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Microbiology and Immunology

Xiao Zhang, Yi Sun, Caiyun He, Xiaofen Qiu, Dalei Zhou, Zulu Ye, Yakang Long, Tao Tang, Xuan Su, Jiangjun Ma
We aimed to assess the immunoregulatory effects of IFN-β in patients with tuberculous pleurisy. IFN-β, IFN-γ and IL-17 expression levels were detected, and correlations among these factors in different culture groups were analyzed. Pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMCs) from tuberculous pleural effusions, but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors, spontaneously expressed IFN-β, IL-17 and IFN-γ. Moreover, exogenous IFN-β significantly inhibited the expression of IL-17 in PFMCs...
March 5, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Sayaka Hirukawa, Hiroshi Sagara, Satoshi Kaneto, Tomoyo Kondo, Kotaro Kiga, Takahito Sanada, Hiroshi Kiyono, Hitomi Mimuro
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative microaerophilic bacterial pathogen which colonizes the stomach of more than half the human population, and is linked to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. Spiral-shaped H. pylori undergo morphologic conversion to the viable but not culturable (VBNC) coccoid form as they transit from the microaerobic stomach into the anaerobic intestinal tract. However, little is known about the morphological and pathogenic characteristics of H. pylori under prolonged anaerobic conditions...
February 15, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Vincent H Tam, Cynthia Pérez, Kimberly R Ledesma, Russell E Lewis
The virulence of an isogenic pair of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains was studied under similar experimental conditions in two animal infection models. Compared to the wild-type strain, the time to mortality was significantly delayed with the multidrug resistant strain. We further compared the transcriptional profiles of 84 innate immune response genes in the lungs of immunocompetent Balb/C mice. Significantly lower expression levels of genes involved in production of soluble pattern recognition receptor and complement were observed in animals infected with the multidrug resistant strain...
February 8, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Sumreen Hayat, Saima Muzammil, Muhammad Hidayat Rasool, Zonaira Nisar, Syed Zajif Hussain, Anjum Nasim Sabri, Saba Jamil
The aim of the current investigation was to determine antibacterial and antibiofilm potential of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles against antibiotic resistant clinical strains of bacteria. MgO nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical method, and were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Antibacterial activity was determined by broth microdilution and agar diffusion method. Bradford method was used to assess cellular protein leakage as a result of loss of membrane integrity...
February 6, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yasushi Akiba, Taku Kuwabara, Takanori Mukozu, Tetuo Mikami, Motonari Kondo
The genome organizer special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) regulates specific functions through chromatin remodeling in helper T cells. We recently reported that T cells from SATB1 conditional knockout (SATB1cKO) mice, in which the Satb1 gene is deleted from hematopoietic cells, impaired the phosphorylation of signaling molecules in response to T cell receptor (TCR) crosslinking. However, the in vivo T cell response upon antigen presentation in the absence of SATB1 remains unclear. We show that SATB1 modulates the T cell antigen response during the induction and effector phases...
February 1, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Zhenzhen Lu, Yanmei Jiao, Jianjun Li, Guanghua Lan, Chunyan Lu, Xuan Li, Zhenzhu Tang, Ning Wang
Whether the amount of HIV DNA was associated with the various subtype of HIV-1 after antiretroviral therapy (ART) has not been reported. In the present study, the amount of HIV DNA and RNA as well as the CD4+T counts in blood and semen prior to and after 18 months of ART were compared in 48 patients infected by CRF01_AE, subtype B or CRF07_BC of HIV-1. All the patients achieved successful viral RNA suppressions and CD4 cell count recovery. The total HIV DNA levels were similar before ART, however the lowest level of HIV DNA was observed in patients with CRF01_AE after ART...
January 27, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Shigefumi Okamoto, Satoshi Nagase
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) are pathogenic bacteria of the genus Streptococcus, and cause severe invasive GAS infections that comprise a wide range of diverse diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS), sepsis, cellulitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. The essential virulence, infected host, and external environmental factors required for invasive GAS infections still have not known. We demonstrated that superinfection with influenza virus and GAS induced invasive GAS infections in a mouse model, and then several investigators reported clinical cases of invasive GAS infections secondary to influenza virus infection in Japan, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, China, and others...
January 27, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Sunil R Vaidya, Venkat S Hamde, Neelakshi S Kumbhar, Atul M Walimbe
Mumps is an infectious disease caused by mumps virus (MuV) that belongs to family Paramyxoviridae and genus Rubulavirus. Typical symptoms of mumps include fever and swelling of parotids, but may cause asymptomatic infection also. Mumps diagnosis is performed by the molecular and serological methods (i.e. Polymerase Chain Reaction and Enzyme Immunoassay). However, both these methods have some pros and cons. This study was performed to determine the diagnostic utility of a focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT) in comparison to MuV specific commercial IgM and IgG antibody enzyme immunoassays (EIA) in the suspected patients...
January 24, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Jung Heon Kim, Jiyeon Kim, Jin Roh, Chan-Sik Park, Ju-Young Seoh, Eung-Soo Hwang
Previous studies examined various immune evasion strategies of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to understand HCMV pathogenesis. Although the mechanism that underlies immunocyte destruction near HCMV-infected lesions has yet to be established, we show that substances produced by HCMV-infected cells induce death in several types of immunocytes, but not in fibroblasts or astrocytomas. These substances contain HCMV proteins and were termed HCMV-associated insoluble substance (HCMVAIS). We characterized this mechanism of cell death induced by HCMVAIS to understand the death of immunocytes near HCMV-infected lesions...
January 19, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yasuhisa Iwao, Noboru Nakata
Three different katG sequences (katGI, katGII, and katGIII) were identified in the Mycobacterium smegmatis genome. The contribution of the three katG genes to survival of the bacterium was examined by constructing gene disruptants of these three genes. The katGIII sequence did not produce a functional catalase-peroxidase. Analyses of peroxidase activity and mRNA expression revealed that in wild type M. smegmatis, expression dominance between KatGI and KatGII was switched in the exponential growth phase and the stationary growth phase...
January 18, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Chisato Kurisaka, Teruaki Oku, Saotomo Itoh, Tsutomu Tsuji
The staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs) exhibit no superantigenic activity but have recently been considered to act as immune suppressors. It was previously reported that SSL5 bound to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, leading to inhibition of leukocyte adhesion and invasion. These interactions were suggested to depend on sialic acid-containing glycans of MMP-9, but the roles of sialic acids in the interaction between SSL5 and MMP-9 are still controversial...
January 12, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Chikako Ono, Junki Hirano, Toru Okamoto, Yoshiharu Matsuura
Insect expression systems based on baculovirus are widely used for the generation of recombinant proteins. Here, we evaluated the infectivity of baculoviruses under the physiological stresses of 'freeze- thaw' and sonication, and the baculoviral contamination of recombinant proteins after protein purification. Our findings suggest that Nonidet™ P-40 (NP-40) treatment of baculoviruses completely abolishes their infectivity and that recombinant proteins purified with affinity beads do not include infectious baculoviruses...
January 11, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Tuan Hai Nguyen, Tho Duc Pham, Naomi Higa, Hanako Iwashita, Taichiro Takemura, Makoto Ohnishi, Kouichi Morita, Tetsu Yamashiro
Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, the pathogen responsible for the current cholera pandemic became pathogenic by acquiring virulent factors including Vibrio seventh pandemic islands (VSP)-I and -II. Diversity of VSP-II are well recognized, however, studies addressing attachment sequence left (attL) sequences of VSP-II are few. In this report, a wide variety of V. cholerae strains were analyzed for the structure and distribution of VSP-II in relation to their attachment sequences. Of 188 V. cholerae strains analyzed, 81% (153/188) strains carried VSP-II, of those, typical VSP-II, and a short variant was found in 36% (55/153), and 63% (96/153), respectively...
January 8, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Dan Zhang, Kongwang He, Libin Wen, Hongjie Fan
The capsid protein is the major immunogenic protein of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). The nucleotide sequence of porcine-circovirus-like virus P1shares high homology with open reading frame (ORF) 2 of PCV2, and ORF1 of P1 encodes its structural protein. Mice were vaccinated twice intramuscularly with a plasmid expressing the P1 ORF1 protein (pcDNA3.1(+)-ORF1) at 2-week intervals. All animals vaccinated with pcDNA3.1(+)-ORF1 developed higher specific anti-P1 antibody levels, and had less PCV2 viremia and milder histopathological changes than PCV2-challenged mice in the control group...
January 8, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Deuk-Ki Lee, Eun-Young Lee, Ryoon-Ho Kim, Hye-Won Kwak, Joo Young Kim, Hun Kim, Kyung-Won Kang, Sang-Myeong Lee, Jong-Hwan Park, Jun Chang, Jae-Hwan Nam
Host factors such as nutritional status and immune cell state are important for vaccine efficacy. Inflammasome activation may be important for triggering vaccine-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Formulations with alum as a typical adjuvant to overcome the effects of host factors have recently been shown to induce inflammasome activation, which augments vaccine efficacy. Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) is one of main components of inflammasomes, but it is not clear whether ASC affects the vaccine-induced immune response...
January 8, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Kazuo Satoh, Takashi Tamura, Koichi Makimura
Candida auris, which we described in 2009 (1), has become a global health threat (2). Due to the increasing interest in C. auris, we have received a number of questions regarding this topic. On re-examining the data to respond to these queries, a single important error was found in our manuscript. Therefore, we have issued an erratum.
January 8, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Cenrong Zhang, Wei Xu, Jian Chen, Ran Guan, Shicheng Bi, Haibo Jin, Xuemei Cui, Fushan Shi, Songhua Hu
The adjuvant effect of soybean oil containing ginseng root saponins (SO-GS-R) on the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (FMDV) in mice was investigated in this study. When immunized with FMDV antigen emulsified in an SO-GS-R formulation, mice generated remarkably higher serum antibody and cytokine responses than mice immunized with FMDV antigen alone. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the adjuvant effect of SO-GS-R, we measured cytokines in the serum and muscle tissue after intramuscular injection of SO-GS-R...
December 27, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Masahiko Toyama, Daisuke Kudo, Tetsuji Aoyagi, Tomomitsu Miyasaka, Keiko Ishii, Emi Kanno, Mitsuo Kaku, Shigeki Kushimoto, Kazuyoshi Kawakami
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a pathological condition that involves diffuse lung injury and severe hypoxemia caused by pulmonary and systemic diseases. We have established a mouse model of severe ARDS, developed by intratracheal injection of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), an activator of natural killer T (NKT) cells, followed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the present study, we used this model to investigate the regulatory mechanism in the early inflammatory response during acute lung injury...
December 21, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Li Zhao, Yangzhen Suolang, Dandan Zhou, Yu Tang, Yan Zhang
The goal of this study was explore the role of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the therapeutic effect of probiotics on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) was used to induce colitis in mice and 1-methyltryptophan (1-MT) to block expression of IDO. Clinical manifestations and macroscopic and microscopic colonic changes were assessed using a disease activity index (DAI), the Wallace-Keenan, and Curtner scoring systems, respectively. Expression of colonic IDO was detected by western blot...
February 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Akihito Sawada, Kiyokazu Yunomae, Tetsuo Nakayama
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory infections in infants. Effective vaccines are currently being sought, but no vaccine is thus far available. In our previous study, recombinant AIK-C measles vaccine expressing the RSV fusion protein (MVAIK/RSV/F) was developed and protective immunity against RSV demonstrated in cotton rats. In the present study, the immunogenicity and protective effects were investigated in three cynomolgus monkeys immunized with MVAIK/RSV/F. Neutralizing test antibodies against RSV were detected and no infectious virus was recovered from the lungs of monkeys immunized with MVAIK/RSV/F after challenge...
February 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
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