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Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242908/changes-in-relative-position-of-choroidal-versus-retinal-vessels-in-preterm-infants
#1
Sang Jin Kim, J Peter Campbell, Susan Ostmo, Karyn E Jonas, R V Paul Chan, Michael F Chiang
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel finding that relative positions of choroidal and retinal vessels change over time in preterm infants and to identify factors associated with this finding using quantitative analysis. Methods: Fundus images were obtained prospectively through a retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) cohort study. Images were excluded if choroidal vessels could not be identified. Changes in relative position of characteristic choroidal landmarks with respect to retinal vessels between two time points 5 to 7 weeks apart were measured...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242907/skin-intrinsic-fluorescence-and-age-related-macular-degeneration-the-beaver-dam-eye-study
#2
Ronald Klein, Kristine E Lee, John D Maynard, Stacy M Meuer, Ronald E Gangnon, Barbara E K Klein
Purpose: To determine if skin intrinsic fluorescence (SIF), a noninvasive measure of advanced glycation endproducts and oxidative stress in skin is associated with AMD. Methods: SIF was measured with the SCOUT DS skin fluorescence spectrometer in a cross-sectional cohort study of 969 persons aged 68 to 102 years from the 1181 who participated in the 25-year follow-up examination in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES) in 2014 to 2016. The SCOUT DS skin fluorescence spectrometer uses five light-emitting diodes, centered at 375 nm to 456 nm...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242906/reduced-corneal-nerve-fiber-density-in-type-2-diabetes-by-wide-area-mosaic-analysis
#3
Neil S Lagali, Stephan Allgeier, Pedro Guimarães, Reza A Badian, Alfredo Ruggeri, Bernd Köhler, Tor Paaske Utheim, Beatrice Peebo, Magnus Peterson, Lars B Dahlin, Olov Rolandsson
Purpose: To determine if corneal subbasal nerve plexus (SBP) parameters derived from wide-area depth-corrected mosaic images are associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods: One hundred sixty-three mosaics were produced from eyes of 82 subjects by laser-scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Subjects were of the same age, without (43 subjects) or with type 2 diabetes (39 subjects). Mosaic corneal nerve fiber length density (mCNFL) and apical whorl corneal nerve fiber length density (wCNFL) were quantified and related to the presence and duration of diabetes (short duration < 10 years and long duration ≥ 10 years)...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242905/the-long-noncoding-rna-landscape-of-the-mouse-eye
#4
Weiwei Chen, Shuai Yang, Zhonglou Zhou, Xiaoting Zhao, Jiayun Zhong, Peter S Reinach, Dongsheng Yan
Purpose: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of diverse biological functions. However, an extensive in-depth analysis of their expression profile and function in mammalian eyes is still lacking. Here we describe comprehensive landscapes of stage-dependent and tissue-specific lncRNA expression in the mouse eye. Methods: Affymetrix transcriptome array profiled lncRNA signatures from six different ocular tissue subsets (i.e., cornea, lens, retina, RPE, choroid, and sclera) in newborn and 8-week-old mice...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242904/platelet-derived-growth-factor-bb-lessens-light-induced-rod-photoreceptor-damage-in-mice
#5
Kei Takahashi, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hiroshi Izawa, Yuki Inoue, Yoshiki Kuse, Hideaki Hara
Purpose: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB is known to have neuroprotective effects against various neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PDGF-BB can be neuroprotective against light-induced photoreceptor damage in mice. Methods: Mice were exposed to 8000-lux luminance for 3 hours to induce phototoxicity. Two hours before light exposure, the experimental mice were injected with PDGF-BB intravitreally, and the control mice were injected with phosphate-buffered saline...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242903/interface-bonding-with-corneal-crosslinking-cxl-after-lasik-ex-vivo
#6
Theo G Seiler, Marleen Engler, Eric Beck, Reginald Birngruber, Irene E Kochevar
Purpose: Interface bonding with corneal crosslinking (CXL) after LASIK using two different photosensitizers was studied ex vivo. Methods: A LASIK flap was created in enucleated rabbit eyes using a femtosecond laser. After the dissection, CXL was performed to seal the interface. In one group interface CXL was performed using rose bengal and green light, whereas in a second group riboflavin and UV-A light was used. In both groups irradiance, radiant exposure, dye concentration, and imbibition time was varied...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242902/effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-on-the-visual-system-of-monkeys-measured-at-different-stages-of-development
#7
Vanessa Harrar, Laurent Elkrief, Joseph Bouskila, Ryan Kucera, Anders Fink-Jensen, Jean-François Bouchard, Roberta Palmour, Maurice Ptito
Purpose: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a developmental disease characterized by behavioral problems and physical defects including malformations of the eye and associated optical defects. How these malformations affect retinal functioning is not well known, although animal models have suggested that scotopic vision is particularly deficient. Age is also known to affect scotopic vision. Here, we determined the combined effects of age and fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) on retinal function using full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) in monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus)...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242901/designed-host-defense-peptides-for-the-treatment-of-bacterial-keratitis
#8
L Edward Clemens, Jesse Jaynes, Edward Lim, Satya S Kolar, Rose Y Reins, Hasna Baidouri, Samuel Hanlon, Alison M McDermott, Kathryn W Woodburn
Purpose: To limit corneal damage and potential loss of vision, bacterial keratitis must be treated aggressively. Innovation in antimicrobials is required due to the need for empirical treatment and the rapid emergence of bacterial resistance. Designed host defense peptides (dHDPs) are synthetic analogues of naturally occurring HDPs, which provide defense against invading pathogens. This study investigates the use of novel dHDPs for the treatment of bacterial keratitis. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for dHDPs on both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242900/evaluation-of-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thinning-in-myopic-glaucoma-impact-of-optic-disc-morphology
#9
Kyeong Ik Na, Won June Lee, Young Kook Kim, Ki Ho Park, Jin Wook Jeoung
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of optic disc torsion on the rate of progressive retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning in patients with myopic open-angle glaucoma. Methods: We included 102 patients with myopic open-angle glaucoma accompanied by glaucomatous damage confined to a single hemiretina who were followed up over a 5-year period. We divided the subjects into three groups according to the presence or absence of optic disc torsion and the correspondence between the direction of optic disc torsion and the location of glaucomatous damage: torsion with reverse correspondence group (eyes showing inferior optic disc torsion with glaucomatous damage in the superior quadrant or eyes showing superior torsion with damage in the inferior quadrant), no torsion group, and torsion with correspondence group (eyes showing inferior optic disc torsion with glaucomatous damage in the inferior quadrant or eyes showing superior torsion with damage in the superior quadrant)...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242899/can-probability-maps-of-swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography-predict-visual-field-changes-in-preperimetric-glaucoma
#10
Won June Lee, Young Kook Kim, Jin Wook Jeoung, Ki Ho Park
Purpose: To determine the usefulness of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) probability maps in detecting locations with significant reduction in visual field (VF) sensitivity or predicting future VF changes, in patients with classically defined preperimetric glaucoma (PPG). Methods: Of 43 PPG patients, 43 eyes were followed-up on every 6 months for at least 2 years were analyzed in this longitudinal study. The patients underwent wide-field SS-OCT scanning and standard automated perimetry (SAP) at the time of enrollment...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228253/rare-potentially-pathogenic-variants-in-znf469-are-not-enriched-in-keratoconus-in-a-large-australian-cohort-of-european-descent
#11
Sionne E M Lucas, Tiger Zhou, Nicholas B Blackburn, Richard A Mills, Jonathan Ellis, Paul Leo, Emmanuelle Souzeau, Bronwyn Ridge, Jac C Charlesworth, Matthew A Brown, Richard Lindsay, Jamie E Craig, Kathryn P Burdon
Purpose: The Zinc Finger Protein 469 (ZNF469) gene has been proposed as a candidate gene for keratoconus due to the association of an upstream polymorphism (rs9938149) with the disease in two independent studies, and the role of the gene in the autosomal recessive disease Brittle Cornea Syndrome. Coding variants in ZNF469 have been assessed for association with keratoconus in several small studies, with conflicting results. We assessed rare, potentially pathogenic variants in ZNF469 for enrichment in keratoconus patients in a cohort larger than all previous studies combined...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228252/retinal-reflectivity-measurement-for-cone-impairment-estimation-and-visual-assessment-after-diabetic-macular-edema-resolution-recover-dme
#12
Benjamin Guyon, Emeric Elphege, Mathieu Flores, Anne-Sophie Gauthier, Bernard Delbosc, Maher Saleh
Purpose: Photoreceptor loss has been suspected of being involved in incomplete visual recovery after diabetic macular edema (DME) resolution. Recent studies have shown that cone density in the perifoveal area could be estimated by in vivo measurements of the outer retinal reflectivity on optical coherence tomography (OCT). The main objective of this study was to assess the photoreceptor layer reflectivity after DME resolution and to determine its relationship with final visual acuity (VA)...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228251/the-magnitude-and-time-course-of-iop-change-in-response-to-body-position-change-in-nonhuman-primates-measured-using-continuous-iop-telemetry
#13
Daniel C Turner, Brian C Samuels, Carrie Huisingh, Christopher A Girkin, J Crawford Downs
Purpose: To study the effect and time course of body position changes on IOP in nonhuman primates. Methods: We recorded continuous bilateral IOP measurements with a wireless telemetry implant in three rhesus macaques in seven different body positions. IOP measurements were acquired in the seated-upright, standing, prone, supine, right and left lateral decubitus positions (LDPs), and head-down inverted positions. Continuous IOP was recorded for 90 seconds in each position before returning to a supine reference position until IOP stabilized; measurements were averaged after IOP stabilized at each position...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228250/higher-contrast-requirement-for-letter-recognition-and-macular-rgc-layer-thinning-in-glaucoma-patients-and-older-adults
#14
Lillian Chien, Rong Liu, Christopher Girkin, MiYoung Kwon
Purpose: Growing evidence suggests the involvement of the macula even in early stages of glaucoma. However, little is known about the impact of glaucomatous macular damage on central pattern vision. Here we examine the contrast requirement for letter recognition and its relationship with retinal thickness in the macular region. Methods: A total of 40 participants were recruited: 13 patients with glaucoma (mean age = 65.6 ± 6.6 years), 14 age-similar normally sighted adults (59...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222553/ghrelin-attenuates-retinal-neuronal-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-an-experimental-rat-glaucoma-model
#15
Ke Zhu, Meng-Lu Zhang, Shu-Ting Liu, Xue-Yan Li, Shu-Min Zhong, Fang Li, Ge-Zhi Xu, Zhongfeng Wang, Yanying Miao
Purpose: Ghrelin, a natural ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a), may protect retinal neurons against glaucomatous injury. We therefore characterized the underlying mechanism of the ghrelin/GHSR-1a-mediated neuroprotection with a rat chronic intraocular hypertension (COH) model. Methods: The rat COH model was produced by blocking episcleral veins. A combination of immunohistochemistry, Western blot, TUNEL assay, and retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was used...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222552/animal-models-of-retinal-vein-occlusion
#16
Meiaad Khayat, Noemi Lois, Michael Williams, Alan W Stitt
Purpose: To provide a comprehensive and current review on the available experimental animal models of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and to identify their strengths and limitations with the purpose of helping researchers to plan preclinical studies on RVO. Methods: A systematic review of the literature on experimental animal models of RVO was undertaken. Medline, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases were searched. Studies published between January 1, 1965, and March 31, 2017, and that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222551/neutrophil-and-t-cell-homeostasis-in-the-closed-eye
#17
Cameron K Postnikoff, Kelly K Nichols
Purpose: This study sought to examine the changes and phenotype of the tear neutrophil and T-cell populations between early eyelid closure and after a full night of sleep. Methods: Fourteen healthy participants were recruited and trained to wash the ocular surface with PBS for at-home self-collection of ocular surface and tear leukocytes following up to 1 hour of sleep and a full night of sleep (average 7 hours), on separate days. Cells were isolated, counted, and incubated with fluorescently labeled antibodies to identify neutrophils, monocytes, and T cells...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222550/tissue-transglutaminase-elevates-intraocular-pressure-in-mice
#18
Urmimala Raychaudhuri, J Cameron Millar, Abbot F Clark
Purpose: Tissue transglutaminase (TGM2) is elevated in glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (TM) tissues. We investigated whether increased expression of TGM2 increases extracellular matrix crosslinking in the TM, thereby increasing aqueous humor outflow resistance and elevating intraocular pressure (IOP) in mouse eyes. Methods: GTM3, primary human GTM 125-05, and cultured mouse TM cells were transduced with adenovirus serotype 5 expressing human transglutaminase 2 (Ad5...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222549/author-response-the-evolution-of-the-plateau-an-optical-coherence-tomography-signature-seen-in-geographic-atrophy
#19
Anna C S Tan, Kunal K Dansingani, Christine A Curcio, K Bailey Freund
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222548/the-evolution-of-the-plateau-an-optical-coherence-tomography-signature-seen-in-geographic-atrophy
#20
Alessandro Marchese, Giuseppe Querques
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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