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Environmental Management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733708/methane-ebullition-in-temperate-hydropower-reservoirs-and-implications-for-us-policy-on-greenhouse-gas-emissions
#1
Benjamin L Miller, Evan V Arntzen, Amy E Goldman, Marshall C Richmond
The United States is home to 2198 dams actively used for hydropower production. With the December 2015 consensus adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Paris Agreement, it is important to accurately quantify anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Methane ebullition, or methane bubbles originating from river or lake sediments, has been shown to account for nearly all methane emissions from tropical hydropower reservoirs to the atmosphere. However, distinct ebullitive methane fluxes have been studied in comparatively few temperate hydropower reservoirs globally...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685244/determinants-of-urban-expansion-and-agricultural-land-conversion-in-25-eu-countries
#2
Eda Ustaoglu, Brendan Williams
Agricultural land conversion is resulting from ongoing complex interaction between the physical environment, policy settings and socio-economic factors. Case studies of the determinants of agricultural land conversion potentially contribute to the analysis of the main causes of land-use change. This can assist authorities and policy makers in understanding the relative importance of a wide range of factors on urban expansion and associated agricultural land-use change. This paper explores the determinants of agricultural land conversion to urban uses in the studied 25 European Union countries between 2000 and 2006...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674917/fire-distribution-in-peninsular-malaysia-sumatra-and-borneo-in-2015-with-special-emphasis-on-peatland-fires
#3
Jukka Miettinen, Chenghua Shi, Soo Chin Liew
In this paper, we analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of vegetation fires in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Borneo in the severe El Niño year of 2015, concentrating on the distribution of fires between mineral soils and peatland areas, and between land cover types in peatland areas. The results reveal that 53% of all Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire detections were recorded in peatlands that cover only 12% of the study area. However, fire occurrence in the peatland areas was highly dependent on land cover type...
July 3, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667407/invertebrate-based-water-quality-impairments-and-associated-stressors-identified-through-the-us-clean-water-act
#4
Heather Govenor, Leigh Anne H Krometis, W Cully Hession
Macroinvertebrate community assessment is used in most US states to evaluate stream health under the Clean Water Act. While water quality assessment and impairment determinations are reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency, there is no national summary of biological assessment findings. The objective of this work was to determine the national extent of invertebrate-based impairments and to identify pollutants primarily responsible for those impairments. Evaluation of state data in the US Environmental Protection Agency's Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Load Tracking and Implementation System database revealed considerable differences in reporting approaches and terminologies including differences in if and how states report specific biological assessment findings...
July 1, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664235/public-private-partnerships-working-beyond-scale-challenges-toward-water-quality-improvements-from-private-lands
#5
Stephanie K Enloe, Lisa A Schulte, John C Tyndall
In recognition that Iowa agriculture must maintain long-term production of food, fiber, clean water, healthy soil, and robust rural economies, Iowa recently devised a nutrient reduction strategy to set objectives for water quality improvements. To demonstrate how watershed programs and farmers can reduce nutrient and sediment pollution in Iowa waters, the Iowa Water Quality Initiative selected the Boone River Watershed Nutrient Management Initiative as one of eight demonstration projects. For over a decade, diverse public, private, and non-profit partner organizations have worked in the Boone River Watershed to engage farmers in water quality management efforts...
June 29, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660371/effects-of-river-discharge-and-land-use-and-land-cover-lulc-on-water-quality-dynamics-in-migina-catchment-rwanda
#6
Abias Uwimana, Anne van Dam, Gretchen Gettel, Bonfils Bigirimana, Kenneth Irvine
Agricultural intensification may accelerate the loss of wetlands, increasing the concentrations of nutrients and sediments in downstream water bodies. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of land use and land cover and river discharge on water quality in the Migina catchment, southern Rwanda. Rainfall, discharge and water quality (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, and temperature) were measured in different periods from May 2009 to June 2013...
June 28, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643082/the-influence-of-solar-power-plants-on-microclimatic-conditions-and-the-biotic-community-in-chilean-desert-environments
#7
Anna Suuronen, Christian Muñoz-Escobar, Anssi Lensu, Markku Kuitunen, Natalia Guajardo Celis, Pablo Espinoza Astudillo, Marcos Ferrú, Andrés Taucare-Ríos, Marcelo Miranda, Jussi V K Kukkonen
The renewable energy sector is growing at a rapid pace in northern Chile and the solar energy potential is one of the best worldwide. Therefore, many types of solar power plant facilities are being built to take advantage of this renewable energy resource. Solar energy is considered a clean source of energy, but there are potential environmental effects of solar technology, such as landscape fragmentation, extinction of local biota, microclimate changes, among others. To be able to minimize environmental impacts of solar power plants, it is important to know what kind of environmental conditions solar power plants create...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634636/farmers-willingness-to-adopt-conservation-agriculture-new-evidence-from-lebanon
#8
Ali Chalak, Alexandra Irani, Jad Chaaban, Issam Bashour, Karin Seyfert, Kaitlyn Smoot, Gumataw Kifle Abebe
With increasing food insecurity and climate change, conservation agriculture has emerged as a sustainable alternative to intensive conventional agriculture as a source of food supply. Yet the adoption rate of conservation agriculture is still low. Our paper analyses the factors affecting farmers' willingness to adopt conservation agriculture in Lebanon. The findings show that household characteristics-years of farming and farm size affect conservation agriculture adoption. However, household characteristics alone were insufficient to explain conservation agriculture adoption...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624912/sustainable-cattle-ranching-in-practice-moving-from-theory-to-planning-in-colombia-s-livestock-sector
#9
Amy M Lerner, Andrés Felipe Zuluaga, Julián Chará, Andrés Etter, Timothy Searchinger
A growing population with increasing consumption of milk and dairy require more agricultural output in the coming years, which potentially competes with forests and other natural habitats. This issue is particularly salient in the tropics, where deforestation has traditionally generated cattle pastures and other commodity crops such as corn and soy. The purpose of this article is to review the concepts and discussion associated with reconciling food production and conservation, and in particular with regards to cattle production, including the concepts of land-sparing and land-sharing...
June 17, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620759/participative-spatial-scenario-analysis-for-alpine-ecosystems
#10
Marina Kohler, Rike Stotten, Melanie Steinbacher, Georg Leitinger, Erich Tasser, Uta Schirpke, Ulrike Tappeiner, Markus Schermer
Land use and land cover patterns are shaped by the interplay of human and ecological processes. Thus, heterogeneous cultural landscapes have developed, delivering multiple ecosystem services. To guarantee human well-being, the development of land use types has to be evaluated. Scenario development and land use and land cover change models are well-known tools for assessing future landscape changes. However, as social and ecological systems are inextricably linked, land use-related management decisions are difficult to identify...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608036/adaptation-to-climatic-hazards-in-the-savannah-ecosystem-improving-adaptation-policy-and-action
#11
Gerald A B Yiran, Lindsay C Stringer
People in Ghana's savannah ecosystem have historically experienced a range of climatic hazards that have affected their livelihoods. In view of current climate variability and change, and projected increases in extreme events, adaptation to climate risks is vital. Policies have been put in place to enhance adaptation across sub-Saharan Africa in accordance with international agreements. At the same time, local people, through experience, have learned to adapt. This paper examines current policy actions and their implementation alongside an assessment of barriers to local adaptation...
June 12, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608035/mapping-meaningful-places-on-washington-s-olympic-peninsula-toward-a-deeper-understanding-of-landscape-values
#12
Lee Karol Cerveny, Kelly Biedenweg, Rebecca McLain
Landscape values mapping has been widely employed as a form of public participation GIS (PPGIS) in natural resource planning and decision-making to capture the complex array of values, uses, and interactions between people and landscapes. A landscape values typology has been commonly employed in the mapping of social and environmental values in a variety of management settings and scales. We explore how people attribute meanings and assign values to special places on the Olympic Peninsula (Washington, USA) using both a landscape values typology and qualitative responses about residents' place-relationships...
June 12, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600638/angling-into-the-future-ten-commandments-for-recreational-fisheries-science-management-and-stewardship-in-a-good-anthropocene
#13
Laura K Elmer, Lisa A Kelly, Stephanie Rivest, S Clay Steell, William M Twardek, Andy J Danylchuk, Robert Arlinghaus, Joseph R Bennett, Steven J Cooke
A new geological epoch, the "Anthropocene", has been defined as the period in which humans have had substantial geological and ecological influence on the planet. A positive future for this epoch can be referred to as the "good Anthropocene" and would involve effective management strategies and changes in human behavior that promote the sustainability and restoration of ecosystems. Recreational fisheries hold significant social, cultural, and economic value and can generate many benefits when managed sustainably and thus be an integral part of a "good Anthropocene"...
June 9, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597053/community-exposure-and-vulnerability-to-water-quality-and-availability-a-case-study-in-the-mining-affected-paz%C3%A3-a-municipality-lake-poop%C3%A3-basin-bolivian-altiplano
#14
Megan French, Natalie Alem, Stephen J Edwards, Efraín Blanco Coariti, Helga Cauthin, Karen A Hudson-Edwards, Karen Luyckx, Jorge Quintanilla, Oscar Sánchez Miranda
Assessing water sources for drinking and irrigation along with community vulnerability, especially in developing and rural regions, is important for reducing risk posed by poor water quality and limited water availability and accessibility. We present a case study of rural mining-agricultural communities in the Lake Poopó Basin, one of the poorest regions on the Bolivian Altiplano. Here, relatively low rainfall, high evaporation, salinization and unregulated mining activity have contributed to environmental degradation and water issues, which is a situation facing many Altiplano communities...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597052/on-the-ground-or-in-the-air-a-methodological-experiment-on-crop-residue-cover-measurement-in-ethiopia
#15
Frédéric Kosmowski, James Stevenson, Jeff Campbell, Alemayehu Ambel, Asmelash Haile Tsegay
Maintaining permanent coverage of the soil using crop residues is an important and commonly recommended practice in conservation agriculture. Measuring this practice is an essential step in improving knowledge about the adoption and impact of conservation agriculture. Different data collection methods can be implemented to capture the field level crop residue coverage for a given plot, each with its own implication on survey budget, implementation speed and respondent and interviewer burden. In this paper, six alternative methods of crop residue coverage measurement are tested among the same sample of rural households in Ethiopia...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597051/effects-of-backpacker-use-pack-stock-trail-use-and-pack-stock-grazing-on-water-quality-indicators-including-nutrients-e-coli-hormones-and-pharmaceuticals-in-yosemite-national-park-usa
#16
Harrison Forrester, David Clow, James Roche, Alan Heyvaert, William Battaglin
We investigated how visitor-use affects water quality in wilderness in Yosemite National Park. During the summers of 2012-2014, we collected and analyzed surface-water samples for water-quality indicators, including fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli, nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon), suspended sediment concentration, pharmaceuticals, and hormones. Samples were collected upstream and downstream from different types of visitor use at weekly to biweekly intervals and during summer storms. We conducted a park-wide synoptic sampling campaign during summer 2014, and sampled upstream and downstream from meadows to evaluate the mitigating effect of meadows on water quality...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584968/informing-environmental-water-management-decisions-using-conditional-probability-networks-to-address-the-information-needs-of-planning-and-implementation-cycles
#17
Avril C Horne, Joanna M Szemis, J Angus Webb, Simranjit Kaur, Michael J Stewardson, Nick Bond, Rory Nathan
One important aspect of adaptive management is the clear and transparent documentation of hypotheses, together with the use of predictive models (complete with any assumptions) to test those hypotheses. Documentation of such models can improve the ability to learn from management decisions and supports dialog between stakeholders. A key challenge is how best to represent the existing scientific knowledge to support decision-making. Such challenges are currently emerging in the field of environmental water management in Australia, where managers are required to prioritize the delivery of environmental water on an annual basis, using a transparent and evidence-based decision framework...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577051/riparian-meadow-response-to-modern-conservation-grazing-management
#18
Kristin M Oles, Dave A Weixelman, David F Lile, Kenneth W Tate, Laura K Snell, Leslie M Roche
Riparian meadows occupy a small proportion of the public lands in the western United States but they provide numerous ecosystem services, including the production of high-quality forage for livestock grazing. Modern conservation management strategies (e.g., reductions in livestock stocking rates and adoption of new riparian grazing standards) have been implemented to better balance riparian conservation and livestock production objectives on publicly managed lands. We examined potential relationships between long-term changes in plant community, livestock grazing pressure and environmental conditions at two spatial scales in meadows grazed under conservation management strategies...
June 2, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573478/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-a-critical-review-of-environmental-occurrence-and-bioremediation
#19
Oluwadara Oluwaseun Alegbeleye, Beatrice Oluwatoyin Opeolu, Vanessa Angela Jackson
The degree of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of environmental matrices has increased over the last several years due to increase in industrial activities. Interest has surrounded the occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for many decades because they pose a serious threat to the health of humans and ecosystems. The importance of the need for sustainable abatement strategies to alleviate contamination therefore cannot be overemphasised, as daily human activities continue to create pollution from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and impact the natural environment...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573477/vulnerability-of-forests-in-india-a-national-scale-assessment
#20
Jagmohan Sharma, Sujata Upgupta, Mathangi Jayaraman, Rajiv Kumar Chaturvedi, Govindswamy Bala, N H Ravindranath
Forests are subjected to stress from climatic and non-climatic sources. In this study, we have reported the results of inherent, as well as climate change driven vulnerability assessments for Indian forests. To assess inherent vulnerability of forests under current climate, we have used four indicators, namely biological richness, disturbance index, canopy cover, and slope. The assessment is presented as spatial profile of inherent vulnerability in low, medium, high and very high vulnerability classes. Fourty percent forest grid points in India show high or very high inherent vulnerability...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Management
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