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Microbiology and Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925336/non-exponential-growth-of-mycobacterium-leprae-thai-53-strain-cultured-in-vitro
#1
Kazunobu Amako, Ken-Ichiro Iida, Mitsumasa Saito, Yoshitosi Ogura, Tetsuya Hayashi, Shin-Ichi Yoshida
To determine why cultivation of Mycobacterium leprae in vitro has not been successful, we attempted to culture this bacterium in media supplemented with a variety of biological materials. We observed a slight increase in the number of cells in medium supplemented with human blood plasma and an extract of nude mouse tissue after more than 3 months of cultivation at 30°C. To ascertain whether this increase was real growth, we analyzed the growth by droplet digital PCR. The analysis had the following two results: the slow increase in the copy number of cell-associated DNA and the release of a large amount of DNA into the culture medium from bacterial cells during cultivation...
December 7, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925289/seroepidemiology-of-human-parechovirus-types-1-3-and-6-in-yamagata-japan-in-2014
#2
Shizuka Tanaka, Yoko Aoki, Yohei Matoba, Kazue Yahagi, Tsutomu Itagaki, Yoko Matsuzaki, Katsumi Mizuta
To clarify the seroepidemiology of human parechovirus type 1 (HPeV1), 3 and 6, neutralizing antibodies (NT Abs) were measured in 214 serum specimens collected in 2014 in Yamagata, Japan. The seroprevalence against HPeV1 was 100% for all age groups, while that against HPeV3 and HPeV6 among all residents was 79.4% and 66.8%, respectively. The genometric mean titers of NT Abs against HPeV1, 3 and 6 among all residents were 755.2, 255.0 and 55.8, respectively. Our study indicated that HPeV1 is the most prevalent HPeV circulating in Yamagata, followed by HPeV3 and HPeV6...
December 7, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925288/genomic-sequence-and-virulence-evaluation-of-mn184a-like-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-japan
#3
Hiroshi Iseki, Takeya Morozumi, Michihiro Takagi, Kenji Kawashima, Tomoyuki Shibahara, Hirohide Uenishi, Hiroshi Tsunemitsu
This study characterized a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that was isolated in Japan from a 9-week-old diseased pig on a farm with an increased mortality rate during 2007-2008. This unique isolate, designated as Jpn5-37, did not have a high nucleotide identity in open reading frame 5 against any Japanese isolates. Among all available type 2 PRRSV complete genome sequences, Jpn5-37 shared the highest nucleotide identity (93.6%) with virulent strain MN184A. The genomic characteristics of Jpn5-37 were highly conserved with respect to the virulent MN184A, including a continuous 8-amino acid deletion in the nonstructural protein 2 region...
December 7, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921343/complete-genome-sequence-of-streptococcus-troglodytae-tku31-isolated-from-an-oral-cavity-of-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes
#4
Masaaki Okamoto, Mariko Naito, Mayu Miyanohara, Susumu Imai, Yoshiaki Nomura, Wataru Saito, Yasuko Momoi, Kazuko Takada, Takako Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Masaki Tomonaga, Nobuhiro Hanada
Streptococcus troglodytae TKU31 was isolated from an oral cavity of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and it is the most closely related species to Streptococcus mutans among the mutans group streptococci. The complete sequence of TKU31 genome consisted of a single circular chromosome that was 2,097,874 base pairs in length, with a G + C content of 37.18%. It possessed a total of 2,082 coding sequences (CDSs), 65 tRNAs and five rRNA operons (15 rRNAs). Two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), six insertion sequences (IS) and two predicted prophage elements were identified...
December 6, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730669/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-virus-induced-cytokine-dysregulation-with-suppressed-maturation-of-chicken-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells
#5
Semmannan Kalaiyarasu, Manoj Kumar, Dhanapal Senthil Kumar, Sandeep Bhatia, Sandeep Kumar Dash, Sushant Bhat, Rohit K Khetan, Shanmugasundaram Nagarajan
One of the major causes of death in highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in chicken is due to acute induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine (cytokine storm) which leads to severe pathology and acute mortality. Dendritic cells and macrophages of respiratory tract are the major antigen presenting cells (APCs) getting exposed to mucosal pathogens. We hypothesized that chicken dendritic cells might be a major target for H5N1 HPAIV for induction of cytokine dysregulation. Infection of chMoDCs with H5N1 HPAIV produced high titers of progeny virus with more rounding and cytotoxicity than H9N2 LPAIV...
October 12, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663267/separation-of-novel-phosphoproteins-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-using-phosphate-affinity-chromatography
#6
Masashi Izumigawa, Yoshiaki Hasegawa, Ryota Ikai, Toshi Horie, Megumi Inomata, Takeshi Into, Noriyuki Kitai, Fuminobu Yoshimura, Yukitaka Murakami
Phosphorylation of serine (Ser), threonine (Thr), and tyrosine (Tyr) is a central mechanism for regulating the structure and function of proteins in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, the action of phosphorylated proteins present in Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major periodontopathogen, is not fully understood. Here, we identified six novel phosphoproteins that possess metabolic activities, namely PGN_0004, PGN_0375, PGN_0500, PGN_0724, PGN_0733, and PGN_0880, separated using phosphate-affinity chromatography...
September 24, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624873/impaired-japanese-encephalitis-virus-replication-in-p62-sqstm1-deficient-mouse-embryonic-fibroblasts
#7
Takafumi Tasaki, Souichi Nukuzuma, Tsutomu Takegami
We investigated the role of the autophagy adaptor protein p62/SQSTM1 in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) replication in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Compared with the wild-type cells, JEV RNA and the E protein levels were significantly decreased in p62-deficient cells at 24 hr post infection (p.i.). JEV RNA quantitation and the viral plaque assay were performed and showed a significant reduction in the viral titer in the p62-deficient cell culture fluid. Our results indicate that JEV replication is impaired in p62-deficient MEFs...
September 14, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619817/legionella-clemsonensis-sp-nov-a-green-fluorescing-legionella-strain-from-a-patient-with-pneumonia
#8
Allison Palmer, Joseph Painter, Hayley Hassler, Vincent P Richards, Terri Bruce, Shatavia Morrison, Ellen Brown, Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Claressa Lucas, Tamara L McNealy
A novel Legionella species was identified based on sequencing, cellular fatty acid analysis, biochemical reactions, and biofilm characterization. Strain D5610 was originally isolated from the bronchial wash of a patient in Ohio. The bacteria were Gram negative, rod shaped, and exhibited a green fluorescence under long wave UV light. Phylogenetic analysis and fatty acid composition revealed a distinct separation within the genus. The strain grows between 26-45°C and forms biofilms equivalent to L. pneumophila Philadelphia 1...
September 13, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619624/identification-of-b-cell-epitopes-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-outer-surface-protein-c-by-screening-a-phage-displayed-gene-fragment-library
#9
Lucia Pulzova, Zuzana Flachbartova, Elena Bencurova, Lenka Potocnakova, Lubos Comor, Eva Schreterova, Mangesh Bhide
Outer surface protein C of Borrelia stimulates remarkable immune responses during early infection and is currently considered as a leading diagnostic and vaccine candidate. Sensitivity and specificity of serological test based on whole protein OspC is still an issue in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. The minimal B-cell epitopes are key in the development of reliable immunodiagnostic tool. Using OspC fragments displayed on phage particles (phage library) and anti-OspC antibodies isolated from sera of naturally infected patients we identified six OspC epitopes capable of distinguishing between LD patient and healthy control sera...
September 13, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921342/cross-protection-against-vibrio-cholerae-infection-by-monoclonal-antibodies-against-vibrio-vulnificus-rtxa1-martxvv
#10
Tae Hee Lee, Sun-Shin Cha, Chang-Seop Lee, Joon Haeng Rhee, Hye Ryun Woo, Kyung Min Chung
Gram-negative Vibrio species secrete multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins associated with bacterial pathogenesis. Here, the cross-reactivity and cross-protectivity of mAbs against V. vulnificus RtxA1/MARTXVv was evaluated. Passive administration of any of these mAbs (21RA, 24RA, 46RA, 47RA and 50RA) provided strong protection against lethal V. cholerae infection. Interestingly, 24RA and 46RA, which map to the cysteine protease domain of V. cholerae MARTXVc , inhibited CPD autocleavage in vitro; this process is involved in V...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862208/cytokine-and-cellular-responses-to-human-herpesvirus-6b-in-patients-with-b-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#11
Faten Nefzi, Claude Lambert, Agnès Gautheret-Dejean, Sylvain Fisson, Quentin Khebizi, Abderrahim Khelif, Henri Agut, Mahjoub Aouni
Primary infection with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), is followed by its lifelong persistence in the host. Most T-cell responses to HHV-6 have been characterized using peripheral blood from healthy adults; however, the role of HHV-6 infection in immune modulation has not been elucidated for some diseases. Therefore, in this study the immune response to HHV-6 infection in patients with B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) was analyzed. HHV-6 load was quantified in blood samples taken at the time of diagnosis of leukemia and on remission...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862204/a-comparison-of-the-immunological-potency-of-burkholderia-lipopolysaccharides-in-endotoxemic-balb-c-mice
#12
Pei-Tan Hsueh, Chiu-Lin Liu, Hsuan-Han Wang, Wei-Fen Ni, Ya-Lei Chen, Jong-Kang Liu
Lipopolysaccharide is one of the virulence factors of the soil-borne pathogens Burkholderia pseudomallei, B. thailandensis, B. cenocepacia and B. multivorans, which cause septic melioidosis (often in B. pseudomallei infections but rarely in B. thailandensis infections) or cepacia syndromes (commonly in B. cenocepacia infections but rarely in B. multivorans infections). The inflammatory responses in Burkholderia LPS-induced endotoxemia were evaluated in this study. Prior to induction, the conserved structures and functions of each purified LPS were determined using electrophoretic phenotypes, the ratios of 3-hydroxytetradecanoic to 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid and endotoxin units...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862195/vaccinia-virus-western-reserve-induces-rapid-surface-expression-of-a-host-molecule-detected-by-the-antibody-4c7-that-is-distinct-from-clec2d
#13
Kinola J N Williams, Heather E Eaton, Lena Jones, Supraja Rengan, Deborah N Burshtyn
In this study, the effect of active infection with vaccinia virus Western Reserve (VACV WR) on expression of C-type lectin domain family 2 (CLEC2D), a ligand of the human NK cell inhibitory receptor NKR-P1, was examined. As predicted, VACV infection led to a loss of CLEC2D mRNA in 221 cells, a B cell lymphoma line. Surprisingly, VACV infection of 221 cells caused a dramatic increase in cell surface staining for one CLEC2D-specific antibody, 4C7. There were no changes in other antibodies specific for CLEC2D and no indication that NK cells with NKR-P1A were inhibited, suggesting 4C7 detects a non-CLEC2D molecule following infection...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797115/inhibitory-effect-of-presenilin-inhibitor-ly411575-on-maturation-of-hepatitis-c-virus-core-protein-production-of-the-viral-particle-and-expression-of-host-proteins-involved-in-pathogenicity
#14
Teruhime Otoguro, Tomohisa Tanaka, Hirotake Kasai, Atsuya Yamashita, Kohji Moriishi
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is responsible for the formation of infectious viral particles and induction of pathogenicity. The C-terminal transmembrane region of the immature core protein is cleaved by signal peptide peptidase (SPP) for maturation of the core protein. SPP belongs to the family of presenilin-like aspartic proteases. Some presenilin inhibitors are expected to suppress HCV infection and production; however, this anti-HCV effect has not been investigated in detail. In this study, presenilin inhibitors were screened to identify anti-HCV compounds...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797112/killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-repertoire-analysis-in-a-caucasian-spanish-cohort-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Ruth López-Hernández, Jose A Campillo, Isabel Legaz, Mariano Valdés, Hortensia Salama, Francisco Boix, A M Hernández-Martínez, Jorge Eguia, G González-Martínez, Maria R Moya-Quiles, Alfredo Minguela, Ana García-Alonso, Fernando Carballo, Manuel Muro
Immunological molecules are implicated in inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]). Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are also genetically variable proteins involved in immune function. They are expressed by NK cells and certain T lymphocytes, regulate specificity and function by interaction with HLA Class I molecules, may be either inhibitory or activating and are polymorphic both in terms of alleles and haplotype gene content...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762443/efficient-isolation-of-human-parainfluenza-viruses-1-and-3-using-mnt-1-a-human-malignant-melanoma-cell-line-system-that-exhibits-an-apparent-cytopathic-effect
#16
Ko Sato, Oshi Watanabe, Suguru Ohmiya, Fumiko Chiba, Masahiro Hayashi, Tamio Suzuki, Kazuyoshi Kawakami, Hidekazu Nishimura
Isolation of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) serotypes 1 and 3 from clinical specimens is not very efficient because of the lack of a cell culture system capable of inducing CPE. In this study, the utility of a melanoma cell line, MNT-1, that allows HPIV growth and displays CPE was demonstrated. In particularly, the efficiency of isolating HPIV1 and HPIV3 using MNT-1 was greater than for cell lines conventionally used for HPIV isolation. Our demonstrated efficacy of HPIV1 and HPIV3 isolation with apparent CPE using the MNT-1 cell culture system has the potential to improve virus isolation from clinical specimens...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761939/association-of-il-37-gene-polymorphisms-with-susceptibility-to-tuberculosis-in-saudi-subjects
#17
Gamal Allam, Imad A A Mohamed, Khaled A Alswat, Said H Abbadi, Raad Nassif, Bader J Alharthi, Amre Nasr
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. IL-37, a novel member of the IL-1 family, has anti-inflammatory activity. Various cytokine genes polymorphisms are reportedly associated with susceptibility to TB infection. However, an association between genetic variations in the IL-37 gene and susceptibility to TB infection has not been investigated. The aim of this case-control study was therefore to identify such an association in Saudi subjects, in which five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-37 gene were assessed...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761933/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-of-recombinant-iron-superoxide-dismutase-protein-from-bordetella-pertussis-in-mice-models
#18
Çiğdem Yılmaz, Aycan Apak, Erkan Özcengiz, Gülay Özcengiz
Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis. Although availability of effective pertussis vaccines reportedly decreases the incidence of the disease, B. pertussis circulation in populations has not been eliminated. Thus, it is necessary to find new protein candidates with greater immune protective capacities than the currently available acellular pertussis vaccines. In this study, iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) gene (sodB) was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and recombinant FeSOD protein thence purified...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686649/association-of-mycobacterium-infections-in-patients-with-mendelian-susceptibility-to-mycobacterial-disease-with-venous-thromboembolism
#19
Maryam Alinejad Dizaj, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani, Payam Tabarsi, Hamed Ahari, Ahmad Ebrahimi, Seyed Alireza Nadji, Habib Emami, Esmaeil Mortaz
An association between a hypercoagulable state and Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) has been established in a few studies; resultant thrombosis is considered rare. In a case-control study, the prevalence of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C mutations were investigated in mycobacterium-infected patients. The study comprised 30 patients with mycobacterial infections (invasive, disseminated and/or recurrent infections with Bacille Calmette-Guerin or non-tuberculosis mycobacteria and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis with positive results for acid-fast bacilli and tuberculin skin tests) and 30 normal healthy controls...
October 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594514/nitrate-salts-suppress-sporulation-and-production-of-enterotoxin-in-clostridium-perfringens-strain-nctc8239
#20
Mayo Yasugi, Keisuke Otsuka, Masami Miyake
Clostridium perfringens type A is a common source of food-borne illness in humans. Ingested vegetative cells sporulate in the small intestinal tract and produce C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) during sporulation. Although sporulation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of food-borne illness, the molecules triggering/inhibiting sporulation are still largely unknown. We previously reported that sporulation was induced in C. perfringens strain NCTC8239 co-cultured with Caco-2 cells in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM)...
September 5, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
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