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Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

Alexander Sumaroka, Alexandra V Garafalo, Artur V Cideciyan, Jason Charng, Alejandro J Roman, Windy Choi, Supna Saxena, Valeryia Aksianiuk, Susanne Kohl, Bernd Wissinger, Samuel G Jacobson
Purpose: To compare the phenotype of blue cone monochromacy (BCM) caused by large deletion mutations with those having the C203R missense mutation. Methods: BCM patients with large deletion mutations (n = 21; age range, 5-60 years), and with the C203R missense mutation (n = 13; age range, 5-70 years), were studied with optical coherence tomography, visual acuity, and perimetric sensitivity in a retrospective observational case series. Perceptual estimates of spatial resolution driven by rods, S-cones, and L/M-cones were obtained by the choice of chromatic gratings presented on varied adapting conditions with a modified microperimeter...
December 3, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Cecilia Chao, Lakshmi Akileswaran, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Mark Willcox, Russell Van Gelder, Carol Lakkis, Fiona Stapleton, Kathryn Richdale
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore differences in genotype, ocular surface microbiome, tear inflammatory markers, and environmental and behavioral exposures in soft contact lens (SCL) wearers with and without a history of corneal infiltrative events (CIEs). Methods: Nine SCL wearers with a recent CIE and nine age-, sex-, and SCL material- and modality-matched controls were enrolled. The Contact Lens Risk Survey, slit-lamp examination data, basal tears, conjunctival microbial cultures, and peripheral blood samples were collected...
December 3, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Susumu Sakimoto, Tomoyuki Okazaki, Shinichi Usui, Tomoyuki Ishibashi, Yoshihito Oura, Kentaro Nishida, Atsuya Miki, Ryo Kawasaki, Kenji Matsushita, Hirokazu Sakaguchi, Kohji Nishida
Purpose: To determine the relevance of epiretinal membranes (ERMs) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and potential risk for glaucoma severity. Methods: Sixty eyes of 30 patients with POAG who had a unilateral ERM were analyzed; 60 nonglaucomatous eyes of 30 patients with a unilateral ERM also were recruited in this institutional cross-sectional study. Patients underwent swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and visual field testing. Intraindividual differences in the SS-OCT retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) disc cupping area measurements and visual field outcomes were analyzed in the two groups...
December 3, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Nashila Hirji, Michalis Georgiou, Angelos Kalitzeos, James W Bainbridge, Neruban Kumaran, Jonathan Aboshiha, Joseph Carroll, Michel Michaelides
Purpose: To longitudinally characterize structural retinal changes in achromatopsia (ACHM) over extended follow-up. Methods: Fifty molecularly confirmed ACHM subjects underwent serial spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging. Foveal structure on SD-OCT was graded and compared for evidence of progression, and foveal total retinal thickness (FTRT) and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness were serially measured...
December 3, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Chonglin Chen, Chengxi Liu, Zhirong Wang, Limei Sun, Xiujuan Zhao, Songshan Li, Xiaoling Luo, Aiyuan Zhang, Victor Chong, Lin Lu, Xiaoyan Ding
Purpose: To evaluate the microstructure of the fovea in patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) compared to healthy controls using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: In this consecutive, cross-sectional, observational case series, 41 eyes of 41 patients diagnosed as FEVR and 37 eyes in 37 control subjects were studied. OCTA was utilized to automatically measure the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and the vessel density (VD). Inner retinal thicknesses (IRT) and central retinal thickness (CRT) were measured with the instrument caliper...
December 3, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Siamak Yousefi, Hiroshi Sakai, Hiroshi Murata, Yuri Fujino, Masato Matsuura, David Garway-Heath, Robert Weinreb, Ryo Asaoka
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of visual field (VF) loss in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Methods: Four hundred forty eyes of 282 patients with POAG (aged 53.4 ± 12.0: mean ± standard deviation, years) and 79 eyes of 49 patients with PACG (aged 62.7 ± 9.0 years) with at least six or more reliable VF tests were studied. Point-wise, region-wise, and global rates of VF change were assessed for POAG and PACG eyes...
December 3, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Charles E Granger, Qiang Yang, Hongxin Song, Kenichi Saito, Koji Nozato, Lisa R Latchney, Bianca T Leonard, Mina M Chung, David R Williams, Ethan A Rossi
Purpose: To characterize in vivo morphometry and multispectral autofluorescence of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell mosaic and its relationship to cone cell topography across the macula. Methods: RPE cell morphometrics were computed in regularly spaced regions of interest (ROIs) from contiguous short-wavelength autofluorescence (SWAF) and photoreceptor reflectance images collected across the macula in one eye of 10 normal participants (23-65 years) by using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO)...
December 3, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ryan D Makin, Ivana Apicella, Yosuke Nagasaka, Hiroki Kaneko, Stephen D Turner, Nagaraj Kerur, Jayakrishna Ambati, Bradley D Gelfand
Purpose: The misuse of inauthentic cell lines is widely recognized as a major threat to the integrity of biomedical science. Whereas the majority of efforts to address this have focused on DNA profiling, we sought to anatomically, transcriptionally, and functionally authenticate the RF/6A chorioretinal cell line, which is widely used as an endothelial cell line to model retinal and choroidal angiogenesis. Methods: Multiple vials of RF/6A cells obtained from different commercial distributors were studied to validate their genetic, transcriptomic, anatomic, and functional fidelity to bona fide endothelial cells...
December 3, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
So Young Kim, Areum Yeo, Hyemi Noh, Yong Woo Ji, Jong Suk Song, Hyeon Chang Kim, Lark Kyun Kim, Hyung Keun Lee
Purpose: Granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2) is caused by a point mutation (R124H) in the TGF-β-induced gene (TGFBI). However, the mechanisms underlying the accumulation of TGF-β-induced protein (TGFBIp) are poorly understood. Therefore, we evaluated the signaling cascade affecting the expression of TGFBIp using patient-derived cells. Methods: Keratocyte primary cultures were prepared from corneas from the eye bank or from heterozygous or homozygous patients with GCD2 after penetrating or lamellar keratoplasty...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Joost Brinks, Elon H C van Dijk, Mahmoud Habeeb, Aikaterini Nikolaou, Roula Tsonaka, Hendrika A B Peters, Hetty C M Sips, Arjanneke F van de Merbel, Eiko K de Jong, Robbert G E Notenboom, Szymon M Kielbasa, Silvère M van der Maarel, Paul H A Quax, Onno C Meijer, Camiel J F Boon
Purpose: To isolate, culture, and characterize primary human choroidal endothelial cells, and to assess their responsiveness to corticosteroids, in order to enable knowledge gain on the pathogenesis of central serous chorioretinopathy. Methods: Choroidal endothelial cells were isolated from cadaveric human donors. Magnetic-activated cell sorting with anti-human CD31 was performed for choroidal endothelial cell isolation. Primary cultures of purified choroidal endothelial cells were treated with several regimens of corticosteroids and analyzed for effects on primary corticosteroid responsive genes...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Maria J Lopez, Yashar Seyed-Razavi, Arsia Jamali, Deshea L Harris, Pedram Hamrah
Purpose: The cornea contains distinct populations of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including conventional dendritic cells (cDCs). Little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in cDCs homing and recruitment into the naïve and inflamed cornea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 in the murine cornea and its role in cDC migration during corneal inflammation. Methods: The expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12 in naïve and suture-inflamed murine corneas was assessed by whole-mount staining, flow cytometry, and quantitative PCR...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Shengxu Liu, Bingbing Xie, Xiaojing Song, Dandan Zheng, Liwen He, Guilan Li, Guanjie Gao, Fuhua Peng, Minzhong Yu, Jian Ge, Xiufeng Zhong
Purpose: Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and neural retina could be generated concurrently through retinal organoid induction approaches using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), providing valuable sources for cell therapy of retinal degenerations. This study aims to enrich and expand hiPSC-RPE acquired with this platform and explore characteristics of serially passaged RPE cells. Methods: RPE has been differentiated from hiPSCs with a published retinal organoid induction method...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Zhen Wang, Kevin L Schey
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the palmitoyl-proteome in lens fiber cells. S-palmitoylation is the most common form of protein S-acylation and the reversible nature of this modification functions as a molecular switch to regulate many biological processes. This modification could play important roles in regulating protein functions and protein-protein interactions in the lens. Methods: The palmitoyl-proteome of bovine lens fiber cells was investigated by combining acyl-biotin exchange (ABE) chemistry and mass-spectrometry analysis...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Takefumi Yamaguchi
Purpose: Dry eye is a major ocular pathology worldwide. Although dry eye is a multifactorial disease, recent studies have shown that chronic immunologic processes have a pivotal role in its pathogenesis, characterized by the infiltration of immune cells in the lacrimal glands, elevated levels of tear inflammatory cytokines, and increased density of immune cells in the cornea and conjunctiva. This review describes the recent advances in understanding the relationship between dry eye and inflammation...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Mayumi Ueta
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reactions of the mucosa of the ocular surface, oral cavity, and genitals, and of the skin. Severe ocular complications (SOC) are present in about half of SJS/TEN patients diagnosed by dermatologists. We review our group's findings on the genetic predisposition for and the etiology of SJS/TEN with SOC. We suspected that abnormal innate mucosal immunity, resulting in an anomalous response to commensal bacteria that usually do not elicit such a response, contributes to the ocular surface inflammation seen in SJS/TEN with SOC...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Masatoshi Hirayama
The lacrimal glands produce tears to support a healthy homeostatic environment on the ocular surface. The lacrimal gland dysfunction characteristic of dry eye disease causes ocular discomfort and visual disturbances and in severe cases can result in a loss of vision. The demand for adequate restoration of lacrimal gland function has been intensified due to advances in stem cell biology, developmental biology, and bioengineering technologies. In addition to conventional therapies, including artificial tears, tear alternatives (such as autologous serum eye drops) and salivary gland transplantation, a regenerative medicine approach has been identified as a novel strategy to restore the function of the lacrimal gland...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Tetsuya Kawakita
Dry eye is a multifactorial disease that is one of the most common diseases worldwide. A major cause of dry eye is the deficiency of aqueous tears, which are mainly secreted from the lacrimal gland. The lacrimal gland plays an important role in maintaining the health of the ocular surface and protecting it from environmental exposure. Dry eye can lead to ocular irritation and discomfort, as well as severe ocular surface diseases (e.g., ocular infections, corneal ulcerations, and ocular surface keratinization)...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Murat Dogru, Takashi Kojima, Cem Simsek, Kazuo Tsubota
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a by-product during the mitochondrial respiration of the oxygen and potentially able to damage the tissues. Oxidative stress occurs as a result of the disruption of the balance between the anti-oxidant system and the pro-oxidant system found in cells. It has been accepted that overexpression of ROS can be induced in the ocular surface as a result of many acute and chronic diseases and even in normal aging. Recent studies demonstrated that oxidative stress damages the ocular surface and plays an important role in the mechanism of dry eye disease...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yuichi Uchino
Many studies have revealed that transmembrane mucins, large glycoproteins with heavily glycosylated glycans, are essential for maintaining ocular surface epithelium lubrication and wettability. Recent reports indicate that transmembrane mucins and galectin-3, a chimera type of galectin that binds β-galactoside in the glycan, play a crucial role in maintaining the epithelial glycocalyx barrier. This review summarizes current evidence regarding the role of galectin-3, the role of the three major transmembrane mucins (i...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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