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Behavioural Processes

Karina Karenina, Andrey Giljov, Yegor Malashichev
The manifestation of behavioural lateralization has been shown to be modified by environmental conditions, life experiences, and selective breeding. This study tests whether the lateralization recently found in feral domestic horse (Equus caballus) is evident in undomesticated horses. Mother-offspring interactions were investigated in Przewalski's horse (E. ferus przewalskii) living in their natural habitat in Mongolia. Lateral position preferences during mare-foal spontaneous reunions were used as a behavioural marker of visual lateralization...
January 13, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Anastasiya Kobrina, Katrina L Toal, Micheal L Dent
Mice have emerged as important models of auditory perception and acoustic communication. To study and model complex sound perception and communication, basic hearing abilities have to be established, yet intensity difference limens have not been measured in CBA/CAJ mice. Nine mice were trained using operant conditioning procedures with positive reinforcement to discriminate sound intensity across frequencies. Intensity difference limens were measured for 12, 16, 24, and 42 kHz tones at 10 and 30 dB sensation levels...
January 13, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Ruuska Salla, Hämäläinen Wilhelmiina, Kajava Sari, Mughal Mikaela, Matilainen Pekka, Mononen Jaakko
The aim of the present study was to evaluate empirically confusion matrices in device validation. We compared the confusion matrix method to linear regression and error indices in the validation of a device measuring feeding behaviour of dairy cattle. In addition, we studied how to extract additional information on classification errors with confusion probabilities. The data consisted of 12 h behaviour measurements from five dairy cows; feeding and other behaviour were detected simultaneously with a device and from video recordings...
January 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Kyriacos Kareklas, Robert W Elwood, Richard A Holland
Acting collectively in a group provides risk-reducing benefits. Yet individuals differ in how they take risks, with some being more willing than others to approach dangerous or unfamiliar settings. Therefore, individuals may need to adjust their behaviour when in groups, either as a result of perceiving greater safety or to coordinate collective responses, the latter of which may rely on within-group dynamics biased by group composition. In zebrafish we explored how these aspects of grouping affect risk-taking behaviour by comparing solitary to group conditions and testing the ability of group-member solitary responses to predict collective responses...
January 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
April M Becker
Selection has enriched our understanding of the world since it was first applied to the evolution of species. Selection stands as an alternative to essentialist thinking, as a generalized and multiply applicable concept, and as a causal explanation for current forms within biology and behavior. Attempts to describe selection processes in a generalizable way have provided clarity about their minimal elements, such as replicators and interactors. This paper discusses the interconnectedness among different levels of selection using evidence garnered from evolutionary biology, development, epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior analysis...
January 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Javiera Constanzo-Chávez, Mario Penna, Antonieta Labra
The microhabitat preferences of prey animals can modulate how they perceive predation risk, and therefore, their antipredator behaviour. We tested under standardized conditions how microhabitat preferences of two Liolaemus lizards affected their responses when confronted with two types of ambush predators (raptor vs. snake), under two levels of predation risk (low vs. high). These lizard species are sympatric, but not syntopic; L. chiliensis basks on bushes, a complex microhabitat that may provide protection against visual predators, while L...
January 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Taylor M Johnson, Adam L Crane
Habitat selection is fundamentally important to animal ecology, and animals that can learn about habitats can increase the probability of avoiding detection by predators or quickly finding food. Here, we tested whether juveniles of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, can learn preference for habitat types based on experience with food availability. Crayfish were housed in arenas with two habitat types, half leaf habitat and half rock habitat. Over several days, crayfish were fed consistently in one of the habitat types...
January 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Janko Skok
Mammals have developed a variety of suckling behaviours ranging from tenacious nipple attachment in some rodents and marsupials to once-a-day suckling in rabbit. However, a common feature of suckling that was found in most mammals is the suckling order, or a partial preference to suckle a particular teat (teat fidelity) or part of the udder (suckling preference). A lack of suckling order is observed only in a few mammals. In this article, the possible background of the presence or absence of suckling order in eutherian polytocous mammals are discussed, either from the maternal investment and sibling competition point of view...
December 30, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Peter R Killeen
Many readers of this journal have been schooled in both Darwinian evolution and Skinnerian psychology, which have in common the vision of powerful control of their subjects by their sequalae. Individuals of species that generate more successful offspring come to dominate their habitat; responses of those individuals that generate more reinforcers come to dominate the repertoire of the individual in that context. This is unarguable. What is questionable is how large a role these forces of selection play in the larger landscape of existing organisms and the repertoires of their individuals...
December 29, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Adam H Doughty, Casey M Irwin
The experimental analysis of derived stimulus relations is a critical research area. A training-then-testing preparation nearly always is used to study derived relations. In the training phase, participants learn the relevant baseline discriminations via differential consequences (e.g., AB and AC relations). In the testing phase, they are presented with probe trials in the absence of differential consequences (e.g., BA and CA symmetry trials and BC and CB equivalence trials). High accuracy levels sometimes are observed from the start of testing such that it is unclear whether the participants learned these relations before testing...
December 28, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Maria Yli-Renko, Jenni E Pettay, Outi Vesakoski
Optimal life-history strategies are currently considered to be a major driving force for the maintenance of animal personalities. In this experimental study we tested whether naturally occurring predation causes personality-dependent mortality of a marine isopod (Idotea balthica), which could maintain personality variation in nature. Moreover, as isopods are known to have sex-differences in behaviour, we were interested in whether personality-dependent predation was sex-specific. We also hypothesised that predation pressure among personality types could vary according to habitat type, as it has been shown in correlative studies that habitat may influence to personality variation...
December 26, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Karla D Rivera-Cáceres, Christopher N Templetron
Avian song learning has a rich history of study and has become the preeminent system for understanding the ontogeny of vocal communication in animals. Song learning in birds has many parallels with human language learning, ranging from the neural mechanisms involved to the importance of social factors in shaping signal acquisition. While much has been learned about the process of song learning, virtually all of the research done to date has focused on temperate species, where often only one sex (the male) sings...
December 25, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Carsta Simon, Dag O Hessen
The behavioral phenotype of an organism results from selective processes acting on variation in behavioral traits during ontogeny (during life span) and phylogeny (across generations). Different adaptive processes can be categorized as environment-phenotype feedback loops. In this cross-disciplinary approach, we discuss the interaction of ontogenetic selective processes, traditionally studied by behavior analysts, and phylogenetic selection processes, traditionally studied by biologists. We elaborate upon the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis by addressing the connection between selection as a domain-general process and phenomena such as classical and operant conditioning, imprinting, adjunctive behavior, and gene-culture coevolution...
December 23, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Nicola S Clayton, Clive Wilkins
In this paper we highlight seven myths about memory, which centre around the fact that memories, as we experience them, are not only about the past, they are also prospective. Although episodic memory provides the template for future scenarios, it can be reassessed each time it is recalled, and in part is dependent on the sequence in which events unfold. We explore seven myths about memory, and the relationship between memory and experience. We refer to 'The Moustachio Quartet', a series of novels, which highlight themes and ideas relevant to our argument, and 'The Creatures in the Night', a picture book of paintings that explore the passage of time...
December 23, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Bonnie M Perdue, Michael J Beran, David A Washburn
Innovations in apparatus technology come about for a variety of reasons such as the need to use the same methodology with various species, the opportunity to present dynamic and carefully controlled stimuli, the goal of using automation to make data collection more precise or efficient, and the need to control for and/or eliminate the presence of experimenters in the testing context. At the Language Research Center (LRC) of Georgia State University, a computer-based system has been developed and used extensively with nonhuman primate species...
December 23, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Patrick Anselme, Tobias Otto, Onur Güntürkün
Lévy walks are a property of random movements often observed among foraging animals (and humans), and they might confer some advantages for survival in an unpredictable environment, in comparison with Brownian walks. In animals with a nervous system, specific neurotransmitters associated with some psychological states could play a crucial role in controlling the occurrence of Lévy walks. We argue that incentive motivation, a dopamine-dependent process that in vertebrates makes rewards and their predictive conditioned stimuli attractive, has behavioral effects that may favor their occurrence: incentive motivation is higher when food is unpredictable and it strongly underpins foraging activity...
December 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Adriana Diez, Alice Cui, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton
The auditory forebrain regions caudo-medial nidopallium (NCM) and caudo-medial mesopallium (CMM) of songbirds exhibit differential expression of the immediate-early gene ZENK in response to playback of different song stimuli, and dependent on early-life auditory experience. Similarly, song preferences depend both on auditory experience and unlearned biases for particular song features. We explored the contributions of early-life auditory experience and the type of song stimuli on the Zenk response in the auditory forebrain of female zebra finches...
December 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Gordon G Gallup
The recent attempt by Horowitz (2017) to develop an "olfactory mirror" test of self-recognition in domestic dogs raises some important questions about the kind of data that are required to provide definitive evidence for self-recognition in dogs and other species. We conclude that the "olfactory mirror" constitutes a compelling analog to the mark test for mirror self-recognition in primates, but despite claims to the contrary neither dogs, elephants, dolphins, magpies, horses, manta rays, squid, or ants have shown compelling, reproducible evidence for self-recognition in any modality...
December 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Aaron P Blaisdell, Julia E Schroeder, Cynthia D Fast
We've shown that pigeons can integrate separately acquired spatial maps into a cognitive map. Integration requires an element shared between maps. In two experiments using a spatial-search task in pigeons, we test spatial combination rules when no shared element was present during training. In all three experiments, pigeons first learned individual landmark-target maps. In subsequent tests involving combinations of landmarks, we found evidence that landmarks collaborate in guiding spatial choice at test (Experiment 1)...
December 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
D A Blank
Prey species modify their behaviors in response to predation risks to minimize their vulnerability and enhance their survival. When a predation risk arises, gregarious, open-habitat-dwelling ungulates usually increase their vigilance rate and enlarge their herd sizes, which are the two antipredator responses that are most often investigated. However, other reactive responses, as well as prey risk assessments and escape strategies depending on a predator's approach behavior, are less explored. In this paper I want to discuss the responses of goitered gazelles and their escape strategies when they encountered humans or vehicles in their natural habitat in Kazakhstan...
December 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
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