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Behavioural Processes

David J Cox, Jesse Dallery
The description-experience (DE) gap is a tendency to prefer uncertain over certain rewards when experienced compared to described. DE gap research typically intermixes choice between two gains with choice between two losses. Because preference for uncertain gains have been found to increase following experienced loss, preference for uncertain gains (and the DE gap) may decrease when gains are presented in isolation. Experiment 1 examined the DE gap when participants were presented choices between gains (points) in isolation...
September 16, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Rita Lenkei, Sara Alvarez Gomez, Péter Pongrácz
The signs of separation related problems (SRP) may vary according to the inner state that triggers them - for example we found earlier that dogs with owner-reported SRP were characterized with a predominance of whining during a short isolation from the owner, meanwhile barking occurred independently of the owner-reported SRP status. Based on the theory that the owner represents a resource for the dog we hypothesise that there is an association between the permissive and inconsistent behaviour of the owner and the reduced frustration threshold in the dog, which consequently will show specific signs of SRP...
September 16, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Terry W Belke, W David Pierce, Tenea M Welsh
The current study compared the development of response patterns for operant wheel-running and lever-pressing on fixed-interval schedules. Eleven female Long-Evans rats were exposed to fixed-interval (FI) 15-s, 30-s, and 60-s schedules with wheel revolutions as the operant behavior and sucrose solution as reinforcement. Subsequently, a lever was mounted in each wheel and rats responded on an FI-30 s schedule of sucrose reinforcement. Operant lever-pressing on average developed a scalloping pattern of low responding early in the reinforcement interval followed by an increase in pressing to the moment of reinforcement...
September 13, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Carsta Simon
In the literature, an interlocutor's active listening responses such as "hmh" are often defined as "continuers", serving to prolong another interlocutor's turn. However, to date, experiments on the effect of non-interruptive active listening responses on a conversational partner's duration of talk have given contradictory results. Studies have shown one interlocutor's active listening responses to correlate sometimes with longer and sometimes with shorter turns of another interlocutor. To investigate this contradiction, the effect of a confederate's active listening on German participants' (N = 32) duration of speech was tested individually in an experiment simulating two significant conversational contexts extracted from the literature: explaining and socializing...
September 6, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Mohammad Saiful Mansor, Shukor Md Nor, Rosli Ramli, Shahrul Anuar Mohd Sah
With the rapid growth of agricultural areas globally, forest birds increasingly encounter fragmented landscapes in which forest patches are surrounded by an agricultural plantation matrix, yet how birds respond behaviourally to this fragmentation is poorly understood. Information on microhabitat requirements of birds is scarce, but nevertheless essential to predicting adaptation of bird species to the patchy landscapes. We investigated foraging patterns of three tropical insectivorous birds, Green Iora Aegithina viridissima, Pin-striped Tit-Babbler Macronus gularis and Chestnut-winged Babbler Cyanoderma erythropterum, to determine whether they vary in foraging methods in different forest patches...
September 5, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Aileen Leech, Jaber Bouyrden, Nathalie Bruijsten, Dermot Barnes-Holmes, Ciara McEnteggart
Experiment 1 aimed to establish "fearful" and "pleasant" functions for arbitrary stimuli (geometric shapes) by relating those stimuli to pictures of spiders and pets using a training version of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). The transformation of these functions for the arbitrary stimuli was assessed by exposing participants to a 'traditional' version of the IRAP, the Fear-IRAP employed by Leech et al. (2016, 2017). A broadly similar pattern of response biases was recorded for the Fear-IRAP as had been observed in the previously published studies...
August 30, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Isabel Neto Hastenreiter, Juliane Floriano Santos Lopes, Roberto da Silva Camargo, Luiz Carlos Forti
During foraging, thousands of leaf-cutting ant workers travel along high traffic foraging trails which, when narrow, reduce the leaf delivery rate due to the reduction in workers' travel-speed. On the other hand, high worker traffic promotes head-on encounters which are supposed to mediate worker task allocation and so could constitute a cue which induces traffic reduction. Very small workers along trails, for example, could change their task between marking the trail chemically to hitchhiking. Since they assume the hitchhiker function even in the absence of phorid parasitoids, one can suppose that hitchhiker behavior could be a strategy mediated by head-on encounters to avoid the high density of workers...
August 30, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Colin Harte, Dermot Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne Barnes-Holmes, Ciara McEnteggart
The effects of rules on human behaviour have long been identified as important in the psychological literature. The increasing importance of the dynamics of arbitrarily applicable relational responding (AARR), with regards to rules, has come to be of particular interest within Relational Frame Theory (RFT). One feature of AARR that previous research has suggested may differentially impact persistent rule-following is level of derivation. However, no published research to date has systematically explored this suggestion...
August 27, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Melissa Miranda, Austin Drabek, David J Cox
Researchers have recently developed brief methods to measure discounting. One brief method uses 5-trial adjusting-delay or -probability tasks. These tasks have provided similar rates of discounting to traditional tasks with monetary gains, but the accuracy with losses have been mixed. Differences in loss discounting across tasks may have been due to the amounts used in previous experiments. Therefore, we had undergraduate students (N = 93) complete two types of discounting tasks across losses ranging from $10 to $10 million...
August 27, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Michaela Masilkova, Alexander Weiss, Martina Konečná
Individual variation in behaviour has been shown to have important ecological and evolutionary consequences. Research on animal personality has therefore received considerable attention, yet some methodological issues remain unresolved. We tested whether assessing personality by coding common behaviours is as time-consuming method as some researchers believe it to be. Altogether, 300 hours of observation were collected on 20 captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). We first examined the repeatability of behavioural indices that represented the behavioural repertoire of cotton-top tamarins...
August 26, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Alejandro Ibáñez, José Martín, Andrea Gazzola, Daniele Pellitteri-Rosa
Animals respond to predation risk with antipredatory behaviours that may disclose the presence of different personality traits among individuals in a population, and how populations may differ for the expression of those traits. Variation among individuals is a necessary condition for the evolution through natural selection and inter-individual behavioural differences may be selected in different environmental situations. We tested whether individuals of two freshwater turtle species, Emys orbicularis and Mauremys leprosa, show consistent risk-taking behaviour when exposed to the presence of a potential predator...
August 26, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Akari Furutani, Chihiro Mori, Kazuo Okanoya
Bird vocalizations are often differentiated using terms such as "song" and "call." The Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora) uses several calls in different behavioral situations; notably, they produce similar calls in disparate situations of aggressiveness or affinity. These calls are composed of short syllables with narrow intervals repeated in quick succession. We distinguished these "trill-calls" as either aggressive or affiliative trills based on behavioral context. We compared the sound pressure levels, frequency of maximum amplitude, entropy, and repetition rate of the two types of trills...
August 26, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Cleopatra Pike, Buddhamas Pralle Kriengwatana
Humans perceive speech as relatively stable despite acoustic variation caused by vocal tract (VT) differences between speakers. Humans use perceptual 'vocal tract normalisation' (VTN) and other processes to achieve this stability. Similarity in vocal apparatus/acoustics between birds and humans means that birds might also experience VT variation. This has the potential to impede bird communication. No known studies have explicitly examined this, but a number of studies show perceptual stability or 'perceptual constancy' in birds similar to that seen in humans when dealing with VT variation...
August 23, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Kaan Kerman, Lindsey Miller, Kendra Sewall
Boldness can be quantified as latency to access resources in novel contexts. Although social interactions influence boldness, especially in species such as zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that are sociable and live in groups, the boldness of individuals is generally characterized in isolation. The objective of this study was to examine how proximity of and familiarity with flock members influenced boldness, which is often assumed to be stable across contexts. We measured boldness as the latency of adult zebra finches to forage when a novel object was within a food dish in five social contexts: (1) social isolation, (2) adjacent to novel flock, (3) adjacent to familiar flock, (4) within novel flock, (5) within familiar flock...
August 23, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Alex Dorfman, David Eilam
We examined whether a hierarchy existed among attraction to (i) food; (ii) social partner(s); and (iii) familiar feeding location in spatial decision-making in rats. To determine this, lone food-deprived rats were trained to collect baits from 16 salient equispaced objects arranged in a grid layout. Some rats were trained with only the eight objects on the left baited; other rats with only the eight objects on the right baited. After training, dyads of one left-trained and one right-trained rats were tested, with the eight baits now divided into four on the left and four on the right sides of the arena...
August 22, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Elia Gatto, Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato, Angelo Bisazza
Inhibitory control allows an individual to block automatic responses as well as to control behaviour and attention. There is growing evidence that many species possess this ability, although the difference in performance among species is great. Inhibitory control has been frequently measured using the detour task: a desired reward is placed behind a transparent barrier, and the animal has to inhibit the tendency to directly move toward the goal, instead making a detour around the barrier. Mammals' and birds' inhibitory performance varies according to several factors, such as the distance from the reward and its value, and in dogs, the breed also affects it...
August 20, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Peter Mikula, Mario Díaz, Anders Pape Møller, Tomáš Albrecht, Piotr Tryjanowski, Martin Hromada
Animals, including birds, have to optimize their escape strategies under the risk of predation. Level of risk-taking is often estimated as flight initiation distance (FID), which is assumed to reflect the trade-off between costs of escape and benefits of staying put. Despite costs and benefits of escape may change during the season, previous studies have focused mainly on breeding bird populations. Here, we focused on risk taking in migratory and resident populations of waders (Charadriiformes) at the wintering grounds in tropical Africa...
August 6, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Jacob P Case, Thomas R Zentall
Prior research has found that pigeons are indifferent between an option that always provides a signal for reinforcement and an alternative that provides a signal for reinforcement only 50% of the time (and a signal for the absence of reinforcement 50% of the time). This suboptimal choice suggests that the frequency of the signal for reinforcement plays virtually no role and choice depends only on the predictive value of the signal for reinforcement associated with each alternative. In the present research we tested the hypothesis that if there are two or three signals for reinforcement associated with the suboptimal alternative but each occurs only 25% or 17% of the time, respectively, pigeons would show a greater preference for the suboptimal alternative...
August 2, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Masahiko Hirata, Chie Arimoto
This study was conducted to investigate how cattle (Bos taurus) respond to objects presented for the first time and repeatedly in a stimulus-rich environment where they can freely graze and interact with conspecifics. Twenty-five Japanese Black cows were subjected to three repeats of a novel object test in which animals stocked on a pasture as a group were exposed to the same and different objects across the test repeats. Responses of cows towards the objects were quantified by both approach (entering within a 0...
July 30, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Luiza Helena Bueno da Silva, Ana Maria Costa-Leonardo
Corpse disposal is an essential adaptation to social life. This behaviour promotes nest hygiene and prevents the spread of pathogens in the colony of social insects. The current study verified the corpse management in two termite families towards cadavers of different origins. We carried out bioassays with subcolonies of Cryptotermes brevis and colonies of Cornitermes cumulans, in which corpses of termite workers from the same colony, from another colony and from another species were introduced. The results showed that C...
July 30, 2018: Behavioural Processes
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