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Journal of Food Protection

Serena Meistro, Marzia Pezzolato, Daniele Muscolino, Filippo Giarratana, Elisa Baioni, Antonio Panebianco, Elena Bozzetta
European Commission Regulation (EU) 1276/2011 requires that fishery products intended for raw consumption be frozen at -20°C for not less than 24 h or at -35°C for at least 15 h in order to kill viable parasites other than trematodes. But because marinating processes are not always effective in destroying nematode larvae, raw marinated fish preparations should be frozen before consumption. This study evaluated the performance of a standardized histological method to distinguish between fresh and frozen-thawed raw marinated fish...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Radka Dziedzinska, Jitka Makovcova, Marija Kaevska, Michal Slany, Vladimir Babak, Monika Moravkova
The consumption of fruits and vegetables is increasing worldwide because of the positive impact of these foods on human health. Ready-to-eat, raw whole, and frozen fruits and vegetables were purchased from markets and examined for the presence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) using culture, real-time PCR (qPCR), and sequencing. Using qPCR, Mycobacterium sp. at 10(0) to 10(4) ge/g (genome equivalents per gram) was found in almost all of the 178 samples; members of the M. avium complex were found only sporadically...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Deepti Prasad Karumathil, Hsin-Bai Yin, Anup Kollanoor-Johny, Kumar Venkitanarayanan
This study determined the prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii on fresh vegetables collected from farmers' markets in Connecticut. One hundred samples each of fresh carrots, potatoes, and lettuce were sampled and streaked on selective media, namely Leeds Acinetobacter and MDR Acinetobacter agars. All morphologically different colonies from MDR Acinetobacter agar were identified by using Gram staining, biochemical tests, and PCR. In addition, susceptibility of the isolates to 10 antibiotics commonly used in humans, namely imipenem, ceftriaxone, cefepime, minocycline, erythromycin, colistin-sulfate, streptomycin, neomycin, doxycycline, and rifampin was determined by using an antibiotic disk diffusion assay...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Yi Chen, Peter Evans, Thomas S Hammack, Eric W Brown, Dumitru Macarisin
In recent years, tree fruits have emerged as a new concern for Listeria monocytogenes contamination. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the potential internalization of L. monocytogenes from the surface of avocados into the edible portions of the fruit during certain postharvest practices simulated in a laboratory setting. One set of intact avocados was spot inoculated with L. monocytogenes on the stem scar, and the second set was hydrocooled in water contaminated with L. monocytogenes. Under these experimental conditions, L...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Curtis Maughan, Sandria Godwin, Delores Chambers, Edgar Chambers Iv
Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Margherita Chierici, Claudia Picozzi, Marisa Grazia La Spina, Carla Orsi, Ileana Vigentini, Vittorio Zambrini, Roberto Foschino
The blue discoloration in Mozzarella cheese comes from bacterial spoilage due to contamination with Pseudomonas. Fourteen Pseudomonas fluorescens strains from international collections and 55 new isolates of dominant bacterial populations from spoiled fresh cheese samples were examined to assess genotypic and phenotypic strain diversity. Isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and tested for the production of the blue pigment at various temperatures on Mascarpone agar and in Mozzarella preserving fluid (the salty water in which the cheese is conserved, which becomes enriched by cheese minerals and peptides during storage)...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Bernadether T Rugumisa, Douglas R Call, Gaspary O Mwanyika, Rehema I Mrutu, Catherine M Luanda, Beatus M Lyimo, Murugan Subbiah, Joram J Buza
We compared the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from household-level producers of broiler (commercial source breeds) and local chickens in the Arusha District of Tanzania. Households were composed of a single dwelling or residence with independent, penned broiler flocks. Free-range, scavenging chickens were mixed breed and loosely associated with individual households. A total of 1,800 E. coli isolates (1,200 from broiler and 600 from scavenging local chickens) from 75 chickens were tested for their susceptibility against 11 antibiotics by using breakpoint assays...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
M Fontcuberta, R Planell, A Torrents, S Sabaté, R Gonzalez, M Ramoneda, M de Simón
The main purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 on bovine carcasses before and after chilling at a large slaughterhouse located in the city of Barcelona, Spain, to assess the effectiveness of dry chilling on reducing E. coli O157 contamination of carcasses. In addition, the study characterized the E. coli O157 strains isolated in terms of virulence factors, antibiotic susceptibility, and their genetic diversity. Individual bovine carcasses were sampled before (n = 300) and after (n = 300) chilling over an 8-month period...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Wonsu Cheon, Young Soo Kim, Kotnala Balaraju, Bong-Su Kim, Byeong-Ho Lee, Yongho Jeon
To extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea, we evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation alone or gamma irradiation combined with fumigation on the control of postharvest decay caused by Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructigena. An irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy caused the maximal inhibition of B. cinerea and M. fructigena spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.76 and 0.78 kGy for B. cinerea and M. fructigena, respectively. Inhibition of conidial germination of both fungal pathogens occurred at a greater level at the doses of 0...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Zaixiang Lou, Cheng Li, Xingran Kou, Fuhao Yu, Hongxin Wang, Gary M Smith, Song Zhu
First, the antibacterial, antibiofilm effect and chemical composition of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) leaf fractions were studied. Then, the efficiency of burdock leaf fractions in pork preservation was evaluated. The results showed that burdock leaf fraction significantly inhibited the growth and biofilm development of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium. MICs of burdock leaf fractions on E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium were both 2 mg/ml. At a concentration of 2.0 mg/ml, the inhibition rates of the fraction on growth and development of E...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Mani K Badvela, James S Dickson, Joseph G Sebranek, William D Schroeder
A reduced-sodium ready-to-eat (RTE) uncured turkey was manufactured with buffered dry vinegar treatments to validate the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and spoilage microflora and to determine the effects on sensory and quality attributes. Samples were stored at 4°C for 12 weeks, and the study was independently replicated three times. Two different five-strain inocula of L. monocytogenes obtained from different sources were used for evaluating the efficacy of the buffered dry vinegar treatments. The results showed that 0...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Enquebaher K Tarekgne, Taran Skjerdal, Siv Skeie, Knut Rudi, Davide Porcellato, Benjamin Félix, Judith A Narvhus
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is an important foodborne disease worldwide, and milk and milk products are commonly associated with SFP outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin (se) genes in Staphylococcus aureus from raw cow's milk and milk products and to assess their genetic background with the spa typing method. Of the 549 samples (297 bulk milk and 162 milk product samples) collected from Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, 160 (29.1%) were positive for S...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Danhui Wang, Ziyuan Wang, Fei He, Amanda J Kinchla, Sam R Nugen
An effective and rapid method for the separation of bacteria from food matrix remains a bottleneck for rapid bacteria detection for food safety. Bacteria can strongly attach to a food surface or internalize within the matrix, making their isolation extremely difficult. Traditional methods of separating bacteria from food routinely involve stomaching, blending, and shaking. However, these methods may not be efficient at removing all the bacteria from complex matrices. Here, we investigate the benefits of using enzyme digestion followed by immunomagnetic separation to isolate Salmonella from spinach and lettuce...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Qiongxia Hu, Lanming Chen
Vibrio parahaemolyticus can cause serious human seafoodborne gastroenteritis and even death. In this study, we isolated and characterized 208 V. parahaemolyticus strains from 10 species of commonly consumed crustaceans and shellfish available in fish markets in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, in 2014. Most of these aquatic species had not been detected previously. The results revealed an extremely low occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus carrying the toxin gene trh (1.9%). However, a high level of resistance to the antibiotics ampicillin (94...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Ross C Beier, Eelco Franz, James L Bono, Robert E Mandrell, Pina M Fratamico, Todd R Callaway, Kathleen Andrews, Toni L Poole, Tawni L Crippen, Cynthia L Sheffield, Robin C Anderson, David J Nisbet
The disinfectant and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 138 non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains (STECs) from food animals and humans were determined. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was moderate (39.1% of strains) in response to 15 antimicrobial agents. Animal strains had a lower AMR prevalence (35.6%) than did human strains (43.9%) but a higher prevalence of the resistance profile GEN-KAN-TET. A decreasing prevalence of AMR was found among animal strains from serogroups O45 > O145 > O121 > O111 > O26 > O103 and among human strains from serogroups O145 > O103 > O26 > O111 > O121 > O45...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Dongryeoul Bae, Ohgew Kweon, Ashraf A Khan
The objective of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance and elucidate the resistance mechanism in nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from food products imported into the United States from 2011 to 2013. Food products contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant nontyphoidal S. enterica were mainly imported from Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, and China. PCR, DNA sequencing, and plasmid analyses were used to characterize antimicrobial resistance determinants. Twentythree of 110 S. enterica isolates were resistant to various antimicrobial classes, including β-lactam, aminoglycoside, phenicol, glycopeptide, sulfonamide, trimethoprim, and/or fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Joseph M Bosilevac, Rong Wang, Brandon E Luedtke, Tommy L Wheeler, Mohammad Koohmaraie
During site visits of veal processors, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has reported processing deficiencies that likely contribute to increased levels of veal contamination. Here, we report the results of measuring aerobic plate count bacteria (APC), Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms (CF), and Escherichia coli during eight sample collections at five veal processors to assess contamination during the harvest of bob veal and formula-fed veal before (n = 5 plants) and after (n = 3 plants) changes to interventions and processing practices...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Yicheng Xie, Jeffrey W Savell, Ashley N Arnold, Kerri B Gehring, Jason J Gill, T Matthew Taylor
Asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in beef cattle is a food safety concern, and the beef feedlot environment may function as a reservoir of this pathogen. The goal of this study was to identify and isolate Salmonella and Salmonella bacteriophages from beef cattle feedlot environments in order to better understand the microbial ecology of Salmonella and identify phages that might be useful as anti-Salmonella beef safety interventions. Three feedlots in south Texas were visited, and 27 distinct samples from each source were collected from dropped feces, feed from feed bunks, drinking water from troughs, and soil in cattle pens (n = 108 samples)...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Jeyachchandran Visvalingam, Hui Wang, Mohamed K Youssef, Julia Devos, Colin O Gill, Xianqin Yang
The objective of this study was to determine the immediate source of Escherichia coli on beef trimmings produced at a large packing plant by analyzing the E. coli on trimmings at various locations of a combo bin filled on the same day and of bins filled on different days. Ten 2,000-lb (907-kg) combo bins (B1 through B10) of trimmings were obtained from a large plant on 6 days over a period of 5 weeks. Thin slices of beef with a total area of approximately 100 cm(2) were excised from five locations (four corners and the center) at each of four levels of the bins: the top surface and 30, 60, and 90 cm below the top...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Dike O Ukuku, Sudarsan Mukhopadhyay, David Geveke, Modesto Olanya, Brendan Niemira
Surface structure and biochemical characteristics of bacteria and produce play a major role in how and where bacteria attach, complicating decontamination treatments. Whole cantaloupe rind surfaces were inoculated with Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes at 10(7) CFU/ml. Average population size of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes recovered after surface inoculation was 4.8 ± 0.12, 5.1 ± 0.14, and 3.6 ± 0.13 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Inoculated melons were stored at 5 and 22°C for 7 days before washing treatment interventions...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
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