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Behavioural Processes

Clarissa Ade Almeida Moura, Jéssica Polyana da Silva Lima, Vanessa Augusta Magalhães Silveira, Mário André Leocadio Miguel, Ana Carolina Luchiari
The ability to learn about the signs of variability in space and time is known as time place learning (TPL). To adjust their circadian rhythms, animals use stimuli that change regularly, such as the light-dark cycle, temperature, food availability or even social stimuli. Because light-dark cycle is the most important environmental temporal cue, we asked how a diurnal animal would perform TPL if this cue was removed. Zebrafish has been extensively studied in the chronobiology area due to it diurnal chronotype, thus, we studied the effects of constant light and constant dark on the time-place learning and activity profile in zebrafish...
February 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Irena Schneiderová, Elena V Volodina, Vera A Matrosova, Ilya A Volodin
Ground squirrels emit species-specific alarm calls that, among other characteristics, differ by the number of elements. Unlike some species that produce single-element calls, e.g., the Speckled ground squirrel (Spermophilus suslicus), individual European ground squirrels (S. citellus) frequently emit binary-element calls in addition to single-element calls. We tested the hypothesis that the time stability of individuality encoded in alarm calls might be better retained by complicating their acoustic structure by adding extra elements...
February 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Kelly M Schieltz, David P Wacker, Joel E Ringdahl, Wendy K Berg
The connection, or bridge, between applied and basic behavior analysis has been long-established (Hake, 1982; Mace & Critchfield, 2010). In this article, we describe how clinical decisions can be based more directly on behavioral processes and how basing clinical procedures on behavioral processes can lead to improved clinical outcomes. As a case in point, we describe how applied behavior analyses of maintenance, and specifically the long-term maintenance of treatment effects related to problem behavior, can be adjusted and potentially enhanced by basing treatment on Behavioral Momentum Theory...
February 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Inês Fortes, Jacob P Case, Thomas R Zentall
Slot machines are among the most popular forms of commercial gambling, and the high frequency of losses that come close to winning - near hits - in this game appears to contribute to its popularity. In the present experiment we tested if pigeons, similarly to humans, prefer an alternative that provides near-hit outcomes in a slot-machine-like task. The pigeons received series of three stimuli, one every two seconds: if the three stimuli matched, food was delivered (a win); if they did not match, food was not delivered (a loss)...
February 16, 2017: Behavioural Processes
John Y H Bai, Christopher A Podlesnik
Greater rates of intermittent reinforcement in the presence of discriminative stimuli generally produce greater resistance to extinction, consistent with predictions of behavioral momentum theory. Other studies reveal more rapid extinction with higher rates of reinforcers - the partial reinforcement extinction effect. Further, repeated extinction often produces more rapid decreases in operant responding due to learning a discrimination between training and extinction contingencies. The present study examined extinction repeatedly with training with different rates of intermittent reinforcement in a multiple schedule...
February 16, 2017: Behavioural Processes
J J Ellis, R T S McGowan, F Martin
It is commonly assumed that cats actively avoid eliminated materials (especially in multi-cat homes), suggesting regular litter box cleaning as the best defense against out-of-box elimination. The relationship between previous use and litter box appeal to familiar subsequent users is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between previous litter box use and the identity of the previous user, type of elimination, odor, and presence of physical/visual obstructions in a multi-cat household scenario...
February 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Caroline Vignet, Joanne Parrott
Fathead minnow (FM, Pimephales promelas) are a species of small fish native to North America. Their small size, fast development, and ability to breed in the lab make them an ideal species to use in research, especially in toxicology. Behaviour in general is poorly studied in FM. The aim of this study was to characterize the normal behaviour of fathead minnow at 3 different stages of development in a light-dark box and in a social behaviour test. Fish larvae showed a preference for the light area, and then an increase in dark preference was seen as the fish aged...
February 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Thierry Duhoo, Jean-Luc Durand, Karen L Hollis, Elise Nowbahari
The experimental study of rescue behaviour in ants, behaviour in which individuals help entrapped nestmates in distress, has revealed that rescuers respond to victims with very precisely targeted behaviour. In Cataglyphis cursor, several different components of rescue behaviour have been observed, demonstrating the complexity of this behaviour, including sand digging and sand transport to excavate the victim, followed by pulling on the victim's limbs as well as the object holding the victim in place, behaviour that serves to free the victim...
February 12, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Kenneth J Leising, Charlotte Bonardi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Michael R Duggan, Julia Lee-Soety, Matthew J Anderson
The current study further characterized personality types in Budgerigars, an avian model that only recently demonstrated individual consistencies in behavior (Callicrate et al., 2011). Several methodological techniques, commonly used in previous examinations of other animal models, were employed. Specifically, Phase I assessed the relationship between Budgerigar personality types and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) activity, while Phase II sought to examine the persistence of individual behavioral tendencies across varying testing contexts...
February 10, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Mark E Bouton, Eric A Thrailkill, Cecilia L Bergeria, Danielle R Davis
Two experiments with rats examined relapse of an operant behavior that occurred after the behavior was suppressed by reinforcing (incentivizing) an alternative behavior. In the first phase, a target response (R1) was reinforced. In a treatment phase, R1 was still reinforced, but a new response (R2) was introduced and associated with a larger reinforcer. As in human contingency management treatments, incentivizing R2 this way was effective at suppressing R1. However, when R2's reinforcement was discontinued, there was a robust and immediate relapse to R1...
February 7, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Heather M Hill, Sara Guarino, Amber Calvillo, Antonio Gonzalez, Kristy Zuniga, Chris Bellows, Lori Polasek, Christy Sims
Research with wild belugas has indicated that, during mother-calf swims, calves spend more time on their mothers' right side, which enables the calves to maintain visual contact with their mothers using their left eye. This bias may facilitate processing of social information by the right hemisphere, much like human and non-human primates and other animals. The current study explored the social laterality of the Cook Inlet, AK beluga population in comparison to a beluga population in managed care. As expected, the results indicated that the calves spent more time on the mothers' right side than the left for both populations...
February 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Zachary J Nolen, Pablo E Allen, Christine W Miller
In animal contests, resource value (the quality of a given resource) and resource holding potential (a male's absolute fighting ability) are two important factors determining the level of engagement and outcome of contests. Few studies have tested these factors simultaneously. Here, we investigated whether natural, seasonal differences in cactus phenology (fruit quality) influence interactions between males in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae). We also considered whether males were more likely to interact when they were similar in size, as predicted by theory...
February 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Christian Agrillo, Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini, Angelo Bisazza
The ability to utilize numerical information can be adaptive in a number of ecological contexts including foraging, mating, parental care, and anti-predator strategies. Numerical abilities of mammals and birds have been studied both in natural conditions and in controlled laboratory conditions using a variety of approaches. During the last decade this ability was also investigated in some fish species. Here we reviewed the main methods used to study this group, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods used...
February 3, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Mark A W Hornsby, Susan D Healy, T Andrew Hurly
Animals use cues from their environment to orient in space and to navigate their surroundings. Geometry is a cue whose informational content may originate from the metric properties of a given environment, and its use has been demonstrated in the laboratory in nearly every species of animal tested. However, it is not clear whether geometric information, used by animals typically tested in small, rectangular boxes, is directly relevant to animals in their natural environment. Here we present the first data that confirm the use of geometric cues by a free-living animal in the wild...
February 1, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Catherine Mary Young, Kristal Elaine Cain, Nina Svedin, Patricia Ruth Yvonne Backwell, Sarah Rosalind Pryke
Quantifying differences in aggressive behaviour across contexts can be useful in developing an understanding of life histories and breeding systems, as well as the relative costs and benefits of such behaviour. We investigated whether age, relative body size and colouration, sex, and breeding stage influenced levels of aggressive behaviour in two contexts, towards conspecific and heterospecific intruders (mounts) around active nests of group living Crimson Finches (Neochmia phaeton). We found that when responding to a conspecific mount, relative body size, and age were important in predicting the aggressive response of males toward a conspecific, with older males and those close in size to their opponent showing a higher aggressive response...
January 31, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Kira A Cassidy, L David Mech, Daniel R MacNulty, Daniel R Stahler, Douglas W Smith
Aggression directed at conspecific groups is common among gregarious, territorial species, and for some species such as gray wolves (Canis lupus) intraspecific strife is the leading cause of natural mortality. Each individual in a group likely has different measures of the costs and benefits associated with a group task, such as an aggressive attack on another group, which can alter motivation and behavior. We observed 292 inter-pack aggressive interactions in Yellowstone National Park between 1 April 1995 and 1 April 2011 (>5300days of observation) in order to determine the role of both sexes, and the influence of pack, age, and other traits on aggression...
January 29, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Robert Gerlai
Analysis of the zebrafish allows one to combine two distinct scientific approaches, comparative ethology and neurobehavioral genetics. Furthermore, this species arguably represents an optimal compromise between system complexity and practical simplicity. This mini-review focuses on a complex form of learning, relational learning and memory, in zebrafish. It argues that zebrafish are capable of this type of learning, and it attempts to show how this species may be useful in the analysis of the mechanisms and the evolution of this complex brain function...
January 28, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Guy Beauchamp
Foraging in groups is widespread in animals. In birds and mammals, reduced predation risk represents one of the main benefits of group foraging. In a group, more eyes and ears can monitor the surroundings for signs of danger, and the presence of alternative targets for a predator dilutes individual risk. Enhanced detection and risk dilution provide extra safety; this allows foragers to reduce their own investment in antipredator vigilance in a group at no increased risk to themselves. The prediction that vigilance decreases with group size has been tested in hundreds of studies, but disentangling the relative contribution of detection and dilution to this decline has proved difficult...
January 25, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato, Angelo Bisazza
Individual differences in cognitive abilities have been thoroughly investigated in humans and to a lesser extent in other mammals. Despite the growing interest in studying cognition in other taxonomic groups, data on individual differences are scarce for non-mammalian species. Here, we review the literature on individual differences in cognitive abilities in teleost fishes. Relatively few studies have directly addressed this topic and have provided evidence of consistent and heritable individual variation in cognitive abilities in fish...
January 23, 2017: Behavioural Processes
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