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Behavioural Processes

Mathijs Franssen, Nathalie Claes, Bram Vervliet, Tom Beckers, Dirk Hermans, Frank Baeyens
In two experiments, using an online conditioned suppression task, we investigated the possibility of reinstatement of extinguished feature-target compound presentations after sequential feature-positive discrimination training in humans. Furthermore, given a hierarchical account of Pavlovian modulation (e.g., Bonardi, 1998; Bonardi and Jennings, 2009), we predicted A-US reinstatement to be stronger than US-only reinstatement. In Experiment 1, participants learned a sequential feature-positive discrimination (X→A(+)|A(-)), which was subsequently extinguished (X→A(-))...
January 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Lauren M Cleland, Chad M Ruprecht, Ronnie V Lee, Kenneth J Leising
In an operant serial feature-positive procedure, an occasion setter (OSX) signals that a response will be reinforced in the presence of second stimulus (e.g., a discriminative stimulus, A). During a transfer test, the OS is paired with a different discriminative stimulus. Experiment 1a tested transfer effects in a touchscreen-based spatial occasion setting task with pigeons. During training, four OSs (OSW, OSX, OSY, and OSZ) were paired on separate trials with landmark A (LMA) or B (LMB) and the opportunity for a reinforced response one location to the immediate left (R1) or right (R2) of the LM (OSW→LMA:R1, OSX→LMA:R2, OSY→LMB:R1, OSZ→LMB:R2)...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
David Blank
Predation is usually the primary cause of infant death among ungulate species, with the annual variation in the survival of neonates over their first summer a major factor in the population dynamics of many ungulates. Consequently, the maternal rearing strategy of a species is crucial for its reproductive success. Since the roles mothers and fawns play in the implementation of antipredator strategies in hider species have been poorly understood until now, this paper considers this behavior in the goitered gazelle, which is a typical hider species...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
María B Carreira, Ricardo Cossio, Gabrielle B Britton
Individual differences in responses to a novel environment are an important tool to predict predisposition to neuropsychiatric disorders. One way to examine individual differences involves classifying animals based on locomotion in a novel context. In this study we focused on individual and sex differences by categorizing female and male mice as high (HR) or low responders (LR) on the basis of open field locomotion. We then assessed whether groups differed on behavioral measures of spontaneous alternations, anxiety, depression and contextual fear conditioning...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Michael T Biggerstaff, Marcus A Lashley, M Colter Chitwood, Christopher E Moorman, Christopher S DePerno
Nearly all species of sexually dimorphic ungulates sexually segregate. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including the social-factors hypothesis (SFH) and the predation hypothesis (PH). Interestingly, previous studies have accepted and rejected each hypothesis within and across species but few studies have simultaneously tested both hypotheses in the same population. In August 2011 and 2012 using 7,680 photographs taken with camera traps in standardized forage patches, we tested two predictions of the SFH: 1) foraging efficiency of both sexes would decrease when foraging rate in mixed-sex groups relative to single-sex groups, and 2) activity patterns (i...
January 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Saho Takagi, Mana Tsuzuki, Hitomi Chijiiwa, Minori Arahori, Arii Watanabe, Atsuko Saito, Kazuo Fujita
We examined whether cats could retrieve and utilize incidentally encoded information from a single past event in a simple food-exploration task previously used for dogs (Fujita et al., 2012). In Experiment 1, cats were led to four open, baited containers and allowed to eat from two of them (Exposure phase). After a 15-min delay during which the cats were absent and all containers were replaced with empty ones, the cats were unexpectedly returned to the room and allowed to explore the containers (Test phase)...
January 5, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Don Li, Douglas Elliffe, Michael J Hautus
Catania's Operant Reserve (COR; Catania, 2005) is a computational model of operant behaviour. In COR, responding depletes the reserve while reinforcement replenishes the reserve. The replenishment to the reserve depends on the location of responses within the most recent inter-reinforcement interval. The rule that maps replenishment to the responses within an inter-reinforcement interval is given by a delay-of-reinforcement gradient (DOR). Previous research (Berg and McDowell, 2011) found that non-linear DORs produce sigmoidal response rates on single variable-interval schedules while a linear DOR produces hyperbolic response rates...
January 4, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Sigal Balshine, Marian Y L Wong, Adam R Reddon
Even closely related and ecologically similar cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika exhibit an impressive diversity of social systems, and therefore these fishes offer an excellent opportunity to examine the evolution of social behaviour. Sophisticated social relationships are thought to have evolved via a building block design where more fundamental social behaviours and cognitive processes have been combined, incrementally modified, and elaborated over time. Here, we studied two of these putative social building blocks in two closely related species of cichlids: Neolamprologus pulcher a group-living species, and Telmatochromis temporalis, a non-grouping species...
January 2, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Lauren M Guillette, Susan D Healy
The transmission of information from an experienced demonstrator to a naïve observer often depends on characteristics of the demonstrator, such as familiarity, success or dominance status. Whether or not the demonstrator pays attention to and/or interacts with the observer may also affect social information acquisition or use by the observer. Here we used a video-demonstrator paradigm first to test whether video demonstrators have the same effect as using live demonstrators in zebra finches, and second, to test the importance of visual and vocal interactions between the demonstrator and observer on social information use by the observer...
December 30, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Roddy M Grieves, Kate J Jeffery
Animals can navigate vast distances and often display behaviours or activities that indicate a detailed, internal spatial representation of their surrounding environment or a 'cognitive map'. Over a century of behavioural research on spatial navigation in humans and animals has greatly increased our understanding of how this highly complex feat is achieved. In turn this has inspired half a century of electrophysiological spatial navigation and memory research which has further advanced our understanding of the brain...
December 26, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Miles K Bensky, Ryan Paitz, Laura Pereira, Alison M Bell
Coping styles theory provides a framework for understanding individual variation in how animals respond to environmental change, and predicts how individual differences in stress responsiveness and behavior might relate to cognitive differences. According to coping styles theory, proactive individuals are bolder, less reactive to stressors, and more routinized than their reactive counterparts. A key tenet of coping styles theory is that variation in coping styles is maintained by tradeoffs with behavioral flexibility: proactive individuals excel in stable environments while more flexible, reactive individuals perform better in variable environments...
December 23, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Briana Seay Harvey, Kathleen Maria Dudzinski, Stan Abraham Kuczaj
Little is known about the specific behavioral exchanges that occur on a day-to-day basis between dyads of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). This study assesses the proportion of time dyads spend in proximity (within ∼2m) and the proportion of time spent in affiliative, agonistic, or socio-sexual contexts within and between age/sex dolphin pairings to better understand their social relationships. Observations of bottlenose dolphins housed at the Roatan Institute of Marine Sciences provided 10...
December 23, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Xander Combrink, Jonathan K Warner, Colleen T Downs
Nesting biology and ecology have been investigated for Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus), but information on behaviour and movement patterns of nesting females during nest guarding is scant. Consequently, we investigated the home ranges, nest-site selection strategies, movement patterns, activity levels and nest fidelity of four nesting females using telemetry. Gravid females selected winter basking/breeding areas close (351±2m) to nest-sites. Mean home range and core-use areas of nesting females were 8539±4752m(2), and 4949±3302m(2) respectively...
December 21, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Zhixiong He, Shuwei Zhang, Chengjun Yu, Yani Li, Rui Jia, Fadao Tai
Studies into the effects of maternal and paternal deprivation on the brain and behavior are traditionally done on animals from postnatal day 0 to 14 when parents display high levels of licking and grooming. Deprivation experiments that reveal attachment conducted during this period are confounded because physiological and emotional deprivation occur simultaneously. Whether rodent pups of greater physiological independence from postnatal 14 to 21days show emotional attachment towards mothers and fathers remains unclear...
December 21, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Christopher N Templeton, Katharine Philp, Lauren M Guillette, Kevin N Laland, Sarah Benson-Amram
Many factors, including the demonstrator's sex, status, and familiarity, shape the nature and magnitude of social learning. Given the important role of pair bonds in socially-monogamous animals, we predicted that these intimate relationships would promote the use of social information, and tested this hypothesis in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Observer birds witnessed either their mate or another familiar, opposite-sex bird eat from one, but not a second novel food source, before being allowed to feed from both food sources themselves...
December 21, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Sho Araiba, Bruce L Brown
The present study investigated how the value of the long anchor duration influences the bisection point (BP) in the temporal bisection procedure. The ratio similarity rule (Gibbon, 1981, On the form and location of the psychometric bisection function for time. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 24(1), 58-87) hypothesizes that the location of the BP is determined by a ratio comparison between the short and long anchor durations. The Short/no short hypothesis (Machado and Keen, 2003, Temporal discrimination in a long operant chamber...
December 16, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Jaroslava Varella Valentova, Marco Antonio Corrêa Varella, Jan Havlíček, Karel Kleisner
Various species use multiple sensory modalities in the communication processes. In humans, female facial appearance and vocal display are correlated and it has been suggested that they serve as redundant markers indicating the bearer's reproductive potential and/or residual fertility. In men, evidence for redundancy of facial and vocal attractiveness is ambiguous. We tested the redundancy/multiple signals hypothesis by correlating perceived facial and vocal attractiveness in men and women from two different populations, Brazil and the Czech Republic...
December 14, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Emily Kathryn Brown, Victoria L Templer, Robert R Hampton
Metacognition is the ability to monitor and control one's cognition. Monitoring may involve either public cues or introspection of private cognitive states. We tested rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a series of generalization tests to determine which type of cues control metacognition. In Experiment 1, monkeys learned a perceptual discrimination in which a "decline-test" response allowed them to avoid tests and receive a guaranteed small reward. Monkeys declined more difficult than easy tests. In Experiments 2-4, we evaluated whether monkeys generalized this metacognitive responding to new perceptual tests...
December 8, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Hikari Otabi, Tatsuhiko Goto, Tsuyoshi Okayama, Daisuke Kohari, Atsushi Toyoda
Psychosocial stress can cause mental conditions such as depression in humans. To develop drug therapies for the treatment of depression, it is necessary to use animal models of depression to screen drug candidates that exhibit anti-depressive effects. Unfortunately, the present methods of drug screening for antidepressants, the forced-swim test and tail-suspension test, are limiting factors in drug discovery because they are not based on the constructive validity of objective phenotypes in depression. Previously, we discovered that the onset of nest building is severely delayed in mice exposed to subchronic mild social defeat stress (sCSDS)...
December 7, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Karen L Hollis
A behavioural ecological approach to the relationship between pit-digging larval antlions and their common prey, ants, provides yet another example of how the specific ecological niche that species inhabit imposes selection pressures leading to unique behavioural adaptations. Antlions rely on multiple strategies to capture prey with a minimal expenditure of energy and extraordinary efficiency while ants employ several different strategies for avoiding capture, including rescue of trapped nestmates. Importantly, both ants and antlions rely heavily on their capacity for learning, a tool that sometimes is overlooked in predator-prey relationships, leading to the implicit assumption that behavioural adaptations are the result of fixed, hard-wired responses...
December 6, 2016: Behavioural Processes
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