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Behavioural Processes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642165/can-the-way-pigs-are-handled-alter-behavioural-and-physiological-measures-of-affective-state
#1
Ricard Carreras, Laura Arroyo, Eva Mainau, Daniel Valent, Anna Bassols, Antoni Dalmau, Luigi Faucitano, Xavier Manteca, Antonio Velarde
Research on human-animal relationship in animal production has been mainly focused on its effect on stress, productivity and meat quality. Only few studies have assessed its effects on the animals' affective state. In the present study, the influence of positive and negative handling (PH and NH, respectively) on affective state and fear as assessed by the cognitive bias test, the novel object test and the defence cascade test was studied in 56 pigs. Serum, saliva and hair were sampled during the study for the analysis of cortisol concentration...
June 19, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633953/reversal-learning-and-resurgence-of-operant-behavior-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#2
Toshikazu Kuroda, Yuto Mizutani, Carlos R X Cançado, Christopher A Podlesnik
Zebrafish are used extensively as vertebrate animal models in biomedical research for having such features as a fully sequenced genome and transparent embryo. Yet, operant-conditioning studies with this species are scarce. The present study investigated reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish. A target response (approaching a sensor) was reinforced in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the target response was extinguished while reinforcing an alternative response (approaching a different sensor)...
June 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624606/identifying-individual-male-reproductive-consistency-in-drosophila-melanogaster-the-importance-of-controlling-female-behaviour
#3
Jesse Balaban-Feld, Thomas J Valone
Work on the repeatability of reproductive behaviour has mainly focused on the consistency of female preferences. We characterised the consistency of individual male Drosophila melanogaster reproductive behaviour in two experiments. In the first experiment, we allowed males to interact with a pair of live females that differed in body size. We then controlled female behaviour in a second experiment by examining the courtship behaviour of individual males interacting with a pair of decapitated females that varied in body size...
June 14, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610910/effects-of-extinction-in-multiple-contexts-on-renewal-of-instrumental-responses
#4
Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa, Javier Nieto, Metin Uengoer
In two experiments with rats, we investigated the effects of using multiple contexts during extinction on renewal of lever-pressing behavior. During the first phase of both experiments, rats were reinforced to press a lever for food in Context A. Then, responses underwent extinction. For half of the animals, extinction sessions were conducted in a single context, whereas the other half received extinction in three different contexts. In Experiment 1, we observed that extinction in multiple contexts eliminated ABC renewal, but had no detectable impact on ABA renewal...
June 10, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602748/effects-of-physical-exercise-and-social-isolation-on-anxiety-related-behaviors-in-two-inbred-rat-strains
#5
F G Mazur, L F G Oliveira, M P Cunha, A L S Rodrigues, R A N Pértile, L F Vendruscolo, G S Izídio
We investigated the effects of physical exercise (PE) on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior in Lewis (LEW) and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) male rats. Rats received either four weeks of forced training, 5days/week, on a treadmill (experiment 1) or were given 21days of free access to running wheels (experiment 2). We also tested the effects of social isolation (SI) (seven days of isolation - experiment 3) on behavior. In experiment 1, 20% of LEW rats and 63% of SHR rats completed the training protocol...
June 8, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591643/female-choice-male-dominance-and-condition-related-traits-in-the-polygynous-subterranean-rodent-ctenomys-talarum
#6
M S Fanjul, R R Zenuto
Ctenomys talarum is a solitary and highly territorial species in which dominant males aggressively deter other males and monopolize reproductive activity. Female preference for dominant males is not easy to assess due to coercive mating by males. Hence, we aimed to answer if behavioural dominance and several condition-related traits like testosterone and cortisol levels, endoparasite load, and hematocrit volume may affect female preference when they have the opportunity to exert it. We designed a laboratory experiment using wild-caught C...
June 4, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554740/tuberculosis-detection-by-pouched-rats-opportunities-for-reinforcement-under-low-prevalence-conditions
#7
Timothy L Edwards, Haylee Ellis, Erin E Watkins, Christiaan Mulder, Georgies Mgode, Christophe Cox, Alan Poling
Giant African pouched rats (Cricetomys ansorgei) have been employed successfully in two operational tuberculosis-detection projects in which they sniff sputum samples from symptomatic individuals who have visited tuberculosis clinics. The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in this population is high, approximately 20% in the regions where the rats have been used. If the rats are to be used to screen individuals from lower-prevalence populations, their performance under such conditions must first be evaluated...
May 26, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552707/flexibility-in-the-social-behavior-of-captive-female-capybaras-mammalia-rodentia
#8
Sérgio L G Nogueira-Filho, Pauliene C Lopes, Djalma N Ferreira, Selene S C Nogueira
Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) lives in stable groups composed of adult males and females with their young. The species shows flexibility in social organization in response to short-term environmental changes, but apparently does not show flexibility in social behavior. To gain insights into mechanisms underlying changes in social relationships, we analyzed the social dominance hierarchy of five captive capybara groups, composed of four to 13 adult females kept in outdoor paddocks ranging from 400 to 4500m(2)...
May 25, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552703/phenotype-of-a-leaf-beetle-larva-depends-on-host-plant-quality-and-previous-test-experience
#9
Thorben Müller, Caroline Müller
Phenotypic expressions of insects are strongly dependent on various external and internal factors, like diet or density and age or sex. However, environmental effects on the behavioural phenotype and repeatability are rather unexplored for holometabolous insects in their larval stage. We examined the effects of the food environment (young versus old cabbage leaves) and previous test experience on growth and behaviour of Phaedon cochleariae larvae. A more nutritious diet, i.e., young leaves, had beneficial consequences on larval growth...
May 25, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552706/mother-young-recognition-in-goitered-gazelle-during-hiding-period
#10
D A Blank, W Yang
The mother-young recognition process is crucial for the growth and survival of progeny. In "follower" ungulate species, vocal and visual cues have been found to play a leading role in the mother-young identification process from the first days postpartum, with olfactory cues also important in establishing the initial selective mother-young bond immediately after birth. In "hider" species, however, much less has been documented of mother-young recognition behaviors, especially in their natural habitat. In this paper, we investigated this process in goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), a typical hider species, in its native environment in Kazakhstan...
May 24, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549567/how-stallions-influence-the-dynamic-of-collective-movements-in-two-groups-of-domestic-horses-from-departure-to-arrival
#11
Léa Briard, Jean-Louis Deneubourg, Odile Petit
The role of leader in polygynous species has been solely attributed to the male for some time, but recent studies have shown decision making to be distributed within the group. However, the specific reproductive strategy and behavioural repertoire of males in polygynous species such as horses may mean that these individuals still have the potential to play a specific role during decision making. To investigate this subject, we thoroughly studied the behaviour of two domestic stallions during collective movements of their group...
May 23, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535928/vocal-similarity-in-long-distance-and-short-distance-vocalizations-in-raven-pairs-corvus-corax-in-captivity
#12
Eva Maria Luef, Andries Ter Maat, Simone Pika
Vocal interactions in many birds are characterized by imitation or the matching of vocalizations whereby one individual makes its vocalizations more similar to those of a conspecific. This behaviour is aided by vocal learning, which allows birds to change the vocalizations already in their repertoires, or to add new ones. The majority of studies on vocal similarity have been focussing on the songs of birds rather than their calls, with evidence for vocal similarity in calls being rather scarce. Here, we investigated whether ravens make their calls acoustically similar to one another by analysing the extent to which short- and long-distance calls of their vocal repertoires exhibited vocal similarity...
May 20, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532665/evaluation-of-the-behavioral-characteristics-of-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-through-operant-conditioning-procedures
#13
Matthew Lewon, Christina M Peters, Pam M Van Ry, Dean J Burkin, Kenneth W Hunter, Linda J Hayes
The mdx mouse is an important nonhuman model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) research. Characterizing the behavioral traits of the strain relative to congenic wild-type (WT) mice may enhance our understanding of the cognitive deficits observed in some humans with DMD and contribute to treatment development and evaluation. In this paper we report the results of a number of experiments comparing the behavior of mdx to WT mice in operant conditioning procedures designed to assess learning and memory. We found that mdx outperformed WT in all learning and memory tasks involving food reinforcement, and this appeared to be related to the differential effects of the food deprivation motivating operation on mdx mice...
May 19, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528929/female-brazilian-whiptail-lizards-cnemidophorus-ocellifer-prefer-males-with-high-ultraviolet-ornament-reflectance
#14
Carolina M C A Lisboa, Katalin Bajer, Daniel M A Pessoa, Marc A A Huber, Gabriel C Costa
Conspicuous colouration is an important way of social communication in many taxa. The role of ultraviolet (UV) signals in intraspecific communication has only recently been studied in lizards, and there is not a general understanding of the adaptive role of UV colouration. Colour ornaments can signal male quality in mate choice and are therefore suitable for reliably predicting the outcome of female preference. Here, we tested the potential role of UV colouration in female spatial preference in a non-territorial teiid lizard, Cnemidophorus ocellifer...
May 18, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512037/understanding-behavior-under-nonverbal-transitive-inference-procedures-stimulus-control-topography-analyses
#15
Ann Galizio, Adam H Doughty, Dean C Williams, Kathryn J Saunders
Following training with verbal stimulus relations involving A is greater than B and B is greater than C, verbally-competent individuals reliably select A>C when asked "which is greater, A or C?" (i.e., verbal transitive inference). This result is easy to interpret. Nonhuman animals and humans with and without intellectual disabilities have been exposed to nonverbal transitive-inference procedures involving trained arbitrary stimulus relations. Following the training of A+B-, B+C-, C+D-, and D+E-, B reliably is selected over D (i...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512036/vocal-responses-of-austral-forest-frogs-to-amplitude-and-degradation-patterns-of-advertisement-calls
#16
Mario Penna, Felipe N Moreno-Gómez, Matías I Muñoz, Javiera Cisternas
Degradation phenomena affecting animal acoustic signals may provide cues to assess the distance of emitters. Recognition of degraded signals has been extensively demonstrated in birds, and recently studies have also reported detection of degraded patterns in anurans that call at or above ground level. In the current study we explore the vocal responses of the syntopic burrowing male frogs Eupsophus emiliopugini and E. calcaratus from the South American temperate forest to synthetic conspecific calls differing in amplitude and emulating degraded and non-degraded signal patterns...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512035/the-predatory-behavior-of-the-neotropical-social-wasp-polybia-rejecta
#17
Alain Dejean, Héctor Rodríguez-Pérez, James M Carpenter, Frédéric Azémar, Bruno Corbara
We experimentally studied the predatory behavior of Polybia rejecta (Vespidae, Polistinae, Epiponini) towards 2-88 mm-long insects attracted to a UV light trap. Foragers, which began to hunt at 6:30, selected 4-14 mm-long prey insects. Prey detection by sight by hovering wasps was confirmed using decoys. After the wasps landed and walked along a sinuous path, prey were detected by contact or from a distance (1-3cm). This was followed by seizure, stinging (contrarily to most other known cases), prey manipulation and retrieval...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502868/no-pain-no-gain-male-plasticity-in-burrow-digging-according-to-female-rejection-in-a-sand-dwelling-wolf-spider
#18
Matilde Carballo, Fabiana Baldenegro, Fedra Bollatti, Alfredo V Peretti, Anita Aisenberg
Behavioral plasticity allows individuals to reversibly respond to short-term variations in their ecological and social environment in order to maximize their fitness. Allocosa senex is a burrow-digging spider that inhabits the sandy coasts of South America. This species shows a reversal in typical sex roles expected in spiders: females are wanderers that visit males at their burrows and initiate courtship. They prefer males with long burrows for mating, and males prefer virgin over mated females. We tested whether female sexual rejection induced males to enlarge their burrows and if female reproductive status affected males' responses...
May 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499811/the-effect-of-lever-height-on-the-microstructure-of-operant-behavior
#19
Ángel Andrés Jiménez, Federico Sanabria, Felipe Cabrera
The effect of lever height on the temporal organization of reinforced lever pressing was examined. Lever pressing was reinforced on a variable-interval 30-s schedule in rats, with lever height manipulated across six successive conditions. Parameters of the organization of responses in bouts (bout length distribution, bout-initiation rate, within-bout rate, and sequential dependency) were estimated. These estimates revealed (1) a qualitative change in the distribution of IRTs and their sequential dependency when the lever was too high, (2) a mixture of geometrically-distributed bout lengths at all lever heights, and (3) longer bouts at lower and intermediate lever heights...
May 10, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487201/on-defining-resurgence
#20
REVIEW
Kennon A Lattal, Carlos R X Cançado, James E Cook, Stephanie L Kincaid, Tyler D Nighbor, Anthony C Oliver
A review of different investigators' definitions of resurgence revealed several common features: First, characteristics of the resurgent, or target, response, such as its transience; magnitude; time course within and across sessions; and relativity to a baseline response rate are not mentioned. Second, the target response is described as being established through its reinforcement in the first, or Training, phase of a resurgence procedure. Third, the target response must be eliminated as an alternative response is reinforced in the second, Alternative Reinforcement, phase of a resurgence procedure...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
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