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Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

Chunyan Li, Malinda E C Fitzgerald, Nobel Del Mar, Corey Haughey, Anton Reiner
Purpose: We sought to determine if sympathetic denervation of choroid impairs choroidal blood flow (ChBF) regulation and harms retina. Methods: Rats received bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx), which depleted choroid of sympathetic but not parasympathetic innervation. The flash-evoked scotopic ERG and visual acuity were measured 2 to 3 months after SCGx, and vasoconstrictive ChBF baroregulation during high systemic arterial blood pressure (ABP) induced by LNAME was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF)...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jacoba A van de Kreeke, H Ton Nguyen, Elles Konijnenberg, Jori Tomassen, Anouk den Braber, Mara Ten Kate, Carole H Sudre, Frederik Barkhof, Dorret I Boomsma, H Stevie Tan, Frank D Verbraak, Pieter Jelle Visser
Purpose: Retinal microvasculopathy may reflect small vessel disease in the brain. Here we test the relationships between retinal vascular parameters and small vessel disease, the influence of cardiovascular risk factors on these relationships, and their common genetic background in a monozygotic twin cohort. Methods: We selected 134 cognitively healthy individuals (67 monozygotic twin pairs) aged ≥60 years from the Netherlands Twin Register for the EMIF-AD PreclinAD study...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jian Jiang, Mahbubul H Shihan, Yan Wang, Melinda K Duncan
Purpose: Lens epithelial cell (LEC) conversion to myofibroblast is responsible for fibrotic cataract surgery complications including posterior capsular opacification. While transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling is important, the mechanisms by which the TGFβ pathway is activated post cataract surgery (PCS) are not well understood. Methods: RNA-seq was performed on LECs obtained from a mouse cataract surgery model at the time of surgery and 24 hours later...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jérome Fleuriet, Linda K McLoon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Mythri Pullela, Mehmet N Agaoglu, Anand C Joshi, Sevda Agaoglu, David K Coats, Vallabh E Das
Purpose: Although widely practiced, surgical treatment of strabismus has varying levels of success and permanence. In this study we investigated adaptive responses within the brain and the extraocular muscles (EOM) that occur following surgery and therefore determine long-term success of the treatment. Methods: Single cell responses were collected from cells in the oculomotor and abducens nuclei before and after two monkeys (M1, M2) with exotropia (divergent strabismus) underwent a strabismus correction surgery that involved weakening of the lateral rectus (LR) and strengthening of the medial rectus (MR) muscle of one eye...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Alice C Verticchio Vercellin, Firas Jassim, Linda Yi-Chieh Poon, Edem Tsikata, Boy Braaf, Sneha Shah, Geulah Ben-David, Eric Shieh, Ramon Lee, Huseyin Simavli, Christian J Que, Georgia Papadogeorgou, Rong Guo, Benjamin J Vakoc, Brett E Bouma, Johannes F de Boer, Teresa C Chen
Purpose: To compare the diagnostic capability of three-dimensional (3D) macular parameters against traditional two-dimensional (2D) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. To determine if manual correction and interpolation of B-scans improve the ability of 3D macular parameters to diagnose glaucoma. Methods: A total of 101 open angle glaucoma patients (29 with early glaucoma) and 57 healthy subjects had peripapillary 2D RNFL thickness and 3D macular volume scans...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Sabrina L Mitchell, Karan Uppal, Samantha M Williamson, Ken Liu, L Goodwin Burgess, ViLinh Tran, Allison C Umfress, Kelli L Jarrell, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Anita Agarwal, Margaret Pericak-Vance, Jonathan L Haines, William K Scott, Dean P Jones, Milam A Brantley
Purpose: To identify metabolites and metabolic pathways altered in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD). Methods: We performed metabolomics analysis using high-resolution C18 liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry on plasma samples from 100 NVAMD patients and 192 controls. Data for mass/charge ratio ranging from 85 to 850 were captured, and metabolic features were extracted using xMSanalyzer. Nested feature selection was used to identify metabolites that discriminated between NVAMD patients and controls...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Marija Zivcevska, Alan Blakeman, Shaobo Lei, Herbert C Goltz, Agnes M F Wong
Purpose: To investigate how melanopsin-mediated intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell (ipRGC) signals are integrated binocularly using chromatic pupillometry. We hypothesized that if the melanopsin system is summative, there will be a greater postillumination pupillary response (PIPR) under binocular conditions after viewing bright blue light. Methods: Pupillary responses in 10 visually normal participants were recorded with an eye tracker following full-field stimulation of red (long wavelength) and blue (short wavelength) light of equal intensity (dim: 0...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Takehiro Yamashita, Aiko Iwase, Yuya Kii, Hiroshi Sakai, Hiroto Terasaki, Taiji Sakamoto, Makoto Araie
Purpose: Tessellation of the ocular fundus is commonly found at a mild stage in myopic eyes, and their locations vary among individuals. We conducted this study to determine the distribution of tessellation locations in a population study. Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based study. Residents of Kumejima older than 40 years were studied. The subjects filled out a comprehensive questionnaire, had their body height (BH) measured, and had an ocular examination...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Minhaj Alam, Devrim Toslak, Jennifer I Lim, Xincheng Yao
Purpose: This study aimed to develop a method for automated artery-vein classification in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), and to verify that differential artery-vein analysis can improve the sensitivity of OCTA detection and staging of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: For each patient, the color fundus image was used to guide the artery-vein differentiation in the OCTA image. Traditional mean blood vessel caliber (m-BVC) and mean blood vessel tortuosity (m-BVT) in OCTA images were quantified for control and DR groups...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Junkai Tan, Ning Fan, Ningli Wang, BingKai Feng, Ming Yang, Guo Liu, Yun Wang, Xianjun Zhu, Paul L Kaufman, Iok-Hou Pang, Xuyang Liu
Purpose: We evaluated the effects of lentivirus-mediated exoenzyme C3 transferase (C3) expression on cultured primary human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells in vitro, and on rat intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods: HTM cells were cultured and treated with lentivirus vectors expressing either green fluorescent protein (GFP) only (LV-GFP) or GFP and C3 together (LV-C3-GFP). Changes in cell morphology and actin stress fibers were assessed. The vectors were also injected into the anterior chamber of rats, and GFP expression was visualized by a Micron III Retinal Imaging Microscope in vivo and a fluorescence microscope ex vivo...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
W Daniel Stamer, Andrew M Williams, Stephen Pflugfelder, Sarah E Coupland
Purpose: To assess experiences of vision scientists concerning the availability, quality, and documentation of human eye tissue for research, and to elicit researcher feedback about the establishment of an online portal that pairs eye bank capabilities with researcher needs. Methods: An online survey was designed by a working group of vision scientists and eye bank personnel and sent to members of ARVO. Results: A total of 407 responses were received from across ARVO scientific sections and career stages...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Christine A Curcio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Kevin P Corcoran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Wen Wen, Sujia Wu, Shu Wang, Leilei Zou, Yan Liu, Rui Liu, Peng Zhang, Sheng He, Hong Liu
Purpose: To develop a novel dichoptic optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) paradigm and investigate its effectiveness in objectively quantifying the interocular suppression in subjects with monocular amblyopia. Methods: Centripetal moving gratings with different contrast ratios and constant velocity were dichoptically presented to eight monocular anisometropic amblyopes and eight normal subjects. We analyzed the OKN records with an eye tracker (EyeLink; SR-Research, Ontario, Canada) to obtain the relationship between ocular-dominance of OKN and the interocular contrast ratio by fitting power curves, and examined the correlation between the effective contrast ratio for a balanced OKN and the visual acuity of the amblyopic eye in amblyopes...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Alexandra Gogola, Ning-Jiun Jan, Kira L Lathrop, Ian A Sigal
Purpose: To test the hypothesis that human, monkey, pig, sheep, cow, and goat eyes exhibit circumferential, radial, and interweaving collagen architecture in the posterior sclera. Methods: We analyzed 1,327 cryosections from the posterior poles of 4 human, 4 monkey, 5 pig, 8 sheep, 1 goat, and 2 cow eyes. Images were acquired using polarized light microscopy and processed to obtain polar fiber orientations relative to the center of the canal. Circumferential, radial, and interweaving regions were identified and analyzed for mean fiber orientation and anisotropy and region width and thickness...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ava Grace Tan, Annette Kifley, Elizabeth G Holliday, Barbara E K Klein, Sudha K Iyengar, Kristine E Lee, Gyungah R Jun, Robert G Cumming, Wanting Zhao, Tien Yin Wong, Ching-Yu Cheng, Paul Mitchell, Jie Jin Wang
Purpose: To determine whether there is an association between polymorphisms of the AKR1B1 gene and cortical cataract in the presence of hyperglycemia. Methods: In the second cross section of the Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES), 3508 participants (2334 at 5-year follow-up and 1174 newly recruited participants) were examined during 1997 to 2000. Cataract was graded from lens photographs using the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was measured...
September 4, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Liubov O Skorodumova, Alexandra V Belodedova, Olga P Antonova, Elena I Sharova, Tatiana A Akopian, Oksana V Selezneva, Elena S Kostryukova, Boris E Malyugin
Purpose: To assess the occurrence and diagnostic performance of nine single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the TCF4, SLC4A11, LOXHD1, and AGBL1 genes and the CTG18.1 trinucleotide repeat expansion in a Russian cohort of Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) patients. Methods: This retrospective case-control study included 100 patients diagnosed with FECD (cases) and 100 patients with cataracts (controls). Blood DNA was used to perform PCR and subsequent Sanger sequencing of rs613872 and rs17595731 in TCF4, c...
September 4, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Sudha Neelam, Jessamee Mellon, Amber Wilkerson, Jerry Y Niederkorn
Purpose: Severing of corneal nerves in preparation of corneal transplantation abolishes immune privilege of subsequent corneal transplants placed into either eye: a phenomenon termed sympathetic loss of immune privilege (SLIP). SLIP is due to the disabling of T regulatory cells (Tregs) by CD11c+ contrasuppressor (CS) cells. This study characterized the induction, function, and manipulation of CS cell activity and the effect of these cells on Tregs induced by anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID)...
September 4, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Min-Su Kim, Kyeung-Min Kim, Hyung-Bin Lim, Young-Joon Jo, Jung-Yeul Kim
Purpose: To analyze longitudinal thickness changes in the overall macula, ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL), and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). Methods: A prospective analysis was conducted in patients with BRAO. The thicknesses of the overall macula, GC-IPL, and pRNFL were measured at the initial visit, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Changes in the occluded areas of the affected and unaffected eyes were analyzed, and the nonoccluded areas were compared...
September 4, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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