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Behavioural Processes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736240/adduction-of-untested-derived-stimulus-relations-depends-on-environmental-complexity
#1
Sterling M Rippy, Adam H Doughty
The present research assessed adduction involving derived stimulus relations as a function of environmental complexity. In Group CA, four college students were trained with arbitrary-matching-to-sample discriminations that could have established four, 3-member stimulus classes. In Group EA, four other students were trained with discriminations that could have established four, 5-member classes. Neither group received derived-relations testing; instead, adduction was assessed immediately after the baseline discriminations were learned...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735073/from-minutes-to-days-the-ability-of-sows-sus-scrofa-to-estimate-time-intervals
#2
Natascha Fuhrer, Lorenz Gygax
Time estimation helps allocating time to different tasks and to plan behavioural sequences. It may also be relevant to animal welfare if it enables animals assessing the duration of a negative situation. Here, we investigated the ability of dry sows to estimate short and long time periods. We used a variant of the peak-interval procedure and the choice between 2 resources of different quality and replenishment rates to assess time periods in the order of minutes and days, respectively. In the minute-experiment, the sows were trained to expect an interruption while feeding at the end of an interval...
July 19, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720404/role-of-spatial-contiguity-in-sensory-preconditioning-with-humans
#3
Charlotte Renaux, Vinca Rivière, Paul Craddock, Ralph R Miller
The present study demonstrates the contribution of spatial contiguity in the formation of associations between two neutral stimuli. Using human participants, we used visual conditioned stimuli (CSs) in a sensory preconditioning design in which simultaneous CS2-CS1 pairings and CS4-CS3 pairings were interspersed during Phase 1, followed by sequential CS1-US+ (i.e., CS1-pleasant US) and CS3-US-(-) (i.e., CS3-unpleasant US) pairings during Phase 2. The conditioned response was a shift in the gaze of the participants to the location where the US+ (i...
July 16, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713030/paintings-discrimination-by-mice-different-strategies-for-different-paintings
#4
Shigeru Watanabe
C57BL/6 mice were trained on simultaneous discrimination of paintings with multiple exemplars, using an operant chamber with a touch screen. The number of exemplars was successively increased up to six. Those mice trained in Kandinsky/Mondrian discrimination showed improved learning and generalization, whereas those trained in Picasso/Renoir discrimination showed no improvements in learning or generalization. These results suggest category-like discrimination in the Kandinsky/Mondrian task, but item-to-item discrimination in the Picasso/Renoir task...
July 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713029/successive-odor-matching-and-non-matching-to-sample-in-rats-a-reversal-design
#5
Katherine Bruce, Katherine Dyer, Michael Mathews, Catharine Nealley, Tiffany Phasukkan, Ashley Prichard, Mark Galizio
There is a growing body of research on matching- and non-matching-to-sample (MTS, NMTS) relations with rats using olfactory stimuli; however, the specific characteristics of this relational control are unclear. In the current study we examine MTS and NMTS in rats with an automated olfactometer using a successive (go, no-go) procedure. Ten rats were trained to either match- or non-match-to-sample with common scents (apple, cinnamon, etc.) as olfactory stimuli. After matching or non-matching training with four odorants, rats were tested for transfer twice with four new odorants on each test...
July 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711521/a-comparison-of-resetting-and-nonresetting-contingencies-in-progressive-duration-schedules
#6
Morgan Valois, Sara Peck, Tom Byrne
We compared two progressive schedules of reinforcement in which rats received access to sweetened condensed milk for depressing and holding down a response lever. Duration requirements increased after each reinforcer delivery in a manner similar to progressive-ratio schedules. Under one schedule, any response duration less than that required for reinforcement had no programmed consequences. Under the second schedule, the cumulative duration of all responses could meet the reinforcement criteria. Breaking points were consistently higher when all lever presses, regardless of duration, contributed to meeting the reinforcer requirements...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698045/active-and-passive-responses-to-catnip-nepeta-cataria-are-affected-by-age-sex-and-early-gonadectomy-in-male-and-female-cats
#7
Luz Teresa Espín-Iturbe, Bernardo A López Yañez, Apolo Carrasco García, Rodolfo Canseco-Sedano, Maribel Vázquez-Hernández, Genaro A Coria-Avila
Catnip (Nepeta cataria) is a popular plant among cat owners because in about 60% of felids elicits active behaviors such as rolling over, grooming, motor activity and vocalizations. Herein, we assessed the display of active but also passive responses, such as time in sphinx-like position, and consequently hypothesized that 100% of cats respond to catnip. Accordingly, sixty domestic cats of different age (infant, juvenile, adults), sex (males, females) and gonadal status (early gonadectomized, gonadally intact) were placed in a cylindrical chamber (1...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694127/fish-adjust-aggressive-behavior-to-audience-size-with-limited-information-on-bystanders-fighting-ability
#8
Ludmilla do Nascimento Falsarella, Manuela Lombardi Brandão, Eliane Gonçalves-de-Freitas
In a social environment, individual behavior is modulated by surrounding observers (a phenomenon known as the audience effect). Here, we used mirrors to test the effect of two audience sizes (one virtual bystander vs. three virtual bystanders) on the aggressive behavior of a focal fish when bystander's fighting ability was not clear (i.e., information about the ability of virtual conspecifics limited by their mirror images). We found that the Nile tilapia, a cichlid fish, responds to its image as an audience by reducing overt aggression in the presence of larger audience...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689817/length-of-time-domestic-dogs-canis-familiaris-spend-smelling-urine-of-gonadectomised-and-intact-conspecifics
#9
Anna C Riach, Rachel Asquith, Melissa L D Fallon
Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) use urine to communicate among themselves, however, it is unknown whether the gonadectomy (neutering or spaying) of a dog affects this communication in anyway. Urine samples from 10 intact and 10 gonadectomised, unfamiliar dogs were presented to 12 tester dogs to sniff under controlled conditions in a pilot study. The amount of time the tester dogs spent sniffing each sample was recorded. Overall, tester dogs were recorded smelling the urine of gonadectomised individuals for a longer time...
July 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673839/incentive-salience-attribution-is-not-the-sole-determinant-of-suboptimal-choice-in-rats-conditioned-inhibition-matters
#10
Montserrat Martínez, Rodrigo Alba, William Rodríguez, Vladimir Orduña
Previous research has identified clear differences between pigeons and rats in the suboptimal choice procedure. Pigeons behave suboptimally, preferring an alternative with discriminative stimuli and a smaller probability of reinforcement, over another with a higher probability of reinforcement, but without discriminative stimuli. In contrast, rats behave optimally showing the opposite preference. It has been proposed that these dissimilarities are consequence of a higher sensitivity to conditioned inhibition in rats than in pigeons...
July 1, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668348/resurgence-of-response-duration-in-human-participants
#11
Rodrigo Benavides, Rogelio Escobar
Previously reinforced responses can reappear when reinforcement is withdrawn from current responding. This is known as resurgence. Although resurgence of response topography, spacing, and patterns over time has been demonstrated, there is no evidence of resurgence of response duration. This experiment explored resurgence of response duration in humans. In Phase 1 a multiple schedule of reinforcement with two components was used. In each component a chained variable-interval 30s, variable-ratio 3 schedule was implemented...
June 28, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666782/how-bonobo-communities-deal-with-tannin-rich-fruits-re-ingestion-and-other-feeding-processes
#12
David Beaune, Gottfried Hohmann, Adeline Serckx, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Victor Narat, Barbara Fruth
This report describes bonobo (Pan paniscus, Hominidae) behavioral flexibility and inter-community differences with high tannin level fruit processing. In fruiting plants, tannin should discourage certain seed dispersers (direct deterrence hypothesis) such as primates. Based on data deriving from five study sites; LuiKotale, Lomako, Wamba, Malebo and Manzano, we compare consumption and dispersal of fruit species rich in tannins: Parinari and Musanga pulp was chewed across all communities probably for saliva tannin neutralisation...
June 27, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648696/integrating-behaviour-into-the-pace-of-life-continuum-divergent-levels-of-activity-and-information-gathering-in-fast-and-slow-living-snakes
#13
Eric J Gangloff, Melinda Chow, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Stephanie Hynes, Brooke Hobbs, Amanda M Sparkman
An animal's life history, physiology, and behaviour can be shaped by selection in a manner that favours strong associations among these aspects of an integrated phenotype. Recent work combining animal personality and life-history theory proposes that animals with faster life-history strategies (i.e., fast growth, high annual reproductive rate, short lifespan) should exhibit higher general activity levels relative to those with slower life-history strategies, but empirical tests of within-species variation in these traits are lacking...
June 22, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642165/can-the-way-pigs-are-handled-alter-behavioural-and-physiological-measures-of-affective-state
#14
Ricard Carreras, Laura Arroyo, Eva Mainau, Daniel Valent, Anna Bassols, Antoni Dalmau, Luigi Faucitano, Xavier Manteca, Antonio Velarde
Research on human-animal relationship in animal production has been mainly focused on its effect on stress, productivity and meat quality. Only few studies have assessed its effects on the animals' affective state. In the present study, the influence of positive and negative handling (pH and NH, respectively) on affective state and fear as assessed by the cognitive bias test, the novel object test and the defence cascade test was studied in 56 pigs. Serum, saliva and hair were sampled during the study for the analysis of cortisol concentration...
June 19, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633953/reversal-learning-and-resurgence-of-operant-behavior-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#15
Toshikazu Kuroda, Yuto Mizutani, Carlos R X Cançado, Christopher A Podlesnik
Zebrafish are used extensively as vertebrate animal models in biomedical research for having such features as a fully sequenced genome and transparent embryo. Yet, operant-conditioning studies with this species are scarce. The present study investigated reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish. A target response (approaching a sensor) was reinforced in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the target response was extinguished while reinforcing an alternative response (approaching a different sensor)...
June 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624606/identifying-individual-male-reproductive-consistency-in-drosophila-melanogaster-the-importance-of-controlling-female-behaviour
#16
Jesse Balaban-Feld, Thomas J Valone
Work on the repeatability of reproductive behaviour has mainly focused on the consistency of female preferences. We characterised the consistency of individual male Drosophila melanogaster reproductive behaviour in two experiments. In the first experiment, we allowed males to interact with a pair of live females that differed in body size. We then controlled female behaviour in a second experiment by examining the courtship behaviour of individual males interacting with a pair of decapitated females that varied in body size...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610910/effects-of-extinction-in-multiple-contexts-on-renewal-of-instrumental-responses
#17
Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa, Javier Nieto, Metin Uengoer
In two experiments with rats, we investigated the effects of using multiple contexts during extinction on renewal of lever-pressing behavior. During the first phase of both experiments, rats were reinforced to press a lever for food in Context A. Then, responses underwent extinction. For half of the animals, extinction sessions were conducted in a single context, whereas the other half received extinction in three different contexts. In Experiment 1, we observed that extinction in multiple contexts eliminated ABC renewal, but had no detectable impact on ABA renewal...
June 10, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602748/effects-of-physical-exercise-and-social-isolation-on-anxiety-related-behaviors-in-two-inbred-rat-strains
#18
F G Mazur, L F G Oliveira, M P Cunha, A L S Rodrigues, R A N Pértile, L F Vendruscolo, G S Izídio
We investigated the effects of physical exercise (PE) on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior in Lewis (LEW) and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) male rats. Rats received either four weeks of forced training, 5days/week, on a treadmill (experiment 1) or were given 21days of free access to running wheels (experiment 2). We also tested the effects of social isolation (SI) (seven days of isolation - experiment 3) on behavior. In experiment 1, 20% of LEW rats and 63% of SHR rats completed the training protocol...
June 8, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591643/female-choice-male-dominance-and-condition-related-traits-in-the-polygynous-subterranean-rodent-ctenomys-talarum
#19
M S Fanjul, R R Zenuto
Ctenomys talarum is a solitary and highly territorial species in which dominant males aggressively deter other males and monopolize reproductive activity. Female preference for dominant males is not easy to assess due to coercive mating by males. Hence, we aimed to answer if behavioural dominance and several condition-related traits like testosterone and cortisol levels, endoparasite load, and hematocrit volume may affect female preference when they have the opportunity to exert it. We designed a laboratory experiment using wild-caught C...
June 4, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554740/tuberculosis-detection-by-pouched-rats-opportunities-for-reinforcement-under-low-prevalence-conditions
#20
Timothy L Edwards, Haylee Ellis, Erin E Watkins, Christiaan Mulder, Georgies Mgode, Christophe Cox, Alan Poling
Giant African pouched rats (Cricetomys ansorgei) have been employed successfully in two operational tuberculosis-detection projects in which they sniff sputum samples from symptomatic individuals who have visited tuberculosis clinics. The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in this population is high, approximately 20% in the regions where the rats have been used. If the rats are to be used to screen individuals from lower-prevalence populations, their performance under such conditions must first be evaluated...
May 26, 2017: Behavioural Processes
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