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Journal of Food Protection

John B Luchansky, Yuhuan Chen, Anna C S Porto-Fett, Régis Pouillot, Bradley A Shoyer, Rachel Johnson-DeRycke, Denise R Eblen, Karin Hoelzer, William K Shaw, Jane M van Doren, Michelle Catlin, Jeehyun Lee, Rohan Tikekar, Daniel Gallagher, James A Lindsay, Sherri Dennis
A multiyear interagency Listeria monocytogenes Market Basket Survey was undertaken for selected refrigerated ready-to-eat foods purchased at retail in four FoodNet sites in the United States. Food samples from 16 food categories in six broad groups (seafood, produce, dairy, meat, eggs, and combination foods) were collected weekly at large national chain supermarkets and independent grocery stores in California, Maryland, Connecticut, and Georgia for 100 weeks between December 2010 and March 2013. Of the 27,389 total samples, 116 samples tested positive by the BAX PCR system for L...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Zhengfang Wang, Lauren S Jackson, Joseph E Jablonski
This study investigated factors that may contribute to the presence of arsenic and other heavy metals in apple and grape juices processed with filter aids. Different types and grades of filter aids were analyzed for arsenic, lead, and cadmium with inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry. Potential factors affecting the transfer of heavy metals to juices during filtration treatments were evaluated. Effects of washing treatments on removal of heavy metals from filter aids were also determined. Results showed that diatomaceous earth (DE) generally contained a higher level of arsenic than perlite, whereas perlite had a higher lead content than DE...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Suejee Park, Mark A Harrison, Mark E Berrang
Ground poultry products are frequently contaminated with foodborne pathogens. With the potential for increased regulatory scrutiny, it is important to use sufficient intervention strategies to control pathogen levels effectively. A large proportion of the bacteria introduced to ground chicken are likely to come from broiler skin, which is added to achieve target fat content and maintain product texture and taste. In this research, antimicrobials, including 50 ppm of chlorine and 1,200 ppm of peracetic acid (PAA), were applied in a postchill system to reduce the number of Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes , and Campylobacter coli inoculated on chicken skin used to formulate ground chicken...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Pragathi B Shridhar, Lance W Noll, Charley A Cull, Xiaorong Shi, Natalia Cernicchiaro, David G Renter, Jianfa Bai, T G Nagaraja
Cattle are a major reservoir of the six major Shiga toxin-producing non-O157 Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) responsible for foodborne illnesses in humans. Besides prevalence in feces, the concentrations of STEC in cattle feces play a major role in their transmission dynamics. A subset of cattle, referred to as super shedders, shed E. coli O157 at high concentrations (≥4 log CFU/g of feces). It is not known whether a similar pattern of fecal shedding exists for non-O157...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Sofia M Santillana Farakos, Régis Pouillot, Susanne E Keller
The impact of temperature, water activity (aw), and nut composition on Salmonella survival on tree nuts has not been thoroughly examined. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of temperature, aw, and nut composition on the survival of Salmonella on tree nuts and develop predictive models. Pecans, hazelnuts, and pine nuts were chosen based on differences in their typical fat content. Nuts were inoculated with a cocktail of five Salmonella serotypes (11 log CFU/mL) and then were dried and stored at 4, 10, and 25°C at 0...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Sofia M Santillana Farakos, Régis Pouillot, Rhoma Johnson, Judith Spungen, Insook Son, Nathan Anderson, Jane M Van Doren
The presence of Salmonella on almonds continues to result in product-related outbreaks and recalls in the United States. In this study, the impact of microbial reduction treatment levels (1 to 5 log CFU) on the risk of human salmonellosis from the consumption of almond kernels in the United States was evaluated. An exposure model, including major steps in almond processing, was used to estimate prevalence and levels of contamination of Salmonella on almonds at the point of consumption. A Salmonella dose-response model and consumption data for almonds in the United States were used to assess risk of illness per serving and per year, quantifying variability and uncertainty separately...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Pina M Fratamico, Lori K Bagi, Aisha Abdul-Wakeel
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 are often referred to as the "top seven" STEC, and these have been declared to be adulterants in beef by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The aim of this work was to compare the methods described in the USDA FSIS Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) to a two-stage Applied Biosystems RapidFinder STEC real-time PCR method to test for the top seven STEC in raw ground beef...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Hong Man Hou, Feng Jiang, Gong Liang Zhang, Jia Y Wang, Ya H Zhu, Xin Y Liu
Quorum sensing (QS) is an intercellular signaling and gene regulatory mechanism that is implicated in food spoilage caused by bacteria. Thus, blocking QS may suppress QS-controlled phenotypes of these bacteria that are responsible for food spoilage. Biofilm formation is closely related to bacterial infection, and it is also a major mechanism responsible for the increased resistance of biofilm-associated bacteria to antimicrobial drugs. Food spoilage and biofilm formation caused by food-related bacteria have posed a significant problem for the food industry...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Mary Figgatt, Kimberly Mergen, Deborah Kimelstein, Danielle M Mahoney, Alexandra Newman, David Nicholas, Kristen Ricupero, Theresa Cafiero, Daniel Corry, Julius Ade, Philip Kurpiel, Susan Madison-Antenucci, Madhu Anand
Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan that causes a gastrointestinal illness called giardiasis. Giardiasis outbreaks in the United States are most commonly associated with waterborne transmission and are less commonly associated with food, person-to-person, and zoonotic transmission. During June to September 2015, an outbreak of 20 giardiasis cases occurred and were epidemiologically linked to a local grocery store chain on Long Island, New York. Further investigation revealed three asymptomatic food handlers were infected with G...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Christopher Kilonzo, Xunde Li, Tamara Vodoz, Chengling Xiao, Jennifer A Chase, Michele T Jay-Russell, Eduardo J Vivas, Edward R Atwill
Deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus ) are abundant and widely distributed rodents in North America that occupy diverse habitats, including agricultural landscapes. Giardia and Cryptosporidium are common parasites in wildlife including deer mice, which may play a role in on-farm contamination of produce. An important step in assessing the risk of produce contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia shed by deer mice is to determine the prevalence, levels, and genotypes of (oo)cysts in mouse feces. A total of 63 (30...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Angela Catford, Kyle Ganz, Sandeep Tamber
A significant data gap exists with respect to the levels of pathogens in foods implicated in foodborne outbreaks. These data are essential for the quantification of pathogen exposure via the ingestion of contaminated food. Here we report the levels of the foodborne pathogen Salmonella in comminuted raw chicken products that had been breaded and then frozen. The products investigated were collected during four food safety investigations of foodborne outbreaks that occurred in Canada from 2014 to 2016. Most-probable-number (MPN) distribution analysis of the food samples revealed Salmonella levels of 0...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Wanying Cao, Damien Watson, Mikio Bakke, Rakhi Panda, Binaifer Bedford, Parnavi S Kande, Lauren S Jackson, Eric A E Garber
Advances have been made to provide people with celiac disease (CD) access to a diverse diet through an increase in the availability of gluten-free food products and regulations designed to increase label reliability. Despite advances in our knowledge regarding CD and analytical methods to detect gluten, little is known about the effects of fermentation on gluten detection. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow devices routinely used by analytical laboratories and regulatory agencies to test for the presence of gluten in food were examined for their ability to detect gluten during the fermentation processes leading to the production of soy sauce, as well as in finished products...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Karol Barboza, Irina Angulo, Leana Zumbado, Mauricio Redondo-Solano, Eduardo Castro, María Laura Arias
Arcobacter is a gram-negative rod recognized as a potential food- and waterborne pathogen; nevertheless, little is known about the effects of this pathogen on human and animal health. Although Arcobacter species are commonly found in nature, poultry is suspected to be the main vehicle for the transmission of this pathogen. The aims of this work were to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in broilers produced in Costa Rica for human consumption and to analyze the pathogenic capacity of the isolates through the detection of virulence genes...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Oscar Córdoba-Calderón, Mauricio Redondo-Solano, Eduardo Castro-Arias, María Laura Arias-EchandI
The presence of Arcobacter spp. in minced meat (including beef) samples has been well documented in different countries, with varying frequencies. Nevertheless, the only Latin American country reporting this bacterium in minced beef samples is Mexico, with a 28.8% frequency in 2003. Previous studies in Costa Rica have demonstrated the presence of Arcobacter species in samples taken from the poultry production chain, but still there are no studies performed in bovine meat. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of this bacterium in 120 samples of minced beef acquired from the Central Valley region of Costa Rica and to describe the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates obtained...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Jennifer A Chase, Edward R Atwill, Melissa L Partyka, Ronald F Bond, David Oryang
A field trial was conducted in July 2011 to quantify the inactivation rate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 when mixed with fecal slurry and applied to romaine lettuce leaves. Lettuce was grown under commercial conditions in Salinas Valley, CA. One-half milliliter of rabbit fecal slurry, containing 6.3 × 10(7) CFU of E. coli O157:H7, was inoculated onto the upper (adaxial) surface of a lower leaf on 240 heads of lettuce within 30 min after a 2.5-h irrigation event. Forty-eight romaine lettuce heads were collected per event at 2...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Nastaran Khajehie, Mohammad-Taghi Golmakani, Marzieh Eblaghi, Mohammad Hadi Eskandari
In this study, radical scavenging and antifungal activities of Chaerophyllum macropodum and Oliveria decumbens essential oils (EOs) extracted with microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) were evaluated in comparison with the same EOs extracted by conventional hydrodistillation (HD). The final EO yields that were obtained using HD (after 150 min) and MAHD (after 45 min) were 1.72 and 1.67% for C. macropodum and 8.10 and 7.91% for O. decumbens, respectively. There were no significant differences between the final EO yields extracted with HD and MAHD, but MAHD could significantly reduce the duration of the extraction operation...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Xiang Yang, Brittney R Bullard, Ifigenia Geornaras, Shuang Hu, Dale R Woerner, Robert J Delmore, J Brad Morgan, Keith E Belk
A study was conducted to compare the efficacy of a commercially available sulfuric acid-sodium sulfate blend (SSS) and lactic acid (LA) in reducing inoculated Salmonella populations on beef. Sixty pieces of prerigor beef carcass surface brisket tissue, collected directly from the processing line of a commercial beef processing plant, were cut into two sections (10 by 10 cm each) and spot inoculated (6 to 7 log CFU/cm(2)) on the adipose side with a six-strain mixture of Salmonella. One section per piece of brisket tissue was left untreated (control), while the second section was spray treated (5 s, 15 lb/in(2), and 33 mL/s flow rate) with unheated (21°C) or heated (52°C) solutions of SSS (pH 1...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Nuria García-Martínez, Pedro Andreo-Martínez, Luis Almela, Lucía Guardiola, José A Gabaldón
In recent years the sales of minimally processed vegetables have grown exponentially as a result of changes in consumer habits. The availability of artichoke buds as a ready-to-eat product would be, therefore, highly advantageous. However, minimally processed artichoke hearts are difficult to preserve because of their rapid browning and the proliferation of naturally occurring microorganisms. We developed artichoke hearts prepared as ready-to-eat products that maintain the characteristics of the fresh product...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Qianting Ou, Yang Peng, Dongxin Lin, Chan Bai, Ting Zhang, Jialing Lin, Xiaohua Ye, Zhenjiang Yao
Previous research has indicated that raw meats are frequently contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus , but data regarding the pooled prevalence rates of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) contamination in different types of raw meat products (beef, chicken, and pork) and across different periods, regions, and purchase locations remain inconsistent. We systematically searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, Web of Science, and HighWire databases to identify studies published up to June 2016. The STROBE guidelines were used to assess the quality of the 39 studies included in this meta-analysis...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Cecilia Girbau, Irati Martinez-Malaxetxebarria, Gorka Muruaga, Sandra Carmona, Rodrigo Alonso, Aurora Fernandez-Astorga
The transmission of Arcobacter butzleri , an emerging food- and waterborne pathogen, is possibly favored by its ability to adhere to abiotic surfaces. In this study, we assessed the biofilm formation ability of 42 A. butzleri isolates recovered from different food products. Overall, nine isolates (21.4%) were able to adhere to polystyrene. Among them, a chicken-derived isolate was classified as strongly adherent. Based on the chi-square test, no relation was found between the adhesive abilities of the isolates and their source (P > 0...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
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