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Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

Andrew J Feola, Emily S Nelson, Jerry Myers, C Ross Ethier, Brian C Samuels
Purpose: Choroid geometry and swelling have been proposed to contribute to ocular pathologies. Thus, it is important to understand how the choroid may impact the optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanical environment. We developed a finite element model to study how acute choroidal swelling and choroid geometry affect ONH deformation. Methods: We developed two geometric models of the ONH: one with a "blunt" choroidal insertion and another with a "tapered" choroid insertion...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Rupesh Agrawal, Dinesh Visva Gunasekeran, Dhananjay Raje, Aniruddha Agarwal, Quan Dong Nguyen, Onn Min Kon, Carlos Pavesio, Vishali Gupta
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine regional variation management practices and outcomes for tubercular uveitis (TBU). Methods: In this retrospective multinational cohort study, patients from 25 international eye care centers diagnosed with TBU with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were included. The geographic variation in treatment outcomes on survival analysis in patients with TBU were analyzed. Treatment failure is defined as a persistence or recurrence of inflammation within 6 months of completing antitubercular therapy, the inability to taper oral corticosteroids to less than 10 mg/d or topical corticosteroid drops to less than 2 drops daily, and/or recalcitrant inflammation necessitating corticosteroid-sparing immunosuppressive therapy...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Rose Tan, Robyn H Guymer, Chi D Luu
Purpose: To compare static rod function obtained with and without photobleach in control and intermediate age-related macular degeneration (iAMD) participants with and without subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, retinal sensitivities within the central 24° retina were obtained twice using a dark-adapted chromatic perimeter, both with 505- and 625-nm stimuli. Tests were performed after 30 minutes of dark-adaptation either with or without a preceding photobleach...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Junki Kwon, Jaewan Choi, Joong Won Shin, Jiyun Lee, Michael S Kook
Purpose: To assess the relationship between the size of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ; area and perimeter) and vessel density (VD) at various retinal regions using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, OAG eyes were grouped according to the presence/absence of central visual field (CVF) defects. A control group of normal eyes was also included. OCTA images were obtained from the optic nerve (4...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Anup Dev Pant, Priyanka Gogte, Vanita Pathak-Ray, Syril K Dorairaj, Rouzbeh Amini
Purpose: Previous studies have shown that iris mechanical properties may play a role in the pathophysiology of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Such studies, however, were not conducted in vivo and as such were limited in application and scope, especially for the development of diagnostic methods or new treatment options. The purpose of this study was to quantify in vivo iris mechanical properties both in patients with a history of angle-closure glaucoma and in healthy volunteers...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Mays Talib, Mary J van Schooneveld, Caroline Van Cauwenbergh, Jan Wijnholds, Jacoline B Ten Brink, Ralph J Florijn, Nicoline E Schalij-Delfos, Gislin Dagnelie, Maria M van Genderen, Elfride De Baere, Magda A Meester-Smoor, Julie De Zaeytijd, Frans P M Cremers, L Ingeborgh van den Born, Alberta A Thiadens, Carel B Hoyng, Caroline C Klaver, Bart P Leroy, Arthur A Bergen, Camiel J F Boon
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenotype and long-term clinical course of female carriers of RPGR mutations. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 125 heterozygous RPGR mutation carriers from 49 families. Results: Eighty-three heterozygotes were from retinitis pigmentosa (RP) pedigrees, 37 were from cone-/cone-rod dystrophy (COD/CORD) pedigrees, and 5 heterozygotes were from pedigrees with mixed RP/CORD or unknown diagnosis...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
William Robert Kwapong, Hua Ye, Chenlei Peng, Xiran Zhuang, Jianhua Wang, Meixiao Shen, Fan Lu
Purpose: To detect the retinal microvascular impairment using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and find a correlation between the microvascular impairment and the neuronal damage. Methods: This is a prospective, observational study including 49 eyes from 38 PD patients in their early stages and 34 eyes from 28 healthy controls with comparable age range. Macula microvasculature was evaluated with the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) angiography and intraretinal layer thickness evaluated with the SD-OCT...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Carla S Medeiros, Gustavo K Marino, Marcony R Santhiago, Steven E Wilson
Purpose: The purpose of this review was to provide detailed insights into the pathophysiology of myofibroblast-mediated fibrosis (scarring or late haze) after corneal injury, surgery, or infection. Method: Literature review. Results: The epithelium and epithelial basement membrane (EBM) and/or endothelium and Descemet's basement membrane (BM) are commonly disrupted after corneal injuries, surgeries, and infections. Regeneration of these critical regulatory structures relies on the coordinated production of BM components, including laminins, nidogens, perlecan, and collagen type IV by epithelial, endothelial, and keratocyte cells...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Liang Hu, Ce Shi, Hong Jiang, Yingying Shi, Zubin Sethi, Jianhua Wang
Purpose: To investigate the factors affecting microvascular responses in the bulbar conjunctiva of habitual contact lens (HCL) wearers. Methods: A functional slit-lamp biomicroscope (FSLB) was used to image the temporal bulbar conjunctiva of habitual contact lens (HCL) wearers and non-contact lens (NCL) wearers. The vessel diameters and blood flow velocities (BFVs) were measured. Fractal analysis using Dbox as vessel density and D0 as vessel complexity were used to quantitatively analyze the microvascular network...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Hidenori Takahashi, Yasuo Yanagi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Eric Wakshull, Robert Avery, Mauricio Maia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Joshua A Chu-Tan, Matt Rutar, Kartik Saxena, Riemke Aggio-Bruce, Rohan W Essex, Krisztina Valter, Haihan Jiao, Nilisha Fernando, Yvette Wooff, Michele C Madigan, Jan Provis, Riccardo Natoli
Purpose: We sought to determine the role and retinal cellular location of microRNA-124 (miR-124) in a neuroinflammatory model of retinal degeneration. Further, we explored the anti-inflammatory relationship of miR-124 with a predicted messenger RNA (mRNA) binding partner, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), which is crucially involved in inflammatory cell recruitment in the damaged retina. Methods: Human AMD donor eyes and photo-oxidative damaged (PD) mice were labeled for miR-124 expression using in situ hybridization...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Valentina Barrera, Lee D Troughton, Valentina Iorio, Siyin Liu, Olutobi Oyewole, Carl M Sheridan, Kevin J Hamill
Purpose: Laminin N-terminus (LaNt) α31 is a relatively unstudied protein derived from the laminin α3 gene but structurally similar to netrins. LaNt α31 has, to date, been investigated only in two-dimensional (2D) keratinocyte culture where it influences cell migration and adhesion, processes integral to wound repair. Here we investigated LaNt α31 distribution in ocular surface epithelium, during limbal stem cell activation, and corneal wound healing. Methods: Human, mouse, and pig eyes, ex vivo limbal explant cultures, and alkali burn wounds were processed for immunohistochemistry with antibodies against LaNt α31 along with progenitor cell-associated proteins...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ignacio Melgar-Asensio, Irawati Kandela, Fraser Aird, Soesiawati R Darjatmoko, Cristobal de Los Rios, Christine M Sorenson, Daniel M Albert, Nader Sheibani, Jack Henkin
Purpose: Drug delivery by intravitreal injection remains problematic, small agents and macromolecules both clearing rapidly. Typical carriers use microparticles (>2 μm), with size-related liabilities, to slow diffusion. We recently described cationic nanoparticles (NP) where conjugated Arg peptides prolonged residence in rat eyes, through ionic interaction with vitreal poly-anions. Here we extended this strategy to in vivo tracking of NP-conjugate (NPC) clearance from rabbit eyes...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Joanna S Saade, Chao Xing, Xin Gong, Zhengyang Zhou, V Vinod Mootha
Purpose: Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) caused by the CTG triplet repeat expansion in the TCF4 gene (CTG18.1 locus) is the most common repeat expansion disorder. Intergenerational instability of expanded repeats and clinical anticipation are hallmarks of other repeat expansion disorders. In this study, we examine stability of triplet repeat allele length and FECD disease severity in parent-child transmission of the expanded CTG18.1 allele. Methods: We studied 44 parent-child transmissions of the mutant expanded CTG18...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Sherin Shaaban, Sarah MacKinnon, Caroline Andrews, Sandra E Staffieri, Gail D E Maconachie, Wai-Man Chan, Mary C Whitman, Sarah U Morton, Seyhan Yazar, Stuart MacGregor, James E Elder, Elias I Traboulsi, Irene Gottlob, Alex W Hewitt, David G Hunter, David A Mackey, Elizabeth C Engle
Purpose: To identify genetic variants conferring susceptibility to esotropia. Esotropia is the most common form of comitant strabismus, has its highest incidence in European ancestry populations, and is believed to be inherited as a complex trait. Methods: White European American discovery cohorts with nonaccommodative (826 cases and 2991 controls) or accommodative (224 cases and 749 controls) esotropia were investigated. White European Australian and United Kingdom cohorts with nonaccommodative (689 cases and 1448 controls) or accommodative (66 cases and 264 controls) esotropia were tested for replication...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Harumitsu Hirata, Valentina Dallacasagrande, Kamila Mizerska, Evguenia Ivakhnitskaia, Mark I Rosenblatt
Purpose: Previously we found two types of corneal neurons that we hypothesized to play an important role in tearing. One type is called low threshold-cold sensitive plus dry sensitive (LT-CS + DS), and the other is termed high threshold-cold sensitive plus dry sensitive (HT-CS + DS). The present study examined critical stimuli influencing the activity of these neurons to elucidate environmental factors that may trigger this ocular reflex. Methods: Single corneal neurons were extracellularly recorded from the trigeminal ganglia in response to ocular stimuli that mimic environmental conditions one encounters in daily life...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Kyoung Min Lee, Ho-Kyung Choung, Martha Kim, Sohee Oh, Seok Hwan Kim
Purpose: To investigate changes of β-zone parapapillary atrophy (PPA) during axial elongation. Methods: Change of β-zone PPA was evaluated by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in myopic children for 2 years, prospectively. Using the infrared images acquired by a fixed scan circle in the glaucoma progression analysis (GPA) mode, the retinal pigment epithelial opening (RPEO) and the clinical disc margin (CDM) were manually delineated. The area and position of β-zone PPA was calculated as the differences from those of the RPEO and CDM, respectively...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Paul A Wetzel, Anne S Lindblad, Hardik Raizada, Nathan James, Caroline Mulatya, Mary A Kannan, Zoe Villamar, George T Gitchel, Lindell K Weaver
Purpose: Standard physical, neurologic, and neuropsychologic examinations may not detect abnormalities after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). An analysis of eye movements may be more sensitive to neurologic dysfunction. Methods: We performed eye tracking assessments in 71 active duty and veteran military personnel with persistent postconcussive symptoms (3 months to 5 years after mTBI) and 75 volunteers with no history of brain injury. Both eyes were sampled at 500 Hz and analyzed for various eye measurement parameters during visual tasks involving the saccadic and smooth systems...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yuejiao Jin, Xiaofei Wang, Liang Zhang, Jost B Jonas, Tin Aung, Leopold Schmetterer, Michaël J A Girard
Purpose: To use finite element (FE) analysis to understand the origin of the ocular pulse and predict its biomechanical impact on the optic nerve head (ONH). Methods: An FE model of a healthy eye was reconstructed. The choroid was biphasic and consisted of a solid phase (connective tissues) and a fluid phase (blood). We applied arterial blood pressure at 18 entry sites (posterior ciliary arteries) and venous blood pressure at 4 exit sites (vortex veins). For one cardiac cycle, we reported the resulting pulse volume, the ocular pulse amplitude (OPA), and diastole-to-systole ONH deformations...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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