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Microbiology and Immunology

Lei Bao, Cecilia Chau, Jeremy Bao, Maria M Tsoukas, Lawrence S Chan
IL-4 plays an important role in atopic dermatitis (AD) pathogenesis by dysregulating many key factors at the transcriptional level. In this study, using microRNA array technique and IL-4 transgenic mice, we demonstrated that IL-4 dysregulates microRNAs involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, lymphoangiogenesis and apoptosis. Of all the 372 common microRNAs examined, 26 and 1 microRNAs are up- and down-regulated, respectively. MicroRNA-101-5p, -122-5p, -142-3p, -204-5p, -335-3p, -376a-3p, -378a-5p, -639 and -9-5p are among the most significantly up-regulated microRNAs...
September 21, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Toshifumi Tomoyasu, Keigo Tsuruno, Ryosuke Tanatsugu, Aya Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Kondo, Atsushi Tabata, Robert A Whiley, Kenji Sonomoto, Hideaki Nagamune
Streptococcus intermedius DnaK complements the temperature-sensitive phenotype of an Escherichia coli dnaK null mutant, only if co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE are co-expressed. Therefore, we examined whether S. intermedius DnaK and E. coli DnaK could recognize heterologous co-chaperones in vitro. The addition of heterologous GrpE to DnaK and DnaJ partially stimulated ATPase activity, and almost completely stimulated the luciferase refolding activity. Addition of heterologous DnaJ to GrpE and DnaK also stimulated ATPase activity but significant luciferase refolding activity was not observed...
September 21, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Muhammad Uzair Mukhtar, Maria Mukhtar, Naveed Iqbal
We investigated sero-prevalence of dengue antibodies Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM), in 689 dengue suspected patients. Of 689 suspected cases, 373 (54.1%) were found positive for dengue antibodies while IgM dominated most. The seasonal distribution found significant relationship between dengue fever and season, and all cases were reported during rainy season with no case during dry season, while the post-monsoon season was most affected (89.5%). The percentage of male cases and age group between 21-49 years were reported far more with 79...
September 14, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Mie Kurosawa, Masataka Oda, Hisanori Domon, Toshihito Isono, Yuki Nakamura, Issei Saitoh, Haruaki Hayasaki, Masaya Yamaguchi, Shigetada Kawabata, Yutaka Terao
Streptococcus pyogenes is a bacterium that causes systemic diseases such as pharyngitis and toxic shock syndrome. S. pyogenes produces molecules that inhibit the function of the human immune system, thus allowing to grow and spread of the pathogen in tissues. It is known that S. pyogenes Christie Atkins Munch-Petersen (CAMP) factor induces vacuolation in macrophages, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated the mechanism of vacuolation induced by CAMP factor in macrophages. CAMP factor induced calcium ion uptake in murine macrophage RAW264...
September 13, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Tho Duc Pham, Tuan Hai Nguyen, Hanako Iwashita, Taichiro Takemura, Kouichi Morita, Tetsu Yamashiro
Vibrio cholerae O1 is a causative agent of cholera, and cholera toxin, the principal agent of massive diarrhea is encoded by ctxAB in CTX prophage. The structures of CTX prophage region of V. cholerae strains isolated in the 7th pandemic wave 1 period from Asian countries were determined and compared. Eighteen strains were categorized into 8 groups by CTX prophage region-specific RFLP and PCR profiles, and the structure of the region of a representative strain from each group was determined by DNA sequencing...
September 13, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yoshitoyo Kodama, Taichi Ishikawa, Yu Shimoyama, Daisuke Sasaki, Shigenobu Kimura, Minoru Sasaki
Streptococcus anginosus possesses an apparent ability to adhere to cultured epithelial cells or fibronectin, which may be associated with bacterial pathogenicity. In the present study, we describe the molecular characteristics and virulence of the fibronectin-binding protein (FBP), Fbp62, of S. anginosus in animal models in order to investigate the role of the molecule in bacterial infection. fbp62 encodes a 549 amino acid-residue with an apparent molecular mass of 62.8 kDa that lacks a membrane anchor motif and a leader peptide, suggesting that fbp62 codes for an atypical FBP...
September 7, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Tetsuo Koshizuka, Yuko Sato, Shoe Kobiyama, Mami Oshima, Tatsuo Suzutani
The quantification of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication by plaque assay reflects viral infectivity but suffers from several drawbacks. Recombinant virus expressing reporter genes can facilitate the quantification of HCMV replication. In this report, we constructed a recombinant virus, Towne-BAC(dTT)-MetLuc, into which was inserted the secretable Metridia luciferase (MetLuc) gene under the UL146 promoter. In addition, the UL130 gene was repaired to allow the growth of recombinant virus in both fibroblasts and epithelial cells...
September 6, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Madoka Kuramitsu, Kazu Okuma, Makoto Nakashima, Tomoo Sato, Daisuke Sasaki, Hiroo Hasegawa, Kazumi Umeki, Ryuji Kubota, Keiko Sasada, Rieko Sobata, Chieko Matsumoto, Noriaki Kaneko, Kenta Tezuka, Sahoko Matsuoka, Atae Utsunomiya, Ki-Ryang Koh, Masao Ogata, Kenji Ishitsuka, Mai Taki, Kisato Nosaka, Kaoru Uchimaru, Masako Iwanaga, Yasuko Sagara, Yoshihisa Yamano, Akihiko Okayama, Kiyonori Miura, Masahiro Satake, Shigeru Saito, Toshiki Watanabe, Isao Hamaguchi
Quantitative PCR (qPCR) of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) provirus is used for HTLV-1 testing or for the risk assessment of HTLV-1-related diseases. In this study, we developed reference material for HTLV-1 qPCR. Freeze-dried TL-Om1 cells diluted with Jurkat cells were prepared and the proviral load (PVL) was value assigned as 2.71 copies/100 cells using digital PCR. Measurement by nine Japanese laboratories resulted in PVLs of the reference ranging from 1.08-3.49 copies/100 cells. The maximum difference among laboratories was 3...
August 20, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yeon-Joo Choi, In-Yong Lee, Hyeon-Je Song, Jeoungyeon Kim, Hye-Jin Park, Dayoung Song, Won-Jong Jang
Chiggers were collected from the central and southern parts of South Korea between April and November, 2009 with the aim of investigating the seasonal and geographical distribution of Or. A total of 1136 chiggers were identified. They included eight species belonging to four genera, as follows: Leptotrombidium scutellare (27.2%, n = 309), L. pallidum (54.6%, n = 621), L. orientale (6.25%, n = 71), L. palpale (1.59%, n = 18), L. zetum (2.0%, n = 23), Euschoengastia koreaensis (1.5%, n = 17), Cheladonta ikaoensis (0...
July 23, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yoshio Kondo, Keiko Sato, Keiji Nagano, Miyuki Nishiguchi, Tomonori Hoshino, Taku Fujiwara, Koji Nakayama
Prevotella melaninogenica is a gram-negative anaerobic commensal bacterium that resides in the human oral cavity and is isolated as a pathogen of suppurative diseases both inside and outside the mouth. However, little is known about the pathogenic factors of P. melaninogenica. The periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tanerella forsythia secrete virulence factors such as protease and bacterial cell surface proteins via a type IX secretion system (T9SS) that are involved in pathogenicity. P. melaninogenica also possesses all known orthologs of T9SS...
July 20, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Huan Liu, Shu-Ping Wei, Li-Qin Zhi, Li-Ping Liu, Tuan-Ping Cao, Su-Zhi Wang, Qing-Ping Chen, Dan Liu
Transcriptional regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is critically involved in the pathogenesis and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the specific transcription factors that control this process remain largely unidentified. In the present study, it was discovered that expression of the key erythroid factor, globin transcription factor 1 (GATA1), is significantly greater in human RA synovial tissues than in osteoarthritis (OA) tissues. IL 6 was found to induce synovial GATA1 expression in a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-dependent manner...
July 11, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yuanjian Sheng, Yong Wang, Wei Lu, Yunlian Zhou, Guijuan Dong, Xiaoxing Ge, Yinjing Song, Yuanyuan Zhang
MicroRNAs are short, non-coding RNAs that have been shown to regulate a wide range of biological processes, including host antiviral immune responses. In the present study, microRNA-92a (miR-92a) was identified as a negative regulator in macrophage-mediated antiviral responses. Overexpression of miR-92a decreases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-induced production of type-I IFNs and facilitates viral replication in macrophages. The mechanism is that miR-92a directly targets RIG-I and reduces its expression, thereby attenuating VSV-triggered activation of TBK-binding kinase 1 and IRF3, both of which are crucial for initiating transcription of type-I IFN genes...
September 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Michio Suzuki, Koichi Imaoka, Yumi Haga, Masahiro Mohri, Ayako Nogami, Yoshio Shimojima, Yoshimi Irie, Satoru Sugimura, Shigeru Morikawa
Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Capnocytophaga cynodegmi, both commensal bacteria in the oral cavities of dogs and cats, are zoonotic pathogens. In particular, C. canimorsus causes sepsis and fatal septic shock. Recently, a novel Capnocytophaga species, C. canis, was isolated from the oral cavities of healthy dogs. It is reportedly oxidase-negative and therefore considered avirulent in humans. In the present study, three strains of C. canis were isolated from Japanese patients with sepsis. All three strains, HP20001, HP33001 and HP40001, were oxidase-positive...
September 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Kunse Lee, Hae Li Ko, Eun-Young Lee, Hyo-Jung Park, Young Seok Kim, Yeon-Sook Kim, Nam-Hyuk Cho, Man-Seong Park, Sang-Myeong Lee, Jihye Kim, Hun Kim, Baik Lin Seong, Jae-Hwan Nam
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes severe respiratory disease in humans with a high fatality rate. Binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) glycoprotein to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is the critical step in MERS-CoV infection of a host cell. No vaccines or clinically applicable treatments are currently available for MERS-CoV. Therefore, rapid diagnosis is important for improving patient outcomes through prompt treatment and protection against viral outbreaks...
September 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Satoshi Higashide, Otomi Cho, Yuko Matsuda, Daiki Ogishima, Sanae Kurakado, Takashi Sugita
The aim of this study was to develop a method for the rapid detection of Gardnerella vaginalis, which is proposed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis. Specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primers were designed and used to detect target DNA within 45 min under isothermal conditions. Comparative screening indicated that the LAMP assay is superior to PCR in terms of rapidity, and is equivalent in sensitivity and specificity. This LAMP assay can be used for rapid screening and detection of G...
September 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
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August 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Magdalena Wąsik, Katarzyna Nazimek, Krzysztof Bryniarski
A diverse population of regulatory B (Breg) cells reportedly exhibits significant immunomodulatory effects in various models of inflammatory responses and infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites. Breg cells contribute to maintenance of homeostasis via IL-10 production and multiple IL-10-independent mechanisms. The current review describes various phenotypic and functional subsets of Breg cells in autoimmune and infectious diseases and discusses the impacts of experimental conditions that have been found to drive Breg cell differentiation...
August 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Tunç Akkoç, Deniz Genç, Noushin Zibandeh, Tolga Akkoç
Allergen-specific immunotherapy to induce T regulatory cells in the periphery has been used to treat allergic diseases. Mycobacteria can be used as an adjuvant for inducing T regulatory cells. However, it is unclear whether intranasal immunotherapy in combination with Mycobacteria adjuvant induces regulatory T cell differentiation and attenuates allergic responses in vivo. To investigate the role of intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) treatment alone and in combination with Mycobacteria vaccae, proportions of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory responses were evaluated in a murine model of asthma that was established in three groups of bicistronic Foxp3EGFP reporter BALB/c mice...
August 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Keigo Imamura, Keiko Sato, Yuka Narita, Yoshio Kondo, Daisuke Nakane, Mariko Naito, Taku Fujiwara, Koji Nakayama
Many members of the phylum Bacteroidetes, such as Flavobacterium johnsoniae, can glide over a solid surface: an ability called gliding motility. It can be usually observed on agar plates as thin, flat, spreading colonies with irregular, feathery edges; this phenomenon is called colony spreading. Colony spreading of F. johnsoniae on 1.5% agar plates containing poor nutrients is dose-dependently inhibited by addition of D-glucose, as previously reported. Accordingly, here, we created mutants (by transposon mutagenesis) that partially suppressed glucose-mediated inhibition of colony spreading...
August 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Takehiro Sugawara, Sakura Onoue, Hiroaki Takimoto, Kazuyoshi Kawahara
Lauroyltransferase gene (lpxL), Myristoyltransferase gene (lpxM) and palmitoyltransferase gene (crcA) of Escherichia coli BL21 were independently disrupted by the insertional mutations. The knockout mutant of two transferase genes (lpxL and crcA) produced lipid A with no lauric or palmitic acids and only a little amount of myristic acid. The mutant was susceptible to polymyxin B, but showed comparable growth with the wild-type strain at 30°C. The palmitoyltransferase gene from E. coli (crcA) or Salmonella (pagP) was amplified by PCR, cloned in pUC119, and transferred into the double-knockout mutant by transformation...
August 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
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