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Microbiology and Immunology

Magdalena Wąsik, Katarzyna Nazimek, Krzysztof Bryniarski
A diverse population of regulatory B (Breg) cells, was reported to exhibit significant immunomodulatory effects in various models of inflammatory responses and infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites. Breg cells contribute to maintenance of homeostasis via IL-10 production and multiple IL-10-independent mechanisms. The current review describes different phenotypic and functional subsets of Breg cells in autoimmune and infectious diseases, and discuss the impact of experimental conditions, that were provided to drive Breg cell differentiation...
July 11, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Huan Liu, Shu-Ping Wei, Li-Qin Zhi, Li-Ping Liu, Tuan-Ping Cao, Su-Zhi Wang, Qing-Ping Chen, Dan Liu
Transcriptional regulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is critically involved in the pathogenesis and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the specific transcription factors controlling this process remain largely unidentified. We discover here that the expression of the key erythroid factor globin transcription factor 1 (GATA1), was significantly higher in human RA synovial tissues than in osteoarthritis (OA) tissues. IL-6 induced the synovial GATA1 expression in a STAT3-dependent manner...
July 11, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Tunç Akkoç, Deniz Genç, Noushin Zibandeh, Tolga Akkoç
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) has been used for the treatment of allergic diseases by inducing T regulatory cells in the periphery. Mycobacteria can be used as an adjuvant to induce T regulatory cells. However, it is unclear whether intranasal immunotherapy in combination with Mycobacteria adjuvant induce regulatory T cell differentiation and attenuate allergic responses in vivo. To investigate the role of intranasal OVA treatment alone and in combination with Mycobacteria vaccae, frequency of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory responses were evaluated in a murine model of asthma...
July 10, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Keigo Imamura, Keiko Sato, Yuka Narita, Yoshio Kondo, Daisuke Nakane, Mariko Naito, Taku Fujiwara, Koji Nakayama
Many members of the phylum Bacteroidetes such as Flavobacterium johnsoniae can glide over a solid surface: an ability called gliding motility. It can be usually observed on agar plates as thin, flat, spreading colonies with irregular, feathery edges; this phenomenon is called colony spreading. Colony spreading of F. johnsoniae on 1.5% agar plates containing poor nutrients is dose-dependently inhibited by addition of D-glucose, as previously reported. Accordingly, here, we created mutants (by transposon mutagenesis) that partially suppressed glucose-mediated inhibition of colony spreading...
June 22, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Takehiro Sugawara, Sakura Onoue, Hiroaki Takimoto, Kazuyoshi Kawahara
Lauroyltransferase gene (lpxL), Myristoyltransferase gene (lpxM) and palmitoyltransferase gene (crcA) of Escherichia coli BL21 were independently disrupted by the insertional mutations. The knockout mutant of two transferase genes (lpxL and crcA) produced lipid A with no lauric and palmitic acids and only little amount of myristic acid. The mutant was susceptible to polymyxin B, but showed comparable growth with wild-type strain at 30°C. The palmitoyltransferase gene from E. coli (crcA) or Salmonella (pagP) was amplified by PCR, cloned in pUC119, and transferred into the double-knockout mutant by transformation...
June 22, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Souichi Nukuzuma, Chiyoko Nukuzuma, Masanori Kameoka, Shigeki Sugiura, Kazuo Nakamichi, Takafumi Tasaki, Koushi Hidaka, Tsutomu Takegami
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in immunocompromised patients. Archetype JCPyV circulates in the human population. There have been several reports of archetype JCPyV replication in cultured cells, in which propagation was not enough to produce high titers of archetype JCPyV. In this study, we carried out cultivation of the transfected cells with archetype JCPyV DNA MY for more than two months to establish COS-7 cells (designated COS-JC cells) persistently producing archetype JCPyV...
June 22, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Sunil R Vaidya, Siddharth M Tilavat, Venkat S Hamde, Divya R Bhattad
Patients with fever and uni or bilateral parotitis were observed in a tribal population of Galonda and Silli villages (Dadra and Nagar Haveli, India) between 2nd October 2016 and 19th March 2017. Consequently, investigation was performed to determine the magnitude and epidemiological characteristics of the outbreak. Overall, 139 suspected mumps cases were reported from both villages. Majority of the suspected cases were 5-15 years old, except three adults without any noticeable complications among reported cases...
June 6, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Tengda Li, Mingli Gu, Peng Liu, Yun Liu, Jie Guo, Weiwei Zhang, Cheng Qian, Anmei Deng
In psoriasis, a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory skin disease, CD4+T cells and their related cytokines play an important role in its pathogenesis. The role of interleukin (IL)-35, an immunosuppressive cytokine involved in many autoimmune diseases, is unclear in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. This study evaluated IL-35 expression and clinical significance in psoriasis. Protein and mRNA levels of specified markers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively...
May 26, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Noboru Nakasone, Yasunori Ogura, Naomi Higa, Claudia Toma, Yukiko Koizumi, Giichi Takaesu, Toshihiko Suzuki, Tetsu Yamashiro
We screened a total of 672 plant-tissue extracts to search for phytochemicals that inhibit the function of the type III secretion system (T3SS) of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Among candidates examined, we found that an extract from the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava) inhibited the secretion of the EspB protein from EPEC and EHEC without affecting bacterial growth. The guava extract (GE) also inhibited EPEC and EHEC from adhering to and injecting EspB protein into HEp-2 cells...
May 23, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Tomoyuki Honda, Kozue Sofuku, Hidenori Matsunaga, Masaya Tachibana, Ikuko Mohri, Masako Taniike, Keizo Tomonaga
Bornavirus infection is observed in both animals, including humans. However, bornavirus epidemiology in humans, especially in children, remains unclear. Here, we evaluated antibodies against bornaviruses in Japanese children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using immunofluorescence analysis, western blotting, and radio ligand assay. The prevalence of antibodies against bornavirus-specific speckles, N, and P proteins were 22%, 48%, and 33%, respectively, in the ASD children. According to our criteria, the prevalence of antibodies against bornaviruses was 7...
May 22, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Madoka Sakai, Sakiho Ueda, Takuji Daito, Megumi Asada-Utsugi, Yumiko Komatsu, Ayae Kinoshita, Takakuni Maki, Akira Kuzuya, Ryosuke Takahashi, Akiko Makino, Keizo Tomonaga
Accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ40 and Aβ42) in the brain is a characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because neprilysin (NEP) is a major Aβ-degrading enzyme, NEP delivery in the brain is a promising gene therapy for AD. Borna disease virus (BoDV) vector enables long-term transduction of foreign genes in the central nerve system. Here, we evaluated the proteolytic ability of NEP transduced by the BoDV vector and found that the amounts of Aβ40 and Aβ42 significantly decreased, which suggests that NEP expressed from the BoDV vector is functional to degrade Aβ...
May 17, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yui Kimura, Kazuki Harada, Takae Shimizu, Tomomi Sato, Akari Kajino, Masaru Usui, Yutaka Tamura, Yuzo Tsuyuki, Tadashi Miyamoto, Asami Ohki, Masahisa Watarai
We investigated the prevalence of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance among 67 Acinetobacter spp. isolates, consisting of 21 Acinetobacter baumannii and 46 non-baumannii Acinetobacter from companion animals. The PCR analysis showed that the most prevalent virulence gene was afa/draBC (29.9%), followed by papC (22.4%) and cvaC (20.9%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that resistance to gentamicin (14.9%) and ciprofloxacin (11.9%) was relatively prevalent. Five gentamicin- and/or ciprofloxacin-resistant A...
May 12, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Luisa Zupin, Ilaria Caracciolo, Paola Maura Tricarico, Giulia Ottaviani, Pierlanfranco D'Agaro, Sergio Crovella
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is known to cause lifelong infections in humans. First infection is characterized by gingiva-stomatitis and pharyngitis, while virus reactivation causes recurrent herpes labialis with ulcerations on intraoral mucosa, mouth or external facial skin [1]. Laser therapy (LT), set at red and infrared wavelengths, has been reported as able to reduce HSV-1 recurrence and duration of herpetic sores [2]. Despite the blue wavelength already showed its efficacy in killing different strains of bacteria, it has never been tested on viruses [3]...
May 11, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Fernando Cezar-Dos-Santos, Adriane Lenhard-Vidal, João Paulo Assolini, Audrey de Souza Marquez, Mário Augusto Ono, Eiko Nakagawa Itano
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by thermodimorfic fungi of Paracoccidioides species complex. Several pathogenic fungi produce hemagglutinins and hemolysins, which are virulence factors involved in adhesion of pathogens to host tissues or cells and in destruction of erythrocytes. The present research investigated hemolytic and hemagglutinating activities of yeast cells and soluble components from P. restrepiensis (PS3; former P. brasiliensis B339) and P. lutzii (LDR2). Different concentrations of live and heat-killed yeast cells and soluble components from cell free antigen preparation (CFA) (native or heated - 56 and 100 °C, 30 min) were mixed with 1% human erythrocyte suspension...
May 7, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Piyumali Sandareka Arachchi, Manjula Manoji Weerasekera, Bimalka Senevirathna, Deepaka Weerasekera, Neluka Fernando, Chinthika Prabhashinie Gunasekara
Single nucleotide polymorphisms present on the promoter sequence of the TNF-α gene may affect production of TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, during immune responses. The presence of TNF-α polymorphisms is also reportedly associated with more severe manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the frequency of TNF-α polymorphisms and the associated disease severity vary between different patient groups. In this study, gastric biopsies and blood specimens were collected from 138 patients with dyspepsia undergoing routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy...
April 28, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Sanae Kurakado, Rika Arai, Takashi Sugita
Bloodstream infection by the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is a major health problem. Candidemia is often associated with medical devices, which can act as substrates for biofilm development. Biofilm-related infections are relatively difficult to treat because of their resistance to antimicrobial agents. Therefore, it is important to explore the mechanism of biofilm formation. Dimorphism is a major contributor to biofilm formation in C. albicans. To address whether the hypha-related proteins Pra1 (pH-regulated antigen) and Zrt1 (zinc transporter) are responsible for biofilm formation, we investigated the ability of pra1 and zrt1 deletion mutants to form biofilms...
April 28, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Aniela Wozniak, Natalia Scioscia, Patricia C García, James B Dale, Braulio A Paillavil, Paulette Legarraga, Francisco J Salazar-Echegarai, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) causes diseases ranging from mild pharyngitis to severe invasive infections. The N-terminal fragment of streptococcal M protein elicits protective antibodies and is an attractive vaccine target. However, this N- terminal fragment is hypervariable: there are more than 200 different M types. In this study, an intranasal live bacterial vaccine comprising 10 strains of Lactococcus lactis, each expressing one N-terminal fragment of M protein, has been developed. Live bacterial-vectored vaccines cost less to manufacture because the processes involved are less complex than those required for production of protein subunit vaccines...
April 28, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Masahiro Miyoshi, Rika Komagome, Hiroki Yamaguchi, Setsuko Ishida, Hideki Nagano, Motohiko Okano
The strains of measles virus, genotypes D5, H1, D4, D8, and B3, were detected among an epidemic, endemic, imported, or import-associated cases in Hokkaido district, Japan, during 2006-2015. In the present study, to evaluate the antigenic features, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the hemagglutinin protein, which is a major target for neutralizing antibodies, and deduced the amino acid sequences. Our results demonstrated that the hemagglutinin proteins of these strains had several novel amino acid changes in some functional regions...
April 24, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Masanori Saito, Noriko Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Osamu Tsudukibashi, Tomomi Hashizume-Takizawa, Ryoki Kobayashi, Tomoko Kurita-Ochiai
Strain SK-1T is a novel Gram stain-positive, pleomorphic, rod-shaped, non-spore forming, and non-motile organism, designated SK-1T , isolated from human gingival sulcus that produces acetic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid as end products of glucose fermentation. Strain SK-1T had the closest relatedness to Pseudopropionibacterium (Propionibacterium) propionicum with sequence homologies of the 16S rRNA and RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) genes of 96.6% and 93.1%, respectively. The genomic DNA G + C content of the isolate was 61...
April 24, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Shivendra K Chaurasiya
Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a global threat for human health. Development of drug resistance and co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus has increased the morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis. Macrophages serve as primary defense against microbial infections including tuberculosis. Upon recognition and uptake of mycobacteria macrophages initiate a series of events leading to the generation of effective immune response and clearance of infection. On the other hand, pathogen utilizes multiple mechanisms for manipulating macrophage response to protect itself from killing and survive within these cells which are designed for killing them...
April 24, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
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