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Environmental Management

Luke J Potgieter, Mirijam Gaertner, Ulrike M Irlich, Patrick J O'Farrell, Louise Stafford, Hannah Vogt, David M Richardson
Alien plant invasions in urban areas can have considerable impact on biodiversity and ecosystem services (ES). Managing urban plant invasions is particularly challenging given the complex interactions between ecological, economic and social elements that exist in the urban milieu. Strategic landscape-scale insights are crucial for guiding management, as are tactical site-scale perspectives to plan and coordinate control efforts on the ground. Integrating these requirements to enhance management efficiency is a major challenge...
August 6, 2018: Environmental Management
Hsiaofei Chang, Yanxu Liu, Yanglin Wang, Li Zhang, Zhiqing Song, Ichen Hsueh
This study proposes a framework for evaluating anthropogenic nitrogen emissions and local vulnerability in order to assess regional ecological risk of human activity during a stable urbanization process. Taiwan, an isolated island with a unique environment, intensive agriculture, concentrated industries, and stable urbanization, was an ideal location for testing this framework. Local vulnerability is influenced by social characteristics, economic development, environmental protection, and other indicators related to these...
August 1, 2018: Environmental Management
Niyati Naudiyal, Joachim Schmerbeck
The study examines the relationship between Ecosystem Services (ES) supply and vegetation dynamics through a series of five vegetation types representing a hypothetical successional sequence (i.e., Grassland, Pine, Pine-Oak mix, Open Oak, Dense Oak). We quantified and compared the dependence of local livelihood on provisioning services from forests at each level of succession and the resource extraction methods used to obtain desired products through a structured social survey covering 19 villages and 702 households in Tehri Garhwal and Dehradun districts of Uttarakhand...
July 31, 2018: Environmental Management
Kristin Floress, Stephanie Connolly, Kathleen E Halvorsen, Amanda Egan, Thomas Schuler, Amy Hill, Philip DeSenze, Scott Fenimore, Kent Karriker
Natural resources across the United States are increasingly managed at the landscape scale through cooperation among multiple organizations and landowners. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) agency leaders have widely promoted this approach since 2009 when Secretary of Agriculture Vilsack called for "all lands" management. Landscape scale projects have been undertaken to address multiple goals such as single species conservation, resilience to fire, invasive species eradication, and others...
July 25, 2018: Environmental Management
Henry Bokuniewicz, Sung Gheel Jang
The sustainability of offshore sand reserves and the impact of their exploitation for coastal resilience can be assessed by resource managers via GIS. The GIS model to do this requires monitoring of the dredger location (including speed and displacement, if available). The designated borrow area is divided into grid cells, in this example, 100 × 100 m. The aggregate count of positions in each cell can be displayed in a graphic image called a "heat map" (or "density map" or "timeprint") where various intensities of colors represents the number vessel locations in each designated cell over the entire time period of interest as a surrogate for dredging intensity...
July 24, 2018: Environmental Management
Ana Paula Alves Dibo, Bram F Noble, Luis Enrique Sánchez
Cumulative effects assessment (CEA), as a required practice for the environmental assessment (EA) of projects in many countries, faces several practical challenges, especially related to biodiversity. Drawing on the perspectives and experiences of Canadian EA practitioners, this paper explores options or drivers of change for improving project-based assessment to better tackle cumulative effects on biodiversity. An on-line survey was conducted with 40 professionals from the private sector, government departments/agencies, universities, and non-governmental organizations, examining the current challenges and opportunities regarding: CEA process for biodiversity; responsibilities for undertaking CEA tasks; resources to support and promote good CEA practice...
July 23, 2018: Environmental Management
Adam P Reimer, Riva C H Denny, Diana Stuart
The U.S. federal government, as well as many state and local governments, operate a number of conservation programs aimed at ameliorating the environmental problems associated with agriculture. While motives and barriers to conservation program participation and adoption of conservation practices have been extensively studied, the direct impacts of programs on ongoing farm operations remains underexplored. To examine the effects of conservation programs on nitrogen management, an aspect of crop production with significant environmental impacts we conducted interviews with 154 corn producers in three Midwestern U...
July 21, 2018: Environmental Management
Kikuko Shoyama, Ademola K Braimoh, Ram Avtar, Osamu Saito
Cropland expansion to meet the growing demand for food and fuel is a driving factor in forest degradation. Over the next few decades, increases in the area of agricultural land are expected to be concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa, which still has large tracts of unexploited land suitable for agricultural production. We analyzed land-cover change in northern Ghana between 1984 and 2015 and compared it with background social factors associated with land change. Maps from three points in time were analyzed to identify the impact of cropland expansion on the distribution of natural vegetation...
July 21, 2018: Environmental Management
Silvia Kainzinger, Arne Arnberger, Robert C Burns
Research on place attachment suggests that place identity and place dependence differ between recreationists with varying levels of specialization, recreating in different settings and with different resource proximities to their home. To further explore this relationship, we compared place attachment and recreation specialization of whitewater boaters in four different river settings. Data were collected on three rivers in the US and one in Austria. Place attachment was measured using four place identity and four place dependence items...
July 21, 2018: Environmental Management
Behnam Keshavarzi, Sajjad Abbasi, Farid Moore, Soheila Mehravar, Armin Sorooshian, Naghmeh Soltani, Ali Najmeddin
The geochemical nature and health hazards of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the street dust of Bandar Abbas, Iran, are investigated in this study based on 27 street dust samples. Mean concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Sb, and Hg revealed elevated concentrations as compared to the world soil average. Calculated enrichment factors (EFs) indicated that there is very high contamination in dust particles owing to anthropogenic emissions. Two main sources of PTEs are traffic emissions (Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, As, Cd, Sb, and Hg) and resuspended soil particles (Al, Ti, Ni, and Cr)...
July 16, 2018: Environmental Management
Theodoros Giakoumis, Nikolaos Voulvoulis
Introduced in 2000 to reform and rationalise water policy and management across the European Union (EU) Member States (MS), the Water Framework Directive (WFD), the EU's flagship legislation on water protection, is widely acknowledged as the embodiment and vessel for the application of the Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) paradigm. Its ecological objectives, perhaps even more challenging than the prospect of statutory catchment planning itself, were for all EU waters to achieve 'good status' by 2015 (except where exemptions applied) and the prevention of any further deterioration...
July 9, 2018: Environmental Management
Belize A Lane, Samuel Sandoval-Solis, Eric D Stein, Sarah M Yarnell, Gregory B Pasternack, Helen E Dahlke
Balancing ecological and human water needs often requires characterizing key aspects of the natural flow regime and then predicting ecological response to flow alterations. Flow metrics are generally relied upon to characterize long-term average statistical properties of the natural flow regime (hydrologic baseline conditions). However, some key aspects of hydrologic baseline conditions may be better understood through more complete consideration of continuous patterns of daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variability than through summary metrics...
June 22, 2018: Environmental Management
Jordan M West, Catherine A Courtney, Anna T Hamilton, Britt A Parker, David A Gibbs, Patricia Bradley, Susan H Julius
Scientists and managers of natural resources have recognized an urgent need for improved methods and tools to enable effective adaptation of management measures in the face of climate change. This paper presents an Adaptation Design Tool that uses a structured approach to break down an otherwise overwhelming and complex process into tractable steps. The tool contains worksheets that guide users through a series of design considerations for adapting their planned management actions to be more climate-smart given changing environmental stressors...
June 22, 2018: Environmental Management
Jennifer Diana Evans, James Barrie Kirkpatrick, Kerry Lynn Bridle
Land use in many areas is highly contested. An understanding of the nature of such conflicts, and of spatial variation in their intensity, is required to develop planning solutions. We present a novel process for attaining these outcomes which involves mapping of values and potential conflict between stakeholders determined using participatory GIS (PGIS) processes. Our starting point was an a priori identification of the values that were potentially in conflict. We produced quantitative and qualitative maps of each of the values that formed a basis for workshop discussion among small stakeholder groups...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Management
Natalie Sherwood, Meiyin Wu, Peddrick Weis
Mercury contamination in consumed foods poses a significant threat to human health globally. The consumption of mercury-contaminated turtle meat is of special concern due to mercury's capability to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in organisms. Turtles are long-lived predators, allowing for a high degree of bioaccumulation and biomagnification of contaminants. In the U.S., diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) are legally harvested in several states throughout their range. Harvested turtles are usually sold to both local and global markets mainly for human consumption, which results in a human consumption threat...
June 18, 2018: Environmental Management
C L Mackenzie, J Vad, R MacPherson
Marine management developments are occurring across the United Kingdom with the major aim to ensure economic growth and security of marine resources via the provision of legislative guidelines for sustainable management of activities within the marine environment. Many of these directives also provide guidance for maintaining ecologically valuable and/or endangered species and habitats that exist alongside, and may also support, marine activities/use. Marine governance is largely guided by several key directives laid out and implemented by governing authorities of Europe, the United Kingdom and those countries comprising the United Kingdom, and in line with several international conventions...
June 17, 2018: Environmental Management
Feng Zhao, Sean P Healey, Chengquan Huang, James B McCarter, Chris Garrard, Sara A Goeking, Zhiliang Zhu
Accurate characterization of Carbon (C) consequences of forest disturbances and management is critical for informed climate mitigation and adaptation strategies. While research into generalized properties of the forest C cycle informs policy and provides abstract guidance to managers, most management occurs at local scales and relies upon monitoring systems that can consistently provide C cycle assessments that explicitly apply to a defined time and place. We used an inventory-based forest monitoring and simulation tool to quantify C storage effects of actual fires, timber harvests, and forest regeneration conditions in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE)...
June 15, 2018: Environmental Management
Andrew J Neverman, Russell G Death, Ian C Fuller, Ranvir Singh, Jon N Procter
Altered hydrological, sediment, and nutrient regimes can lead to dramatic increases in periphyton abundance in rivers below impoundments. Flushing flows are a commonly adopted strategy to manage the excess periphyton that can accumulate, but in practice they often prove ineffective. Designing hydrological regimes that include flushing flows may be overlooking key processes in periphyton removal, particularly the role of abrasion and molar action induced by substrate movement. Setting flow targets which aim to initiate substrate movement are likely to improve periphyton removal, but an understanding of the site-specific thresholds for substrate entrainment and periphyton removal is required...
June 15, 2018: Environmental Management
Subhajyoti Samaddar, Norio Okada, Xinyu Jiang, Hirokazu Tatano
This study deals with the roles of pioneers or early adopters in a rainwater harvesting technology dissemination process in arsenic and water salinity affected communities in coastal Bangladesh. The dissemination of such innovative technologies has long been advocated for making disaster resilient communities, but how to disseminate these innovations has rarely been addressed, except heuristic studies limited to analyzing the cognitive factors of preparedness. We argue that identifying and characterizing pioneer adopters is critical to promote innovative disaster preventive technologies...
June 12, 2018: Environmental Management
Debashish Biswas, Emily S Gurley, Shannon Rutherford, Stephen P Luby
Soil degradation is an important threat to sustainable agriculture. In Bangladesh, brick production contributes to soil loss as the country relies on clay-rich soil for brick making. An in-depth understanding of why farmers sell soil and the corresponding impacts on agricultural productivity is critical for developing and implementing new policies for utilizing alternate materials and methods in Bangladesh and other areas that continue to rely on fired clay bricks as their primary building material. A team of anthropologists conducted 120 structured interviews and 20 in-depth interviews in two different geographical areas in Bangladesh to understand the incentives for and impacts of selling soil...
June 1, 2018: Environmental Management
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