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Journal of Food Protection

Xia Chen, Ying Liu, Shiyu Chai, Jing Guo, Wenru Wu
The uses of thermal and chemical treatments were evaluated with respect to the inactivation of the Lactobacillus virulent bacteriophage P2. Thermal treatments consisted of heating the phage at 63, 72, and 90°C in three broth media: de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth, reconstituted skim milk, and Tris magnesium gelatin buffer. Chemical treatments evaluated were ethanol, isopropanol, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid at various concentrations. Phage P2 was completely inactivated in 20 and 5 min at 72 and 90°C, respectively...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Laura N Truitt, Kathleen M Vazquez, Rachel C Pfuntner, Steven L Rideout, Arie H Havelaar, Laura K Strawn
Several produce-borne outbreaks have been associated with the use of contaminated water during preharvest applications. Salmonella has been implicated in a number of these outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of agricultural surface water used in preharvest production on the Eastern Shore of Virginia in accordance with the Food Safety Modernization Act's Produce Safety Rule water standards. The study also examined the prevalence, concentration, and diversity of Salmonella in those water sources...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Lei Yuan, Faizan A Sadiq, Mette Burmølle, Tongjie Liu, Guoqing He
Milk spoilage caused by psychrotrophic bacteria and their heat-stable enzymes is a serious challenge for the dairy industry. In many studies, spoilage has been explored based on the simplistic view of undesirable enzymes produced by planktonic cells. Recently, biofilms and quorum sensing (QS) have been suggested as important factors in the deterioration of milk, which opens new avenues for investigation of the processes and challenges. Production and heat stability of enzymes are enhanced in biofilms, mainly because of inherent differences in physiological states and protective shielding by extracellular polymeric substances...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Huqing Yang, Xia Li, Guoquan Lu
Because of high water loss and rot observed in postharvest sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) roots, a carnauba wax (CW)-based nanoemulsion without or with glycerol monolaurate (CW-GML) was developed by a high-energy emulsification approach. The effects of the two coatings on decay, respiration rate, weight loss, surface color, total soluble sugar, and starch content as well as the sensory quality of sweet potato roots were investigated during storage at 20°C for 50 days. Compared with the control treatment (water) and CW coating alone, CW-GML coating exhibited higher emulsion stability and antifungal activity, and treatment resulted in a uniform and continuous coating on roots...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Megan K Shaughnessy, Tim Snider, Rocio Sepulveda, David Boxrud, Elizabeth Cebelinski, Selina Jawahir, Stacy Holzbauer, Brian D Johnston, Kirk Smith, Jeff B Bender, Paul Thuras, Francisco Diez-Gonzalez, James R Johnson
Community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) now accounts for approximately 50% of CDI cases in central Minnesota; animals and meat products are potential sources. From November 2011 to July 2013, we cultured retail meat products and fecal samples from food-producing and companion animals in central Minnesota for C. difficile by using standard methods. The resulting 51 C. difficile isolates, plus 30 archived local veterinary C. difficile isolates and 208 human CA-CDI case isolates from central Minnesota (from 2012) from the Minnesota Department of Health, were characterized molecularly, and source groups were compared using discriminant analysis...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Božica Solomun Kolanović, Nina Bilandžić, Ivana Varenina, Đurđica Božić Luburić, Ines Varga, Luka Cvetnić, Miroslav Benić, Željko Cvetnić, Marija Denžić Lugomer, Damir Pavliček, Jagoda Šušković, Blaženka Kos
This study was conducted to evaluate withdrawal time of levamisole in eggs after oral administration in laying hens at different doses. Sampling of eggs was conducted for 37 days after the end of treatment, and levamisole concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Estimated validation parameters were as follows: decision limit, 0.54 μg/kg; detection capability, 0.56 μg/kg; limit of detection, 0.04 μg/kg; limit of quantification, 0...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Ewa Czarniecka-Skubina, Joanna Trafiałek, Michał Wiatrowski, Artur Głuchowski
The aim of this study was to evaluate hygiene conditions and practices in selected street food facilities in Paris, France. One hundred twenty mobile food establishments were studied: kiosks, 66 (55%); stands, 32 (26.7%); and food trucks, 22 (18.3%). Inspection of street food vendors and short interviews with staff using a specially designed checklist revealed that none of them were entirely hygienic. The hygiene conditions of the facilities themselves were the most satisfactory (77% of them were up to standard), but hygiene was less so for production and distribution processes (65% were satisfactory) and personal hygiene (67% were satisfactory)...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Enrique Lozano-Bilbao, Songlian Méndez, Gonzalo Lozano, Arturo Hardisson, Dailos González-Weller, Carmen Rubio, Ángel Gutiérrez
The study has been conducted with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry to determine the content of toxic heavy metals, macroelements, and essential elements in two species of bivalves of commercial interest in the Canary Islands: the Mediterranean mussel ( Mytillus galloprovincialis, Lamarck 1819) and the razor clam ( Ensis directus, Conrad 1883). The study included 40 samples corresponding to 20 specimens of each species acquired from fishmongers on the island of Tenerife. E. directus had higher levels of metals, except for B, Cd, Na, and Zn (0...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Tommy L Wheeler, Terrance M Arthur
A sampling method that represents a greater proportion of the beef trimmings in a 900-kg combo bin should improve the current pathogen sampling and detection programs used by fresh beef processors. This study compared two novel, nondestructive sampling methodologies (a continuous sampling device [CSD] and a manual sampling device [MSD]) with the current industry methodologies, the N60 Excision (the "gold standard") and N60 Plus, for collection of trim samples. Depending on the experiment, samples were analyzed for naturally occurring Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella, inoculated surrogates, or indicator organisms in multiple plants, on multiple days, across multiple lean percentage mixtures...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Mohammad B Habibi Najafi, Saeideh S Fatemizadeh, Samaneh Rezaei Boroojerdi, Fereshteh Hosseini, Reza Karazhyan
In vitro antimold activity of annatto natural dye against Aspergillus niger, Neurospora sitophila, and Rhizopus stolonifer was evaluated with agar well diffusion and agar dilution assays. The effects of adding annatto dye (0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1%) to bread formulations were then examined. Total microbial and fungal counts, moisture, color, radical scavenging activity, and sensory analysis of bread were monitored. A. niger was the fungus most sensitive to annatto dye in vitro. Increased dye concentrations resulted in significant decreases ( P < 0...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Kyung Min Park, Mooncheol Jeong, Kee Jai Park, Minseon Koo
Bacillus cereus has long been recognized as an important pathogen in foodborne poisoning worldwide. Fresh vegetables are often contaminated with enterotoxigenic B. cereus and have been implicated as a vehicle for the transmission of this bacterium. This study reports on the occurrence, virulence gene profile, and antibiotic resistance of B. cereus in fresh vegetables. Of 102 examined samples, 48 (47%) of the samples were contaminated with B. cereus (>1 log CFU/g) and 7 (6.8%) of the samples showed more than 3 log CFU/g...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Petra Lüdin, Alexandra Roetschi, Daniel Wüthrich, Rémy Bruggmann, Hélène Berthoud, Noam Shani
Bacterial strains used as starter cultures in the production of fermented foods may act as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance (AbR) genes. To avoid the introduction of such genes into the food chain, the presence of acquired AbR in bacterial strains added to food must be tested. Standard protocols and microbiological cut-off values have been defined to provide practitioners with a basis for evaluating whether their bacterial isolates harbor an acquired resistance to a given antibiotic. Here, we tested the AbR of 24 strains of Pediococcus acidilactici by using the standard protocol and microbiological cut-off values recommended by the European Food Safety Authority...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Fadwa Al-Taher, Boris Nemzer
The determination of residual solvents is critical for quality control in food production and manufacturing processes. A gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric detection (MSD) method was developed and validated to complement the static headspace flame ionization detection (FID) technique for identification, confirmation, and quantitation of solvent residues in botanicals, using Coffeeberry extract and pomegranate powder as test samples. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 12% were obtained for residual solvents in water and dimethyl sulfoxide...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
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August 21, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Linlin Jiang, Jianlong Zhang, Jinxiu Tang, Meng Li, Xiaoyu Zhao, Hongwei Zhu, Xin Yu, Youzhi Li, Tao Feng, Xingxiao Zhang
The aim of the present study was to analyze the aerosol concentrations and microbial community structures in closed cage broiler houses at different broiler growth stages to assess the dynamic pattern of microbial aerosols in closed cage systems. Our results revealed that the total concentration of bacterial aerosols gradually increased during the growth cycle of broilers. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA revealed that microbial compositions differed tremendously during different growth stages, although Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the dominant taxa in samples from all broiler growth stages...
September 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Jessie Usaga, Randy W Worobo
The growing demand for fruit and vegetable juice blends, with improved nutritional and sensory attributes, has prompted the industrial adoption of nonthermal processing technologies, including UV light. Limited studies have explored conditions to overcome the well-known limitations of UV when treating liquid foods with a high content of particles that absorb or scatter UV light. This study addressed the effectiveness of the application of UV light, using a commercial processing unit, to inactivate pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica (hereafter Salmonella), and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as spoilage microorganisms, in colored and turbid juices and beverages...
September 2018: Journal of Food Protection
M E Berrang, R J Meinersmann, N A Cox, T M Thompson
Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been traced to undercooked chicken liver. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter associated with chicken livers at retail and to determine which subtypes are detected on the surface and in the internal tissues of the livers. Fifteen packages of fresh chicken livers, each representing a unique combination of processing plant and sell-by date, were collected at each of three retail grocery stores in Georgia. Three intact, undamaged livers per container ( n = 45) were selected and sampled using each three methods: outside swab, inside swab accessed by pressing through a heat-sterilized outer surface, and whole liver blended in enrichment broth...
September 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Raghad S Mohammed, Rasha S Ahmed, Rana O Abdaljalil
Studies have been conducted in some southern Iraqi governorates to measure the radioactive contamination in the soil and have revealed that these areas are contaminated with radioactive materials. In these test sites, where many military operations have been conducted and that may have been affected by the Chernobyl accident, pollution and its impact on the truffle crop have been examined. Truffles are fungi that grow in the ground and can be contaminated by radiation from polluted soil. Uranium, thorium, potassium, and cesium activities were analyzed in truffles collected from the desert of Samawah governorate in the southern part of Iraq, and the results were compared with global values...
September 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Paul W Kachapulula, Juliet Akello, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Peter J Cotty
Dried insects and fish are important sources of income and dietary protein in Zambia. Some aflatoxin-producing fungi are entomopathogenic and also colonize insects and fish after harvest and processing. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic, immune-suppressing mycotoxins that are frequent food contaminants worldwide. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination of crops in Africa. However, aflatoxin producers associated with dried fish and edible insects in Zambia remain unknown, and aflatoxin concentrations in these foods have been inadequately evaluated...
September 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Simone Stella, Erica Tirloni, Emanuele Castelli, Fabio Colombo, Cristian Bernardi
This study evaluated the prevalence of potential pathogenic bacteria (mainly Campylobacter spp., but also Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella) in wild boar (S us scrofa) and the hygiene of carcasses of wild boar hunted in a hill area of northern Italy during a hunting season (October to December). In total, 62 animals were submitted to microbiological analyses of the tonsils (detection of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes), caecal content (detection of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp.), mesenteric lymph glands (detection of Salmonella), and carcasses...
September 2018: Journal of Food Protection
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