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Journal of Food Protection

Sara Vincenti, Matteo Raponi, Romina Sezzatini, Gabriele Giubbini, Patrizia Laurenti
Foodborne diseases and antibiotic resistance are serious widespread health problems in the contemporary world. In this study, we compared the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods found in community canteens versus hospital canteens in Rome, Italy, focusing on detection and quantification of Enterobacteriaceae and the antibiotic resistance of these bacteria. Our findings show a remarkable difference in Enterobacteriaceae contamination between RTE foods distributed in community canteens (33.5% of samples) and those distributed in hospital canteens (5...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Soomin Lee, Sejeong Kim, Heeyoung Lee, Jimyeong Ha, Jeeyeon Lee, Yukyung Choi, Hyemin Oh, Yohan Yoon, Kyoung-Hee Choi
The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of the icaA gene in biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus exposed to NaCl. The icaA-deletion mutant of S. aureus ATCC 13565 was constructed with the temperature-sensitive plasmid pIMAY. Microtiter plate assays were performed to confirm biofilm formation for both the wild type and the mutant at 0% (control), 2, 4, and 6% NaCl. The microtiter plate assay revealed that biofilm formation by the wild type increased ( P < 0.05) as NaCl concentration increased, but biofilm formation of the mutant was not affected by NaCl concentration...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Guodong Zhang, Yi Chen, Lijun Hu, David Melka, Hua Wang, Anna Laasri, Eric W Brown, Errol Strain, Marc Allard, Vincent K Bunning, Mickey Parish, Steven M Musser, Thomas S Hammack
The objective of this research was to assess the microbiological status of leafy greens, sprouts, and melons from U.S. markets. A total of 14,183 samples of leafy greens, 2,652 samples of sprouts, and 3,411 samples of melons were collected throughout the United States from 2009 to 2014. The samples were analyzed for aerobic plate counts, total coliform counts, Escherichia coli counts, and the presence and levels of Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), depending on the year and type of produce...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Thomas Saunders, Jian Wu, Robert C Williams, Haibo Huang, Monica A Ponder
Propylene oxide (PPO), a chemical fumigant, has been validated to reduce Salmonella on bulk almonds but has not been evaluated for other tree nuts. There is a need to identify nonpathogenic surrogate microorganisms whose inactivation is comparable to that of Salmonella to assure effective PPO processing parameters in different packaging configurations without introducing Salmonella into the pasteurization facility. The objective of this research was to compare the reduction of Salmonella and three potential surrogate bacterial strains, Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459, Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042, or Staphylococcus carnosus ATCC 51365, on cashews and macadamia nuts processed by using PPO...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Chi-An Lee, Ronald Labbé
The role of spices as vehicles of foodborne illness prompted an examination of bacterial spores in these products. Here, we report on the levels and characteristics of spores of Clostridium perfringens associated with 247 U.S. retail spices. Forty-three confirmed isolates from 17% of samples were obtained, present at levels ranging from 3.6 to 2,400/g. Twenty-seven (63%) of C. perfringens isolates were positive for the enterotoxin gene ( cpe). Seven random spice isolates produced enterotoxin at levels of between 4 and 16 ng/mL, compared with three outbreak (control) strains that each produced enterotoxin levels of >1,024 ng/mL...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Laura Purevdorj-Gage, Brian Nixon, Kyle Bodine, Qilong Xu, William T Doerrler
A method for microscopic enumeration of viable Salmonella enterica in meat samples was developed by using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit technology. A two-step centrifugation and wash process was developed to clean the samples from food and chemical impurities that might otherwise interfere with the appropriate staining reactions. The accuracy of the BacLight kit-based viability assessments was confirmed with various validation tests that were conducted by following the manufacturer's instructions. For the biocide challenge tests, chicken parts each bearing around 8...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Xiaomin Xu, Lingyun Li, Xiaodong Huang, Huan Lin, Guangyang Liu, Donghui Xu, Jianhui Jiang
The present study investigated the concentrations of residues of four groups of pesticides in the People's Republic of China: organophosphorus, carbamate, pyrethroid, and triazine pesticides. Twenty-six pesticides were examined using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 2,169 samples of 12 typical vegetables collected from 15 provinces in China. The results showed that 908 (41.9%) samples were positive, with 133 (6.1%) samples exceeding the limit legal in China...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Daniel Wright, Erik Feibert, Stuart Reitz, Clint Shock, Joy Waite-Cusic
The Produce Safety Rule of the U.S. Food Safety Modernization Act includes restrictions on the use of agricultural water of poor microbiological quality. Mitigation options for poor water quality include the application of an irrigation-to-harvest interval of <4 days; however, dry bulb onion production includes an extended irrigation-to-harvest interval (<30 days). This study evaluated conventional curing practices for mitigating Escherichia coli contamination in a field setting. Well water inoculated with rifampin-resistant E...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Hyeong Sang Kim, Sun Jin Hur
Biogenic amines are formed in various fermented foods by microbial amino acid decarboxylation activities, and ingestion of these amines may cause human illness. However, the effect of digestion on the biogenic amines in fermented sausages has not been studied. This study was conducted to determine the effect of in vitro human digestion with the enterobacteria Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus casei on concentrations of the biogenic amine tyramine in six types of fermented sausages. Tyramine concentration was not significantly changed until simulated digestion in the small intestine...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
K Murray, P Moyer, F Wu, J B Goyette, K Warriner
This study evaluated the efficacy of using sequential forced air ozone followed by an advanced oxidative process (AOP) treatment to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes on and within Empire apples. The forced air ozone treatment consisted of a reactor that introduced ozone (6 g/h) into an airstream that flowed through an apple bed (ca. 30 cm in depth). Before treatment, the apples were conditioned at 4°C to ensure that condensate had formed before the apples were transferred to the reactor. The condensate ensured sufficient relative humidity to enhance the antimicrobial action of ozone...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Joseph Minarsich, Daniel Wright, Alex Emch, Joy Waite-Cusic
The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) guidance encourages jerky processors to use a single lethality step that will achieve a 5-log reduction of Salmonella. Many processors rely on internal temperature-time combinations recommended in this guidance. However, the efficacy of convective heating is highly dependent on relative humidity (RH). RH recommendations are vague because of variability in processing conditions and limited available data. This study was conducted to establish processing conditions for an entry-level commercial dehydrator (Harvest Saver R5A) to achieve a 5-log reduction of Salmonella...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Letizia Ambrosio, Rosario Russo, Anna Maria Salzano, Francesco Paolo Serpe, Andrea Ariano, Nunziatina De Tommasi, Fabrizio Dal Piaz, Lorella Severino
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants of industrial origin that can contaminate food, mainly food of animal origin. Although production of PCBs has been banned in many countries since the 1980s, they are still present in the environment and are considered dangerous pollutants for human health. In fact, they can bioaccumulate in living organisms such as marine organisms because of their chemical and physical properties. New analytical approaches are useful to monitor the presence of such contaminants in seafood products and in the environment...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Nahla O Eltai, Elmoubasher A Abdfarag, Hamad Al-Romaihi, Eman Wehedy, Mahmoud H Mahmoud, Osama K Alawad, Mohammed M Al-Hajri, Asmaa A Al Thani, Hadi M Yassine
Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a growing public health concern worldwide, and it is a top health challenge in the 21st century. AR among Enterobacteriaceae is rapidly increasing, especially in third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. Further, strains carrying mobilized colistin resistance ( mcr) genes 1 and 2 have been isolated from humans, food-producing animals, and the environment. The uncontrolled use of antibiotics in food-producing animals is a major factor in the generation and spread of AR. No studies have been done to evaluate AR in the veterinary sector of Qatar...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Vijay K Juneja, Abhinav Mishra, Abani K Pradhan
Kinetic growth data for Bacillus cereus grown from spores were collected in cooked beans under several isothermal conditions (10 to 49°C). Samples were inoculated with approximately 2 log CFU/g heat-shocked (80°C for 10 min) spores and stored at isothermal temperatures. B. cereus populations were determined at appropriate intervals by plating on mannitol-egg yolk-polymyxin agar and incubating at 30°C for 24 h. Data were fitted into Baranyi, Huang, modified Gompertz, and three-phase linear primary growth models...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Andrea Currie, Eleni Galanis, Pedro A Chacon, Regan Murray, Lynn Wilcott, Paul Kirkby, Lance Honish, Kristyn Franklin, Jeff Farber, Rob Parker, Sion Shyng, Davendra Sharma, Lorelee Tschetter, Linda Hoang, Linda Chui, Ana Pacagnella, Julie Wong, Jane Pritchard, Ashley Kerr, Marsha Taylor, Victor Mah, James Flint
Between 12 July and 29 September 2013, 29 individuals in five Canadian provinces became ill following infection with the same strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 as defined by molecular typing results. Five case patients were hospitalized, and one died. Twenty-six case patients (90%) reported eating Gouda cheese originating from a dairy plant in British Columbia. All of the 22 case patients with sufficient product details available reported consuming Gouda cheese made with raw milk; this cheese had been produced between March and July 2013 and was aged for a minimum of 60 days...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Daniele Conficoni, Leonardo Alberghini, Elisa Bissacco, Barbara Contiero, Valerio Giaccone
Cuttlefish ink is consumed as a delicacy worldwide. The current study is the first assessment of heavy metal concentrations in cuttlefish ink versus mantle under different storage methods. A total of 212 samples (64 of fresh mantle, 42 of frozen mantle, 64 of fresh ink, and 42 of frozen ink) were analyzed for the detection of the following heavy metals: arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd). The median As concentrations were 12.9 mg/kg for fresh mantle, 8.63 mg/kg for frozen mantle, 10...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Anna Annibaldi, Silvia Illuminati, Cristina Truzzi, Giuseppe Scarponi
Heavy metal concentrations (cadmium, lead, and copper) in spring, tap, and bottled waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park (central Italy) were investigated using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry from 2004 to 2011. The mean (±SD) concentrations detected (1.3 ± 0.4 ng L-1 cadmium, 14 ± 6 ng L-1 lead, and 0.16 ± 0.10 μg L-1 copper) were below the limits stipulated by Italian and European legislation for drinking and natural mineral water. In the three studied areas of the park (Mount Bove north, Mount Bove south, and springs of River Nera) with very few exceptions, both mineral waters bottled in the area and aqueduct waters from public fountains had approximately the same metal concentrations as did the spring waters from which they were derived...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Yue Zhang, Hong Lin, Jingxue Wang, Mengzhe Li
Although Shewanella putrefaciens is the specific spoilage organism in most seafood, only seven Shewanella phages have been sequenced and their endolysins have not been reported until now. In this study, we cloned and expressed two lysis-related proteins (Spp64 and Spp62) encoded by phage Spp001, the first sequenced S. putrefaciens phage. Both recombinant proteins showed strong lytic capability toward chilled S. putrefaciens Sp225 and presented a wider activity spectrum compared with bacteriophage Spp001. The enzymatic activity of crude Spp64, Spp62ΔTD, and Spp62ΔTD-GST can cause decreases of 0...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Eva H Pearson, Julia Jones, Joy G Waite-Cusic
In-shell hazelnuts may be exposed to many sources of Salmonella during harvest and postharvest processing. Chemical sanitizers, such as peroxyacetic acid (PAA), are used by some postharvest processors in an attempt to reduce microbial loads; however, data are limited on its efficacy to reduce Salmonella on in-shell hazelnuts under conditions relevant to the industry. This study analyzed the efficacy of PAA to reduce small numbers of Salmonella on laboratory-inoculated (3.9 most probable number [MPN] per hazelnut) and naturally contaminated in-shell hazelnuts (8...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Dácil Rivera, Viviana Toledo, Francisca DI Pillo, Fernando Dueñas, Rodolfo Tardone, Christopher Hamilton-West, Kitiya Vongkamjan, Martin Wiedmann, Andrea I Moreno Switt
The genus Salmonella has more than 2,600 serovars, and this trait is important when considering interventions for Salmonella control. Bacteriophages that are used for biocontrol must have an exclusively lytic cycle and the ability to lyse several Salmonella serovars under a wide range of environmental conditions. Salmonella phages were isolated and characterized from 34 backyard production systems (BPSs) with a history of Salmonella infections. BPSs were visited once, and cloacal or fecal samples were processed for phage isolation...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
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