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Environmental Management

C W Martin Wong, Inga Conti-Jerpe, Laurie J Raymundo, Caroline Dingle, Gonzalo Araujo, Alessandro Ponzo, David M Baker
Reef-based tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades yet its impacts on reef ecosystems are often overlooked. In Tan-awan, Oslob, Philippines, whale sharks are attracted to the shallow reefs where they are provisioned up to 50 tons y-1 of feed and this phenomenon in turn attracts >300,000 y-1 visitors. Given the intensive provisioning and concentrating tourism activities, we hypothesized that the whale shark tourism-impacted site (IS) will have greater impacts on reef degradation and higher anthropogenic nitrogen pollution level compared to its reference site (RS)...
December 4, 2018: Environmental Management
Emily A Kalnicky, Mark W Brunson, Karen H Beard
The increasing worldwide spread of non-native species is both a component and a consequence of environmental change, and islands are especially vulnerable to negative effects. Efforts to control non-native species often include public education intended to promote behaviors designed to reduce or reverse their spread. To inform the use of information strategies to control the invasive, non-native frog Eleutherodactylus coqui in Hawaii, USA, we surveyed over 700 property owners about their attitudes and behaviors regarding the species...
December 3, 2018: Environmental Management
Nesar Ahmed, Shirley Thompson, Marion Glaser
To meet the demand for food from a growing global population, aquaculture production is under great pressure to increase as capture fisheries have stagnated. However, aquaculture has raised a range of environmental concerns, and further increases in aquaculture production will face widespread environmental challenges. The effects of climate change will pose a further threat to global aquaculture production. Aquaculture is often at risk from a combination of climatic variables, including cyclone, drought, flood, global warming, ocean acidification, rainfall variation, salinity, and sea level rise...
November 20, 2018: Environmental Management
Emanuela Masini, Antonio Tomao, Anna Barbati, Piermaria Corona, Pere Serra, Luca Salvati
The present study presents a multidimensional analysis of land-use efficiency in terms of per-capita built-up area over 417 metropolitan regions from 27 European countries. The study period encompasses two urban phases including economic expansion (2000-2007) and crisis (2008-2015). Multiple geographical gradients were identified as relevant predictors of land-use efficiency across Europe. The socioeconomic variables most associated with high land-use efficiency were per-capita disposable income (in Western, Atlantic and Central Europe) and income growth during 2000-2007 (in Eastern Europe), indicating that wealthier cities are characterized by higher land-use efficiency...
November 17, 2018: Environmental Management
Elizabeth Douglass-Gallagher, Diana Stuart
Climate change will pose unprecedented challenges for agricultural producers globally, requiring the ability to adapt to new and unpredictable conditions. This study explores the adaptive capacity of crop growers in the Verde Valley, Arizona (US). Rather than examining pre-determined indicators of adaptive capacity, this study adopts a situated framework that examines material conditions, perceptions, and the larger social context. Interviewers used past experiences and future scenarios to allow factors that enhance or constrain adaptive capacity to emerge from the interviews...
November 15, 2018: Environmental Management
A A Coulter, S R Adams, M B Flinn, M R Whiles, B M Burr, R J Sheehan, J E Garvey
Environmental Pool Management (EPM) can improve ecosystem function in rivers by restoring aspects of the natural flow regime lost to dam construction. EPM recreates summer baseflow conditions and promotes the growth of terrestrial vegetation which is inundated in the fall, thereby improving habitat heterogeneity for many aquatic taxa. A three-year experiment was conducted wherein terrestrial floodplain areas were dewatered through EPM water-level reductions and the resulting terrestrial vegetation was (1) allowed to remain or (2) removed in paired plots in Mississippi River pool 25...
November 14, 2018: Environmental Management
Lawrence Allen, Katie Krafte Holland, Hunter Holland, Salaton Tome', Moriaso Nabaala, Simon Seno, James Nampushi
The concept of protected areas (PA) is one of the most widely used policy tools for biodiversity conservation including habitat and wildlife protection. Despite the importance and emphasis placed on protected area management, biodiversity is still in decline and more species are in danger of extinction. Some analyses have indicated that more than 40% of protected areas are poorly managed. To improve management effectiveness, the inclusion of diverse stakeholder information in articulating management strategies has been strongly encouraged; however, stakeholder involvement is often poorly integrated, and an opportunity granted only to select stakeholder groups, with PA staff, especially at lower organizational levels, minimally involved...
November 13, 2018: Environmental Management
Julia Baird, Ryan Plummer, Lisen Schultz, Derek Armitage, Örjan Bodin
Social and institutional diversity ("diversity" hereafter) are important dimensions in collaborative environmental governance, but lack empirical assessment. In this paper, we examine three aspects of diversity hypothesized in the literature as being important in collaborative forms of environmental governance-the presence of diverse actors, diverse perspectives, and diverse institutions. The presence of these aspects and formative conjectures were empirically considered using a mixed methods approach in four biosphere reserves in Sweden and Canada...
November 13, 2018: Environmental Management
Carmen G Franks, David W Pearce, Stewart B Rood
Following human excretion and limited removal with wastewater treatment, pharmaceuticals are accumulating in rivers worldwide. These chemicals can challenge the health of fish and aquatic organisms and since rivers provide drinking water sources, there is concern for cumulative exposure to humans. In this study, we discovered that sandbar willow (Salix exigua), a predominant riparian shrub along streams throughout North America, has the capacity to quickly remove pharmaceuticals from aqueous solutions. Our study tracked [3 H]- or [14 C]-labeled substances including 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen in oral contraceptives; the antihypertensive, diltiazem (DTZ); and the anti-anxiety drug, diazepam (DZP); and for comparison, atrazine (ATZ), a root-absorbed herbicide...
November 12, 2018: Environmental Management
Stephanie Pincetl, Erik Porse, Kathryn B Mika, Elizaveta Litvak, Kimberly F Manago, Terri S Hogue, Thomas Gillespie, Diane E Pataki, Mark Gold
Acute water shortages for large metropolitan regions are likely to become more frequent as climate changes impact historic precipitation levels and urban population grows. California and Los Angeles County have just experienced a severe four year drought followed by a year of high precipitation, and likely drought conditions again in Southern California. We show how the embedded preferences for distant sources, and their local manifestations, have created and/or exacerbated fluctuations in local water availability and suboptimal management...
November 9, 2018: Environmental Management
Muhammad Abid, Jürgen Scheffran, Uwe A Schneider, Ehsan Elahi
Farmers' willingness and ability to adapt agricultural systems depend on their knowledge about changes in climate and perceived risks of extreme events. Using cross-sectional data of 450 farmers collected from three agro-ecological zones of Punjab, Pakistan, this study investigates farmer perceptions of climate change and their agreement with observed climatic trends. In addition, this study explores the correlation between different adaptation stages (perceptions, intentions, and adaptation) and their key drivers using a Multivariate Probit Model...
October 19, 2018: Environmental Management
Abhishek RoyChowdhury, Dibyendu Sarkar, Rupali Datta
One of the biggest environmental impacts of mining is the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD). In the absence of proper post-mining management practices, AMD pollution can cause massive environmental damage. Current AMD management practices often fail to meet the expectations of cost, efficiency, and sustainability. The objective of this study was to utilize the metal-binding and acid-neutralizing capacity of an industrial by-product that is otherwise landfilled, namely drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs), to treat AMD-water, thus offering a green remediation alternative...
October 1, 2018: Environmental Management
Leonardo Vargas, Louise Willemen, Lars Hein
Ecosystems contribute to economic development through the supply of ecosystem services such as food and fresh water. Information on ecosystems and their services is required to support policy making, but this information is not captured in economic statistics. Ecosystem accounting has been developed to integrate ecosystems and ecosystem services into national accounts. Ecosystem accounting includes the compilation of an ecosystem services supply and use account, which reflects actual flows of ecosystem services, and the ecosystem capacity account, which reflects the capacity of ecosystems to sustainably supply ecosystem services...
September 28, 2018: Environmental Management
Carena J van Riper, Matthew H E M Browning, Douglas Becker, William Stewart, Cory D Suski, Lara Browning, Elizabeth Golebie
Human behaviors that contribute to the spread of aquatic invasive species are influenced by myriad social psychological factors that vary across contexts and populations. Understanding such behavior is crucial for forming successful management strategies that minimize environmental impacts while generating support and cooperation among stakeholders. We identify several reasons why recreational anglers and boaters make decisions that benefit the environment. Specifically, our study addresses the following objectives: (1) examine reported behaviors that minimize the spread of aquatic invasive species, (2) test the effects of social normative beliefs on reported behaviors, and (3) determine the role of human-nature relationships in explaining behavioral patterns...
September 28, 2018: Environmental Management
Julia Baird, Lisen Schultz, Ryan Plummer, Derek Armitage, Örjan Bodin
Conflict in environmental governance is common, and bringing together stakeholders with diverse perspectives in situations of conflict is extremely difficult. However, case studies of how diverse stakeholders form self-organized coalitions under these circumstances exist and provide invaluable opportunities to understand the causal mechanisms that operate in the process. We focus on the case of the Georgian Bay Biosphere Reserve nomination process, which unfolded over several years and moved the region from a series of serious conflicts to one where stakeholders came together to support a Biosphere Reserve nomination...
September 26, 2018: Environmental Management
Yui Takase, Akhmad Arifin Hadi, Katsunori Furuya
Environmental conservation activities such as biodiversity and natural resource management are supported by many eager volunteers in many countries. Because it takes a great deal of time and effort to train new members, volunteer programs are important for preventing the burnout of volunteers and maintaining their motivations to participate. This study explored whether motivations that inspire the future frequency of participation, which volunteers prefer, differ depending on the previous frequency of participation in conservation activities...
September 22, 2018: Environmental Management
Kui Xu, Lingling Bin, Xinyi Xu
Investigation into water resources sustainability (WRS) is vital for a regional sustainable development strategy. This paper aimed to quantitatively evaluate the WRS in mainland China using a three-layer indicator system. Three important factors significantly affecting WRS are: water resources quantity (WRQ), water intensity (WI) and water efficiency (WE). Assessment of the three indicators was carried out in 356 cities where each indicator was graded from "very low" to "very high" according to the value magnitude...
September 21, 2018: Environmental Management
M Melissa Rojas-Downing, A Pouyan Nejadhashemi, Behin Elahi, Kimberly A Cassida, Fariborz Daneshvar, J Sebastian Hernandez-Suarez, Mohammad Abouali, Matthew R Herman, Sabah Anwer Dawood Al Masraf, Timothy Harrigan
Livestock productions require significant resources allocation in the form of land, water, energy, air, and capital. Meanwhile, owing to increase in the global demand for livestock products, it is wise to consider sustainable livestock practices. In the past few decades, footprints have emerged as indicators for sustainability assessment. In this study, we are introducing a new footprint measure to assess sustainability of a grazing dairy farm while considering carbon, water, energy, and economic impacts of milk production...
December 2018: Environmental Management
Byron K Williams, Eleanor D Brown
Adaptive management addresses uncertainty about the processes influencing resource dynamics, as well as the elements of decision making itself. The use of management to reduce both kinds of uncertainty is known as double-loop learning. Though much work has been done on the theory and procedures to address structural uncertainty, there has been less progress in developing an explicit approach for institutional learning about decision elements. Our objective is to describe evidence-based learning about the decision elements, as a complement to the formal "learning by doing" framework for reducing structural uncertainties...
December 2018: Environmental Management
Mark J Ducey, Kenneth M Johnson, Ethan P Belair, Barbara D Cook
The Great Lakes region contains productive agricultural and forest lands, but it is also highly urbanized, with 32 of its 52 million residents living in nine large metropolitan areas. Urbanization of undeveloped areas may adversely affect the productivity of agricultural and forest lands, and the provision of ecosystem services. We combine demographic and remote sensing data to evaluate land cover change in the region using a two-phase statistical modeling approach that predicts the incidence and extent of land cover change for each of the region's 10,579 county subdivisions...
December 2018: Environmental Management
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