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Microbiology and Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206680/an-ssdna-aptamer-against-mannose-capped-lipoarabinomannan-enhances-anti-tuberculosis-activity-of-macrophages-through-downregulation-of-lipid-sensing-nuclear-receptor-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-expression
#1
Qin Pan, Jiamin Yan, Qi Liu, Chunhui Yuan, Xiao-Lian Zhang
Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) is an immunomodulatory epitope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We previously generated an aptamer (ZXL1) that specifically binds to ManLAM from the virulent Mtb H37Rv strain and reported that ZXL1 functioned as an antagonist, inhibiting the ManLAM-induced immunosuppression of dendritic cells (DCs). In the present study, we found that ZXL1 inhibited Mtb entry into murine macrophages. ZXL1 enhanced IL-1β and IL-12 mRNA expression and cytokine production in ManLAM-treated macrophages but decreased IL-10 production...
February 16, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150868/identification-of-second-arginine-glycine-aspartic-acid-motif-of-ovine-vitronectin-as-the-complement-c9-binding-site-and-its-implication-in-bacterial-infection
#2
Prasada Rao T, Lakshmi Prasanth T, Parvathy R, Murugavel S, Karuna Devi, Paritosh Joshi
Vitronectin (Vn), a multifunctional protein of blood and extracellular matrix interacts with complement C9. This interaction may modulate innate immunity. Details of Vn-C9 interaction are limited. An assessment of Vn-C9 interaction was made employing goat homologous system. Vn binding to C9 was observed in three different assays. Using recombinant fragments, the C9 binding was mapped to the N-terminus of Vn. Site directed mutagenesis was performed to alter the second RGD sequence (RGD-2) of Vn. Change of R to G or D to A in RGD-2 caused significant decrease in Vn binding to C9 whereas change of R to G in the first RGD motif (RGD-1) had no effect on Vn binding to C9...
February 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111826/regulation-systems-of-protease-and-hemolysin-production-in-vibrio-vulnificus
#3
Abdelaziz Elgaml, Shin-Ichi Miyoshi
Vibrio vulnificus is a gram-negative halophilic estuarine bacterium. It is an opportunistic human pathogen causing rapidly progressive fatal septicemia and necrotizing wound infection. This species also causes hemorrhagic septicemia called vibriosis in cultured eels. A range of virulence factors have been proposed to play a role in pathogenesis of the bacterium during human and/or eel infection. Among these factors, the metalloprotease (V. vulnificus protease: VVP) and the cytolytic toxin (V. vulnificus hemolysin: VVH) are significantly important...
January 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111794/selection-of-broad-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-the-feces-of-healthy-dogs-after-first-generation-cephalosporin-administration
#4
Ayako Kimura, Montira Yossapol, Sanae Shibata, Tetsuo Asai
Although antimicrobial products are essential for the treatment of bacterial disease, antimicrobial treatment selects for antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of first-generation cephalosporin administration on the development of resistant Escherichia coli in dog feces. The proportions of cephalexin (LEX)-resistant E. coli in fecal samples of three healthy dogs treated intravenously with cefazolin before castration and then orally with LEX for 3 days post-operation (PO) were examined using DHL agar with or without LEX (50 μg/mL)...
January 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111792/inhibition-of-propionibacterium-acnes-lipase-activity-by-the-antifungal-agent-ketoconazole
#5
Mizuki Unno, Otomi Cho, Takashi Sugita
The common skin disease acne vulgaris is caused by Propionibacterium acnes. A lipase secreted by this microorganism metabolizes sebum and the resulting metabolites evoke inflammation in human skin. The antifungal drug ketoconazole inhibits P. acnes lipase activity. We previously showed that the drug also inhibits the growth of P. acnes. Thus, ketoconazole may serve as an alternative treatment for acne vulgaris, which is important because the number of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes strains has been increasing...
January 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042666/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-broiler-chickens-pigs-and-meat-products-in-the-thailand-cambodia-border-provinces
#6
Suthathip Trongjit, Sunpetch Angkititrakul, R Emerson Tuttle, Jiratchaya Poungseree, Pawin Padungtod, Rungtip Chuanchuen
This study aimed to examine prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the Salmonella isolates from broilers, pigs and their associated meat products in the Thailand-Cambodia border provinces. A total of 941 samples were collected from pigs and broilers at slaughter houses and from carcasses at local fresh markets in Sa Kaeo, Thailand (n = 554) and Banteay Meanchey, Cambodia (n = 387) in 2014 and 2015. Three hundred-forty five Salmonella isolates were collected from Sa Keao (n = 145; 23%) and Banteay Meanchey (n = 200; 47%) and assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility, class 1 integrons and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes...
January 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042660/determination-of-minimum-biofilm-eradication-concentrations-of-orbifloxacin-for-canine-bacterial-uropathogens-over-different-treatment-periods
#7
Takae Shimizu, Kazuki Harada
Biofilm formation can cause refractory urinary tract infections (UTIs) in dogs; however, minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs) of veterinary drugs against canine uropathogens remain to be investigated. In this study, we determined the MBECs of orbifloxacin (OBFX), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMS), and amoxicillin/clavulanate (ACV) over different time periods for treatment of canine uropathogenic Escherichia coli (n = 10). We also determined the MBECs of OBFX for other bacterial uropathogens, including Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (n = 5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=5), and Proteus mirabilis (n=5)...
January 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042656/the-emetic-activity-of-staphylococcal-enterotoxins-sek-sel-sem-sen-and-seo-in-a-small-emetic-animal-model-house-musk-shrew
#8
Hisaya K Ono, Shouhei Hirose, Ikunori Naito, Yusuke Sato'o, Krisana Asano, Dong-Liang Hu, Katsuhiko Omoe, Akio Nakane
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus are the most recognizable causative agents of emetic food poisoning in humans. New types of SEs and SE-like (SEl) toxins have been reported. Several epidemiological investigations have shown that the SEs and SEls genes, particularly, SEK, SEL, SEM, SEN and SEO genes, were highly detected in the strains isolated from food poisoning cases. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the emetic activity of the recently identified SEs using a small emetic animal model, house musk shrew...
January 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004421/comparison-of-neutrophil-functions-between-two-strains-of-inbred-mice
#9
Xiaohuan Zhang, Sainan Zhao, Luping Sun, Wenqing Li, Michael Glogauer, Yan Hu
In this study, differences in neutrophil function represented by Rac1 expression, chemotaxis, NADPH oxidase activity, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) from 2 strains of inbred mice were determined. Neutrophils from CBA/CaH mice exhibited decreased Rac1 expression and a reduced speed in the chemotactic gradient compared to BALB/c mice. Furthermore, the level of superoxide and NETs generated by PMA- or fMLP-stimulated neutrophils from CBA/CaH mice was much lower compared to stimulated neutrophils from BALB/c mice...
December 22, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004418/sublingual-immunization-with-japanese-encephalitis-virus-vaccines-induces-effective-immunity-through-both-cellular-and-humoral-immune-responses-in-mice
#10
Eun-Young Lee, Joo-Young Kim, Deuk-Ki Lee, Il-Sub Yoon, Hae Li Ko, Ji-Woo Chung, Jun Chang, Jae-Hwan Nam
The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis. Although there are four classes of vaccines against JEV, the immunization routes for all vaccines are subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. In here, we investigated the effectiveness of sublingual administration of the JEV live-attenuated vaccine or the recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine including JEV prM/E. The mice were immunized three times intramuscularly (i.m.) or sublingually (s.l.). One week after the final immunization by both s...
December 22, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981613/induction-of-multiple-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-responses-in-mice-by-a-multiepitope-dna-vaccine-against-dengue-virus-serotype-1
#11
Xin Yu Chen, De Zhou Li, Xiao Zhi Zhong, Bokun Chen, Zhi Liang Duan, Jin Sheng Wen
Dengue virus (DENV) is still the major threat to the health of humans in most tropical and subtropical countries and regions. In the present study, based on the eukaryotic expressing plasmid pcDNA(TM) 3.1/myc-His(-) A, we constructed a multiepitope DNA vaccine which encodes fifteen immunogenic and conserved HLA-A*0201-, HLA-A*1101-, HLA-A*2402-restricted CTL epitopes from DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1). Immunization of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice, HLA-A*1101 transgenic mice and HLA-A*2402 transgenic mice with the recombinant plasmid pcDNA(TM) 3...
December 16, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925336/non-exponential-growth-of-mycobacterium-leprae-thai-53-strain-cultured-in-vitro
#12
Kazunobu Amako, Ken-Ichiro Iida, Mitsumasa Saito, Yoshitosi Ogura, Tetsuya Hayashi, Shin-Ichi Yoshida
To determine why cultivation of Mycobacterium leprae in vitro has not been successful, we attempted to culture this bacterium in media supplemented with a variety of biological materials. We observed a slight increase in the number of cells in medium supplemented with human blood plasma and an extract of nude mouse tissue after more than 3 months of cultivation at 30°C. To ascertain whether this increase was real growth, we analyzed the growth by droplet digital PCR. The analysis had the following two results: the slow increase in the copy number of cell-associated DNA and the release of a large amount of DNA into the culture medium from bacterial cells during cultivation...
December 7, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925289/seroepidemiology-of-human-parechovirus-types-1-3-and-6-in-yamagata-japan-in-2014
#13
Shizuka Tanaka, Yoko Aoki, Yohei Matoba, Kazue Yahagi, Tsutomu Itagaki, Yoko Matsuzaki, Katsumi Mizuta
To clarify the seroepidemiology of human parechovirus type 1 (HPeV1), 3 and 6, neutralizing antibodies (NT Abs) were measured in 214 serum specimens collected in 2014 in Yamagata, Japan. The seroprevalence against HPeV1 was 100% for all age groups, while that against HPeV3 and HPeV6 among all residents was 79.4% and 66.8%, respectively. The genometric mean titers of NT Abs against HPeV1, 3 and 6 among all residents were 755.2, 255.0 and 55.8, respectively. Our study indicated that HPeV1 is the most prevalent HPeV circulating in Yamagata, followed by HPeV3 and HPeV6...
December 7, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925288/genomic-sequence-and-virulence-evaluation-of-mn184a-like-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-japan
#14
Hiroshi Iseki, Takeya Morozumi, Michihiro Takagi, Kenji Kawashima, Tomoyuki Shibahara, Hirohide Uenishi, Hiroshi Tsunemitsu
This study characterized a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that was isolated in Japan from a 9-week-old diseased pig on a farm with an increased mortality rate during 2007-2008. This unique isolate, designated as Jpn5-37, did not have a high nucleotide identity in open reading frame 5 against any Japanese isolates. Among all available type 2 PRRSV complete genome sequences, Jpn5-37 shared the highest nucleotide identity (93.6%) with virulent strain MN184A. The genomic characteristics of Jpn5-37 were highly conserved with respect to the virulent MN184A, including a continuous 8-amino acid deletion in the nonstructural protein 2 region...
December 7, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921343/complete-genome-sequence-of-streptococcus-troglodytae-tku31-isolated-from-an-oral-cavity-of-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes
#15
Masaaki Okamoto, Mariko Naito, Mayu Miyanohara, Susumu Imai, Yoshiaki Nomura, Wataru Saito, Yasuko Momoi, Kazuko Takada, Takako Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Masaki Tomonaga, Nobuhiro Hanada
Streptococcus troglodytae TKU31 was isolated from an oral cavity of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and it is the most closely related species to Streptococcus mutans among the mutans group streptococci. The complete sequence of TKU31 genome consisted of a single circular chromosome that was 2,097,874 base pairs in length, with a G + C content of 37.18%. It possessed a total of 2,082 coding sequences (CDSs), 65 tRNAs and five rRNA operons (15 rRNAs). Two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), six insertion sequences (IS) and two predicted prophage elements were identified...
December 6, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128889/reviewer-s-list
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921342/cross-protection-against-vibrio-cholerae-infection-by-monoclonal-antibodies-against-vibrio-vulnificus-rtxa1-martxvv
#17
Tae Hee Lee, Sun-Shin Cha, Chang-Seop Lee, Joon Haeng Rhee, Hye Ryun Woo, Kyung Min Chung
Gram-negative Vibrio species secrete multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins associated with bacterial pathogenesis. Here, the cross-reactivity and cross-protectivity of mAbs against V. vulnificus RtxA1/MARTXVv was evaluated. Passive administration of any of these mAbs (21RA, 24RA, 46RA, 47RA and 50RA) provided strong protection against lethal V. cholerae infection. Interestingly, 24RA and 46RA, which map to the cysteine protease domain of V. cholerae MARTXVc , inhibited CPD autocleavage in vitro; this process is involved in V...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862208/cytokine-and-cellular-responses-to-human-herpesvirus-6b-in-patients-with-b-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#18
Faten Nefzi, Claude Lambert, Agnès Gautheret-Dejean, Sylvain Fisson, Quentin Khebizi, Abderrahim Khelif, Henri Agut, Mahjoub Aouni
Primary infection with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), is followed by its lifelong persistence in the host. Most T-cell responses to HHV-6 have been characterized using peripheral blood from healthy adults; however, the role of HHV-6 infection in immune modulation has not been elucidated for some diseases. Therefore, in this study the immune response to HHV-6 infection in patients with B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) was analyzed. HHV-6 load was quantified in blood samples taken at the time of diagnosis of leukemia and on remission...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862204/a-comparison-of-the-immunological-potency-of-burkholderia-lipopolysaccharides-in-endotoxemic-balb-c-mice
#19
Pei-Tan Hsueh, Chiu-Lin Liu, Hsuan-Han Wang, Wei-Fen Ni, Ya-Lei Chen, Jong-Kang Liu
Lipopolysaccharide is one of the virulence factors of the soil-borne pathogens Burkholderia pseudomallei, B. thailandensis, B. cenocepacia and B. multivorans, which cause septic melioidosis (often in B. pseudomallei infections but rarely in B. thailandensis infections) or cepacia syndromes (commonly in B. cenocepacia infections but rarely in B. multivorans infections). The inflammatory responses in Burkholderia LPS-induced endotoxemia were evaluated in this study. Prior to induction, the conserved structures and functions of each purified LPS were determined using electrophoretic phenotypes, the ratios of 3-hydroxytetradecanoic to 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid and endotoxin units...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862195/vaccinia-virus-western-reserve-induces-rapid-surface-expression-of-a-host-molecule-detected-by-the-antibody-4c7-that-is-distinct-from-clec2d
#20
Kinola J N Williams, Heather E Eaton, Lena Jones, Supraja Rengan, Deborah N Burshtyn
In this study, the effect of active infection with vaccinia virus Western Reserve (VACV WR) on expression of C-type lectin domain family 2 (CLEC2D), a ligand of the human NK cell inhibitory receptor NKR-P1, was examined. As predicted, VACV infection led to a loss of CLEC2D mRNA in 221 cells, a B cell lymphoma line. Surprisingly, VACV infection of 221 cells caused a dramatic increase in cell surface staining for one CLEC2D-specific antibody, 4C7. There were no changes in other antibodies specific for CLEC2D and no indication that NK cells with NKR-P1A were inhibited, suggesting 4C7 detects a non-CLEC2D molecule following infection...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
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