Lam Thanh Nguyen, Takahiro Hiono, Keita Matsuno, Hiroshi Kida, Yoshihiro Sakoda
H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have spread in both poultry and wild birds since the late 2003. The continued circulation of HPAIVs in poultry in several regions of the world has led to antigenic drift. In this study, we analyzed the antigenic properties of H5 HPAIVs isolated in Asia using four neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognizing the hemagglutinin, which were established using A/chicken/Kumamoto/1-7/2014 (H5N8), belonging to clade 2.3.4.4 and also using polyclonal antibodies...
March 30, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370181/development-of-mouse-models-for-analysis-of-human-virus-infections
#19
REVIEW
Hiromi Takaki, Hiroyuki Oshiumi, Masashi Shingai, Misako Matsumoto, Tsukasa Seya
Viruses usually exhibit strict species-specificity as a result of co-evolution with the host. Thus, in mouse models, a great barrier exists for analysis of infections with human-tropic viruses. Mouse models are unlikely to faithfully reproduce the human immune response to viruses or viral compounds and it is difficult to evaluate human therapeutic efficacy with antiviral reagents in mouse models. Humans and mice essentially have different immune systems, which makes it difficult to extrapolate mouse results to humans...
April 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337780/mechanisms-of-resistance-to-quinolones-in-salmonella-typhimurium-from-patients-with-infectious-diarrhea
#20
Jing Yuan, Wei Guo
This study investigated the mechanisms of resistance of 36 quinolone-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from outpatients with infectious diarrhea in Beijing Tian Tan Hospital between 2013 and 2015. The resistance spectrum of the 36 strains was measured using a broth dilution method. Class 1 integrons harboring the β-lactamase gene and mutations in quinolone resistance determining regions were also investigated. All 36 quinolone-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium strains were found to be multidrug-resistant and the majority of these strains harbored Class 1 integrons...
April 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
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