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Behavioural Processes

Muhammad A J Qadri, Daniel I Brooks, Robert G Cook
The simultaneous processing and attention to temporally dynamic and static features remains an open and important question in theories of avian visual cognition. Here, four pigeons (Columba livia) learned to discriminate complex displays involving concurrently available static and dynamic features. These displays consisted of 20 elements built from combinations of two, binary-valued, static visual dimensions: red vs. green element color, large vs. small element size, and two binary-valued dynamic dimensions, fast vs slow element motion, right vs up motion direction...
November 2, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Alok Bang
What factors predispose some individuals to become reproductively dominant in a group where every member can reproduce? Antecedents of reproductive dominance have often been investigated in primitively eusocial species where reproductive skew exists despite adult reproductive potential displayed by every group-member, but such studies have rarely focused on small, incipient colonies. Here, I investigated antecedents of behavioural and reproductive dominance in pairs of the Indian paper wasp Ropalidia marginata...
November 1, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Kristyn R Vitale, Monique A R Udell
Two experiments were conducted to assess the influence of human attentional state, population, and human familiarity on domestic cat sociability. Sociability behaviors included duration of time in proximity and contact with the human and the frequency of meow vocalizations. Human attentional state influenced cat behavior, with cats spending significantly more time in proximity with the attentive human in both the pet (U(22) = 389, Z = -2.72, P = 0.007) and shelter groups (F(44) = 15.34, P =  0.0003)...
November 1, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Camilo Hurtado-Parrado, César Acevedo-Triana, Joseph Pear
The vast majority of research on aversive control of behavior using animal models employs electric-shock based procedures with avian and mammalian species. Notwithstanding that pragmatic aspects explain this prominence in the field, there is still a need for testing well-established facts about shock-based aversive control using other, perhaps more ecologically valid or biologically relevant, forms of stimulation with other species. Following up on an observation that water disturbances appear to be aversive to Betta splendens (bettas), we developed a preparation for studying free-operant avoidance with this species in which water flows (WFs) replaced electric shocks...
October 31, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Xiuyan Kong, James S McEwan, Lewis A Bizo, Mary T Foster
This study examined whether trained variability would generalize across dimensions of the target response. Two experiments used a computerized rectangle drawing task that required participants to click and drag a mouse cursor to create rectangles on a computer screen. In Experiment 1, one group received points when successive rectangles varied in their size, shape and location (VAR), another group were yoked to the VAR group and received points that were allocated to them using a yoking procedure (YOKE), regardless of the variability in the size, shape or location of the rectangle drawn...
October 31, 2018: Behavioural Processes
A Matías Gámez, Samuel P León
One of the most relevant behaviors in the life of some insects is oviposition, because reproductive fitness largely depends on the choice of egg-laying site. We report one experiment that explored the influence of Pavlovian conditioning on oviposition choices of the silkworm. Our results show that moths that jointly experienced an odor (conditioned stimulus) and mulberry leaves (the preferred oviposition place for the moths) preferred to lay their eggs near the odor when it was present, whereas moths in which the odor and the mulberry leaves never appeared together showed no preference...
October 30, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Andrea Mora-Gallegos, Jaime Fornaguera
Animal models of fear and anxiety provide important insight into anxiety-related symptoms in humans. Environmental physical conditions and social contact influence behavior and brain plasticity particularly at early developmental stages and have long lasting effects reaching even adulthood. The potential benefit that a later environmental enrichment may have on rats raised in isolation is however not fully understood. We aim to investigate the effects of housing conditions and their reversion on anxiety and fear-related behaviors in rats...
October 30, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Margaret A McDevitt, Jeffrey M Pisklak, Marcia Spetch, Roger Dunn
Under certain conditions pigeons will choose an option that provides less probable food over one that provides more probable food. This suboptimal choice behavior occurs when the outcomes are delayed and stimuli during the delay differentially signal the upcoming outcomes on the suboptimal alternative, but not the optimal alternative. The present study assessed whether duration of the outcome delay affects pigeons' suboptimal preference. Pigeons chose between a suboptimal alternative that provided food 20% of the time and an optimal alternative that provided food 80% of the time...
October 28, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Caroline M DeLong, Irene Fobe, Taylor O'Leary, Kenneth Tyler Wilcox
This study examined the ability of goldfish to visually identify 2D objects rotated in the picture plane. This ability would be adaptive for fish since they move in three dimensions and frequently view objects from different orientations. Goldfish performed a two-alternative forced choice task in which they were trained to discriminate between two objects at 0°, then tested with novel aspect angles (+/- 45°, +/- 90°, +/- 135°, 180°). Stimuli consisted of an arrow and half circle (Experiment 1) and line drawings of a turtle and frog (Experiments 2 and 3)...
October 24, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Jennifer M Loya, Katherine L McCauley, Andrea Chronis-Tuscano, Starr Z Chen, Abanoub Gad, Laura MacPherson, C W Lejuez
The present study examined the impact of frustration on risk-taking in college students with low and high ADHD symptomatology (L-ADHD and H-ADHD). Participants completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) following induced frustration from a mood manipulation task (experimental session) and following no mood manipulation (control session). A manipulation check revealed a significant three-way interaction where the H-ADHD group reported higher frustration levels compared to the L-ADHD group, particularly in response to the frustration induction in the experimental condition...
October 23, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Shogo Soma, Naofumi Suematsu, Junichi Yoshida, Alain Ríos, Satoshi Shimegi
As training progresses, animals show a transition from goal-dependent behavior to goal-independent behavior (habitual responses). Habit formation is influenced by several factors, including the amount of training and action-outcome contingency. However, it remains unknown whether and how discretion for behavioral selection influences habit formation. To this end, we trained male rats in two types of two-alternative forced-choice task: visual association and nonvisual association tasks. In the first type of task, rats learned the association between reward and a visual cue, the position of which was randomly changed per trial so that rats had to make a judgmental decision about which choice delivered the reward in each trial (discreet judgment group); in the second type of task, the rats learned that a reward was delivered after either choice following task initiation (uncontrolled judgment group)...
October 23, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Aleksandra Jakubowska, Tomasz S Osiejuk
Low-amplitude soft songs have been described in many birds, but in most species, research has addressed only broadcast songs. Soft songs may have a similar or distinctive structure in comparison to broadcast songs produced in order to defend a territory and attract females. In some species, such soft songs were found to be produced in an aggressive context and were the best predictors of conflict escalation and later physical attack. However, such observations are not consistent across all species studied. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the function(s) of soft songs and why they are so quiet...
October 23, 2018: Behavioural Processes
M Cavalli, A V Baladrón, J P Isacch, L M Biondi, M S Bó
Birds exhibit variation in fear behaviour in response to an approaching human within and between species and across different habitat contexts. We analyze urban and rural burrowing owls' variation in risk perception along separate but consecutive days (Treatment 1) and risk perception within the same day (Treatment 2). Fear behaviour was measured as flight initiation distances (FIDs) and aggressiveness level when a pedestrian approached repeatedly to an owl individual. We predict that the attenuation in fear response along treatments should add support to the habituation hypothesis (decrease the response to a repeatedly stimulus after verifying that it is irrelevant) while consistency in behaviour might be indicative of a personality trait...
October 22, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Flore Lormant, Fabien Cornilleau, Paul Constantin, Maryse Meurisse, Léa Lansade, Christine Leterrier, Frédéric Lévy, Ludovic Calandreau
Recent studies provided evidence that a personality trait such as a trait for a high or a low emotionality can either promotes or impairs learning and memory performances. This variability can be partly explained because this trait may have opposite effect on memory performances depending on the memory system involved. The present study investigated in Japanese quail the relationships between emotionality and two forms of memory, spatial- memory and cue-based memory. We showed that birds with a high emotionality trait (E+), compared with birds with a low emotionality trait (E-), reached slowly but more accurately the spatial location of a rewarded cup in an arena that contains 8 identical cups...
October 22, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Pauline Salvin, Sébastien Derégnaucourt, Gérard Leboucher, Mathieu Amy
Variation of female preferences is often reported in the literature and could be related to an artefact derived from multiple different methods used. Thus, there is a need to evaluate the influence of different methods when assessing female preferences. The present study aims to compare female preferences obtained from an operant conditioning test and from female vocal responses to male song in the domestic canary (Serinus canaria). In an operant conditioning test, females had the possibility to choose between two keys; a peck on one key elicited a supposed very attractive canary song while a peck on the other key elicited a less attractive song...
October 21, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Hollis B Howe, Peter B McIntyre, Marc A Wolman
The sensory modalities used by predatory fish to detect and capture prey are a key dimension of their foraging strategy. Determining the sensory cues that guide predation can also further conservation efforts under environmental change, and address the welfare of research animals. Here, we experimentally manipulated the sensory modalities used by adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) when foraging for larval conspecifics in captivity. We used minimally invasive techniques to test the consequences of eliminating visual, olfactory, and mechanosensory cues for predator behavior and success...
October 21, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Alban Lemasson, Vanessa André, Mathilde Boudard, Daria Lippi, Martine Hausberger
Public performance is a reported source of anxiety. While the relationship between emotion and postural laterality is well-known in animals, few studies have tested the possible link between audience effect, anxiety and head orientation in humans. The Valence-Specific Hypothesis posits that the left/right sides of the brain are specialized for processing positive/negative emotions respectively. Here, actors performed a piece in the presence of small, medium and large audiences. They self-reported feeling more anxious when the audience was large (also confirmed with speech analyses), but the small audience was scored with the lowest preference...
October 16, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Stephanie Gomes-Ng, Douglas Elliffe, Sarah Cowie
Several studies suggest that the degree of control by reinforcer ratios (environment tracking) and by exteroceptive stimuli that signal future reinforcer availability (signal following) depends on environmental certainty: As reinforcers become more likely at one location, environmental contingencies exert stronger control and exteroceptive stimuli exert weaker control. This research has not yet been extended to environments in which reinforcer availability changes across time, even though such changes are present in most natural environments...
October 10, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Matilde Cavalli, Alejandro V Baladrón, Juan P Isacch, María S Bó
Eavesdropping is a widespread behaviour among animals, providing the receiver with valuable information to assess the habitat, resources or threats. This kind of behaviour has been reported for the burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), which in its northern range lives in close association with fossorial mammals and eavesdrops on their alarm calls as indicators of risk. In their southernmost range, burrowing owls do not associate with mammals, but they are often found sharing foraging and nesting patches with the southern lapwing (Vanellus chilensis), a noisy, territorial and aggressive plover species...
October 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
John Rhidian Thomas, James Fisher, Jo Cable, Siân W Griffiths
1. Aquatic invertebrates commonly disperse between waterbodies by flight, though some decapods can emigrate from the water and walk overland. 2. The signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus, Dana) is a highly invasive species that can survive for days to weeks out of water, though it is unclear to what extent vulnerable life stages, such as ovigerous females or juvenile crayfish, terrestrially emigrate. Understanding this behaviour is important to consider during the management of crayfish stocks, since a single ovigerous female could potentially introduce hundreds of hatchlings to a new waterbody, which could themselves disperse overland...
October 1, 2018: Behavioural Processes
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