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Behavioural Processes

Terry L Maple, Mollie A Bloomsmith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Sabrina Brando, Donald M Broom, Cristina Acasuso-Rivero, Fay Clark
Marine mammals include cetaceans, pinnipeds, sirenians, sea otters and polar bears, many of which are charismatic and popular species commonly kept under human care in zoos and aquaria. However, in comparison with their fully terrestrial counterparts their welfare has been less intensively studied, and their partial or full reliance on the aquatic environment leads to unique welfare challenges. In this paper we attempt to collate and review the research undertaken thus far on marine mammal welfare, and identify the most important gaps in knowledge...
September 16, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Paul A Anderson, Russell B Poe, Laura A Thompson, Nansen Weber, Tracy A Romano
Some Arctic estuaries serve as substrate rubbing sites for beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the summer, representing a specialized resource for the species. Understanding how environmental variation affects the species' behavior is essential to management of these habitats in coming years as the climate changes. Spatiotemporal and environmental variables were recorded for behavioral observations, during which focal groups of whales in an estuary were video-recorded for enumeration and behavioral analysis...
September 16, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Micah Amd, João H de Almeida, Júlio C de Rose, Carolina C Silveira, Henrique M Pompermaier
The emergence of transitive relations between stimuli that had never appeared together is a key process underlying concept formation. An unresolved theoretical issue with respect to transitive relations has been to determine whether differential reinforcement of stimulus-stimulus (S-S) relations though matching-to-sample, or contiguous S-S correlations/pairings, is more critical for producing transitivity. The current study inquired whether simple environmental S-S pairings, versus differential reinforcement of S-S relations, versus environmental S-S pairings with an orientation requirement, produced the greatest instances of transitivity...
September 16, 2017: Behavioural Processes
F Mármol, J Sánchez, M N Torres, V D Chamizo
The effects of early environmental enrichment (EE) when solving a simple spatial task in adult male rats were assessed. After weaning, rats were housed in pairs in enriched or standard cages (EE and control groups) for two and a half months. Then the rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool and a particular corner of the pool. As expected, enriched rats reached the platform faster than control animals...
September 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Howard Rachlin
How may patterns of behavior change over an organism's lifetime? The answer is that they evolve (behavioral evolution) as species evolve over generations (biological evolution). In biological evolution, under certain conditions, groups of cooperative organisms would be selected over groups of non-cooperative organisms, even when cooperation imposes a cost to individuals. Analogously, in behavioral evolution, patterns of acts may be selected even when each individual act in the pattern is costly. Although there is considerable debate among biologists whether the conditions for group selection are met in biological evolution, it is argued here that they are met in behavioral evolution (as well as in cultural evolution)...
September 9, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Miletto Petrazzini Maria Elena, Clive D L Wynne
Accumulating evidence indicates that animals are able to discriminate between quantities. Recent studies have shown that dogs' and coyotes' ability to discriminate between quantities of food items decreases with increasing numerical ratio. Conversely, wolves' performance is not affected by numerical ratio. Cross-species comparisons are difficult because of differences in the methodologies employed, and hence it is still unclear whether domestication altered quantitative abilities in canids. Here we used the same procedure to compare pet dogs and wolves in a spontaneous food choice task...
September 9, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Tamal Roy, Anuradha Bhat
Social learning facilitates informed decision making about foraging, mating and anti-predatory tactics among animals. We investigated the occurrence of social learning through performance in a spatial task among wild-caught zebrafish. Individual fish (demonstrators) were trained through a novel food finding task in a maze for 8days. Demonstrators were paired with naïve individuals (observers) and subjected to trials through maze for 4days followed by removal of the demonstrators and further training of observers for 4 more days...
September 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Isabela F Araújo Torres, Gustavo S da C Júlio, Luis Gustavo Figueiredo, Natália L C de Lima, Ana Paula N Soares, Ronald K Luz
Considering that each personality type in animals presents distinct physiological and behavioural responses, this study evaluated the efficiency of the Novel Environment test to classify larvae of Lophiosilurus alexandri into bold and shy individuals, which were then investigated for growth, cannibalism and mortality in larviculture of pure and mixed groups. Larvae with an average weight of 24.0±1.7mg and length of 14.1±0.4mm, were subjected to a Novel Environment test to classify their personality type (bold and shy larvae)...
September 4, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Enikő Gyuris, Erna Szép, Jenő Kontschán, Attila Hettyey, Zoltán Tóth
Applying predatory mites as biological control agents is a well established method against spider mites which are major pests worldwide. Although antipredator responses can influence the outcome of predator-prey interactions, we have limited information about what cues spider mites use to adjust their behavioural antipredator responses. We experimentally exposed two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) to different predator-borne cues (using a specialist predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, or a generalist predator, Amblyseius swirskii), conspecific prey-borne cues, or both, and measured locomotion and egg-laying activity...
September 4, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Heather Schellinck
This paper briefly reviews the literature that describes olfactory acuity and odor discrimination learning. The results of current studies that examined the role of neurotransmitters in odor discrimination learning are discussed as are those that investigated pattern recognition and models of human disease. The methodology associated with such work is also described and its role in creating disparate results assessed. Recommendations for increasing the reliability and validity of experiments so as to further our understanding of olfactory processes in both healthy mice and those modelling human disease are made throughout the paper...
September 4, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Patrick Anselme, Tobias Otto, Onur Güntürkün
Unpredictable rewards increase the vigor of responses in autoshaping (a Pavlovian conditioning procedure) and are preferred to predictable rewards in free-choice tasks involving fixed- versus variable-delay schedules. The significance those behavioral properties may have in field conditions is currently unknown. However, it is noticeable that when exposed to unpredictable food, small passerines - such as robins, titmice, and starlings - get fatter than when food is abundant. In functional terms, fattening is viewed as an evolutionary strategy acting against the risk of starvation when food is in short supply...
September 1, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Thomas Raap, Jiachen Sun, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing anthropogenic environmental pollutant posing an important potential threat for wildlife. Evidence of its effects on animal physiology and behaviour is accumulating. However, in order to effectively mitigate light pollution it is important to determine which factors contribute to the severity of effects of ALAN. In this experimental study we explored whether there are seasonal-dependent effects of ALAN on sleep in free-living great tits (Parus major), an important model species...
September 1, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Emma P McInerney, Phillip G Byrne, Aimee J Silla
Escape-response behaviour is essential to ensure an individual's survival during a predator attack, however, these behaviours are energetically costly and may cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can be reduced by supplementing an individual's diet with exogenous antioxidants or through regular moderate exercise training, which stimulates the upregulation of the endogenous antioxidant system. Two studies have tested the simultaneous effects of dietary antioxidant supplementation and exercise training on animal escape-response behaviour...
August 30, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Andrea W Clay, Kim A Bard, Mollie A Bloomsmith
Scientific evaluation of management strategies for captive species is part of the establishment of best practices for animal welfare. Here we report the effects of sex, rearing, and a sex-by-rearing interaction on adult, captive chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) behavior, health, well-being, personality, and orientation towards humans based on multiple methods (observation, animal records, and surveys). Chimpanzees raised in three conditions, mother-reared (MR), standard nursery (ST) and an experimental nursery (RC), were assessed approximately 20 years after their differential rearing experiences concluded...
August 26, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Krzysztof Miler, Bakhtiar Effendi Yahya, Marcin Czarnoleski
Some ants display rescue behaviour, which is performed by nearby nestmates and directed at individuals in danger. Here, using several ant species, we demonstrate that rescue behaviour expression matches predicted occurrences based on certain aspects of species' ecological niches. Rescue occurred in sand-dwelling ants exposed both to co-occurring antlion larvae, representing the threat of being captured by a predator, and to nest cave-ins, representing the threat of being trapped in a collapsed nest chamber...
August 24, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Kelsey K Graham, Steve Brown, Stephanie Clarke, Ursula S R Röse, Philip T Starks
The plant-pollinator relationship is generally considered mutualistic. This relationship is less clear, however, when pollinators also cause tissue damage. Some Megachilidae bees collect plant material for nests from the plants they pollinate. In this study, we examined the relationship between Anthidium manicatum, the European wool-carder bee, and the source of its preferred nesting material - Stachys byzantina, lamb's ear. Female A. manicatum use their mandibles to trim trichomes from plants for nesting material (a behaviour dubbed "carding")...
August 19, 2017: Behavioural Processes
James E Witnauer, Ryan Hutchings, Ralph R Miller
Contemporary theories of associative learning are increasingly complex, which necessitates the use of computational methods to reveal predictions of these models. We argue that comparisons across multiple models in terms of goodness of fit to empirical data from experiments often reveal more about the actual mechanisms of learning and behavior than do simulations of only a single model. Such comparisons are best made when the values of free parameters are discovered through some optimization procedure based on the specific data being fit (e...
August 19, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Catherine Reeve, Peter Wentzell, Bjorn Wielens, Cortney Jones, Kim Stehouwer, Simon Gadbois
In empirical tests of biomedical detection dogs, exhaled breath samples are often used because breath contains volatile organic compounds that can signal metabolic states, infection, or disease. However, in studies that present dogs with breath samples, results show a notable degree of variability both between and within studies. Differing protocols for the collection and storage of exhaled breath samples may contribute to this observed variability. The goal of the current study was therefore to test whether there was a difference in the detectability of breath samples collected using silicone-coated versus uncoated cotton balls...
August 18, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Federico Reyes Blengini, Bettina Tassino, Carlos Passos
Olfactory abilities to discriminate conspecifics can be determinant to prevent hybridization between closely-related species in many taxa. Annual killifish Austrolebias reicherti and A. charrua are sister species inhabiting temporary ponds within Eastern Wetlands of Uruguay with an overlapping area in their distributions. Herein, we assess species recognition sensory abilities in females of A. reicherti in classic dual-choice tests. We exposed two different groups of females, one to olfactory but not visual cues, and the other to visual but not olfactory cues, from conspecific and heterospecific A...
August 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
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