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Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

Brad Fortune, Kelly N Ma, Stuart K Gardiner, Shaban Demirel, Steven L Mansberger
Purpose: To examine demographic and clinical factors associated with glaucomatous peripapillary retinoschisis (PPRS) and assess its association with glaucoma progression. Methods: Using a case control study design and longitudinal data from a cohort of 166 subjects with a diagnosis of glaucoma or glaucoma suspect, we compared functional, structural, clinical, and demographic characteristics between PPRS cases and controls. Results: The frequency of PPRS was 6...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yuri Fujino, Hiroshi Murata, Masato Matsuura, Mieko Yanagisawa, Nobuyuki Shoji, Kenji Inoue, Junkichi Yamagami, Ryo Asaoka
Purpose: To investigate the structure-function mapping in the central 10° by relating Humphrey field analyzer (HFA) 10-2 visual field (VF) and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We also compared the obtained results with a previously reported mapping between 10-2 VF and the optic disc. Methods: In 151 eyes of 151 POAG patients and 35 eyes from 35 healthy participants, cpRNFL thickness measurements were obtained using SD-OCT and the 10-2 VF was measured with the HFA...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Brittany J Carr, Koichiro Mihara, Rithwik Ramachandran, Mahmoud Saifeddine, Neil M Nathanson, William K Stell, Morley D Hollenberg
Purpose: Myopia is a refractive disorder that degrades vision. It can be treated with atropine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist, but the mechanism is unknown. Atropine may block α-adrenoceptors at concentrations ≥0.1 mM, and another potent myopia-inhibiting ligand, mamba toxin-3 (MT3), binds equally well to human mAChR M4 and α1A- and α2A-adrenoceptors. We hypothesized that mAChR antagonists could inhibit myopia via α2A-adrenoceptors, rather than mAChR M4...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Atsuro Uchida, Jagan A Pillai, Robert Bermel, Aaron Bonner-Jackson, Alexander Rae-Grant, Hubert Fernandez, James Bena, Stephen E Jones, James B Leverenz, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers
Purpose: To investigate outer retinal parameters among patients with various chronic neurodegenerative disorders by using spectral-domain coherence tomography (OCT) in a prospective cross-sectional cohort study. Methods: A total of 132 participants were enrolled following a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation with neurologic, neuropsychology, and magnetic resonance imaging volumetric evaluations. Participants were 50 years or older, either diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), non-AD dementia, Parkinson's disease (PD), or age- and sex-matched controls...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ekatherine Prokopiou, Panagiotis Kolovos, Maria Kalogerou, Anastasia Neokleous, Orthodoxia Nicolaou, Kleitos Sokratous, Kyriacos Kyriacou, Tassos Georgiou
Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids on retinal degeneration in the ABCA4-/- model of Stargardt disease when the blood level of arachidonic acid (AA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratio is between 1 and 1.5. Methods: Eight-month-old mice were allocated to three groups: wild type (129S1), ABCA4-/- untreated, and ABCA4-/- ω3 treated. ω3 treatment lasted 3 months and comprised daily gavage administration of EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Mark Christopher, Akram Belghith, Robert N Weinreb, Christopher Bowd, Michael H Goldbaum, Luke J Saunders, Felipe A Medeiros, Linda M Zangwill
Purpose: To apply computational techniques to wide-angle swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images to identify novel, glaucoma-related structural features and improve detection of glaucoma and prediction of future glaucomatous progression. Methods: Wide-angle SS-OCT, OCT circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) circle scans spectral-domain (SD)-OCT, standard automated perimetry (SAP), and frequency doubling technology (FDT) visual field tests were completed every 3 months for 2 years from a cohort of 28 healthy participants (56 eyes) and 93 glaucoma participants (179 eyes)...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Joana Galvao, Keiichiro Iwao, Akintomide Apara, Yan Wang, Masoumeh Ashouri, Tejas Nimish Shah, Murray Blackmore, Noelia J Kunzevitzky, Darcie L Moore, Jeffrey L Goldberg
Purpose: Adult central nervous system (CNS) neurons are unable to regenerate their axons after injury. Krüppel-like transcription factor (KLF) family members regulate intrinsic axon growth ability in vitro and in vivo, but mechanisms downstream of these transcription factors are not known. Methods: Purified retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were transduced to express exogenous KLF9, KLF16, KLF7, or KLF11; microarray analysis was used to identify downstream genes, which were screened for effects on axon growth...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ananya Datta, Fiona Stapleton, Mark D P Willcox
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine cohesion, coaggregation, and coculture between bacteria commonly isolated from contact lens cases. Methods: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Micrococcus luteus, and Acinetobacter radioresistens (two strains each) isolated from contact lens cases of two asymptomatic wearers were used in this study. In the cohesion assay, bacteria were grown, washed, and examined by incubating lens cases with two different types of bacteria sequentially and assessing the number of adhered cells of each isolate...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Mariam Lofty Khaled, Yelena Bykhovskaya, Sarah E R Yablonski, Hanzhou Li, Michelle D Drewry, Inas F Aboobakar, Amy Estes, X Raymond Gao, W Daniel Stamer, Hongyan Xu, R Rand Allingham, Michael A Hauser, Yaron S Rabinowitz, Yutao Liu
Purpose: Keratoconus (KC) is the most common corneal ectasia. We aimed to determine the differential expression of coding and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human corneas affected with KC. Methods: From the corneas of 10 KC patients and 8 non-KC healthy controls, 200 ng total RNA was used to prepare sequencing libraries with the SMARTer Stranded RNA-Seq kit after ribosomal RNA depletion, followed by paired-end 50-bp sequencing with Illumina Sequencer. Differential analysis was done using TopHat/Cufflinks with a gene file from Ensembl and a lncRNA file from NONCODE...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Andrew Winegarner, Taku Wakabayashi, Yoko Fukushima, Tatsuhiko Sato, Chikako Hara-Ueno, Caleb Busch, Issei Nishiyama, Nobuhiko Shiraki, Kaori Sayanagi, Kentaro Nishida, Hirokazu Sakaguchi, Kohji Nishida
Purpose: To investigate the changes in the retinal microvasculature during the course of anti-VEGF therapy in eyes with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and their association with visual outcomes. Methods: The vessel density (VD) and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) were quantitatively measured by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in 48 consecutive eyes with RVO before and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after anti-VEGF therapy...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yeni H Yücel, Kirsten Cardinell, Shireen Khattak, Xun Zhou, Michael Lapinski, Fang Cheng, Neeru Gupta
Purpose: To visualize and quantify lymphatic drainage of aqueous humor from the eye to cervical lymph nodes in the dynamic state. Methods: A near-infrared tracer was injected into the right eye anterior chamber of 10 mice under general anesthesia. Mice were imaged with photoacoustic tomography before and 20 minutes, 2, 4, and 6 hours after injection. Tracer signal intensity was measured in both eyes and right and left neck lymph nodes at every time point and signal intensity slopes were calculated...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Thierry Menguy, Anne Briaux, Elisabeth Jeunesse, Jérôme Giustiniani, Alexandre Calcei, Thierry Guyon, Jacques Mizrahi, Hélène Haegel, Vanessa Duong, Vincent Soler, Pierre Brousset, Armand Bensussan, Isabelle Raymond Letron, Philippe Le Bouteiller
Purpose: To assess the efficacy of the murine first-in-class CL1-R2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting human CD160 (alone or in combination with bevacizumab) by using the rabbit corneal neovascularization (CNV) model, and determine the safety and efficacy of ELB01101, a novel CL1-R2-derived humanized IgG4 mAb, in a monkey model of choroidal neovascularization (ChNV). Methods: Comparison of effect of CL1-R2, bevacizumab, or aflibercept or IgG1 (control) injections in early and late treatment schemes on evolution of VEGF- or FGF2-induced rabbit CNV was performed...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Adrien Henry, Camille Boulagnon-Rombi, Thierry Menguy, Jérôme Giustiniani, Christian Garbar, Corinne Mascaux, Marc Labrousse, Corentin Milas, Coralie Barbe, Armand Bensussan, Vincent Durlach, Carl Arndt
Purpose: Anti-angiogenic agents stand first in the treatment of neovascular diseases of the retina. CD160 appeared in several experimental studies as a marker of activated endothelial cells, suggesting it could represent a promising target for novel anti-angiogenic therapies. The aim of the present study was to assess the distribution of CD160 in the human eye, and to search for a possible correlation with retinal neovascular diseases. Methods: The physiological distribution of CD160 in the normal eye was assessed with immunolabeling in 10 human donor eyes...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Christopher G Owen, Emily Oken, Alicja R Rudnicka, Rita Patel, Jennifer Thompson, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Konstatin Vilchuck, Natalia Bogdanovich, Mikhail Hameza, Michael S Kramer, Richard M Martin
Purpose: Breastfeeding may influence early visual development. We examined whether an intervention to promote increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding improves visual outcomes at 16 years of age. Methods: Follow-up of a cluster-randomized trial in 31 Belarusian maternity hospitals/polyclinics randomized to receive a breastfeeding promotion intervention, or usual care, where 46% vs. 3% were exclusively breastfed at 3 months respectively. Low vision in either eye was defined as unaided logMAR vision of ≥0...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Nevin W El-Nimri, Christine F Wildsoet
Purpose: To determine whether latanoprost, a prostaglandin analog proven to be very effective in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) in humans, can also slow myopia progression in the guinea pig form deprivation (FD) model. Methods: Two-week-old pigmented guinea pigs underwent monocular FD and daily topical latanoprost (0.005%, n = 10) or artificial tears (control, n = 10) starting 1 week after the initiation of FD, with all treatments continuing for a further 9 weeks...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jeremy D Gale, Brian Berger, Steven Gilbert, Serghei Popa, Marla B Sultan, Ronald A Schachar, Douglas Girgenti, Christelle Perros-Huguet
Purpose: Ligands for the proinflammatory C-C chemokine receptor types 2 and 5 (CCR2 and CCR5) are elevated in the eyes of patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of PF-04634817, an oral CCR2/5 dual antagonist, versus intravitreal ranibizumab, in adult subjects with DME. Methods: In this phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked study, eligible subjects (≥18 years of age) had type 1 or 2 diabetes and DME with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/32 or worse (letter score ≤ 78), and up to 20/320 or better (≥24 letter score), in the study eye...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
J Jason McAnany, Jason C Park
Purpose: To evaluate explanations for contrast sensitivity (CS) losses in subjects who have mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) or no diabetic retinopathy (NDR) by measuring and modeling CS in luminance noise. Methods: Ten diabetic subjects with NDR, 10 with mild NPDR, and 10 age-equivalent nondiabetic controls participated. Contrast threshold energy (Et) was measured for letters presented in the absence of noise (Et0) and in four levels of luminance noise...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Shruti Sharma, Kathryn E Bollinger, Sai Karthik Kodeboyina, Wenbo Zhi, Jordan Patton, Shan Bai, Blake Edwards, Lane Ulrich, David Bogorad, Ashok Sharma
Purpose: Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most prevalent form of glaucoma, accounting for approximately 90% of all cases. The aqueous humor (AH), a biological fluid in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye, is involved in a multitude of functions including the maintenance of IOP and ocular homeostasis. This fluid is very close to the pathologic site and is also known to have a significant role in glaucoma pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to identify proteomic alterations in AH from patients with POAG...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Furong Huang, Lishuai Zhang, Qiongsi Wang, Yanan Yang, Qihang Li, Yi Wu, Jiangfan Chen, Jia Qu, Xiangtian Zhou
Purpose: To determine the roles of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) and dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) in the inhibition of form-deprivation myopia (FDM) by the nonselective dopamine agonist apomorphine (APO) in D2R-knockout (D2R-KO) and D1R-KO mice. Methods: Retinal layer thicknesses and electroretinograms (ERGs) were analyzed in KO mice and in D2R and D1R antagonist-treated mice. D2R-KO or D1R-KO mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to form deprivation during postnatal weeks 5 to 8...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yan Lu, Stephen J Atkins, Roshini Fernando, Aaron Trierweiler, Tünde Mester, Ana Beatriz Diniz Grisolia, Pei Mou, Priscila Novaes, Terry J Smith
Purpose: Orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves' disease (GD-OF) express many different cytokines when treated with bovine thyrotropin (bTSH). The present study aimed to determine why TNF-α cannot be induced by bTSH in GD-OF. Methods: Fibrocytes and GD-OFs were cultivated from donors who were patients in a busy academic medical center practice. Real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, reporter gene assays, cell transfections, mRNA stability assays, ELISA, and flow cytometry were performed...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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