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Journal of Food Protection

Ronnie O Pedersen, Tim Peters, Rakhi Panda, Paul Wehling, Eric A E Garber
A shipment of imported garlic powder was suspected of containing peanut. Samples (subs) collected from the shipment displayed considerable variability in peanut antigenicity when analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This raised questions regarding whether peanut was actually present, the amount present, and the basis for the variability in antigenic content. Analyses that used an xMAP multiplex assay for the detection of peanut and additional food allergens generated responses that were characteristic of peanut...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Daniel L Weller, Jasna Kovac, Sherry Roof, David J Kent, Jeffrey I Tokman, Barbara Kowalcyk, David Oryang, Renata Ivanek, Anna Aceituno, Christopher Sroka, Martin Wiedmann
Although wildlife intrusion and untreated manure have been associated with microbial contamination of produce, relatively few studies have examined the survival of Escherichia coli on produce under field conditions following contamination (e.g., via splash from wildlife feces). This experimental study was performed to estimate the die-off rate of E. coli on preharvest lettuce following contamination with a fecal slurry. During August 2015, field-grown lettuce was inoculated via pipette with a fecal slurry that was spiked with a three-strain cocktail of rifampin-resistant nonpathogenic E...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Suguru Murashita, Shuso Kawamura, Shigenobu Koseki
Ice, widely used in the food industry, is a potential cause of food poisoning resulting from microbial contamination. Direct microbial inactivation of ice is necessary because microorganisms may have been present in the source water used to make it and/or may have been introduced due to poor hygiene during production or handling of the ice. Nonthermal and nondestructive microbial inactivation technologies are needed to control microorganisms in ice. We evaluated the applicability of a UVC light-emitting diode (UVC-LED) for microbial inactivation in ice...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Chao Shi, Zhenyu Jia, Yi Sun, Yifei Chen, Du Guo, Zhiyuan Liu, Qiwu Wen, Xiao Guo, Linlin Ma, Baowei Yang, Allah Bux Baloch, Xiaodong Xia
The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of citral plus mild heat on nondesiccated and desiccated Cronobacter sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula. Various concentrations of citral (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9%) combined with various temperatures (25, 45, 50, and 55°C) were applied to nondesiccated and desiccated cocktails of three C. sakazakii strains (approximately 6.0 log CFU mL(-1)) in reconstituted infant formula, and the bacterial populations were assayed periodically. The combined treatments had marked antimicrobial effects on C...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Jihee Choi, Robert L Scharff
The increased frequency with which people are dining out coupled with an increase in the publicity of foodborne disease outbreaks has led the public to an increased awareness of food safety issues associated with food service establishments. To accommodate consumer needs, local health departments have increasingly publicized food establishments' health inspection scores. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of the color-coded inspection score disclosure system in place since 2006 in Columbus, OH, by controlling for several confounding factors...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Antonella De Roma, Maria Cesarina Abete, Paola Brizio, Giuseppe Picazio, Marcello Caiazzo, Jacopo Luigi D'auria, Mauro Esposito
Human exposure to contaminated food is a general health concern worldwide; it is necessary to evaluate food safety with respect to contaminants present in the edible parts of major food crops. This study evaluated the concentrations of 17 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn) from 51 potato plantations in the Campania region, inside the area known as the "Triangle of Death," with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Results confirm that the potatoes collected from the suburban area of Naples contained concentrations of trace elements below the safe limits prescribed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Evelyne Guévremont, Lisyanne Lamoureux, Mylène Généreux, Caroline Côté
Irrigation water has been identified as a possible source of vegetable contamination by foodborne pathogens. Risk management for pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in fields can be influenced by the source of the irrigation water and the time interval between last irrigation and harvest. Plots of romaine lettuce were irrigated with manure-contaminated water or aerated pond water 21, 7, or 3 days prior to harvesting, and water and muck soil samples were collected at each irrigation treatment...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Ana Santos, Margarida Fonseca Cardoso, José M Correia da Costa, Eduarda Gomes-Neves
Butcher shops are end points in the meat chain, and they can have a determinant role in cross-contamination control. This study aims to determine whether Portuguese butcher shops comply with European and Portuguese law regarding the sale of fresh meat and meat products. Butcher shops (n = 73) were assessed for meat handler and facility hygiene and for maintenance of the premises. Handlers (n = 88) were given a questionnaire composed of questions about knowledge and practice, including hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and good practice in food industry, to assess their knowledge of and compliance with food safety practices...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Valdenice Gomes de Araújo, Maria Digian de Oliveira Arruda, Francisca Nayara Dantas Duarte, Janaína Maria Batista de Sousa, Maiara da Costa Lima, Maria Lúcia da Conceição, Donald W Schaffner, Evandro Leite de Souza
Coalho is a semihard medium- to high-moisture cheese produced in various states in the northeastern region of Brazil. This study was conducted to predict the growth kinetics (maximum growth rate, Grmax) of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus using the ComBase predictor with various combinations of temperature, pH, and water activity (aw) in commercial Coalho cheese samples. The growth of two antibiotic-resistant derivative strains of L. monocytogenes (parental strains ATCC 19115 and ATCC 7644) and S...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Carlos Alonso-Calleja, Emilia Guerrero-Ramos, Rosa Capita
A total of 180 lamb carcasses and 200 inert surfaces were sampled in two commercial abattoirs (plants A and B) from northwest Spain. A higher (P < 0.001) average microbial load (log CFU per square centimeter) on lamb carcasses was observed for total viable counts (TVC; 2.74 ± 1.15) than for Enterobacteriaceae (2.21 ± 1.16). Different microbial counts were found on carcasses from plants A and B, both for TVC (2.56 ± 0.96 versus 3.18 ± 1.47, respectively; P < 0.001) and Enterobacteriaceae (2.09 ± 0...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Yoon Sung Hu, Sook Shin, Yong Ho Park, Kun Taek Park
In this study, we investigated the prevalence and fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance mechanisms in Escherichia coli isolated from swine fecal samples. E. coli isolates were collected from 171 (72.2%) of 237 swine fecal samples. Of these, 59 isolates (34.5%) were confirmed as FQ-resistant E. coli by the disk diffusion method. Of the FQ-resistant isolates, three major FQ resistance mechanisms were investigated. Of the 59 isolates, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were detected in 9 isolates (15.3%). Efflux pump activity was found in 56 isolates (94...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Helen R Murphy, Seulgi Lee, Alexandre J da Silva
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a protozoan parasite that causes human diarrheal disease associated with the consumption of fresh produce or water contaminated with C. cayetanensis oocysts. In the United States, foodborne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have been linked to various types of imported fresh produce, including cilantro and raspberries. An improved method was developed for identification of C. cayetanensis in produce at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The method relies on a 0.1% Alconox produce wash solution for efficient recovery of oocysts, a commercial kit for DNA template preparation, and an optimized TaqMan real-time PCR assay with an internal amplification control for molecular detection of the parasite...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Claudius Couto Cabral, Pedro Henrique Nunes Panzenhagen, Karina Frensel Delgado, Gabriela Rodrigues Alves Silva, Dália Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Robson Maia Franco, Carlos Adam Conte-Junior
Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen that constantly threatens food safety in developed countries and underdeveloped countries such as Brazil, where it is responsible for 38% of notified cases of foodborne illness. Swine are one of the main meat-producing species that may asymptomatically carry Salmonella, periodically shedding the bacteria through feces. The state of Rio de Janeiro is not a major producer of swine meat, but small slaughterhouses are operational and produce meat for consumption within the state, although few studies have been conducted in the region...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Jihyun Bang, Moonkak Choi, Haeseok Jeong, Sangseob Lee, Yoonbin Kim, Jee-Hoon Ryu, Hoikyung Kim
Food-grade galactooligosaccharide (GOS) with low water activity (aw of ca. 0.7) is used as an ingredient in various foods. We evaluated heat tolerances of Salmonella, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Pediococcus acidilactici at temperatures (70 to 85°C) used during the saturation process of GOS by comparing decimal reduction time (D-values) and thermal resistance constants (z-values). To determine the D- and z-values, GOS containing Salmonella (5.1 to 5.8 log CFU/g) or C. sakazakii (5.3 to 5.9 log CFU/g) was heat treated at 70, 77...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Guoping Feng, Amanda Hew, Ramesh Manoharan, Siva Subramanian
Consistent deviations of the 3M Petrifilm aerobic counts (AC) from the standard pour plate aerobic plate count (APC) were observed with dehydrated onion and garlic products. A large study was designed to determine the relationship of these two methods and the root cause for the deviations. A total of 3,800 dehydrated onion and garlic samples were analyzed by both the Petrifilm AC and the standard pour plate APC method. Large spreader-like liquefied areas were observed on numerous Petrifilm plates. These liquefied areas made enumeration inaccurate...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
T Sandoval-Contreras, S Marín, A Villarruel-López, A Gschaedler, L Garrido-Sánchez, F Ascencio
Molds are responsible for postharvest spoilage of citrus fruits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature on growth rate and the time to visible growth of Aspergillus niger strains isolated from citrus fruits. The growth of these strains was studied on agar lime medium (AL) at different temperatures, and growth rate was estimated using the Baranyi and Roberts model (Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23:277-294, 1994). The Rosso et al. cardinal model with inflexion (L. Rosso, J. R. Lobry, S...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Randall S Singer, Pamela L Ruegg, Dale E Bauman
Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is a production-enhancing technology that allows the dairy industry to produce milk more efficiently. Concern has been raised that cows supplemented with rbST are at an increased risk of developing clinical mastitis, which would potentially increase the use of antimicrobial agents and increase human illnesses associated with antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens delivered through the dairy beef supply. The purpose of this study was to conduct a quantitative risk assessment to estimate the potential increased risk of human infection with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and subsequent adverse health outcomes as a result of rbST usage in dairy cattle...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Tereza Chylkova, Myrna Cadena, Aura Ferreiro, Maurice Pitesky
Poultry contaminated with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica are a major cause of zoonotic foodborne gastroenteritis. Salmonella Heidelberg is a common serotype of Salmonella that has been implicated as a foodborne pathogen associated with the consumption of improperly prepared chicken. To better understand the effectiveness of common antimicrobial disinfectants (i.e., peroxyacetic acid [PAA], acidified hypochlorite [aCH], and cetylpyridinium chloride [CPC]), environmental isolates of nontyphoidal Salmonella were exposed to these agents under temperature, concentration, and contact time conditions consistent with poultry processing...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Anne R Huss, John C Fuller, William Centrella, Douglas L Marshall, Aiswariya Deliephan, Cassandra K Jones
In recent years, several pet food recalls have been attributed to Salmonella contamination. In addition to the negative impacts on animal health, Salmonella-contaminated pet foods have been linked to infection in humans. With that in mind, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has set forth a zero-tolerance policy for Salmonella in pet foods. Typically, pet foods are extruded or processed at high temperatures that are sufficient to reduce pathogenic bacteria. However, the possibility for postextrusion contamination still exists...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Saleema Saleh-Lakha, Carlos G Leon-Velarde, Shu Chen, Susan Lee, Kelly Shannon, Martha Fabri, Gavin Downing, Bruce Keown
Bacillus cereus is a pathogenic adulterant of raw milk and can persist as spores and grow in pasteurized milk. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. cereus and its enterotoxins in pasteurized milk at its best-before date when stored at 4, 7, and 10°C. More than 5.5% of moderately temperature-abused products (stored at 7°C) were found to contain >10(5) CFU/mL B. cereus , and about 4% of them contained enterotoxins at a level that may result in foodborne illness; in addition, more than 31% of the products contained >10(5) CFU/mL B...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
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