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Behavioural Processes

David J Cox, Jesse Dallery
The rates that an outcome (e.g., money) loses value as delay increases or probability decreases are called delay and probability discounting, respectively. Discounting is typically studied by asking participants to make choices between two options that vary in amount and delay (e.g., $50 now vs. $100 in 3 months) or probability (e.g., 100% chance of $50 vs. 60% chance of $100). Little is known about how more complex options affect discounting. We asked participants (N = 56) to choose between two options that each resulted in two outcomes (e...
May 18, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Klaudia Modlinska, Rafał Stryjek, Anna Chrzanowska, Wojciech Pisula
Stress associated with social isolation in early life can lead to disturbances in the emotional regulation in adult rats. However, there are no reports on the impact of isolation from the mother while providing contact with peers. Under such conditions, young individuals have the opportunity to interact with others, are able to develop social behaviour, etc. Yet, there is no stimulation and care provided by the mother. We examined the relative impact of maternal contact and sibling contact in the rarely studied pre-juvenile (3rd and 4th week post birth) period on subsequent development...
May 16, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Francisco Javier Navas González, Jordi Jordana Vidal, José Manuel León Jurado, Ander Arando Arbulu, Amy Katherine McLean, Juan Vicente Delgado Bermejo
Donkeys are recognized therapy or leisure-riding animals. Anecdotal evidence has suggested that more reactive donkeys or those more easily engaging flight mechanisms tend to be easier to train compared to those displaying the natural donkey behaviour of fight. This context brings together the need to quantify such traits and to genetically select donkeys displaying a neutral reaction during training, because of its implication with handler/rider safety and trainability. We analysed the scores for coping style traits from 300 Andalusian donkeys from 2013 to 2015...
May 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Ana Paula Bueno da Silva, Isabel Pires Mascarenhas Ribeiro de Oliveira, Rafaela Bastos-Pereira, Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira
There is a huge lack of information regarding the natural history of subterranean species, particularly focusing on aspects of the behavioral ecology of Brazilian cave fauna. In the present work, we aimed to describe and evaluate the behavioral repertoire of Xangoniscus itacarambiensis (Isopoda, Styloniscidae) through observations in the field and laboratory and also by means of complementary experiments. Overall, we recorded 25 spontaneous behaviors. Besides describing the physical habitat, we recorded some intraspecific interactions, agonistic and territorial behaviors, as well as the amphibian habit...
May 11, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Kristina O Smiley, Elizabeth Adkins-Regan
Parental care is a critical component for determining reproductive success both for a current set of offspring but also over the lifetime of the individual. The hormone prolactin has often been implicated as a parental care hormone across taxa but causal relationships have only been strongly demonstrated in mammals and few select species of birds. For instance, in mammals, maternal care towards foster pups can be induced by exogenous treatment with prolactin, in concert with other reproductive hormones involved in pregnancy...
May 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Jillian M Rung, Thomas M Argyle, Jodi L Siri, Gregory J Madden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Behavioural Processes
G Martínez-Laiz, M Ros, C Navarro-Barranco, J M Guerra-García
Habitat selection is a complex process, dependent on numerous fluctuating conditions and key to species coexistence. In a changing global scenario, it will greatly determine the fate of marine organisms and hence is an important subject to be explored. The present study evaluates host specificity of two caprellid amphipod species, Caprella grandimana and Caprella takeuchii, dwelling on a rocky intertidal where the calcifying macroalgae Jania rubens and Ellisolandia elongata show opposite seasonal fluctuation patterns throughout the year...
May 7, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Nancy K Dess, Kira R Schreiber, Gabriel M Winter, Clinton D Chapman
A key feature of energy regulation among species that eat discrete meals is meal patterning - meal frequency, size, and duration. Such animals can adjust to internal states and external circumstances with changes in one or more of those meal parameters, with or without altering total food intake. Relatively little is known about individual differences in meal patterning. We previously reported meal patterning differences between rat lines selectively bred for differential saccharin solution intake, lines that also differ in sensitivity to metabolic challenges: Relative to high-saccharin-consuming counterparts (HiS), male low-saccharin-consuming rats (LoS) ate smaller, more frequent meals...
May 7, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Lucia Ziegler, Matias Arim, Francisco Bozinovic
Evidence is growing on the ability of anurans to make immediate call adjustments in response to the propagation properties of the environment. However, our understanding of such flexibility is typically based on dichotomous stimuli (i.e. presence/absence), while its condition-dependence has been little explored. We experimentally studied the ability of adjustment and its condition dependence of advertisement calls of Hypsiboas pulchellus in response to different levels of attenuation. Individuals modified most call parameters analyzed, although the direction of adjustments was contingent on individual identity, level of attenuation and trait category (i...
May 7, 2018: Behavioural Processes
H Clark Barrett
In the evolution of cognition and behavior, a recurrent question concerns the degree to which any given aspect of the phenotype has been "selected for" or "specified," as opposed to arising as a byproduct of some other process. In some sense this is the key question for evolutionary theories of development that seek to connect ultimate evolutionary accounts to proximate developmental accounts of ontogeny. A popular solution to the specification problem is to invoke "emergence," in which phenotypes are co-constructed by many causes and cannot be reduced to any one of them...
May 4, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Carter W Daniels, Paula F Overby, Federico Sanabria
A common assumption in the study of fixed-interval (FI) timing is that FI performance is largely stable within sessions, once it is stable between sessions. Within-session changes in FI performance were examined in published data (Daniels and Sanabria, 2017), wherein some rats were trained on a FI 30-s schedule of food reinforcement (FI30) and others on a FI 90-s schedule (FI90). Following stability, FI90 rats were pre-fed for five sessions. Response rates declined as a function of trial; such a reduction was due more to latency lengthening than to run-rate reduction...
May 3, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Theodore Koditschek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Jodie Gruber, Martin J Whiting, Gregory Brown, Richard Shine
Behavioural response to repeated trials in captivity can be driven by many factors including rearing environment, population of origin, habituation to captivity/trial conditions and an individual's behavioural type (e.g., bold versus shy). We tested the effect of rearing environment (captive raised common-garden versus wild-caught) and population origin (range-edge versus range-front) on the responses of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) to repeated exploration and risk-taking assays in captivity. We found that behavioural responses to identical assays performed on two occasions were complex and showed few consistent patterns based on rearing environment or population of origin...
May 2, 2018: Behavioural Processes
E M Wojan, S M Bertram, D A Clendenen, C Castillo, H M Neldner, G R Kolluru
Sexually selected displays often include suites of integrated traits. Black morph males of the poeciliid fish Girardinus metallicus perform courtship and aggressive displays that exhibit their conspicuous yellow and black coloration. Body size, gonopodium size and ventral black area are correlated with intermale aggression, which is key for access to mates. A previous study showed that females may prefer dominant males prior to watching them fight; however, that result was obtained in trials that allowed for male-male interactions across partitions, and to date no study has uncovered the traits important in female choice...
May 1, 2018: Behavioural Processes
C M Bradshaw
Rats were trained under a discrete-trials adjusting-magnitude schedule in which a response on lever A delivered either a larger or a smaller sucrose reinforcer (qA1  = 8 μl, qA2  = 64 μl) with equal probability, while a response on B delivered a reinforcer whose size qB was adjusted according to the rats' choices. When A was preferred in a given block of trials, qB was increased in the following block; when B was preferred, qB was reduced in the following block. The oscillating changes in qB , analysed by the Fourier transform, could be described by a power spectrum whose dominant frequency corresponded to a period of 40 - 50 trial blocks...
April 25, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Jillian M Rung, Catalin V Buhusi, Gregory J Madden
Impulsive decision-making is common in addiction-related disorders, with some research suggesting it plays a causal role in their development. Therefore, reducing impulsive decision-making may prevent or reduce addiction-related behaviors. Recent research shows that prolonged experience with response-contingent delayed reward (delay exposure [DE] training) reduces impulsive choice in rats, but it is unclear what behavioral mechanisms underlie this effect. The present study evaluated whether improvements in interval timing mediate the effects of DE training on impulsive choice...
April 25, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Geoffrey de Brouwer, De Wet Wolmarans
Animal models of human psychiatric illness are valuable frameworks to investigate the etiology and neurobiology underlying the human conditions. Accurate behavioral measures that can be used to characterize animal behavior, thereby contributing to a model's validity, are crucial. One such measure, i.e. the rodent marble-burying test (MBT), is often applied as a measure of anxiety- and compulsive-like behaviors. However, the test is characterized by noteworthy between-laboratory methodological differences and demonstrates positive treatment responses to an array of pharmacotherapies that are often of little translational value...
April 22, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Olga F Lazareva, John McInnerney, Tiffany Williams
We studied implicit relational learning by embedding contextual relational information into a multiple-object tracking task. In two experiments, participants were instructed to track two or four out of eight moving objects and report at the end of the trial whether a single cued object was among those they tracked (yes/no task). The stimulus display also contained two background strips of different width. In the informative condition, the location of the cued object predicted the correct choice: If the answer was "yes", then the cued object was always located next to the narrower strip; otherwise, it was always located next to the wider strip (or vice versa)...
April 21, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Mariana Silva Brugger, Roberto da Silva Camargo, Luiz Carlos Forti, Juliane Floriano Santos Lopes
Social information exchange through physical contacts and chemical trail deposition forms the basis of food recruitment in leaf-cutting ants. The scout initiates the process and passes the information to nestmates that recruit more foragers, thus amplifying the stimulus and ensuring the success of foraging. An interruption of the contact between workers and a reduction in trail laying can diminish the effectiveness of mass recruitment and alter scouting activity and forager flow. This study verified an increase in scout trips as a consequence of inbound workers (with or without a plant load) removal during Atta sexdens foraging, sustaining the outbound flow of foragers, and consequently foraging activity, either through direct contact or chemical trail deposition...
April 21, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Rodrigo Alba, William Rodríguez, Montserrat Martínez, Vladimir Orduña
Previous research has shown that pigeons and other birds display a strong and consistent preference for an alternative of reinforcement that presents stimuli that allow to discriminate whether a reinforcer will be delivered or not, even when its probability of reinforcement is lower than that of another alternative without those stimuli. In contrast, most of the studies performed with rats report that they show the opposite preference, choosing the alternative with higher probability of reinforcement. To explain these opposite preferences, it has been proposed that rats and pigeons have a differential sensitivity to the conditioned inhibition that emerges from the stimulus that predicts non-reinforcement: While it does not have an impact in pigeons, it strongly influences rats´ preferences...
April 21, 2018: Behavioural Processes
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