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Behavioural Processes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431947/a-bout-analysis-of-operant-response-disruption
#1
REVIEW
Ryan J Brackney, Timothy H Cheung, Federico Sanabria
Operant behavior appears to be organized in bouts of responses, whose parameters are differentially sensitive to various manipulations. This study investigated potential differential effects of three forms of operant response disruption-extinction (EXT), non-contingent reinforcement (NCR), and prefeeding (PRE)-on response bouts. In Experiment 1, Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were trained on a tandem variable-time (VT) 120s fixed-ratio (FR) 5 schedule of reinforcement; after stability was established, their responding was disrupted for three sessions with one of the three disrupters (EXT, NCR, or PRE)...
April 18, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419833/sexual-selection-sexual-isolation-and-pheromones-in-drosophila-melanogaster-strains-after-long-term-maintaining-on-different-diets
#2
Jelena Trajković, Dragana Miličić, Tatjana Savić, Sofija Pavković-Lučić
Evolution of reproductive isolation may be a consequence of a variety of signals used in courtship and mate preferences. Pheromones play an important role in both sexual selection and sexual isolation. The abundance of pheromones in Drosophila melanogaster may depend on different environmental factors, including diet. The aim of this study was to ascertain to which degree principal pheromones affect sexual selection in D. melanogaster. We used D. melanogaster strains reared for 14 years on four substrates: standard cornmeal substrate and those containing tomato, banana and carrot...
April 15, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416379/editorial-feline-behavior-and-cognition
#3
EDITORIAL
Monique A R Udell, Kristyn R Vitale Shreve
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412529/vertical-string-pulling-in-green-jays-cyanocorax-yncas
#4
Héctor Marín Manrique, Adriano-Bruno Chaves Molina, Sandra Posada, Montserrat Colell
The cognition of green jays (Cyanocorax yncas), a non Corvus corvid species, was investigated by using the string-pulling paradigm. Five adult green jays performed a vertical string-pulling task in which they had to retrieve a worm attached to the end of a vertical hanging string while sitting on their perch. In the first experiment, three of the subjects managed to retrieve the worm by pulling on the string with their beaks and stepping on the resulting loop, and thereafter repeating this sequence until the worm was accessible...
April 12, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396146/rats-behave-optimally-in-a-sunk-cost-task
#5
Nataly Yáñez, Arturo Bouzas, Vladimir Orduña
The sunk cost effect has been defined as the tendency to persist in an alternative once an investment of effort, time or money has been made, even if better options are available. The goal of this study was to investigate in rats the relationship between sunk cost and the information about when it is optimal to leave the situation, which was studied by Navarro and Fantino (2005) with pigeons. They developed a procedure in which different fixed-ratio schedules were randomly presented, with the richest one being more likely; subjects could persist in the trial until they obtained the reinforcer, or start a new trial in which the most favorable option would be available with a high probability...
April 8, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396145/do-you-see-what-i-see-the-difference-between-dog-and-human-visual-perception-may-affect-the-outcome-of-experiments
#6
Péter Pongrácz, Vera Ujvári, Tamás Faragó, Ádám Miklósi, András Péter
The visual sense of dogs is in many aspects different than that of humans. Unfortunately, authors do not explicitly take into consideration dog-human differences in visual perception when designing their experiments. With an image manipulation program we altered stationary images, according to the present knowledge about dog-vision. Besides the effect of dogs' dichromatic vision, the software shows the effect of the lower visual acuity and brightness discrimination, too. Fifty adult humans were tested with pictures showing a female experimenter pointing, gazing or glancing to the left or right side...
April 7, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392243/persistence-and-resistance-to-extinction-in-the-domestic-dog-basic-research-and-applications-to-canine-training
#7
REVIEW
Nathaniel J Hall
This review summarizes the research investigating behavioral persistence and resistance to extinction in the dog. The first part of this paper reviews Behavioral Momentum Theory and its applications to Applied Behavior Analysis and training of pet dogs with persistent behavioral problems. I also highlight how research on Behavioral Momentum Theory can be applied to the training of detection dogs in an attempt to enhance detection performance in the presence of behavioral disruptors common in operational settings...
April 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389157/corrigendum-to-the-effects-of-instructions-on-the-sensitivity-of-negatively-reinforced-human-behavior-to-extinction-behav-processes-136-2017-50-53
#8
Jérôme Alessandri, Carlos R X Cancado
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385628/application-of-stable-isotope-analysis-for-detecting-filial-cannibalism
#9
Atsushi Sogabe, Hideki Hamaoka, Atsushi Fukuta, Jun-Ya Shibata, Jun Shoji, Koji Omori
A novel type of filial cannibalism has been reported in pipefishes, in which the eggs are absorbed through the male's brood-pouch epithelium. The present study explored the applicability of stable isotope analysis for the detection of paternal brood cannibalism in the seaweed pipefish Syngnathus schlegeli. As expected, the δ(15)N values for liver, which conveys short-term dietary information about the recent reproductive season, were higher in males than in females. In contrast, the δ(15)N values for muscle, which reflects longer-term feeding habits that span both the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons, did not significantly differ between the sexes...
April 4, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377299/some-properties-of-an-adjusting-magnitude-schedule-of-reinforcement-implications-for-models-of-choice
#10
C M Bradshaw
Rats were trained under a discrete-trials adjusting-magnitude schedule in which a response on lever A delivered either a larger or a smaller reinforcer (qA1 and qA2) with equal probability, while a response on B delivered a reinforcer whose size qB was adjusted according to the rats' choices. When A was preferred in a given block of trials, qB was increased in the following block; when B was preferred, qB was reduced in the following block. The oscillating changes in qB, analysed by the Fourier transform, could be described by a power spectrum with a dominant period of about 50 trial blocks...
April 2, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377298/environmental-enrichment-choices-of-shelter-cats
#11
J J Ellis, H Stryhn, J Spears, M S Cockram
Choices made by cats between different types of environmental enrichment may help shelters to prioritize how to most effectively enrich cat housing, especially when limited by space or funds. This study investigates the environmental enrichment use of cats in a choice test. Twenty-six shelter cats were kept singularly in choice chambers for 10 days. Each chamber had a central area and four centrally-linked compartments containing different types of environmental enrichment: 1) an empty control, 2) a prey-simulating toy, 3) a perching opportunity, and 4) a hiding opportunity...
April 1, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373056/further-examination-of-the-temporal-stability-of-alcohol-demand
#12
Samuel F Acuff, James G Murphy
Demand, or the amount of a substance consumed as a function of price, is a central dependent measure in behavioral economic research and represents the relative valuation of a substance. Although demand is often utilized as an index of substance use severity and is assumed to be relatively stable, recent experimental and clinical research has identified conditions in which demand can be manipulated, such as through craving and stress inductions, and treatment. Our study examines the 1-month reliability of the alcohol purchase task in a sample of heavy drinking college students...
March 31, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373055/falsification-of-matching-theory-and-confirmation-of-an-evolutionary-theory-of-behavior-dynamics-in-a-critical-experiment
#13
J J McDowell, Olivia L Calvin, Ryan Hackett, Bryan Klapes
Two competing predictions of matching theory and an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics, and one additional prediction of the evolutionary theory, were tested in a critical experiment in which human participants worked on concurrent schedules for money (Dallery et al., 2005). The three predictions concerned the descriptive adequacy of matching theory equations, and of equations describing emergent equilibria of the evolutionary theory. Tests of the predictions falsified matching theory and supported the evolutionary theory...
March 31, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366777/sustained-attention-to-the-owner-is-enhanced-in-dogs-trained-for-animal-assisted-interventions
#14
Paolo Mongillo, Elisa Pitteri, Lieta Marinelli
Adaptation in human societies requires dogs to pay attention to socially relevant human beings, in contexts that may greatly vary in social complexity. In turn, such selective attention may depend on the dog's training and involvement in specific activities. Therefore, we recruited untrained pet dogs (N=32), dogs trained for agility (N=32) and for animal assisted interventions (N=32) to investigate differences in attention to the owner in relation to the dogs' training/working experience. Average gaze length and frequency of gaze shifting towards the owner were measured in a 'baseline attention test', where dogs were exposed to the owner walking in and out of the experimental room and in a 'selective attention test', where the owner's movements were mirrored by an unfamiliar figurant...
March 31, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365460/aversive-responses-by-shore-crabs-to-acetic-acid-but-not-to-capsaicin
#15
Robert W Elwood, Natasha Dalton, Gillian Riddell
Nociception is the ability to encode and perceive harmful stimuli and allows for a rapid reflexive withdrawal. In some species, nociception might be accompanied by a pain experience, which is a negative feeling that allows for longer-term changes in behaviour. Different types of stimuli may affect nociceptors, but in crustaceans there is conflicting evidence about the ability to respond to chemical stimuli. This study attempts to resolve this situation by testing behavioural responses of the common shore crab, Carcinus maenas, to two chemical irritants frequently used in vertebrate pain studies (acetic acid and capsaicin)...
March 29, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347716/unique-prediction-of-cannabis-use-severity-and-behaviors-by-delay-discounting-and-behavioral-economic-demand
#16
Justin C Strickland, Joshua A Lile, William W Stoops
Few studies have simultaneously evaluated delay discounting and behavioral economic demand to determine their unique contribution to drug use. A recent study in cannabis users found that monetary delay discounting uniquely predicted cannabis dependence symptoms, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency. This study sought to replicate and extend this research by evaluating delay discounting and behavioral economic demand measures for multiple commodities and including a use quantity measure. Amazon...
March 24, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343988/sampling-maternal-care-behaviour-in-domestic-dogs-what-s-the-best-approach
#17
Veronika H Czerwinski, Bradley P Smith, Philip I Hynd, Susan J Hazel
Our understanding of the frequency and duration of maternal care behaviours in the domestic dog during the first two postnatal weeks is limited, largely due to the inconsistencies in the sampling methodologies that have been employed. In order to develop a more concise picture of maternal care behaviour during this period, and to help establish the sampling method that represents these behaviours best, we compared a variety of time sampling methods Six litters were continuously observed for a total of 96h over postnatal days 3, 6, 9 and 12 (24h per day)...
March 24, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343989/social-interaction-food-scent-or-toys-a-formal-assessment-of-domestic-pet-and-shelter-cat-felis-silvestris-catus-preferences
#18
Kristyn R Vitale Shreve, Lindsay R Mehrkam, Monique A R Udell
Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) engage in a variety of relationships with humans and can be conditioned to engage in numerous behaviors using Pavlovian and operant methods Increasingly cat cognition research is providing evidence of their complex socio-cognitive and problem solving abilities. Nonetheless, it is still common belief that cats are not especially sociable or trainable. This disconnect may be due, in part, to a lack of knowledge of what stimuli cats prefer, and thus may be most motivated to work for...
March 23, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341145/facial-correlates-of-emotional-behaviour-in-the-domestic-cat-felis-catus
#19
Valerie Bennett, Nadine Gourkow, Daniel S Mills
Leyhausen's (1979) work on cat behaviour and facial expressions associated with offensive and defensive behaviour is widely embraced as the standard for interpretation of agonistic behaviour in this species. However, it is a largely anecdotal description that can be easily misunderstood. Recently a facial action coding system has been developed for cats (CatFACS), similar to that used for objectively coding human facial expressions. This study reports on the use of this system to describe the relationship between behaviour and facial expressions of cats in confinement contexts without and with human interaction, in order to generate hypotheses about the relationship between these expressions and underlying emotional state...
March 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341144/a-subjective-domestic-cat-felis-silvestris-catus-temperament-assessment-results-in-six-independent-dimensions
#20
Daniel Ha, James Ha
The study of personality or temperament is well developed in many species, but in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) it has lagged behind. We applied one common methodology, subjective surveys, performed by their owners, to investigate the dimensions of cat temperament. To do this, we developed an eighteen question survey covering common behavioral traits of cats, and had the evaluators rank their cat on a seven point Likert scale for trait. The responses were analyzed with factor analysis, and resulted in six significant dimensions of temperament across the 251 surveys...
March 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
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