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Behavioural Processes

Carolina M C A Lisboa, Katalin Bajer, Daniel M A Pessoa, Marc Huber, Gabriel C Costa
Conspicuous colouration is an important way of social communication in many taxa. The role of ultraviolet (UV) signals in intraspecific communication has only recently been studied in lizards, and there is not a general understanding of the adaptive role of UV colouration. Colour ornaments can signal male quality in mate choice and are therefore suitable for reliably predicting the outcome of female preference. Here, we tested the potential role of UV colouration in female spatial preference in a non-territorial teiid lizard, Cnemidophorus ocellifer...
May 18, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Ann Galizio, Adam H Doughty, Dean C Williams, Kathryn J Saunders
Following training with verbal stimulus relations involving A is greater than B and B is greater than C, verbally-competent individuals reliably select A > C when asked "which is greater, A or C?" (i.e., verbal transitive inference). This result is easy to interpret. Nonhuman animals and humans with and without intellectual disabilities have been exposed to nonverbal transitive-inference procedures involving trained arbitrary stimulus relations. Following the training of A+B-, B+C-, C+D-, and D+E-, B reliably is selected over D (i...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Mario Penna, Felipe N Moreno-Gómez, Matías I Muñoz, Javiera Cisternas
Degradation phenomena affecting animal acoustic signals may provide cues to assess the distance of emitters. Recognition of degraded signals has been extensively demonstrated in birds, and recently studies have also reported detection of degraded patterns in anurans that call at or above ground level. In the current study we explore the vocal responses of the syntopic burrowing male frogs Eupsophus emiliopugini and E. calcaratus from the South American temperate forest to synthetic conspecific calls differing in amplitude and emulating degraded and non-degraded signal patterns...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Alain Dejean, Héctor Rodríguez-Pérez, James M Carpenter, Frédéric Azémar, Bruno Corbara
We experimentally studied the predatory behavior of Polybia rejecta (Vespidae, Polistinae, Epiponini) towards 2-88 mm-long insects attracted to a UV light trap. Foragers, which began to hunt at 6:30, selected 4-14 mm-long prey insects. Prey detection by sight by hovering wasps was confirmed using decoys. After the wasps landed and walked along a sinuous path, prey were detected by contact or from a distance (1-3cm). This was followed by seizure, stinging (contrarily to most other known cases), prey manipulation and retrieval...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Matilde Carballo, Fabiana Baldenegro, Fedra Bollatti, Alfredo V Peretti, Anita Aisenberg
Behavioral plasticity allows individuals to reversibly respond to short-term variations in their ecological and social environment in order to maximize their fitness. Allocosa senex is a burrow-digging spider that inhabits the sandy coasts of South America. This species shows a reversal in typical sex roles expected in spiders: females are wanderers that visit males at their burrows and initiate courtship. They prefer males with long burrows for mating, and males prefer virgin over mated females. We tested whether female sexual rejection induced males to enlarge their burrows and if female reproductive status affected males' responses...
May 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Ángel Andrés Jiménez, Federico Sanabria, Felipe Cabrera
The effect of lever height on the temporal organization of reinforced lever pressing was examined. Lever pressing was reinforced on a variable-interval 30-s schedule in rats, with lever height manipulated across six successive conditions. Parameters of the organization of responses in bouts (bout length distribution, bout-initiation rate, within-bout rate, and sequential dependency) were estimated. These estimates revealed (1) a qualitative change in the distribution of IRTs and their sequential dependency when the lever was too high, (2) a mixture of geometrically-distributed bout lengths at all lever heights, and (3) longer bouts at lower and intermediate lever heights...
May 9, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Kennon A Lattal, Carlos R X Cançado, James E Cook, Stephanie L Kincaid, Tyler D Nighbor, Anthony C Oliver
A review of different investigators' definitions of resurgence revealed several common features: First, characteristics of the resurgent, or target, response, such as its transience; magnitude; time course within and across sessions; and relativity to a baseline response rate are not mentioned. Second, the target response is described as being established through its reinforcement in the first, or Training, phase of a resurgence procedure. Third, the target response must be eliminated as an alternative response is reinforced in the second, Alternative Reinforcement, phase of a resurgence procedure...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Hypatia A Bolívar, David J Cox, Molly A Barlow, Jesse Dallery
Resurgence of previously extinguished behavior may occur when a recently reinforced alternative response is placed on extinction. Understanding the conditions that produce and reduce resurgence is important for both basic and applied researchers. Research on resurgence of human behavior may benefit from methods that facilitate comparison and replication of nonhuman animal studies. These studies often include an inactive control response to differentiate resurgence from extinction-induced variability. In contrast, human research typically does not...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Maryline Gaillard, Madeleine F Scriba, Alexandre Roulin
Behavioural laterality is a commonly observed phenomenon in many species suggesting there might be an advantage of using dominantly one side over the other for certain tasks. Indeed, lateralized individuals were often shown to be more successful in cognitive tasks compared to non-lateralized conspecifics. However, stressed individuals are also often, but not always, more strongly lateralized. Because barn owl (Tyto alba) females displaying larger black spots on the tip of their ventral feathers produce offspring that are more resistant to a variety of environmental stressful factors, we examined whether laterality is associated with melanin-based coloration...
May 5, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Christopher A Podlesnik, Federico Sanabria
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato, Carlotta Mazzoldi, Matteo Griggio
In many social species, when an individual is associated with familiar conspecifics, it displays an array of behaviours that may confer benefits (e.g., increased boldness and faster habituation to novel environments). In fish, these effects of familiarity have been studied using individuals of only one sex or juveniles. Since shoals often vary regarding sex composition and males and females show different social behaviours, we hypothesised that social familiarity's effects vary with group sex composition. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the exploratory behaviour of groups of two females, two males, and one male and one female Mediterranean killifish, Aphanius fasciatus, which were either familiar or unfamiliar...
May 3, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Teresa L Dzieweczynski, Jessica L Kane
Due to improper disposal and a lack of removal during the wastewater treatment process, endocrine disrupting chemicals enter aquatic ecosystems where they exert detrimental effects on fish behavior and physiology. Perhaps the most well-studied and prevalent EDC is 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), an active ingredient in oral contraceptives, which is known to cause dramatic reductions in male-typical behaviors. While it is likely that alterations in male courtship behavior decrease reproductive fitness, this is rarely explicitly examined...
May 3, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Milan D Valyear, Franz R Villaruel, Nadia Chaudhri
Environmental stimuli that reliably accompany alcohol intake can become associated with the pharmacological effects of alcohol through classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. Of growing interest to addiction researchers is whether or not this process results in the attribution of incentive salience to alcohol-predictive cues, which could motivate alcohol-seeking behavior and relapse. To evaluate this question, we present a review of rodent behavioral studies that examined the capacity of alcohol-predictive cues to (i) support sign-tracking behavior, (ii) serve as conditioned reinforcers, and (iii) produce Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Qiuhong Xin, Yukiko Ogura, Toshiya Matsushima
To examine how resource competition contributes to patch-use behaviour, we examined domestic chicks foraging in an I-shaped maze equipped with two terminal feeders. In a variable interval schedule, one feeder supplied grains three times more frequently than the other, and the sides were reversed midway through the experiment. The maze was partitioned into two lanes by a transparent wall, so that chicks fictitiously competed without actual interference. Stay time at feeders was compared among three groups. The "single" group contained control chicks; the "pair" group comprised the pairs of chicks tested in the fictitious competition; "mirror" included single chicks accompanied by their respective mirror images...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Processes
C K Jonas Chan, Justin A Harris
Pavlovian conditioning is sensitive to the temporal relationship between conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). This has motivated models that describe learning as a process that continuously updates associative strength during the trial or specifically encodes the CS-US interval. These models predict that extinction of responding is also continuous, such that response loss is proportional to the cumulative duration of exposure to the CS without the US. We review evidence showing that this prediction is incorrect, and that extinction is trial-based rather than time-based...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Processes
John A Nevin, Andrew R Craig, Paul J Cunningham, Christopher A Podlesnik, Timothy A Shahan, Mary M Sweeney
We review quantitative accounts of behavioral momentum theory (BMT), its application to clinical treatment, and its extension to post-intervention relapse of target behavior. We suggest that its extension can account for relapse using reinstatement and renewal models, but that its application to resurgence is flawed both conceptually and in its failure to account for recent data. We propose that the enhanced persistence of target behavior engendered by alternative reinforcers is limited to their concurrent availability within a distinctive stimulus context...
April 29, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Ruchuan He, Emilio Pagani-Núñez, Clément Chevallier, Craig R A Barnett
Behavioural research traditionally focusses on the mean responses of a group of individuals rather than variation in behaviour around the mean or among individuals. However, examining the variation in behaviour among and within individuals may also yield important insights into the evolution and maintenance of behaviour. Repeatability is the most commonly used measure of variability among individuals in behavioural research. However, there are other forms of variation within populations that have received less attention...
April 25, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Sara Platto, C Zhang, Matthew K Pine, W K Feng, L G Yang, A Irwin, D Wang
The Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) is a critically endangered species with less than 1000 individuals expected to be left in the wild. While many studies have been conducted on laterality among several cetacean species, no studies investigating the Yangtze finless porpoise have been conducted. Using event sampling methods, several behaviors such as flipper-body touching, object touching, barrel-rolls, side swimming, and swimming direction were recorded from six captive porpoises (three males and three females)...
April 25, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Eric A Thrailkill, Mark E Bouton
Behavior chains are composed of sequences of behaviors that minimally include procurement and then consumption. This review surveys recent research from this laboratory that has examined the properties of discriminated heterogeneous behavior chains. In contrast to another review (Thrailkill and Bouton, 2016a), it discusses work examining what makes chained behavior persistent, and what makes it relapse. Results suggest that responses in a discriminated heterogeneous behavior chain may become associated, so that extinction of either one reduces the strength of the other...
April 24, 2017: Behavioural Processes
M Verdon, R S Morrison, M Rice, K L Butler, P H Hemsworth
This study examined relationships between the behavioural response of pregnant gilts (n=200, gestation 1) and sows (n=200, gestation 2) to a live, similarly-aged female pig (unfamiliar pig test, UPT) and to a fibre-glass model pig (model pig test, MPT), and aggressive behaviour on the day after mixing (day 2). Sows with a short latency to make contact with an unfamiliar sow in the UPT were more likely to deliver high levels of aggression at day 2 of gestation 2 (P=0.005), but this relationship was stronger when a model pig was used (P <0...
April 23, 2017: Behavioural Processes
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