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Behavioural Processes

L Müller, D Weinert
In a natural environment, social abilities of an animal are important for its survival. Particularly, it must recognize its own social rank and the social rank of a conspecific and have a good social memory. While the role of the circadian system for object and spatial recognition and memory is well known, the impact of the social rank and circadian disruptions on social recognition and memory were not investigated so far. In the present study, individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance of Djungarian hamsters revealing different circadian phenotypes were investigated...
October 13, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Rodolfo Ungerfeld, Aline Freitas-de-Melo, Julia Giriboni, Lorena Lacuesta, Adolfo Toledano-Díaz, Julián Santiago-Moreno
Aggressiveness is directly related to testosterone concentration, which varies with seasons and in response to female stimulation. The aim was to determine if the frequency and pattern of agonistic interactions between bucks varies seasonally and in response to oestrous female stimulation. In the first study we characterized the pattern of agonistic interactions during feeding throughout a whole year in groups of Iberian ibex bucks; and in the second study, we determined the influence of oestrous does on the frequencies of agonistic behaviours between Gabon bucks in different seasons...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Christos C Ioannou
Larger groups often have a greater ability to solve cognitive tasks compared to smaller ones or lone individuals. This is well established in social insects, navigating flocks of birds, and in groups of prey collectively vigilant for predators. Research in social insects has convincingly shown that improved cognitive performance can arise from self-organised local interactions between individuals that integrates their contributions, often referred to as swarm intelligence. This emergent collective intelligence has gained in popularity and been directly applied to groups of other animals, including fish...
October 11, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Olivia L Guayasamin, Iain D Couzin, Noam Y Miller
An individual's behavioural phenotype is a combination of its unique behavioural propensities and its responsiveness to environmental variation, also known as behavioural plasticity. In social species, we must not only explore how individuals respond to variations in the physical environment but also how they react to changes in their social environment. A growing body of work has demonstrated that the behavioural heterogeneity of a group can alter its responsiveness, decision making, and fitness. Whether an individual is more or less extreme than a partner - what we term its 'relative personality' - may also alter individual behavioural responses...
October 11, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Sydney Trask, Eric A Thrailkill, Mark E Bouton
An occasion setter is a stimulus that modulates the ability of another stimulus to control behavior. A rich history of experimental investigation has identified several important properties that define occasion setters and the conditions that give rise to occasion setting. In this paper, we first consider the basic hallmarks of occasion setting in Pavlovian conditioning. We then review research that has examined the mechanisms underlying the crucial role of context in Pavlovian and instrumental extinction. In Pavlovian extinction, evidence suggests that the extinction context can function as a negative occasion setter whose role is to disambiguate the current meaning of the conditioned stimulus; the conditioning context can also function as a positive occasion setter...
October 6, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Nolan N Bett, Scott G Hinch, Sang-Seon Yun
Many fish that are exposed to a threat release disturbance cues, which are chemicals that alert conspecifics to the presence of the threat. The release of disturbance cues has been well demonstrated in various species of laboratory-reared fish. Migratory fish species often exhibit increased cortisol levels and are exposed to numerous stressors during their migrations, which could trigger the release of disturbance cues. We tested the responses of wild migrating sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink salmon (O...
October 5, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Rocío Arias Del Razo, Karen L Bales
Socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) display remarkable individual variation in social behaviors, which has been associated with differences in early life experience and neuropeptide receptor densities. These differences are also seen in the wild, where approximately 70% of young voles remain in their natal group as non-breeding alloparents, while the other 30% disperse. We investigated whether natural variation in early parental care could contribute to offspring's willingness to "disperse" (willingness to explore) in a laboratory context...
October 5, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Françoise Lermite, Chloé Peneaux, Andrea S Griffin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Behavioural Processes
David P Jarmolowicz, Derek D Reed, Amanda S Bruce, Delwyn Catley, Sharon Lynch, Kathy Goggin, Seung-Lark Lim, Lauren Strober, Morgan Glusman, Abigail N Norouzinia, Jared M Bruce
Much like delay discounting, probability discounting may be related to a host of pro-health behaviors. In a recent report, a Medical Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ) was developed that leveraged this insights of probability discounting to both describe ways that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients weigh costs and benefits when making adherence choices, and predicted their self-reported treatment adherence. The current re-analysis of those data use a novel EP50 measure as a framework of a model that predicted the cost/benefit ratios necessary for the choices of typically non-adherent patients to become indistinguishable from those of typically adherent patients (and vice versa)...
October 1, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Mathilde Lalot, Davy Ung, Franck Péron, Patrizia d'Ettorre, Dalila Bovet
Recent studies suggest that cognitive bias could constitute a novel and valid measure of animal welfare. Although interest for a link between personality and cognition is growing, no study to date investigated whether a cognitive bias might be related to the personality of the individuals. We trained 43 domestic canaries (Serinus canaria) to discriminate between two sides of a test cage, each side being associated with a different value (attractive or aversive food in a dish). During the test phase, the dish was placed at intermediate locations, representing ambiguous information...
September 30, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Fanny Ruhland, Violette Chiara, Marie Trabalon
Wolf spiders' (Lycosidae) maternal behaviour includes a specific phase called "egg brooding" which consists of guarding and carrying an egg-sac throughout the incubation period. The transport of an egg-sac can restrict mothers' exploratory and locomotor activity, in particular when foraging. The present study details the ontogeny of maternal behaviour and assesses the influence of age of egg-sac (or embryos' developmental stage) on vagrant wolf spider Pardosa saltans females' exploration and locomotion. We observed these spiders' maternal behaviour in the laboratory and evaluated their locomotor activity using a digital activity recording device...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
M J Guesgen, N J Beausoleil, M Leach, E O Minot, M Stewart, K J Stafford
Facial expressions are routinely used to assess pain in humans, particularly those who are non-verbal. Recently, there has been an interest in developing coding systems for facial grimacing in non-human animals, such as rodents, rabbits, horses and sheep. The aims of this preliminary study were to: 1. Qualitatively identify facial feature changes in lambs experiencing pain as a result of tail-docking and compile these changes to create a Lamb Grimace Scale (LGS); 2. Determine whether human observers can use the LGS to differentiate tail-docked lambs from control lambs and differentiate lambs before and after docking; 3...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Bryan D Devan, Elizabeth L Tobin, Emily N Dunn, Christopher Magalis
This study investigated sex differences on the competitive place version of the Morris water maze task to determine whether potential strategy differences would emerge during any phase of the study but in particular on the competitive place phase. Previous findings indicate that this version of the task is highly sensitive to measures that disrupt NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity within the hippocampus during memory consolidation (McDonald et al., 2005). The present findings revealed significant sex differences during all phases of the study, including Phase I with standard place training to located a hidden platform/goal, Phase II mass training to a new place with the platform/goal relocated to the diagonally opposite quadrant and Phase III, competitive place probe test with the platform removed to measure spatial behaviour directed at either location...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Patrizia d'Ettorre, Claudio Carere, Lara Demora, Pauline Le Quinquis, Lisa Signorotti, Dalila Bovet
Emotional state may influence cognitive processes such as attention and decision-making. A cognitive judgement bias is the propensity to anticipate either positive or negative consequences in response to ambiguous information. Recent work, mainly on vertebrates, showed that the response to ambiguous stimuli might change depending on an individual's affective state, which is influenced by e.g. the social and physical environment. However, the response to ambiguous stimuli could also be affected by the individual's behavioural type (personality), a question that has been under-investigated...
September 27, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Lies Zandberg, John L Quinn, Marc Naguib, Kees van Oers
Individuals develop innovative behaviours to solve foraging challenges in the face of changing environmental conditions. Little is known about how individuals differ in their tendency to solve problems and in their subsequent use of this solving behaviour in social contexts. Here we investigated whether individual variation in problem-solving performance could be explained by differences in the likelihood of solving the task, or if they reflect differences in foraging strategy. We tested this by studying the use of a novel foraging skill in groups of great tits (Parus major), consisting of three naive individuals with different personality, and one knowledgeable tutor...
September 22, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Gaële Lebeau, Silla M Consoli, Raphael Le Bouc, Agnès Sola-Gazagnes, Agnès Hartemann, Dominique Simon, Gerard Reach, Jean-Jacques Altman, Mathias Pessiglione, Frédéric Limosin, Cédric Lemogne
OBJECTIVE: Delay discounting is the tendency to prefer smaller, sooner rewards to larger, later ones. Poor adherence in type 2 diabetes could be partially explained by a discounted value of health, as a function of delay. Delay discounting can be described with a hyperbolic model characterized by a coefficient, k. The higher k, the less future consequences are taken into account when making decisions. This study aimed to determine whether k would be correlated with glycated hemoglobin and adherence in type 2 diabetes...
September 20, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Amanda J Quisenberry, Alexander Bianco, Kirstin M Gatchalian, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Warren K Bickel
Healthy decisions are associated with valuation of the future whereas unhealthy decisions are associated with devaluation of the future. Comparisons of future discounting of delayed rewards in adolescent smokers and non-smokers have been equivocal and past discounting of monetary gains has not been reported in adolescents. Here, adolescents completed future and past delay discounting tasks. A mixed-model analysis of covariance using a model with the lowest Bayesian Information Criterion revealed that adolescents discount the past more than the future and smokers discount more than non-smokers...
September 20, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Chloé Monestier, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont, Nicolas Morellet, Lucie Debeffe, Nicolas Cebe, Joël Merlet, Denis Picot, Jean-Luc Rames, A J Mark Hewison, Hélène Verheyden
Individuals differ in the manner that they cope with risk. When these behavioral differences are manifested in risky or challenging environments (i.e. stressful situations), they are generally interpreted within the "coping style" framework. As studying inter-individual variability in behavior is particularly challenging in the wild, we used a captive facility to explore consistency in the individual behavioral response to an acute stress in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Using behavioral and physiological parameters measured six times across a calendar year, we first quantified individual repeatability and, second, explored the correlations among these parameters that might indicate a coherent stress response...
September 16, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Takayuki Tanno
The purpose of this study was to analyze the response pattern difference between variable-ratio (VR) and variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement by modeling interresponse time distributions of rats' lever presses. All eight rats showed higher response rates under VR 30 than under inter-reinforcement intervals yoked VI. The 30 models consisting of single Exponential (with and without the lower limit on interresponse times), Weibull, Normal, Log-Normal or Gamma distributions, all possible two component combinations of those, and 3 and 4 component models consisting of Weibull, Normal, Log-Normal, or Gamma distribution combinations were compared...
September 13, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Rebecca M Rayburn-Reeves, Muhammad A J Qadri, Daniel I Brooks, Ashlynn M Keller, Robert G Cook
The systematic anticipation and preservation errors produced by pigeons around the reversal point in midsession reversal (MSR) learning experiments suggest that an internal time estimation cue, instead of a more efficient external cue provided by reinforcement, controls behavior over the course of a session. The current experiments examined the role and effectiveness of other external cues in the MSR task. In Experiment 1, providing differential outcomes based on response key location produced fewer errors prior to, but not after, the reversal as compared with a non-differential outcomes condition...
September 8, 2016: Behavioural Processes
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