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Journal of Food Protection

Satomi Kanagawa, Chihiro Ohshima, Hajime Takahashi, Burenqiqige, Misato Kikuchi, Fumina Sato, Ayaka Nakamura, Shimaa M Mohamed, Takashi Kuda, Bon Kimura
Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used widely as starter cultures in the production of fermented foods, they are also responsible for food decay and deterioration. The undesirable growth of LAB in food causes spoilage, discoloration, and slime formation. Because of these adverse effects, food companies test for the presence of LAB in production areas and processed foods and consistently monitor the behavior of these bacteria. The 3M Petrifilm LAB Count Plates have recently been launched as a time-saving and simple-to-use plate designed for detecting and quantifying LAB...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Abigail B Snyder, Randy W Worobo
Food processing, packaging, and formulation strategies are often specifically designed to inhibit or control microbial growth to prevent spoilage. Some of the most restrictive strategies rely solely or on combinations of pH reduction, preservatives, water activity limitation, control of oxygen tension, thermal processing, and hermetic packaging. In concert, these strategies are used to inactivate potential spoilage microorganisms or inhibit their growth. However, for select microbes that can overcome these controls, the lack of competition from additional background microbiota helps facilitate their propagation...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Ziqiang Pan, Lin Li, Zhihua Shen, Yan Chen, Mei Li
The microbial communities in air- and vacuum-packed crisp grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella C. et V.) fillets have not been characterized during chilled storage. High-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA has now revealed that the bacterial community in fresh fillets is diverse and distinct from that in spoiled samples. The predominant phylum was Proteobacteria, and 66 genera were identified. In fresh fillets, the most abundant genera were Acinetobacter (53.3%), Wautersiella (6.3%), unclassified Alcaligenaceae (4...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Jagpinder S Brar, Jolena N Waddell, Matthew Bailey, Sydney Corkran, Carmen Velasquez, Vijay K Juneja, Manpreet Singh
Decimal reduction time ( D-value) was calculated for six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in a laboratory medium and ground beef. For the laboratory medium, an overnight culture of each strain of STEC was divided into 10-mL sample bags and heated in a water bath for a specific time on the basis of the temperatures. Survival curves were generated by plotting the surviving bacterial population against time, and a linear-log primary model was used to estimate the D-values from survival curves...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Sofia M Santillana Farakos, Régis Pouillot, Gordon R Davidson, Rhoma Johnson, Judith Spungen, Insook Son, Nathan Anderson, Jane M VAN Doren
We developed a quantitative risk assessment model to assess the risk of human nontyphoidal salmonellosis from consumption of pistachios in the United States and to evaluate the impact of Salmonella treatments (1- to 5-log reductions). The exposure model estimating prevalence and contamination levels of Salmonella at consumption included steps in pistachio processing such as transport from grower to huller, removal of the hull through wet abrasion, separation of pistachio floaters (immature, smaller nuts) and sinkers (mature, larger nuts) in a flotation tank, drying, storage, and partitioning...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Ahmed M Hammad, Alaa-Eldin H Moustafa, Maha M Mansour, Bashier M Fahmy, Mohamed G Hamada, Toshi Shimamoto, Tadashi Shimamoto
The aim of this study was to determine the public health significance of hemolytic Aeromonas species isolated from 213 food samples in Egypt, based on their virulence and antimicrobial-resistance potential. We recovered 63 strains, isolated from fish, raw milk, karish cheeses, and ras cheese in 29 (31.18%) of 93, 10 (25.00%) of 40, 13 (32.50%) of 40, and 11 (27.50%) of 40 samples, respectively. The most prevalent virulence gene was alt (50.79%), followed by aerA (34.92%), asa1 (39.68%), ahh1 (20.63%), act (11...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Zuwen Wang, Xiufang Bi, Rui Xiang, Liyi Chen, Xiaoping Feng, Min Zhou, Zhenming Che
The aim of this study was to investigate the inactivation of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli in nutrient broth and milk through the use of either ultrasound (US) alone or US combined with nisin (US + nisin) treatments. The E. coli cells were treated at 0 to 55°C, 242.04 to 968.16 W/cm2 for 0 to 15 min. The results showed that the inactivation of E. coli by US and US + nisin increased when the temperature, US power density, and treatment time were increased. The inactivation kinetics of E. coli in nutrient broth by US and US + nisin both conformed to linear models...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Junia Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Nicole Addy, Zachary Keltner, Samantha Farris, Laura Ewing, Gopal Gopinath, Darcy E Hanes
Phenolic compounds, like carvacrol, in oregano interfere with the detection of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella enterica. Carvacrol concentration varies based on plant cultivars and growth region. Six oregano cultivars were used to compare the impact of carvacrol concentration on Salmonella and to evaluate the effectiveness of corn oil to help increase Salmonella survival for detection. The results of Agilent 1200 series high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that carvacrol concentration in the six oregano cultivars ranged from 64 to 11,200 ppm...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Byung Chun Joung, Jin Gi Min
In the present study, we evaluated the changes in quality that can occur during the distribution of nonheated anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) fish sauce after packaging. The pH values of all samples ranged from 5.5 to 5.8, and there were no significant differences ( P > 0.05) in pH among the samples during storage regardless of storage temperature or salt concentration. The initial total volatile base nitrogen concentration in all samples after bottling was 115 to 121 mg/100 mL, but this concentration increased gradually with storage time...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
David Buckley, Angela Fraser, Charles Pettigrew, Jeffery Anderson, Xiuping Jiang
Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of known foodborne illness in the United States, but direct detection during outbreak investigations is challenging. On the other hand, sampling both hard and soft environmental surfaces can be used to improve outbreak investigations. Currently, we lack virus recovery methods for soft surfaces, such as carpet, despite evidence suggesting that carpets contribute to HuNoV outbreaks. Our aim was to compare two recovery methods, wet vacuum and swabbing, for routine carpet sampling of HuNoV against a laboratory reference method known as bottle extraction (BE)...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Yukyung Choi, Soomin Lee, Hyun Jung Kim, Heeyoung Lee, Sejeong Kim, Jeeyeon Lee, Jimyeong Ha, Hyemin Oh, Kyoung-Hee Choi, Yohan Yoon
The survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains during diced white radish kimchi fermentation was studied. Kimchi batches inoculated with the pathogens were fermented at 4, 15, and 25°C for 42 to 384 h. Cell counts of E. coli and Salmonella were enumerated on E. coli-coliform count plates and xylose lysine deoxycholate agar, respectively. Baranyi (primary model) and polynomial (secondary model) models, validated by root mean square error, were used to describe the kinetic behavior of the pathogens...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Davide Sardella, Ruben Gatt, Vasilis P Valdramidis
Rapid assessment of fungal growth and screening antifungal compounds, such as nanoparticles (NPs), for effectiveness is a challenging procedure because no primary standards exist as they do for yeasts and bacteria. Because fungi do not grow as single cells, but as hyphal filaments, they cannot be quantified by the usual enumeration techniques used in bacteriology. The growth of three postharvest fungal isolates ( Alternaria alternata, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Botrytis cinerea) was investigated at different inoculum concentrations and in three nutrient media (Sabouraud dextrose agar, potato dextrose agar, and yeast extract dextrose agar [YED]) with a turbidimetric assay...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Toshifumi Imagawa, Ryuichi Sugiyama, Tomoyuki Shiota, Tian-Cheng Li, Sayaka Yoshizaki, Takaji Wakita, Koji Ishii
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a causative agent of acute hepatitis throughout the world. HEV genotypes 1 through 4 infect humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 (Gt3 and Gt4) also infect other animals. In developed countries, the main HEV infection route is by foodborne transmission, resulting from the consumption of undercooked meat. It is important to know the criteria for HEV control in daily cooking. In this study, we assessed the heat conditions required to inactivate HEV Gt3 and Gt4 in culture supernatants and spiked minced pork meat...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Meera Surendran Nair, Abhinav Upadhyay, Samantha Fancher, Indu Upadhyaya, Swayandipta Dey, Anup Kollanoor-Johny, Jing Zhao, Kumar Venkitanarayanan
The present study investigated the efficacy of selenium (Se) in reduction of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, inhibition of biofilm formation at 25 and 4°C on polystyrene surface, and inactivation of mature EHEC biofilms in combination with hot water. Sterile 96-well polystyrene plates inoculated with EHEC (∼6.0 log CFU per well) were treated with a subinhibitory concentration (SIC) of Se, and biofilms were allowed to mature at 4 and 25°C for 96 h. Biofilm-associated bacterial population was determined by scraping and plating, whereas the extent of EPS production was determined using ruthenium red staining assay...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Haley S Smolinski, Siyi Wang, Lin Ren, Yuhuan Chen, Barbara Kowalcyk, Ellen Thomas, Jane VAN Doren, Elliot T Ryser
Several outbreaks of foodborne illness traced to leafy greens and culinary herbs have been hypothesized to involve cross-contamination during washing and processing. This study aimed to assess the redistribution of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 during pilot-scale production of baby spinach and cilantro and redistribution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during pilot-scale production of romaine lettuce. Four inoculated surrogate:uninoculated product weight ratios (10:100, 5:100, 1:100, and 0.5:100) and three inoculation levels (103 , 101 , and 10-1 CFU/g) were used for the three commodities...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Kenneth J Diplock, Joel A Dubin, Scott T Leatherdale, David Hammond, Andria Jones-Bitton, Shannon E Majowicz
Youth are a key audience for food safety education. They often engage in risky food handling behaviors, prepare food for others, and have limited experience and knowledge of safe food handling practices. Our goal was to investigate the effectiveness of an existing food handler training program for improving safe food handling behaviors among high school students in Ontario, Canada. However, because no schools agreed to provide control groups, we evaluated whether behaviors changed following delivery of the intervention program and whether changes were sustained over the school term...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Su Jeong Choi, Eun Sun Yun, Jae Min Shin, Yeo Sook Kim, Jeong Sook Lee, Jin Hyo Lee, Dong Gu Kim, Young Hee Oh, Kweon Jung, Gun Hee Kim
The purpose of this study was to survey concentrations of bisphenols in canned foods using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, to estimate the dietary exposure to bisphenols, and to assess the related risk for the Korean population from the intake of canned foods. The linearity of bisphenols in the range of 2.5 to 725 μg/L was satisfactory with correlation coefficients ( r2 ) of 0.999. The limit of detection was 0.14 to 5.85 μg/L, and the limit of quantitation was 0.44 to 17.73 μg/L. Sample recoveries were 70...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
M A P M VAN Asseldonk, L Malaguti, M L H Breukers, H J van der Fels-Klerx
Understanding growers' preferences regarding interventions to improve the microbiological safety of their produce could help to design more effective strategies for the adoption of such food safety measures by growers. The objective of this survey study was to obtain insights for the design of interventions that could stimulate growers to increase the frequency of irrigation water sampling and water testing to reduce possible microbiological contamination of their fresh produce. The results showed that price intervention, referring to making the intervention less costly by reducing the price via discounts, is the most effective strategy to change growers' intentions to increase their frequency of irrigation water testing...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Bandana Dhungana, Shaukat Ali, Emmanuel Byamukama, Padmanaban Krishnan, Melanie Caffe-Treml
Ochratoxin A (OTA) can cause toxicogenic effects in humans and animals when contaminated food products are consumed. Oat ( Avena sativa), like any other cereal grain, can be contaminated with OTA when storage conditions are favorable for fungal growth and toxin production. South Dakota is among the leading oat-producing states in the United States. It is therefore important to determine the frequency of occurrence of the primary OTA-producing fungal species on oat grains produced in the state. In this study, we evaluated oat grain samples from South Dakota for the incidence of Penicillium verrucosum, the major ochratoxigenic fungus in temperate regions...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Ramin Rezai, Elham Ahmadi, Behnam Salimi
Listeria species are important foodborne pathogens, among which L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii cause human listeriosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Listeria species in farmed and on-sale rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Kurdistan province, western Iran. A total of 240 fresh rainbow trout fish (120 samples from farms and 120 samples from retail outlets) were collected and analyzed phenotypically for the presence of Listeria. All Listeria isolates were differentiated with molecular techniques, and L...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
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