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Microbiology and Immunology

Noboru Nakasone, Yasunori Ogura, Naomi Higa, Claudia Toma, Yukiko Koizumi, Giichi Takaesu, Toshihiko Suzuki, Tetsu Yamashiro
We screened a total of 672 plant-tissue extracts to search for phytochemicals that inhibit the function of the type III secretion system (T3SS) of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Among candidates examined, we found that an extract from the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava) inhibited the secretion of the EspB protein from EPEC and EHEC without affecting bacterial growth. The guava extract (GE) also inhibited EPEC and EHEC from adhering to and injecting EspB protein into HEp-2 cells...
May 23, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Tomoyuki Honda, Kozue Sofuku, Hidenori Matsunaga, Masaya Tachibana, Ikuko Mohri, Masako Taniike, Keizo Tomonaga
Bornavirus infection is observed in both animals, including humans. However, bornavirus epidemiology in humans, especially in children, remains unclear. Here, we evaluated antibodies against bornaviruses in Japanese children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using immunofluorescence analysis, western blotting, and radio ligand assay. The prevalence of antibodies against bornavirus-specific speckles, N, and P proteins were 22%, 48%, and 33%, respectively, in the ASD children. According to our criteria, the prevalence of antibodies against bornaviruses was 7...
May 22, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Madoka Sakai, Sakiho Ueda, Takuji Daito, Megumi Asada-Utsugi, Yumiko Komatsu, Ayae Kinoshita, Takakuni Maki, Akira Kuzuya, Ryosuke Takahashi, Akiko Makino, Keizo Tomonaga
Accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ40 and Aβ42) in the brain is a characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because neprilysin (NEP) is a major Aβ-degrading enzyme, NEP delivery in the brain is a promising gene therapy for AD. Borna disease virus (BoDV) vector enables long-term transduction of foreign genes in the central nerve system. Here, we evaluated the proteolytic ability of NEP transduced by the BoDV vector and found that the amounts of Aβ40 and Aβ42 significantly decreased, which suggests that NEP expressed from the BoDV vector is functional to degrade Aβ...
May 17, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yui Kimura, Kazuki Harada, Takae Shimizu, Tomomi Sato, Akari Kajino, Masaru Usui, Yutaka Tamura, Yuzo Tsuyuki, Tadashi Miyamoto, Asami Ohki, Masahisa Watarai
We investigated the prevalence of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance among 67 Acinetobacter spp. isolates, consisting of 21 Acinetobacter baumannii and 46 non-baumannii Acinetobacter from companion animals. The PCR analysis showed that the most prevalent virulence gene was afa/draBC (29.9%), followed by papC (22.4%) and cvaC (20.9%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that resistance to gentamicin (14.9%) and ciprofloxacin (11.9%) was relatively prevalent. Five gentamicin- and/or ciprofloxacin-resistant A...
May 12, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Luisa Zupin, Ilaria Caracciolo, Paola Maura Tricarico, Giulia Ottaviani, Pierlanfranco D'Agaro, Sergio Crovella
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is known to cause lifelong infections in humans. First infection is characterized by gingiva-stomatitis and pharyngitis, while virus reactivation causes recurrent herpes labialis with ulcerations on intraoral mucosa, mouth or external facial skin [1]. Laser therapy (LT), set at red and infrared wavelengths, has been reported as able to reduce HSV-1 recurrence and duration of herpetic sores [2]. Despite the blue wavelength already showed its efficacy in killing different strains of bacteria, it has never been tested on viruses [3]...
May 11, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Fernando Cezar-Dos-Santos, Adriane Lenhard-Vidal, João Paulo Assolini, Audrey de Souza Marquez, Mário Augusto Ono, Eiko Nakagawa Itano
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by thermodimorfic fungi of Paracoccidioides species complex. Several pathogenic fungi produce hemagglutinins and hemolysins, which are virulence factors involved in adhesion of pathogens to host tissues or cells and in destruction of erythrocytes. The present research investigated hemolytic and hemagglutinating activities of yeast cells and soluble components from P. restrepiensis (PS3; former P. brasiliensis B339) and P. lutzii (LDR2). Different concentrations of live and heat-killed yeast cells and soluble components from cell free antigen preparation (CFA) (native or heated - 56 and 100 °C, 30 min) were mixed with 1% human erythrocyte suspension...
May 7, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Hideyo Sakanoue, Mayo Yasugi, Masami Miyake
Sublethal heating of spores has long been known to stimulate or activate germination, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, we visualized the entire germination-to-outgrowth process of spores from an anaerobic sporeformer, C. perfringens, at single-cell resolution. Quantitative analysis revealed that sublethal heating significantly reduced the time from completion of germination to the beginning of the first cell division. The results indicate that sublethal heating of C...
May 4, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Piyumali Sandareka Arachchi, Manjula Manoji Weerasekera, Bimalka Senevirathna, Deepaka Weerasekera, Neluka Fernando, Chinthika Prabhashinie Gunasekara
Single nucleotide polymorphisms present on the promoter sequence of the TNF-α (Tumor necrosis factor alpha) gene may affect the production of TNF-α pro-inflammatory cytokine during immune response. Presence of TNF-α polymorphisms have also been reported to influence H. pylori infection, leading to increased disease severity. However, the frequency of TNF-α polymorphisms and the associated disease severity between different populations are contradictory. Gastric biopsy specimens and blood specimens were collected from 138 dyspeptic patients attending routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy after obtaining written informed consent...
April 28, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Sanae Kurakado, Rika Arai, Takashi Sugita
Bloodstream infection by the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is a major health problem. Candidemia is often associated with medical devices, which can act as substrates for biofilm development. Biofilm-related infections are relatively difficult to treat because of their resistance to antimicrobial agents. Therefore, it is important to explore the mechanism of biofilm formation. Dimorphism is a major contributor to biofilm formation in C. albicans. To address whether the hypha-related proteins Pra1 (pH-regulated antigen) and Zrt1 (zinc transporter) are responsible for biofilm formation, we investigated the ability of pra1 and zrt1 deletion mutants to form biofilms...
April 28, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Aniela Wozniak, Natalia Scioscia, Patricia C García, James B Dale, Braulio A Paillavil, Paulette Legarraga, Francisco J Salazar-Echegarai, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) causes diseases ranging from mild pharyngitis to severe invasive infections. The N-terminal fragment of Streptococcal M protein elicits protective antibodies and is an attractive vaccine target. However, this N- terminal fragment is hypervariable and there are more than 200 different M types. We are developing an intranasal live bacterial vaccine comprised of 10 strains of Lactococcus lactis, each expressing one N-terminal fagment of M protein. Live bacterial-vectored vaccines have lower associated costs because of its less complex manufacturing processes compared to protein subunit vaccines...
April 28, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Masahiro Miyoshi, Rika Komagome, Hiroki Yamaguchi, Setsuko Ishida, Hideki Nagano, Motohiko Okano
The strains of measles virus, genotypes D5, H1, D4, D8, and B3, were detected among an epidemic, endemic, imported, or import-associated cases in Hokkaido district, Japan, during 2006-2015. In the present study, to evaluate the antigenic features, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the hemagglutinin protein, which is a major target for neutralizing antibodies, and deduced the amino acid sequences. Our results demonstrated that the hemagglutinin proteins of these strains had several novel amino acid changes in some functional regions...
April 24, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Masanori Saito, Noriko Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Osamu Tsudukibashi, Tomomi Hashizume-Takizawa, Ryoki Kobayashi, Tomoko Kurita-Ochiai
Strain SK-1T is a novel Gram stain-positive, pleomorphic, rod-shaped, non-spore forming, and non-motile organism, designated SK-1T , isolated from human gingival sulcus that produces acetic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid as end products of glucose fermentation. Strain SK-1T had the closest relatedness to Pseudopropionibacterium (Propionibacterium) propionicum with sequence homologies of the 16S rRNA and RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) genes of 96.6% and 93.1%, respectively. The genomic DNA G + C content of the isolate was 61...
April 24, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Shivendra K Chaurasiya
Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a global threat for human health. Development of drug resistance and co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus has increased the morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis. Macrophages serve as primary defense against microbial infections including tuberculosis. Upon recognition and uptake of mycobacteria macrophages initiate a series of events leading to the generation of effective immune response and clearance of infection. On the other hand, pathogen utilizes multiple mechanisms for manipulating macrophage response to protect itself from killing and survive within these cells which are designed for killing them...
April 24, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yoshihiro Muneta, Nobuo Arai, Yoko Yakabe, Masahiro Eguchi, Tomoyuki Shibahara, Akiko Sakuma, Hiroki Shinkai, Hirohide Uenishi, Kensuke Hirose, Masato Akiba
Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is a pattern-recognition receptor for bacterial flagellin. We previously reported that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of swine TLR5, C1205T, impairs the recognition of Salmonella typhimurium (ST) flagellin and ethanol-killed Salmonella Choleraesuis (SC). Here, weaned, specific pathogen-free (SPF) Landrace piglets, which have CC, CT, or TT genotypes were orally infected with ST (L-3569 strain) to validate the effect of this specific SNP on ST infection in vivo. Eighteen ST-infected piglets (6 each with CC, CT, or TT) exhibited fever and diarrhea for 1 week after infection...
April 16, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Akimasa Itho, Hidetaka Sadanari, Masaya Takemoto, Keiko Matsubara, Tohru Daikoku, Tsugiya Murayama
It has been reported that treatment of human embryonic lung fibroblast (HEL) cells with tricin (4', 5, 7-trihydroxy-3', 5'-dimethoxyflavone) following infection by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) significantly suppresses HCMV replication. In the present work, we examined the mechanisms for the anti-HCMV effects of tricin in HEL cells. Exposure of HEL cells to tricin inhibited HCMV replication, with concomitant decreases in transcripts levels of the CC chemokine RANTES (CCL5) - encoding gene and in the expression of the CCL5 protein...
March 30, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Masataka Oda, Mie Kurosawa, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Hisanori Domon, Tatsuya Kimura, Toshihito Isono, Tomoki Maekawa, Naoki Hayashi, Noriteru Yamada, Yui Furue, Daichi Kai, Yutaka Terao
Vizantin is an insoluble adjuvant that activates macrophages and lymphocytes. Recently, we developed 2,2',3,3',4,4'-hexasulfated-vizantin (sulfated vizantin), which succeeded in solubilizing vizantin. Sulfated vizantin enhanced the bactericidal activity for multi-drug resistance P. aeruginosa in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, the spread of P. aeruginosa was inhibited in RAW264.7 cells treated with sulfated vizantin. When only sulfated vizantin and P. aeruginosa were incubated, sulfated vizantin did not affect the growth of P...
March 25, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Koji Eshima, Kana Misawa, Chihiro Ohashi, Kazuya Iwabuchi
Although CD4+ T cells are generally regarded as helper T cells, some activated CD4+ T cells exert cytotoxicity. Since CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) often secrete IFN-γ, CTL activity among CD4+ T cells may be attributable to Th1 cells, where a T-box family molecule, T-bet serves as the "master regulator". However, although the essential contribution of T-bet to the expression of IFN-γ has been well-documented, it remains unclear if T-bet is involved in CD4+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In this study, in order to investigate the ability of T-bet to confer cytolytic activity on CD4+ T cells, we introduced the T-bet gene into non-cytocidal CD4+ T cell lines and analyzed their cytolytic function...
March 25, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Chang Luo, Jianxin Liu, Wenbao Qi, Xujiao Ren, Rong Lu, Ming Liao, Zhangyong Ning
H5N1 and H9N2 are the most important causes of avian influenza in China. Chemokines and cytokines play an important role in inflammatory response which is clearly different between H5N1 and H9N2 infection. To investigate whether chemokines and cytokines differentially regulated following H5N1 and H9N2 AIVs infection, dynamic expression of chemokines and cytokines including IL8L1, IL8L2, CX3CL1, CCL5, CCL20, K203, SCYA4, XLC1, CCLi10, CCL19, IFN-α, IFN-β, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, were analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in DF-1 cells...
March 25, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yuto Kawai, Shinya Matsumoto, Yiwei Ling, Shujiro Okuda, Satoshi Tsuneda
Persisters are multidrug-tolerant cells that are present within antibiotic-sensitive populations. Persister formation is not induced by genetic mutations but rather by changes in the expression levels of some genes. High redundancy has been observed among the pathways that have been hypothesized to respond to specific stresses. In this study, we conducted RNA sequencing of Escherichia coli persisters under various stress conditions to identify common mechanisms. We induced stresses such as glucose or amino acid exhaustion, acid stress, and anaerobic conditions, all of which are encountered during bacterial pathogenesis...
March 25, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Poonam Suryawanshi, Sheela Godbole, Jyoti Pawar, Madhuri Thakar, Ashwini Shete
Mechanisms involved in survival of productively infected memory CD4+cells after initial antigenic stimulation and their subsequent reversion to resting state are critical for the development of the predominant replication competent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) reservoir. These mechanisms might also counter their elimination after HIV reactivation through latency-reversing agents (LRA), making their evaluation critical in devising strategies for HIV eradication using the appropriate HIV latency model recapitulating the predominant replication-competent HIV reservoir...
March 25, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
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