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Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography

Octavio Arevalo, Roy Riascos, Pejman Rabiei, Arash Kamali, Flavia Nelson
The advent of magnetic resonance imaging has improved our understanding of the pathophysiology and natural course of multiple sclerosis (MS). The ability of magnetic resonance imaging to show the evolution of MS lesions on sequential scans has brought it to be one of the endpoints in clinical trials for disease-modifying therapies. Based on the most updated consensus guidelines from the American (Consortium of MS Centers) and European (Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MS) boards of experts in MS, this document shows the most relevant landmarks related to imaging findings, diagnostic criteria, indications to obtain a magnetic resonance, scan protocols and sequence options for patients with MS...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Haruto Sugawara, Shigeru Suzuki, Yoshiaki Katada, Takuya Ishikawa, Rika Fukui, Yuzo Yamamoto, Osamu Abe
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare accuracy of measurement between virtual monochromatic imaging (VMI) in dual-energy computed tomography and conventional polychromatic 120-kVp computed tomographic scan in vascular models containing various densities of contrast material. METHODS: We evaluated measured diameters of 12 models of vessels of 4 inner diameters containing high, intermediate, and low densities of contrast material using software automation...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Dejun She, Zhen Xing, Dairong Cao
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) gradient in the peritumoral brain zone (PBZ)-the difference in the rCBV values from the area closest to the enhancing lesion to the area closest to the healthy white matter-in differentiating glioblastoma (GB) from solitary brain metastasis (MET). METHODS: A 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine was used to perform dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI (DSC-MRI) on 43 patients with a solitary brain tumor (24 GB, 19 MET)...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Tracy A Jaffe, James Wilson, Yakun Zhang, Brian C Allen, Kingshuk R Choudhury, Ehsan Samei
PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop an automated, quantitative method to increase the likelihood of identifying and preventing such air-in-oil (AIO) artifact. METHODS: A 1-dimensional radial representation of the 2-dimensional noise power spectrum (NPS) was calculated from AIO artifact images and compared with artifact-free images. A quality control (QC) software program was modified to include measurements of NPS average frequency within the water section of daily phantom scans...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Regis Otaviano França Bezerra, Débora Zachello Recchimuzzi, Micaela Maciel Dos Santos Mota, Marcio Ricardo Taveira Garcia, Marcos Roberto de Menezes, Paulo Eduardo Mazo, Giovanni Guido Cerri
Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging is becoming an important tool in oncology as a nonirradiating imaging technique since recent technological advances allowed the incorporation of high-quality imaging in an adequate time. Moreover, the noninjection of radioisotope/intravenous contrast, low cost compared with traditional nuclear medicine techniques, and fast acquisition times are another distinct feature. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review the whole-body magnetic resonance imaging protocol and its main applications in the oncology setting...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Vesa Järvinen, Valtteri Uusitalo, Tuula Tolvanen, Antti Saraste, Jouni Kuusisto, Juha Sinisalo, Juhani Knuuti
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate the accuracy of imaging of left atrial and ventricular volumes using cardiac cadaveric silicone casts. METHODS: Left atrial (n = 14) and ventricular (n = 15) casts were imaged using 64-slice computed tomography (CT). Water displacement (WD) of cardiac casts was used as the gold standard for volume measurements. RESULTS: Compared with WD, CT resulted in slightly higher left atrial and ventricular volumes (54 ± 25 vs 56 ± 26 mL [P = 0...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Hayri Ogul, Veysel Ayyildiz, Berhan Pirimoglu, Gokhan Polat, Kutsi Tuncer, Mehmet Kose, Mecit Kantarci
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the full extent of anterior labral tear and associated other labral tears on magnetic resonance arthrographic images in patients with anterior shoulder instability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred ten magnetic resonance arthrography images with anterior labral tear were retrieved from the database of the Radiology Department. Two skeletal radiologists, one with 15 years of experience and the other with 5 years of experience analyzed the images in random order...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Jiayi Yan, Xuesong Zhao, Shuai Han, Ting Wang, Fei Miao
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the prediction roles of clinical plus imaging features and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) texture analysis in preoperative risk grade classification of small bowel (SB) gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). METHODS: This study included 213 SB GIST patients. Clinical features and MDCT imaging findings were reviewed. Tumor risk stratifications were determined according to modified National Institutes of Health criteria...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Jerrin Varghese, Jill Bergson, Omar Yaipen
We describe the case of a 50-year-old man with history of remote splenectomy who underwent routine lung cancer screening chest computed tomography and was incidentally found to have a liver lesion. Dedicated liver protocol computed tomography demonstrated "archiform" enhancement pattern in the arterial phase and homogenous filling-in enhancement on portal venous and delayed phases. Multiple other smaller enhancing intraperitoneal lesions were also found. These findings along with history of splenectomy confirmed a diagnosis of intrahepatic and intraperitoneal splenosis and helped avoid biopsy...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Ahmed Abd-El Khalek Abd-ALRazek, Dalia Monir Fahmy
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in assessment of the activity of Crohn disease (CD) and to explore differences between DWI in 3 T and 1.5 T. METHODS: Postcontrast magnetic resonance enterography with DWI of 72 patients with pathological proof of CD was retrospectively evaluated for restricted diffusion qualitatively and quantitavely in 3 T (n = 40) and 1.5 T (n = 32). Magnetic resonance activity score of 7 or higher was used as reference of activity...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Daming Shen, Robert R Edelman, Joshua D Robinson, Hassan Haji-Valizadeh, Marci Messina, Shivraman Giri, Ioannis Koktzoglou, Cynthia K Rigsby, Daniel Kim
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether it is feasible to visualize the coronary origins in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) using single-shot coronary quiescent-interval slice-selective (QISS) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with compressed sensing (CS). METHODS: This retrospective study leveraged a parent study, which aimed to compare breath-hold, 2.1-fold accelerated, 2-shot coronary QISS MRA and clinical standard contrast-enhanced (CE) MRA in 14 patients with CHD (mean age, 17...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Akinori Hata, Masahiro Yanagawa, Noriko Kikuchi, Osamu Honda, Noriyuki Tomiyama
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) with lung setting and conventional setting on pulmonary emphysema quantification by ultra-low-dose computed tomography (ULDCT) compared with standard-dose CT (SDCT). METHODS: Forty-five patients who underwent ULDCT (0.18 ± 0.02 mSv) and SDCT (6.66 ± 2.69 mSv) were analyzed in this retrospective study. Images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) with smooth and sharp kernels and MBIR with conventional and lung settings...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Anna Latysheva, Kyrre Eeg Emblem, Andrés Server, Petter Brandal, Torstein R Meling, Jens Pahnke, John K Hald
OBJECTIVE: According to the new World Health Organization 2016 classification for tumors of the central nervous system, 1p/19q codeletion defines the genetic hallmark that differentiates oligodendrogliomas from diffuse astrocytomas. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis can stratify survival in adult patients with genetic defined diffuse glioma grades II and III. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients with untreated diffuse gliomas World Health Organization grades II and III and known 1p/19q codeletion status were included retrospectively and analyzed using ADC and rCBV maps based on whole-tumor volume histograms...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Min A Yoon, Suk-Joo Hong, Kyu-Chong Lee, Chang Hee Lee
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare 3-dimensional T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence (CAIPIRINHA-volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination [VIBE]) with 2-dimensional T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pelvic bone metastases at 3.0 T. METHODS: Thirty-one contrast-enhanced MRIs of pelvic bone metastases were included. Two contrast-enhanced sequences were evaluated for the following parameters: overall image quality, sharpness of pelvic bone, iliac vessel clarity, artifact severity, and conspicuity and edge sharpness of the smallest metastases...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Linda C Chu, Reham R Haroun, Robert J Beaulieu, James H Black, Harry C Dietz, Elliot K Fishman
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if carotid arterial tortuosity represents a marker of disease severity in Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS). METHODS: Fifty-four 54 LDS patients (mean age, 17.0 years) who underwent computed tomogram angiography from January 2004 to December 2013 were retrospectively identified. Carotid artery tortuosity index (CATI) was calculated from computed tomogram angiography. Clinical variables were obtained from the medical records. Relationship between CATI and need for aortic root replacement was evaluated with Cox proportional hazard model and Kaplan-Meier analysis...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Patricia Balcacer, Kirsten A Cooper, Steffen Huber, Michael Spektor, Jay K Pahade, Gary M Israel
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and interobserver agreement of endometrial polyps. METHODS: After institutional review board approval, our database was searched for women older than 18 years who underwent MRI pelvis and pelvic surgical intervention from 2012 to 2016. Seventy-two patients with polyps and 75 controls composed the study cohort. Two radiologists evaluated the MRIs retrospectively for polyps. Polyp characteristics and enhancement were assessed...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Lakshmi Ananthakrishnan, Xinhui Duan, Prabhakar Rajiah, Todd C Soesbe, Matthew A Lewis, Yin Xi, Julia R Fielding, Robert E Lenkinski, John R Leyendecker, Suhny Abbara
PURPOSE: Spectral detector computed tomography (SDCT) is a new CT technology that uses a dual-layer detector to perform energy separation. We aim to assess 3 clinical concepts using a phantom model: noise profile across the virtual monoenergetic (VME) spectrum, accuracy of iodine quantification, and virtual noncontrast (VNC) reconstructions' ability to remove iodine contribution to attenuation. METHODS: Six vials containing varying concentrations of iodinated contrast (0-6 mg/mL) diluted in water were placed in a water bath and scanned on an SDCT scanner...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Shaojun Li, Hongning Jiang, Bo Wang, Mingjun Gu, Xia Bi, Ying Yin, Yu Wang
OBJECTIVE: Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) could promote osteogenic differentiation and suppress adipogenic differentiation in bone mesenchymal stem cells ex vivo. However, data on the effect of PEMF on marrow adiposity in humans remain elusive. We aimed to determine the in vivo effect of PEMF on marrow adiposity in postmenopausal women using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. METHODS: Sixty-one postmenopausal women with osteopenia, aged 53 to 85 years, were randomly assigned to receive either PEMF treatment or placebo...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Daniel Stocker, Mustafa R Bashir, Stephan A R Kannengiesser, Cäcilia S Reiner
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the performance of an automated workflow of volumetric liver proton density fat fraction (PDFFvol) and R2* quantification with automated inline liver volume (LV) segmentation. METHODS: Dual-echo and multiecho Dixon magnetic resonance images were evaluated in 74 consecutive patients (group A, PDFF < 10%; B, PDFF ≥ 10%; C, R2* ≥ 100 s; D, post-hemihepatectomy). The values of PDFFvol and R2*vol measurements across the LV were generated on multiecho images in an automated fashion based on inline liver segmentation on dual-echo images...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Sid Ahmed Faraoun, Youcef Guerrache, Raphael Dautry, Mourad Boudiaf, Anthony Dohan, Matthias Barral, Christine Hoeffel, Pascal Rousset, Audrey Fohlen, Philippe Soyer
PURPOSE: This study aimed to report the computed tomography (CT) imaging features of primary small cell neuroendocrine tumors of the gallbladder (PSCNETGs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CT examinations of 9 patients (5 women, 4 men; median age, 57 years) with histopathologically proven PSCNETG were reviewed. Computed tomographic images were analyzed with respect to morphologic features of primary tumors and accompanying lymph nodes. RESULTS: All PSCNETGs were visible on CT, with a median largest axial diameter of 60 mm (Q1, 30 mm; Q3 mm, 82; range, 25-86 mm)...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
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