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Behavioural Processes

Emily Zepeda, Erich Marks, J Chad Johnson, Andrew Sih
To test the hypothesis that male harassment of females reduces adult female time spent on the water foraging (water use), and thus cannibalism by adult females on juveniles, we manipulated heterospecific prey availability, and social context in adult water striders and measured their effects on: 1) cannibalism of juveniles, 2) activity of adults and 3) habitat use of adults and juveniles. Cannibalism rarely occurred with alternative prey present, but was common without alternative prey. Without alternative prey, females cannibalized much more than males, but contrary to predictions, male presence did not reduce cannibalism rates...
July 11, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Briana M Cappiello, Heather M Hill, Teri T Bolton
Many comparative studies have focused on the emergence of solitary and social play in early development, however, few consider observer and parallel forms of play. In this study, we analyzed approximately 21 hours of video recordings and revealed a significant difference between the frequency of solitary, observer, parallel, and social object play states, in calf, juvenile, subadult, and adult bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). While juveniles engaged in solitary play significantly more than other age groups, both juveniles and calves engaged in observer and social play significantly more than adults and subadults...
July 10, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Allison L Martin, Andrea N Franklin, Jaine E Perlman, Mollie A Bloomsmith
The use of systematic preference assessments can enhance positive reinforcement training with captive animals. We found that the multiple stimulus without replacement (MSWO) technique identified food preferences in laboratory housed rhesus macaques, with raisins and grapes being ranked higher on average than dried apricot, pasta, and green beans (Friedman Test, χ2 (4) = 35.52, p <  .001). Agreement between individuals (N = 21) was moderate (Kendall's W = .42), and consistency across time varied among individuals (W = ...
July 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
H M Douglas, B A Halverstadt, P Reinhart-Anez, E S Webber, H C Cromwell
Social interactions/situations have dramatic influences on motivation. Creating animal models examining these influences promotes a better understanding of the psychological and biological underpinnings of social motivation. Rodents are sensitive to social history/experience during associative conditioning and food-sharing tasks. Would reward-oriented operant behavior be sensitive to social influences by showing a negative contrast-like effect when another organism obtains a greater value outcome? We used a side-by-side arrangement of operant response chambers wherein one animal obtained consistently high reward signaled by a discrete cue...
July 7, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Aline Bertin, Fabien Cornilleau, Julie Lemarchand, Alain Boissy, Christine Leterrier, Raymond Nowak, Ludovic Calandreau, Marie-Claire Blache, Xavier Boivin, Cécile Arnould, Léa Lansade
The positive aspect of emotions, like pleasure, remains overlooked in birds. Our aim was to contribute to the exploration of facial indicators of positive emotions. To observe contrasting emotional expressions, we used two lines of Japanese quail divergently selected on their inherent fearfulness: a fearful line (long tonic immobility duration: LTI) and a less fearful line (short tonic immobility duration: STI). To induce positive emotions, we gave individual quail the opportunity to perform a rewarding behaviour, dustbathing, in an unfamiliar cage...
June 30, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Maria Stoianova, Elizabeth C Tampke, Amy Hughes Lansing, Catherine Stanger
INTRODUCTION: Many young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) face challenges in adherence to self-management practices and have above-target HbA1c. Poorer decision-making skills, indicated by greater delay discounting, may be linked to these factors. METHODS: An online survey using social media ads targeted young adults aged 18-26 with T1D. Participants completed the Self-Care Inventory and the 5-trial delay discounting task and self-reported their last HbA1c value...
June 26, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Alejandro A Ríos-Chelén, Lilián G Crisanto-Téllez, Esmeralda Quiros-Guerrero, Karla D Rivera-Caceres
Vermilion flycatchers songs are composed of two acoustically different parts: a first part (FP) containing a variable number of introductory elements, and a second part (SP) composed of four elements. Previous work suggests that the FP is important for territorial competition and that it conveys information on threat level. By exposing free-living males to playbacks of complete songs (CS's), FP's and SP's, we evaluated the relative contribution of each song part in males' territorial responses. Males called in response to all three treatments, suggesting each song component is important for territorial competition...
June 22, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Taylor L Rystrom, Vic F Clement, Ingolf P Rick, Theo C M Bakker, Marion Mehlis
Group living reduces individual predation risk most effectively when group members are behaviorally and phenotypically similar. Group preferences are influenced by the individual, the members of the shoal, and the environmental conditions. While shoaling behavior has been studied extensively in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), it is unclear whether the sex of shoal mates influences the shoal preference of non-reproductive males and females and how this changes under increasing predation risk...
June 19, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Elizabeth B Smedley, Kyle S Smith
Sign-tracking is a phenomenon whereby cues that predict rewards come to acquire their own motivational value (incentive salience) and attract appetitive behavior. Typically, sign-tracking paradigms have used single auditory, visual, or lever cues presented prior to a reward delivery. Yet, real world examples of events often can be predicted by a sequence of cues. We have shown that animals will sign-track to multiple cues presented in temporal sequence, and with time develop a bias in responding toward a reward distal cue over a reward proximal cue...
June 19, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Arjan Boonman, Pazit Zadicario, Yael Mazon, Chen Rabi, David Eilam
A barn owl swooping down generated a quieter, almost silent, noise (acoustic impulses) compared to a louder noise generated by the owl when taking off. These acoustic impulses are at low frequencies which are below the auditory threshold to most rodents. Therefore, rodents are less likely to hear these noises of owl flight. A previous study revealed that rodents exhibit frantic response to an owl taking off (as opposed to their typical freezing response during owl attack). The frantic response could be the result of tactile reception of the air-puffs generated by the owl's wingbeats and may reduce the success in subsequent attacks...
June 19, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Shannon M A Kundey, Anne Lessard, Aleyna Fitz, Manika Panwar
Brumation enables tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) to survive changes in temperature. However, it is unclear how this affects memory retention. We explored how brumation impacted salamanders' retention of a learned response to a visual cue through two experiments. We hypothesized salamanders would retain information across this state. However, we also hypothesized that retention could be manipulated through cold temperature exposure timing. We hypothesized that cold temperature exposure immediately after reactivation of a memory would decrease retention of that memory following brumation...
June 16, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Jacqui Kirk, Claudia A F Wascher
In group living animals, affiliative social interactions maintain cohesion between individuals. Involvement in these interactions is likely to differ between individuals, depending on their sex, age and life history stages. Here we investigated different social network measures to describe greeting interactions within two prides of captive-origin African lions (Panthera leo). We aimed to determine if the introduction of cubs to these prides altered the strength of greetings networks among female lions. We also tested if the strength of greeting interactions changed between the age classes as younger lions matured...
June 16, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Megan A Arnold, M Christopher Newland
Behavioral inflexibility is often assessed using reversal learning tasks, which require a relatively low degree of response variability. No studies have assessed sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies that specifically select highly variable response patterns in mice, let alone in models of neurodevelopmental disorders involving limited response variation. Operant variability and incremental repeated acquisition (IRA) were used to assess unique aspects of behavioral variability of two mouse strains: BALB/c, a model of some deficits in ASD, and C57Bl/6...
June 16, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Joe Turner, William O H Hughes
Individuals are known to differ consistently in various aspects of their behaviour in many animal species, a phenomenon that has come to be referred to as animal personalities. These individual differences are likely to have evolutionary and ecological significance, and it is therefore important to understand the precise nature of how environmental and physiological factors affect animal personalities. One factor which may affect personality is disease, but while the effects of disease on many aspects of host behaviour are well known, the effects on animal personalities have been little studied...
June 10, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Audrey E Parrish, Bonnie M Perdue, Andrew J Kelly, Michael J Beran
In the serial chaining task, participants are required to produce a sequence of responses to stimuli in the correct order, and sometimes must determine the sequence at trial outset if stimuli are masked after the first response is made. Similarly, the Simon memory span task presents a participant with a sequence of colors, and the participant must recreate the sequence after the full series is shown. In efforts to directly link the comparative literature on sequential planning behavior and working memory span with the developmental literature, we presented preschool children with the serial chaining task using masked Arabic numerals (N = 44) and the Simon memory span task (N = 65)...
June 6, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Leonardo Ancillotto, Ivana Budinski, Valentina Nardone, Ivy Di Salvo, Martina Della Corte, Luciano Bosso, Paola Conti, Danilo Russo
Human-induced alterations of ecosystems and environmental conditions often lead to changes in the geographical range of plants and animals. While modelling exercises may contribute to understanding such dynamics at large spatial scales, they rarely offer insights into the mechanisms that prompt the process at a local scale. Savi's pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii) is a vespertilionid bat widespread throughout the Mediterranean region. The species' recent range expansion towards northeastern Europe is thought to be induced by urbanization, yet no study actually tested this hypothesis, and climate change is a potential alternative driver...
June 2, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Ceyhun Sunsay
Social conditionaed place preference (SCPP) studies show that the reward value of social interaction is amenable to the laws of associative learning, such that it becomes associated with the physical properties of the context. However, social interaction can be initiated and maintained by a variety of motivations, such as the exploration of a novel conspecific, aggression, mutual grooming and mating-like actions. In order to study whether social exploration is rewarding, we used a conventional Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which access to a restrained same-sex rat served as a reward...
June 2, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Annie E Wertz, Cristina Moya
Despite a shared recognition that the design of the human mind and the design of human culture are tightly linked, researchers in the evolutionary social sciences tend to specialize in understanding one at the expense of the other. The disciplinary boundaries roughly correspond to research traditions that focus more on natural selection and those that focus more on cultural evolution. In this paper, we articulate how two research traditions within the evolutionary social sciences-evolutionary psychology and cultural evolution-approach the study of design...
May 30, 2018: Behavioural Processes
H Clark Barrett
In the evolution of cognition and behavior, a recurrent question concerns the degree to which any given aspect of the phenotype has been "selected for" or "specified," as opposed to arising as a byproduct of some other process. In some sense this is the key question for evolutionary theories of development that seek to connect ultimate evolutionary accounts to proximate developmental accounts of ontogeny. A popular solution to the specification problem is to invoke "emergence," in which phenotypes are co-constructed by many causes and cannot be reduced to any one of them...
May 4, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Theodore Koditschek
Evolutionary anthropologists have been remarkably successful in developing 'dual inheritance' theories of gene/culture coevolution that analyze the interaction of each of these factors without reducing either one to the other's terms. However, efforts to extend this type of analysis to encompass complex, class-divided hierarchical societies, grounded in formal laws, political institutions, and trajectories of sustained economic development have scarcely begun. This article proposes a provisional framework for advancing such a multi-level co-evolutionary analysis that can encompass multiple forms of social organization from simple hunting/foraging groups to agrarian states and empires, up through the global capitalist system of our own day...
May 2, 2018: Behavioural Processes
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