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Microbiology and Immunology

Ryutaro Nishimura, Akio Abe, Yusuke Sakuma, Asaomi Kuwae
Bordetella species, including B. pertussis, have a type III secretion system that is highly conserved among Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Genes encoding the component proteins of a type III secretion system are localized at the bsc locus in the Bordetella genome. Here we investigated the function of a hypothetical protein Bcr4 encoded at the bsc locus in the B. bronchiseptica genome. We created a Bcr4-deficient mutant and determined the amounts of type III secreted proteins (e.g., BopB, BopN, and Bsp22) in both the supernatant fraction and whole-cell lysates of the Bcr4-deficient mutant...
November 8, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yoshifumi Naito, Saeko Hamaoka, Mao Kinoshita, Atsushi Kainuma, Masaru Shimizu, Hideya Katoh, Kiyoshi Moriyama, Ken J Ishii, Teiji Sawa
An effective vaccine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa would be hugely beneficial to people who are susceptible to the serious infections it causes. Vaccination against PcrV of the P. aeruginosa type III secretion system is a potential prophylactic strategy for improving the incidence and poor prognosis of P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Here, the effect of nasal PcrV adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG) was compared with a nasal PcrV/aluminum hydroxide gel (alum) vaccine. Seven mouse groups in the infection series were vaccinated intranasally with one of the following: 1, PcrV-CpG; 2, PcrV-alum; 3, PcrV alone; 4, CpG alone; 5, alum alone; 6 and 7, a saline control...
October 31, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Patricia C García, Braulio A Paillavil, Natalia Scioscia, James B Dale, Paulette Legarraga, Francisco J Salazar-Echegarai, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis, Aniela Wozniak
Protein subunit vaccines are often preferred because of their protective effcacy and safety. Lactic acid bacteria expressing heterologous antigens are a promising aproach for vaccine development. However, their safety in terms of toxicity and bacterial clearance must be evaluated. Anti-Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) vaccines face additional safety concerns because they may elicit autoimmune responses. We report here the assessment of toxicity, clearance and autoimmunity of an anti-streptococcal vaccine based in Lactococcus lactis (L...
October 25, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Mizue Matsushita, Torahiko Okubo, Takaki Hasegawa, Junji Matsuo, Takanori Watanabe, Sumio Iwasaki, Tatsuya Fukumoto, Kasumi Hayasaka, Kozi Akizawa, Chikara Shimizu, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
Ciliates (Tetrahymena) can facilitate plasmid transfer among Escherichia coli or from E. coli to Salmonella Enteritidis via vesicle accumulation. In this study, we assessed whether ciliates promote the interactive transfer of plasmids encoding blaIMP-1 between fecal E. coli and environmental Aeromonas caviae. Both bacteria were mixed with or without ciliates and incubated overnight at 30°C. The frequency of plasmid-acquired bacteria was estimated by colony counts using an agar plate containing ceftazidim (CAZ) followed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment...
October 25, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yuko Shigeno, Mutsumi Toyama, Mutsumi Nakamura, Kimie Niimi, Eiki Takahashi, Yoshimi Benno
Chronic diarrhea among laboratory-bred marmosets represents a serious problem for the health control during experiments. Despite the growing demand for the laboratory-bred experimental marmosets, the mechanisms underlying the development of diarrhea and its effective treatment and prevention remain unclear. To explore the factors affecting the development of chronic diarrhea in the laboratory-bred marmosets, we analyzed the gut microbiota composition (GMC) of 58 laboratory-bred marmosets, including 19 animals with chronic diarrhea, using the terminal-RFLP analysis...
October 22, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Triveni Kalleshamurthy, Ranjitha Shekar, Harish Heballi Niranjanamurthy, Krithiga Natesan, Bibek Ranjan Shome, Rajendra Gulabrao Bambal, Lipi Sairiwal, Sukhadeo B Barbuddhe, Amol Sahare, Sreenivasulu Kilari, Habibur Rahman, Rajeswari Shome
Brucellosis caused by the bacteria of the genus Brucella is an important zoonosis and constitute a serious public health hazard. Brucellosis is diagnosed mainly by Rose Bengal plate test and indirect ELISA which are associated with the reduced specificity due to the false positive serological reactions observed while screening B.abortus S19 vaccinated animals. Fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) was evaluated for screening the samples from cattle and buffalo calves with persistent antibody titres induced by vaccination...
October 22, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Nurhafiza Zainal, Kim-Kee Tan, Jefree Johari, Heselynn Hussein, Wan Rosmaiza Wan Musa, Jamiyah Hassan, Yee-Shin Lin, Sazaly AbuBakar
Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease in the Southeast Asia, where systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) occurrence is at approximately 30 to 53 per 100,000. Severe dengue, however, is rarely reported among patients with SLE. Here, we investigated if sera of patients with SLE would cross-neutralize dengue virus (DENV). Serum samples were obtained from SLE patients recruited for the study. Only SLE patients' sera with dengue serology negative IgG and IgM were used. Neutralization assays against the three major DENV serotypes were performed...
September 27, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Lei Bao, Cecilia Chau, Jeremy Bao, Maria M Tsoukas, Lawrence S Chan
IL-4 plays an important role in atopic dermatitis (AD) pathogenesis by dysregulating many key factors at the transcriptional level. In this study, using microRNA array technique and IL-4 transgenic mice, we demonstrated that IL-4 dysregulates microRNAs involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, lymphoangiogenesis and apoptosis. Of all the 372 common microRNAs examined, 26 and 1 microRNAs are up- and down-regulated, respectively. MicroRNA-101-5p, -122-5p, -142-3p, -204-5p, -335-3p, -376a-3p, -378a-5p, -639 and -9-5p are among the most significantly up-regulated microRNAs...
September 21, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Toshifumi Tomoyasu, Keigo Tsuruno, Ryosuke Tanatsugu, Aya Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Kondo, Atsushi Tabata, Robert A Whiley, Kenji Sonomoto, Hideaki Nagamune
Streptococcus intermedius DnaK complements the temperature-sensitive phenotype of an Escherichia coli dnaK null mutant, only if co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE are co-expressed. Therefore, we examined whether S. intermedius DnaK and E. coli DnaK could recognize heterologous co-chaperones in vitro. The addition of heterologous GrpE to DnaK and DnaJ partially stimulated ATPase activity, and almost completely stimulated the luciferase refolding activity. Addition of heterologous DnaJ to GrpE and DnaK also stimulated ATPase activity but significant luciferase refolding activity was not observed...
September 21, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Muhammad Uzair Mukhtar, Maria Mukhtar, Naveed Iqbal
The prevalence of dengue IgG and IgM antibodies was investigated in 689 patients with suspected dengue. Of the 689 suspected cases, 373 (54.1%) were found to be positive for dengue antibodies, IgM being dominant. There was a significant relationship between incidence of dengue fever and season: all cases were reported during the rainy season, especially the post-monsoon season (89.5%), with none during the dry season. More male (79.3%) than female individuals were positive cases and the incidence was highest in the 21-49 year age group (63%)...
September 14, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Mie Kurosawa, Masataka Oda, Hisanori Domon, Toshihito Isono, Yuki Nakamura, Issei Saitoh, Haruaki Hayasaki, Masaya Yamaguchi, Shigetada Kawabata, Yutaka Terao
Streptococcus pyogenes is a bacterium that causes systemic diseases such as pharyngitis and toxic shock syndrome. S. pyogenes produces molecules that inhibit the function of the human immune system, thus allowing to grow and spread of the pathogen in tissues. It is known that S. pyogenes Christie Atkins Munch-Petersen (CAMP) factor induces vacuolation in macrophages, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated the mechanism of vacuolation induced by CAMP factor in macrophages. CAMP factor induced calcium ion uptake in murine macrophage RAW264...
September 13, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yoshitoyo Kodama, Taichi Ishikawa, Yu Shimoyama, Daisuke Sasaki, Shigenobu Kimura, Minoru Sasaki
Streptococcus anginosus possesses an apparent ability to adhere to cultured epithelial cells or fibronectin, which may be associated with bacterial pathogenicity. In the present study, we describe the molecular characteristics and virulence of the fibronectin-binding protein (FBP), Fbp62, of S. anginosus in animal models in order to investigate the role of the molecule in bacterial infection. fbp62 encodes a 549 amino acid-residue with an apparent molecular mass of 62.8 kDa that lacks a membrane anchor motif and a leader peptide, suggesting that fbp62 codes for an atypical FBP...
September 7, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Tetsuo Koshizuka, Yuko Sato, Shoe Kobiyama, Mami Oshima, Tatsuo Suzutani
The quantification of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication by plaque assay reflects viral infectivity but suffers from several drawbacks. Recombinant virus expressing reporter genes can facilitate the quantification of HCMV replication. In this report, we constructed a recombinant virus, Towne-BAC(dTT)-MetLuc, into which was inserted the secretable Metridia luciferase (MetLuc) gene under the UL146 promoter. In addition, the UL130 gene was repaired to allow the growth of recombinant virus in both fibroblasts and epithelial cells...
September 6, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Madoka Kuramitsu, Kazu Okuma, Makoto Nakashima, Tomoo Sato, Daisuke Sasaki, Hiroo Hasegawa, Kazumi Umeki, Ryuji Kubota, Keiko Sasada, Rieko Sobata, Chieko Matsumoto, Noriaki Kaneko, Kenta Tezuka, Sahoko Matsuoka, Atae Utsunomiya, Ki-Ryang Koh, Masao Ogata, Kenji Ishitsuka, Mai Taki, Kisato Nosaka, Kaoru Uchimaru, Masako Iwanaga, Yasuko Sagara, Yoshihisa Yamano, Akihiko Okayama, Kiyonori Miura, Masahiro Satake, Shigeru Saito, Toshiki Watanabe, Isao Hamaguchi
Quantitative PCR (qPCR) of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) provirus is used for HTLV-1 testing or for the risk assessment of HTLV-1-related diseases. In this study, we developed reference material for HTLV-1 qPCR. Freeze-dried TL-Om1 cells diluted with Jurkat cells were prepared and the proviral load (PVL) was value assigned as 2.71 copies/100 cells using digital PCR. Measurement by nine Japanese laboratories resulted in PVLs of the reference ranging from 1.08-3.49 copies/100 cells. The maximum difference among laboratories was 3...
August 20, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Tho Duc Pham, Tuan Hai Nguyen, Hanako Iwashita, Taichiro Takemura, Kouichi Morita, Tetsu Yamashiro
Vibrio cholerae O1 causes cholera, and cholera toxin, the principal mediator of massive diarrhea, is encoded by ctxAB in the cholera toxin (CTX) prophage. In this study, the structures of the CTX prophage region of V. cholerae strains isolated during the seventh pandemic wave 1 in Asian countries were determined and compared. Eighteen strains were categorized into eight groups by CTX prophage region-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism and PCR profiles and the structure of the region of a representative strain from each group was determined by DNA sequencing...
October 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yuanjian Sheng, Yong Wang, Wei Lu, Yunlian Zhou, Guijuan Dong, Xiaoxing Ge, Yinjing Song, Yuanyuan Zhang
MicroRNAs are short, non-coding RNAs that have been shown to regulate a wide range of biological processes, including host antiviral immune responses. In the present study, microRNA-92a (miR-92a) was identified as a negative regulator in macrophage-mediated antiviral responses. Overexpression of miR-92a decreases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-induced production of type-I IFNs and facilitates viral replication in macrophages. The mechanism is that miR-92a directly targets RIG-I and reduces its expression, thereby attenuating VSV-triggered activation of TBK-binding kinase 1 and IRF3, both of which are crucial for initiating transcription of type-I IFN genes...
September 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Michio Suzuki, Koichi Imaoka, Yumi Haga, Masahiro Mohri, Ayako Nogami, Yoshio Shimojima, Yoshimi Irie, Satoru Sugimura, Shigeru Morikawa
Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Capnocytophaga cynodegmi, both commensal bacteria in the oral cavities of dogs and cats, are zoonotic pathogens. In particular, C. canimorsus causes sepsis and fatal septic shock. Recently, a novel Capnocytophaga species, C. canis, was isolated from the oral cavities of healthy dogs. It is reportedly oxidase-negative and therefore considered avirulent in humans. In the present study, three strains of C. canis were isolated from Japanese patients with sepsis. All three strains, HP20001, HP33001 and HP40001, were oxidase-positive...
September 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Kunse Lee, Hae Li Ko, Eun-Young Lee, Hyo-Jung Park, Young Seok Kim, Yeon-Sook Kim, Nam-Hyuk Cho, Man-Seong Park, Sang-Myeong Lee, Jihye Kim, Hun Kim, Baik Lin Seong, Jae-Hwan Nam
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes severe respiratory disease in humans with a high fatality rate. Binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) glycoprotein to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is the critical step in MERS-CoV infection of a host cell. No vaccines or clinically applicable treatments are currently available for MERS-CoV. Therefore, rapid diagnosis is important for improving patient outcomes through prompt treatment and protection against viral outbreaks...
September 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Satoshi Higashide, Otomi Cho, Yuko Matsuda, Daiki Ogishima, Sanae Kurakado, Takashi Sugita
The aim of this study was to develop a method for the rapid detection of Gardnerella vaginalis, which is proposed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis. Specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primers were designed and used to detect target DNA within 45 min under isothermal conditions. Comparative screening indicated that the LAMP assay is superior to PCR in terms of rapidity, and is equivalent in sensitivity and specificity. This LAMP assay can be used for rapid screening and detection of G...
September 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
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August 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
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