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Microbiology and Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504455/mycoplasma-bovis-isolates-from-dairy-calves-in-japan-have-reduced-susceptibility-to-all-approved-macrolides-resulting-from-a-point-mutation-g748a-combined-with-multiple-species-specific-nucleotide-alterations-in-23s-rrna
#1
Toyotaka Sato, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Shin-Ichi Yokota, Yutaka Tamura
Erythromycin, tylosin, and tilmicosin are approved for use in cattle in Japan, and later two are used for treatment of Mycoplasma bovis infection. In this study, 58 M. bovis isolates obtained from Japanese dairy calves all exhibited reduced susceptibility to these macrolides. The widespread reduced susceptibility to the macrolides resulted from a few dominant lineages. All 58 isolates contained the G748A variant in both the rrl3 and rrl4 alleles of 23S rRNA, whereas a reference strain (PG45) did not. G748 localizes in the central loop of domain II (from C744 to A753) of 23S rRNA that participates in binding to mycinose, a sugar residue present in both tylosin and tilmicosin...
May 15, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500746/higher-viral-load-and-genetic-diversity-of-hiv-1-in-the-seminal-compartments-than-in-the-blood-of-seven-chinese-homosexual-men-with-early-hiv-1-infection
#2
Yan-Mei Jiao, Guang-Lei Chen, Wei-Jun Zhu, Hui-Huang Huang, Jun-Liang Fu, Wei-Wei Chen, Ming Shi, Tong Zhang, Hao Wu, Fu-Sheng Wang
To date, there have been no reports characterizing the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) in the semen of Chinese men having sex with men (MSM) with early infection of HIV-1.We examined genetic diversity and viral load of HIV-1 in the seminal compartments and blood of Chinese MSM with early HIV-1 infection in this study. Viral load and genetic diversity of HIV-1 in paired samples of semen and blood were analyzed in seven homosexual patients who were with early HIV-1 infection. Levels of HIV-1 RNA and DNA were tested by real-time PCR assays...
May 13, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500733/bordetella-effector-bopn-is-translocated-into-host-cells-via-its-n-terminal-residues
#3
Akio Abe, Ryutaro Nishimura, Asaomi Kuwae
Bordetella bronchiseptica infects a wide variety of mammals, and the type III secretion system (T3SS) is involved in the long-term colonization of Bordetella in the trachea and lung. The T3SS translocates virulence factors (commonly referred to as effectors) into host cells, leading to alteration of the host physiological function. The Bordetella effectors BopN and BteA are known to have roles in the up-regulation of IL-10 and the cytotoxicity, respectively. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which BopN is translocated into host cells has not been examined in sufficient detail...
May 13, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463465/dendritic-cell-targeting-dna-based-nasal-adjuvants-for-protective-mucosal-immunity-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#4
REVIEW
Kosuke Kataoka, Yoshiko Fukuyama, David E Briles, Tatsuro Miyake, Kohtaro Fujihashi
In order to develop safe vaccines for effective mucosal immunity to major pulmonary bacterial infections, one must consider appropriate vaccine antigens (Ags), delivery systems and nontoxic molecular adjuvants. Such vaccine constructs can induce Ag-specific immune responses which provide effective protection from mucosal infections. In particular, it has been shown that adjuvant-based mucosal vaccine preparations are relatively easy to construct by simply mixing the adjuvant with the bacterial Ag, and the resulting vaccine can elicit protective immunity...
May 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463406/cpt11-prevents-virus-replication-in-jci-cells-persistently-infected-with-jc-polyomavirus
#5
Souichi Nukuzuma, Chiyoko Nukuzuma, Masanori Kameoka, Shigeki Sugiura, Kazuo Nakamichi, Takafumi Tasaki, Tsutomu Takegami
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is the causative agent of the demyelinating disease in the central nervous system, known as PML in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, PML occurred in patients treated with natalizumab for MS or Crohn's disease as natalizumab-related PML. Many antiviral agents are being investigated due to the lack of drugs currently available for PML. The previous study demonstrated that the topoisomerase I inhibitors topotecan and β-lapachone have inhibitory effects on JCPyV replication in IMR-32 cells...
May 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429374/immune-response-of-highly-conserved-influenza-a-virus-matrix-1-peptides
#6
Neha Lohia, Manoj Baranwal
Influenza vaccine development is considered to be complicated and challenging. Constantly evolving influenza viruses require continuous global monitoring and reformulation of the vaccine strains. Peptide conserved among different strains and subtypes of influenza A virus are well-thought-out to be attractive targets for development of cross protective influenza vaccine based on cellular response. Three highly conserved (> 90%) matrix 1 peptides ILGFVFTLTVPSERGLQRRRF (PM 1), LIRHENRMVLASTTAKA (PM 2) and LQAYQKRMGVQMQR (PM 3) containing multiple T cell epitopes have been assessed for their immunogenic potential in vitro, subjecting peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers to repetitive stimulation of these chemically synthesised peptides and measuring their interferon (IFN)-γ level and proliferation by ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419615/involvement-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-ul13-protein-kinase-in-the-induction-of-socs-genes-the-negative-regulator-of-cytokine-signaling
#7
Yuka Sato, Tetsuo Koshizuka, Kei Ishibashi, Koichi Hashimoto, Ken Ishioka, Kazufumi Ikuta, Shin-Ichi Yokota, Nobuhiro Fujii, Tatsuo Suzutani
The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family consists of 8 members and suppresses various cytokine signaling pathways including interferon (IFN) signaling. Therefore, some viruses have evolved molecular mechanisms to induce SOCS proteins in order to escape from host immunity. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has a mechanism for escaping from type I IFN by induction of SOCS1 and SOCS3 as well. In this study, expression of 8 members of the SOCS family by HSV-1 infection was comparatively analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR...
April 17, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419512/predicting-receptor-functionality-of-signaling-lymphocyte-activation-molecule-for-measles-virus-hemagglutinin-from-docking-simulation
#8
Yoshiyuki Suzuki
Predicting susceptibility to a virus in various species is desirable for risk assessment of interspecies transmission. For screening of susceptibility, it may be useful to evaluate the receptor functionality. Here the docking simulation was conducted for measles virus hemagglutinin (MV-H) and immunoglobulin-like variable domain of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM-V). It wasobserved that the docking score of MV-H and SLAM-V was correlated with the activity of SLAM as MV receptor. These results suggest that the receptor functionality may be predicted from the docking score of virion surface proteins and cellular receptor molecules...
April 17, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378925/evaluation-of-recombinant-adenovirus-vaccines-based-on-glycoprotein-d-and-truncated-ul25-against-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-in-mice
#9
Wei Liu, Yan Zhou, Ziyan Wang, Zeqiang Zhang, Qizhi Wang, Weiheng Su, Yan Chen, Yan Zhang, Feng Gao, Chunlai Jiang, Wei Kong
The high prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infections in humans necessitates the development of a safe and effective vaccine that will need to induce vigorous T-cell responses to control the viral infection and transmission. We designed rAd-gD2rAd-gD2▵UL25rAd-▵UL25 to investigate whether recombinant replication-defective adenoviruses vaccine could induce specific T cell responses and protect mice against intravaginal HSV-2 challenge compared with FI-HSV-2. The recombinant adenovirus-based HSV-2 showed higher reductions in mortality and stronger antigen-specific T cell responses compared with FI-HSV-2 and the severity of genital lesions in the mice immunized with rAd-gD2▵UL25 was significantly decreased via eliciting IFN-γ-secreting T responses compared with rAd-gD2 and rAd-▵UL25 group in present study...
April 5, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370382/rapid-g0-1-transition-and-cell-cycle-progression-in-cd8-t-cells-compared-to-cd4-t-cells-following-in-vitro-stimulation
#10
Takuya Mishima, Shotaro Fukaya, Shoko Toda, Yoshiaki Ando, Tsukasa Matsunaga, Manabu Inobe
T cell population consists of two major subsets, CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells, which can be distinguished by the expression of CD4 or CD8 molecules, respectively. Although they play quite different roles in an immune system, many of their basic cellular processes such as proliferation following stimulation are presumably common. In this study, we have carefully analyzed time course of G0/1 transition as well as cell cycle progression in the two subsets of quiescent T cell population following in vitro growth stimulation...
April 1, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370432/antigenic-diversity-of-h5-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-of-clade-2-3-4-4-isolated-in-asia
#11
Ayako Ohkawara, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Makoto Ozawa, Duc-Huy Chu, Lam Thanh Nguyen, Takahiro Hiono, Keita Matsuno, Hiroshi Kida, Yoshihiro Sakoda
H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have spread in both poultry and wild birds since the late 2003. The continued circulation of HPAIVs in poultry in several regions of the world has led to antigenic drift. In this study, we analyzed the antigenic properties of H5 HPAIVs isolated in Asia using four neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognizing the hemagglutinin, which were established using A/chicken/Kumamoto/1-7/2014 (H5N8), belonging to clade 2.3.4.4 and also using polyclonal antibodies...
March 30, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370181/development-of-mouse-models-for-analysis-of-human-virus-infections
#12
REVIEW
Hiromi Takaki, Hiroyuki Oshiumi, Masashi Shingai, Misako Matsumoto, Tsukasa Seya
Viruses usually exhibit strict species-specificity as a result of co-evolution with the host. Thus, in mouse models, a great barrier exists for analysis of infections with human-tropic viruses. Mouse models are unlikely to faithfully reproduce the human immune response to viruses or viral compounds and it is difficult to evaluate human therapeutic efficacy with antiviral reagents in mouse models. Humans and mice essentially have different immune systems, which makes it difficult to extrapolate mouse results to humans...
April 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337780/mechanisms-of-resistance-to-quinolones-in-salmonella-typhimurium-from-patients-with-infectious-diarrhea
#13
Jing Yuan, Wei Guo
This study investigated the mechanisms of resistance of 36 quinolone-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from outpatients with infectious diarrhea in Beijing Tian Tan Hospital between 2013 and 2015. The resistance spectrum of the 36 strains was measured using a broth dilution method. Class 1 integrons harboring the β-lactamase gene and mutations in quinolone resistance determining regions were also investigated. All 36 quinolone-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium strains were found to be multidrug-resistant and the majority of these strains harbored Class 1 integrons...
April 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332721/rapid-detection-and-quantification-of-ebola-zaire-virus-by-one-step-real-time-quantitative-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction
#14
Young-Tae Ro, Anysha Ticer, Ricardo Carrion, Jean L Patterson
Given that Ebola virus causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with mortality rates as high as 90%, rapid and accurate detection of this virus is essential both for controlling infection and preventing further transmission. Here, a one-step qRT-PCR assay for rapid and quantitative detection of an Ebola Zaire strain using GP, VP24 or VP40 genes as a target is introduced. Routine assay conditions for hydrolysis probe detection were established from the manufacturer's protocol used in the assays. The analytical specificity and sensitivity of each assay was evaluated using in vitro synthesized viral RNA transcripts...
April 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262966/serologic-evidence-of-brucella-infection-in-pinnipeds-along-the-coast-of-hokkaido-the-northernmost-main-island-of-japan
#15
Erika Abe, Kazue Ohishi, Tsuyoshi Ishinazaka, Kei Fujii, Tadashi Maruyama
Brucella infection in Hokkaido was serologically surveyed in four species of pinnipeds inhabiting Cape Erimo during 2008-2013 and the Shiretoko Peninsula in 1999 by ELISA using Brucella abortus and B. canis as antigens. Anti-Brucella positive sera showed higher absorbance to B. abortus than B. canis in almost all samples. Anti-B. abortus antibodies were detected in serum samples from 24% (n = 55) of Western Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina stejnegeri) in Cape Erimo and from 66% (n = 41) of spotted seals (P...
April 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258689/dual-recombinant-lactococcus-lactis-for-enhanced-delivery-of-dna-vaccine-reporter-plasmid-pperdby
#16
Bhrugu Yagnik, Drashya Sharma, Harish Padh, Priti Desai
Food grade Lactococcus lactis has been widely used as an antigen and DNA delivery vehicle. We have previously reported the use of non-invasive L. lactis to deliver the newly constructed immunostimulatory DNA vaccine reporter plasmid, pPERDBY. In the present report, construction of dual recombinant L. lactis expressing internalin A of Listeria monocytogenes and harboring pPERDBY (LL InlA + pPERDBY) to enhance the efficiency of delivery of DNA by L. lactis is outlined. After confirmation and validation of LL InlA + pPERDBY, its DNA delivery potential was compared with previously developed non-invasive r- L...
April 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370521/efficacy-comparison-of-adjuvants-in-pcrv-vaccine-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pneumonia
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Saeko Hamaoka, Yoshifumi Naito, Hideya Katoh, Masaru Shimizu, Mao Kinoshita, Koichi Akiyama, Atsushi Kainuma, Kiyoshi Moriyama, Ken J Ishii, Teiji Sawa
Vaccination against the type III secretion system of P. aeruginosa is a potential prophylactic strategy for reducing the incidence and improving the poor prognosis of P. aeruginosa pneumonia. In this study, the efficacies of three different adjuvants, Freund's adjuvant (FA), aluminum hydroxide (alum) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), were examined from the viewpoint of inducing PcrV-specific immunity against virulent P. aeruginosa. Mice that had been immunized intraperitoneally with recombinant PcrV formulated with one of the above adjuvants were challenged intratracheally with a lethal dose of P...
February 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261862/a-putative-toll-interleukin-1-receptor-domain-protein-from-helicobacter-pylori-is-dimeric-in-solution-and-interacts-with-human-toll-like-receptor-adaptor-myeloid-differentiation-primary-response-88
#18
Burcu Kaplan-Türköz
Helicobacter pylori, an important human pathogen, is capable of causing persistent infection with minimal immune response. The first line of defense during H. pylori infection is through gastric epithelial cells that present TLR, A family of bacterial proteins that share homology with the Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain were identified. Bacterial TIR proteins (BTP) mimic human TIR domain proteins and act on myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) signaling pathways to suppress TLR signaling...
February 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247494/extraintestinal-infection-of-helicobacter-cinaedi-induced-by-oral-administration-to-balb-c-mice
#19
Takako Taniguchi, Yuji Saeki, Akihiko Okayama, Tetsuya Hayashi, Naoaki Misawa
Although Helicobacter cinaedi was initially considered an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients, it was later shown to also infect immunocompetent and healthy individuals. Sporadic bacteremia due to H. cinaedi has frequently been reported; however, whether the bacterium can be translocated after passage through the intestinal mucosa remains unclear. In the present study, a preclinical small animal model that faithfully reproduces H. cinaedi infection in humans was developed. Balb/c male mice were orally inoculated with a single dose of 6...
February 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225165/the-contrasting-roles-of-th17-immunity-in-human-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Edwin Hoe, Jeremy Anderson, Jordan Nathanielsz, Zheng Quan Toh, Rachel Marimla, Anne Balloch, Paul V Licciardi
The human immune system is a tightly regulated network that protects the host from disease. An important aspect of this is the balance between pro-inflammatory Th17 cells and anti-inflammatory T regulatory (Treg) cells in maintaining immune homeostasis. Foxp3+ Treg are critical for sustaining immune tolerance through IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β while related orphan receptor-γt+ Th17 cells promote immunopathology and auto-inflammatory diseases through the actions of IL-17A, IL-21 and IL-22. Therefore, imbalance between Treg and Th17 cells can result in serious pathology in many organs and tissues...
February 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
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