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Behavioural Processes

Kristyn R Vitale Shreve, Lindsay R Mehrkam, Monique A R Udell
Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) engage in a variety of relationships with humans and can be conditioned to engage in numerous behaviors using Pavlovian and operant methods Increasingly cat cognition research is providing evidence of their complex socio-cognitive and problem solving abilities. Nonetheless, it is still common belief that cats are not especially sociable or trainable. This disconnect may be due, in part, to a lack of knowledge of what stimuli cats prefer, and thus may be most motivated to work for...
March 23, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Veronika H Czerwinski, Bradley P Smith, Philip I Hynd, Susan J Hazel
Our understanding of the frequency and duration of maternal care behaviours in the domestic dog during the first two postnatal weeks is limited, largely due to the inconsistencies in the sampling methodologies that have been employed. In order to develop a more concise picture of maternal care behaviour during this period, and to help establish the sampling method that represents these behaviours best, we compared a variety of time sampling methods Six litters were continuously observed for a total of 96hours over postnatal days 3, 6, 9 and 12 (24hours per day)...
March 23, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Valerie Bennett, Nadine Gourkow, Daniel S Mills
Leyhausen's (1979) work on cat behaviour and facial expressions associated with offensive and defensive behaviour is widely embraced as the standard for interpretation of agonistic behaviour in this species. However, it is a largely anecdotal description that can be easily misunderstood. Recently a facial action coding system has been developed for cats (CatFACS), similar to that used for objectively coding human facial expressions. This study reports on the use of this system to describe the relationship between behaviour and facial expressions of cats in confinement contexts without and with human interaction, in order to generate hypotheses about the relationship between these expressions and underlying emotional state...
March 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Daniel Ha, James Ha
The study of personality or temperament is well developed in many species, but in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) it has lagged behind. We applied one common methodology, subjective surveys, performed by their owners, to investigate the dimensions of cat temperament. To do this, we developed an eighteen question survey covering common behavioral traits of cats, and had the evaluators rank their cat on a seven point Likert scale for trait. The responses were analyzed with factor analysis, and resulted in six significant dimensions of temperament across the 251 surveys...
March 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Natalia Borrego
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Aaron P Blaisdell, Traci Biedermann, Eric Sosa, Ava Abuchaei, Neveen Youssef, Sylvie Bradesi
Diets consisting of refined foods (REF) are associated with poor physical (e.g., obesity and diabetes) and mental (e.g., depression) health and impaired cognition. Few animal studies have explored the causal links between diet processing and health. Instead, most studies focus on the role of macronutrients, especially carbohydrate and fat concurrently with how processed are the ingredients. We previously showed that a REF low fat diet (LFD) caused greater adiposity and impaired motivation compared to an unrefined control (CON) diet consisting of similar macronutrient ratios (Blaisdell et al...
March 18, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Tohru Taniuchi, Ryohei Miyazaki, Md Abu Bokor Siddik
This experimental series examines rats' concurrent learning of multiple oddity discrimination and its transfer to novel stimuli. Three rats were trained to discriminate an odd object from five identical objects in a row. After acquisition of the AAAAAB problem, the BBBBBA set was added to training. At the start of concurrent training with both sets, performance on BBBBBA was significantly below chance, suggesting that rats had acquired a tendency to respond to and/or avoid specific features of objects during the initial AAAAAB training...
March 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Cody W Polack, Jérémie Jozefowiez, Ralph R Miller
Historically, there has been considerable interest in a large variety of forms of associative interference. However, various factors including interest in clinical application and perhaps recent funding priorities have resulted in a narrowed focus on one particular instance of interference, extinction, with relative neglect of other types of interference. We have been using the existing literature and conducting new experiments to determine whether there is a consistent set of rules governing the occurrence and persistence of two-phase associative interference across (a) proactive and retroactive interference, (b) cue and outcome interference, (c) the type of training in phase 1 (excitatory, inhibitory, or simple nonreinforcement), and (d) the type of training in phase 2 (excitatory, inhibitory, or simple nonreinforcement)...
March 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Noam Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Lauren M Guillette
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Laerciana Silva de Souza Matos, Rupert Palme, Angélica Silva Vasconcellos
Social species in captivity may face allostatic overload due to artificial grouping and other social constraints. In rescue centres, groups of psittacines are constantly mixed due to the arrival and/or release of individuals; this procedure is potentially harmful to animal welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the possible impacts of mate replacement on the stress levels of captive blue-fronted amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). During five weeks, we recorded agonistic interactions and dropping-glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) concentrations of individuals allocated in a group whose members were kept constant and in a group subjected to frequent member replacement...
March 9, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Sylvie Droit-Volet
This experiment examined the effect of a train of regular repetitive clicks of different frequencies (8Hz, 20Hz) on time judgment in a bisection task in children aged 5 and 8 years old and adults with two duration ranges (200/800 and 400/1600ms). Participants' scores on neurospychological tests assessing memory, information processing speed and different components of attention control were also measured. The results showed that a train of clicks produced a time dilation in the children as well as in the adults, with the result that the perceived duration was judged to last longer with than without clicks...
March 9, 2017: Behavioural Processes
I Loy, B Álvarez, E C Strempler-Rubio, M Rodríguez
Pavlovian conditioning of tentacle lowering in the snail, Cornu aspersum, as an instance of associative learning, has proven effective to show evidence of paradigmatic associative phenomena (e.g., blocking) explained by current models of conditioning. Nevertheless, the available literature questions the biological function of the conditioned response (i.e., tentacle lowering) in snails since no advantages in terms of food finding had been observed. Ecological accounts of learning claim that learning abilities contribute to the adaptation to the environmental demands, and there is experimental evidence supporting this reported in several species (e...
March 8, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Karen L Hollis, Kelsey McNew, Talisa Sosa, Felicia A Harrsch, Elise Nowbahari
Many species of ants fall prey to pit-digging larval antlions (Myrmeleon spp.), extremely sedentary predators that wait, nearly motionless at the bottom of their pit traps, for prey to stumble inside. Previous research, both in the field and laboratory, has demonstrated a remarkable ability of these ants to rescue trapped nestmates, thus sabotaging antlions' attempts to capture them. Here we show that pavement ants, Tetramorium sp. E, an invasive species and a major threat to biodiversity, possess yet another, more effective, antipredator strategy, namely the ability to learn to avoid antlion traps following a single successful escape from a pit...
March 8, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Xiaolin Mei, Lin Tian, Zhaoxia Xue, Xinwang Li
Impulsivity is an important personality trait that affects people's lives every day. Because of the complicated structures and various measurements of impulsivity, the conclusion that whether there were gender differences on impulsivity remained controversial. In our study, we used delay discounting and probability discounting to measure impulsive choice and employed stop signal reaction time task (SSRT) to measure impulsive action within the same subjects. No inherent gender differences were found, either on impulsive choice or on impulsive action...
March 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Tiffani J Howell, Jonathan Bowen, Jaume Fatjó, Paula Calvo, Anna Holloway, Pauleen C Bennett
Characteristics of the human-animal bond can be influenced by both owner-related and pet-related factors, which likely differ between species. Three studies adapted the Monash Dog-Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) to permit assessment of human-cat interactions as perceived by the cat's owner. In Study 1,293 female cat owners completed a modified version of the MDORS, where 'dog' was replaced with 'cat' for all items. Responses were compared with a matched sample of female dog owners. A partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed systematic differences between cat and dog owners in the Dog (Cat)-Owner Interaction subscale (MDORS subscale 1), but not for Perceived Emotional Closeness or Perceived Costs (Subscales 2 and 3)...
March 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Sonja C Ludwig, Katharina Kapetanopoulos, Kurt Kotrschal, Claudia A F Wascher
The presence of a social partner may significantly contribute to coping with stressful events, whereas dyadic separation generally increases glucocorticoid levels and, thereby, might also affect immune function and health. To study the covariation between social factors, immuno-reactive corticosterone metabolites, haematology and parasite product excretion patterns in a free-living, long-term monogamous bird, we separated pair mates in Greylag geese (Anser anser). We isolated the males of eight pairs for 48h to examine behavioural, adrenocortical, haematological and parasitological responses to mate removal in the female partners, and to social isolation in the males...
March 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Daniele Battocchio, Laura Iacolina, Antonio Canu, Emiliano Mori
Hybridization between domestic and wild species is known to widely occur and it is reported to be one of the major causes of the current biodiversity crisis. Despite this, poor attention has been deserved to the behavioural ecology of hybrids, in particular in relation to their social behaviour. We carried out a camera trap study to assess whether phenotypically anomalous colouration in wild boar, i.e. potentially introgressed with domestic pigs, affected the hierarchical structure of wild boar social groups...
March 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Minori Arahori, Hika Kuroshima, Yusuke Hori, Saho Takagi, Hitomi Chijiiwa, Kazuo Fujita
Companion animals have established special relationships with humans, as demonstrated by many studies describing their abilities and bonds to communicate with humans. In this questionnaire-based study, we explored owners' views of pets in terms of their emotional and intellectual functions and their relationship with owners, and compared the results between cat owners and dog owners. We found that although both types of owners most often regarded their pets as "family members," this tendency was weaker in cat owners...
March 3, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Timothy L Hubbard
The future actions, behaviors, and outcomes of objects, individuals, and processes can often be anticipated, and some of these anticipations have been hypothesized to result from momentum-like effects. Five types of momentum-like effects (representational momentum, operational momentum, attentional momentum, behavioral momentum, psychological momentum) are briefly described. Potential similarities involving properties of momentum-like effects (continuation, coherence, role of chance or guessing, role of sensory processing, imperviousness to practice or error feedback, shifts in memory for position, effects of changes in velocity, rapid occurrence, effects of retention interval, attachment to an object rather than an abstract frame of reference, nonrigid transformation) are described, and potential constraints on a future theory of momentum-like effects (dynamic representation, nature of extrapolation, sensitivity to environmental contingencies, bridging gaps between stimulus and response, increasing adaptiveness to the environment, serving as a heuristic for perception and action, insensitivity to stimulus format, importance of subjective consequences, role of knowledge and belief, automaticity of occurrence, properties of functional architecture) are discussed...
February 28, 2017: Behavioural Processes
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