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Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632880/the-urokinase-receptor-derived-peptide-uparant-recovers-dysfunctional-electroretinogram-and-blood-retinal-barrier-leakage-in-a-rat-model-of-diabetes
#1
Maurizio Cammalleri, Filippo Locri, Stefania Marsili, Massimo Dal Monte, Claudio Pisano, Angelo Mancinelli, Liliana Lista, Dario Rusciano, Mario De Rosa, Vincenzo Pavone, Paola Bagnoli
Purpose: The activation of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor system is associated with retinal diseases. Among peptide inhibitors of this system, UPARANT acts by preventing the onset of pathologic signs of neovascular ocular diseases. We investigated whether systemic UPARANT may act in a therapeutic regimen by suppressing the retinal damage that characterizes diabetic retinopathy using a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Methods: In healthy rats, plasma, eye, and retina concentrations of UPARANT were evaluated by mass spectrometry...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632879/reliability-and-agreement-between-metrics-of-cone-spacing-in-adaptive-optics-images-of-the-human-retinal-photoreceptor-mosaic
#2
Daniela Giannini, Giuseppe Lombardo, Letizia Mariotti, Nicholas Devaney, Sebastiano Serrao, Marco Lombardo
Purpose: To assess reliability and agreement among three metrics used to evaluate the distribution of cell distances in adaptive optics (AO) images of the cone mosaic. Methods: Using an AO flood illumination retinal camera, we acquired images of the cone mosaic in 20 healthy subjects and 12 patients with retinal diseases. The three spacing metrics studied were the center-to-center spacing (Scc), the local cone spacing (LCS), and the density recovery profile distance (DRPD)...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632878/identification-of-novel-g-protein-coupled-receptor-143-ligands-as-pharmacologic-tools-for-investigating-x-linked-ocular-albinism
#3
Elisabetta De Filippo, Prashiela Manga, Anke C Schiedel
Purpose: GPR143 regulates melanosome biogenesis and organelle size in pigment cells. The mechanisms underlying receptor function remain unclear. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are excellent pharmacologic targets; thus, we developed and applied a screening approach to identify potential GPR143 ligands and chemical modulators. Methods: GPR143 interacts with β-arrestin; we therefore established a β-arrestin recruitment assay to screen for compounds that modulate activity...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632848/effect-of-gabapentin-memantine-on-the-infantile-nystagmus-syndrome-in-the-zebrafish-model-implications-for-the-therapy-of-ocular-motor-diseases
#4
Stefan Yu Bögli, Maresa Afthinos, Melody Ying-Yu Huang
Purpose: Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is a disorder characterized by typical horizontal eye oscillations. Due to the uncertain etiology of INS, developing specific treatments remains difficult. Single reports demonstrated, on limited measures, alleviating effects of gabapentin and memantine. In the current study, we employed the zebrafish INS model belladonna (bel) to conduct an in-depth study of how gabapentin and memantine interventions alleviate INS signs, which may further restore visual conditions in affected subjects...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632847/pattern-recognition-analysis-of-age-related-retinal-ganglion-cell-signatures-in-the-human-eye
#5
Nayuta Yoshioka, Barbara Zangerl, Lisa Nivison-Smith, Sieu K Khuu, Bryan W Jones, Rebecca L Pfeiffer, Robert E Marc, Michael Kalloniatis
Purpose: To characterize macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) changes with age and provide a framework to assess changes in ocular disease. This study used data clustering to analyze macular GCL patterns from optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a large cohort of subjects without ocular disease. Methods: Single eyes of 201 patients evaluated at the Centre for Eye Health (Sydney, Australia) were retrospectively enrolled (age range, 20-85); 8 × 8 grid locations obtained from Spectralis OCT macular scans were analyzed with unsupervised classification into statistically separable classes sharing common GCL thickness and change with age...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632846/suppression-of-hsp27-restores-retinal-function-and-protects-photoreceptors-from-apoptosis-in-a-light-induced-retinal-degeneration-animal-model
#6
Chih-Cheng Chien, Chi-Jung Huang, Lu-Tai Tien, Yu-Che Cheng, Chia-Ying Ke, Yih-Jing Lee
Purpose: We used a light-induced retinal degeneration animal model to investigate possible roles of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) in retinal/photoreceptor protection. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the light-induced retinal degeneration animal model. The histology of eye sections was observed for morphologic changes in the retina. Cell apoptosis was examined in each group using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and electroretinography was used to evaluate retinal function...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632845/iris-malformation-and-anterior-segment-dysgenesis-in-mice-and-humans-with-a-mutation-in-pi-3-kinase
#7
Marie H Solheim, Allen C Clermont, Jonathon N Winnay, Erlend Hallstensen, Anders Molven, Pål R Njølstad, Eyvind Rødahl, C Ronald Kahn
Purpose: To determine the ocular consequences of a dominant-negative mutation in the p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3R1) using a knock-in mouse model of SHORT syndrome, a syndrome associated with short stature, lipodystrophy, diabetes, and Rieger anomaly in humans. Methods: We investigated knock-in mice heterozygous for the SHORT syndrome mutation changing arginine 649 to tryptophan in p85α (PIK3R1) using physical examination, optical coherence tomography (OCT), tonometry, and histopathologic sections from paraffin-embedded eyes, and compared the findings to similar investigations in two human subjects with SHORT syndrome heterozygous for the same mutation...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632844/complement-mediated-regulation-of-apolipoprotein-e-in-cultured-human-rpe-cells
#8
Ping Yang, Nikolai P Skiba, Grace M Tewkesbury, Victoria M Treboschi, Peter Baciu, Glenn J Jaffe
PURPOSE: Complement activation is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and complement activation products such as membrane attack complex (MAC) are present in eyes of individuals with AMD. Herein, we investigated the effect of complement activation on induction of ApoE accumulation in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. METHODS: Cultured human RPE cells were primed with a complement-fixing antibody followed by treatment with C1q-depleted (C1q-Dep) human serum to elicit alternative pathway complement activation...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622398/axial-length-variation-impacts-on-superficial-retinal-vessel-density-and-foveal-avascular-zone-area-measurements-using-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#9
Danuta M Sampson, Peijun Gong, Di An, Moreno Menghini, Alex Hansen, David A Mackey, David D Sampson, Fred K Chen
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of image magnification correction on superficial retinal vessel density (SRVD) and foveal avascular zone area (FAZA) measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: Participants with healthy retinas were recruited for ocular biometry, refraction, and RTVue XR Avanti OCTA imaging with the 3 × 3-mm protocol. The foveal and parafoveal SRVD and FAZA were quantified with custom software before and after correction for magnification error using the Littman and the modified Bennett formulae...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622397/looking-for-the-most-suitable-orthotopic-retinoblastoma-mouse-model-in-order-to-characterize-the-tumoral-development
#10
Stéphanie Lemaitre, Florent Poyer, Sergio Marco, Paul Fréneaux, François Doz, Isabelle Aerts, Laurence Desjardins, Nathalie Cassoux, Carole D Thomas
Purpose: Because retinoblastoma therapies have many adverse effects, new approaches must be developed and evaluated on animal models. We describe orthotopic xenograft models of retinoblastoma using different strains of mice, suitable for this purpose. Methods: Human retinoblastoma tumors were established on immunodeficient mice by subcutaneous engraftment of tumors from enucleated eyes. The orthotopic model was obtained by subretinal injections of suspension cells into the right eye of immunodeficient (Swiss-nude, severe combined immunodeficiency [SCID]) and immunocompetent mice (C57BL/6N, B6Albino)...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622396/mutant-fibulin-3-causes-proteoglycan-accumulation-and-impaired-diffusion-across-bruch-s-membrane
#11
Astrid Zayas-Santiago, Samuel D Cross, James B Stanton, Alan D Marmorstein, Lihua Y Marmorstein
Purpose: The mutation R345W in EFEMP1 (fibulin-3) causes macular degeneration. This study sought to determine whether proteoglycan content and diffusion across Bruch's membrane are altered in Efemp1ki/ki mice carrying this mutation or in Efemp1-/- mice. Methods: Proteoglycans in mouse Bruch's membranes were stained with Cupromeronic Blue (CB). Heparan sulfated proteoglycan (HSPG) and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan (C/DSPG) distributions were visualized following treatments with chondroitinase ABC (C-ABC) or nitrous acid...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617926/author-response-gap-in-capillary-perfusion-on-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#12
Kotaro Tsuboi, Motohiro Kamei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617925/gap-in-capillary-perfusion-on-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#13
Wenbin Huang, Xiangyin Sha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614556/binocular-therapy-for-childhood-amblyopia-improves-vision-without-breaking-interocular-suppression
#14
Manuela Bossi, Vijay K Tailor, Elaine J Anderson, Peter J Bex, John A Greenwood, Annegret Dahlmann-Noor, Steven C Dakin
Purpose: Amblyopia is a common developmental visual impairment characterized by a substantial difference in acuity between the two eyes. Current monocular treatments, which promote use of the affected eye by occluding or blurring the fellow eye, improve acuity, but are hindered by poor compliance. Recently developed binocular treatments can produce rapid gains in visual function, thought to be as a result of reduced interocular suppression. We set out to develop an effective home-based binocular treatment system for amblyopia that would engage high levels of compliance but that would also allow us to assess the role of suppression in children's response to binocular treatment...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605815/erratum
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605814/erratum
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605813/overexpression-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-ameliorates-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-inflammatory-response-in-human-primary-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#17
Xinyu Fu, Ru Lin, Yiguo Qiu, Peng Yu, Bo Lei
Purpose: Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a major constituent of drusen, which is a hallmark of early AMD. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether enhancement of ACE2, an important component of the protective angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis of the renin angiotensin system (RAS), ameliorates Aβ-induced inflammatory response in human RPE cells. Methods: Annexin-V FITC/propidium iodide assay for detecting apoptosis rate was used to determine the optimum concentration and incubation time of Aβ1-42...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605812/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-induced-nadph-oxidase-4-expression-and-fibrotic-response-in-conjunctival-fibroblasts
#18
Karl David Brown, Manisha H Shah, Guei-Sheung Liu, Elsa C Chan, Jonathan G Crowston, Hitesh M Peshavariya
Purpose: Fibrotic scarring after ocular surgeries and chemical burn injuries can impede clarity of the cornea and cause vision impairment. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway is known to mediate fibrotic scarring, and NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species has been shown to be an effector molecule that facilitates TGFβ1-mediated responses. The present study explores the expression profile and functional importance of NADPH oxidase (Nox) in conjunctival fibroblasts...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605811/parapapillary-deep-layer-microvasculature-dropout-in-glaucoma-topographic-association-with-glaucomatous-damage
#19
Eun Ji Lee, Seung Hyen Lee, Jeong-Ah Kim, Tae-Woo Kim
Purpose: The purpose of this article was to compare the frequencies of the parapapillary deep-layer microvasculature dropout (MvD) detected by optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and healthy eyes and to determine the topographic correlation between the MvD and the glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect in POAG eyes. Methods: Microvasculature in the peripapillary deep-layer was evaluated in 150 POAG patients and 45 healthy controls using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography to identify an MvD...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605810/a-compact-whole-eye-perfusion-system-to-evaluate-pharmacologic-responses-of-outflow-facility
#20
Enhua H Zhou, Michael Paolucci, Thaddeus P Dryja, Ted Manley, Chuanxi Xiang, Dennis S Rice, Ganesh Prasanna, Amy Chen
Purpose: To discover novel therapies that lower IOP by increasing aqueous humor outflow facility, ex vivo ocular perfusion systems provide a valuable tool. However, currently available designs are limited by their throughput. Here we report the development of a compact, scalable perfusion system with improved throughput and its validation using bovine and porcine eyes. Methods: At a fixed IOP of 6 mm Hg, flow rate was measured by flow sensors. We validated the system by measuring the outflow responses to Y-39983 (a Rho kinase inhibitor), endothelin-1 (ET-1), ambrisentan (an antagonist for endothelin receptor A [ETA]), sphigosine-1-phosphate (S1P), JTE-013 (antagonist for S1P receptor 2 [S1P2]), S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, a nitric oxide [NO] donor), and 3-Morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1, another NO donor)...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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