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Current Problems in Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776595/clinicopathologic-significance-of-lair-1-expression-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Xiaojie Wu, Leyan Zhang, Jiadi Zhou, Luying Liu, Qiang Fu, Aili Fu, Xiaoying Feng, Rui Xin, Hongrui Liu, Yong Gao, Jiangnan Xue
AIM: Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is an immune inhibitory receptor which is expressed within most types of hematopoietic cells and negatively regulates immune responses. Recently, we found LAIR-1 expression to be present within tumors of nonhematopoietic lineages. However, the roles of LAIR-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of LAIR-1 in HCC tissue and assess its clinical significance at this site...
April 30, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776594/gearing-up-t-cell-immunotherapy-in-cervical-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Shilpa Raghuvanshi Chauhan, Mausumi Bharadwaj
The World Health Organization estimates more than 270,000 deaths annually by cervical cancer. Present vaccines are prophylactic in nature which cannot treat huge bulk of cervical cancer patients worldwide. Available therapies like radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery are not effective in high-grade lesion, and hence, there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy. T cells play a significant role in cervical cancer pathogenesis as human papilloma virus uses multiple mechanisms that dodge host T-cell immune-surveillance aiding in persistence of infection and establishment of cancer...
April 22, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731164/influence-of-wellness-education-on-first-line-icotinib-hydrochloride-patients-with-stage-iv-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-their-family-caregivers
#3
Li Yanwei, Fang Minghui, Quan Manman, Yan Zhuchun, Liu Dongying, Pan Zhanyu
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the effects of wellness education (WE) intervention on the behavioral change, psychological status, performance status on patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing icotinib hydrochloride treatment and their relationships with family caregivers. METHODS: We conducted an intervention study involving 126 individuals with confirmed activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive stage IV NSCLC who received icotinib hydrochloride as first-line therapy between January 2014 and January 2016; their caregivers were also included in the study...
April 11, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706467/hpv-molecular-pathways-and-targets
#4
REVIEW
Shilpi Gupta, Prabhat Kumar, Bhudev C Das
Infection of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is a prerequisite for the development of cervical carcinoma. HPV infections are also implicated in the development of other types of carcinomas. Chronic or persistent infection of HPV is essential but HPV alone is inadequate, additional endogenous or exogenous cues are needed along with HPV to induce cervical carcinogenesis. The strategies that high-risk HPVs have developed in differentiating epithelial cells to reach a DNA-synthesis competent state leading to tumorigenic transformation are basically due to overexpression of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins and the activation of diverse cellular regulatory or signaling pathways that are targeted by them...
April 5, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759802/combined-chemoradiation-vs-radiation-therapy-alone-in-stage-ii-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-a-meta-analysis-of-the-published-literature
#5
Sufang Wang, Shan Li, Liangfang Shen
The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of adding chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of stage-II nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We searched Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase, China National Knowledge Internet, China Biology Medicine, VIP, and Wanfang database for studies of the RT with or without chemotherapy in patients with stage-II NPC that were published in any language. Analyses were carried out using RevMan 5.3 software. The relative risk was used to evaluate the data, the I2 test was used to compare heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the stability and reliability of the results...
April 3, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731165/encapsulated-papillary-carcinoma-of-the-breast-a-clinicopathological-study-of-49-cases
#6
Xiaomei Li, Yanmei Xu, Hong Ye, Shuming Qin, Feng Hou, Wenlou Liu
BACKGROUND: Encapsulated papillary carcinoma (EPC) has been considered as a variant of ductal carcinoma in situ. Recent studies suggest that EPC could be invasive, as it often lacks myoepithelial cells (MECs) at their periphery. The current study was performed to investigate the biological features of EPC. METHODS: Forty-nine EPC patients admitted to the Tai'an Central Hospital and Qilu Hospital of Shandong University from January 2004-December 2014 were included in this study...
March 30, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729826/bifocal-hepatocellular-carcinoma-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-after-transarterial-embolization
#7
Picchia Simona, Bali Maria Antonietta
The aim of this article is to show the typical appearance of a bifocal hepatocellular carcinoma on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging before and after locoregional treatment consisting of transarterial embolization (TAE).
March 28, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625794/the-role-of-epigenetic-therapies-in-colorectal-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Marina Baretti, Nilofer Saba Azad
Although developments in the diagnosis and therapy of colorectal cancer (CRC) have been made in the last decade, much work remains to be done as it remains the second leading cause of cancer death. It is now well established that epigenetic events, together with genetic alterations, are key events in initiation and progression of CRC. Epigenetics refers to heritable alterations in gene expression that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence. These alterations include DNA methylation, histone alterations, chromatin remodelers, and noncoding RNAs...
March 12, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567372/a-six-microrna-signature-predicts-survival-of-patients-with-uterine-corpus-endometrial-carcinoma
#9
Yue Wang, Mu Xu, Qing Yang
Uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC) is one of the most common female gynecological malignant tumors that threaten women health seriously. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) has been proved to play critical roles in tumor pathogenesis and malignant progression. In this study, we aimed to explore a novel signature of microRNA expression for predicting the overall survival (OS) of patients with UCEC. The genome-wide miRNA expression profiles and relevant clinical characteristics of 348 patients with UCEC were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data portal and analyzed comprehensively...
February 21, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530394/primary-squamous-cell-carcinoma-arising-from-endometriosis-of-the-ovary-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Yalan Xu, Lei Li
Cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from ovarian endometriosis have been rarely reported. Most of the patients show a poor prognosis and present with a diminished survival time. We present a SCC case arising from endometriosis, and analyzed the clinical, therapeutic, and pathologic features through a comprehensive literature review. A 43-year premenopausal woman (gravida 2, para 1) presented to our hospital due to sudden pain in lower abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy indicated rupture of left ovarian cyst and intra-abdominal hemorrhage were observed...
February 9, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433825/risk-factors-for-prostate-cancer-a-multifactorial-case-control-study
#11
Saima Shakil Malik, Rakshanda Batool, Nosheen Masood, Azra Yasmin
Prostate cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among Pakistani men. It is a multifactorial disease involving genetics together with environmental factors. Countries where men have greater dietary fat intake showed increased prostate cancer mortality rates. A population based case-control study was conducted to evaluate various prostate cancer risk factors. Study subjects were 896 prostate cancer cases (2010-2015) and 900 age matched controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were used to estimate the association between different risk factors and prostate cancer...
February 9, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530393/chemotherapy-and-targeted-therapy-in-the-management-of-cervical-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Lalit Kumar, P Harish, Prabhat S Malik, S Khurana
Management of cervical cancer has undergone refinement in the past two decades; concurrent chemo-radiation (CCRT) (with cisplatin alone or in combination) is currently the standard treatment approach for patients with locally advanced disease (FIGO stage IIB-IVA). About 30%-40% of such patients fail to achieve complete response; alternative approaches are needed to improve outcome for them. Treatment with bevacizumab (an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor) along with chemotherapy is associated with improved survival in patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer...
February 3, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576383/ifosfamide-and-doxorubicin-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-leiomyosarcoma
#13
Serkan Akin, Omer Dizdar, Yusuf Karakas, Alev Turker, Ayse Kars
Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are rare tumors with poor prognosis owing to the high rate of recurrent and metastatic disease. The combination of doxorubicin (Adriamycin) plus ifosfamide and mesna (AIM) results in moderate response rates of 10%-30%. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the AIM regimen along with multimodality treatment including surgery and radiotherapy in patients with LMS. The clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes of 51 patients with recurrent or metastatic LMS diagnosed between 2000 and 2014 who received the AIM regimen were analyzed retrospectively...
January 31, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580676/research-of-falls-risk-of-taking-central-nervous-system-drugs-in-oncology-inpatients
#14
Yadi Li, Qing Zhang, Xuhong Yang, Lijun Zheng, Jun Yang, Huan Zhao, Dongdong Yang
This study aimed to analyze the medication use and related falls risk of central nervous system(CNS) drugs in oncology inpatients, explore the association between CNS drugs and falls. In this study, we enrolled inpatients, hospitalized in the oncology department of the Teaching Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, from March 2013 to October 2015. All inpatients were divided into two groups: taking-CNS drugs group (treatment group) and non CNS drugs group (control group). The falls risk between two groups were being compared and analyzed...
January 12, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433826/cancer-cervix-establishing-an-evidence-based-strategy-an-experience-of-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-india
#15
Shyam Kishore Shrivastava, Shirley Lewis, Supriya Chopra Sastri, G Lavanya, Umesh Mahantshetty, Reena Engineer
Carcinoma cervix is a common cancer among Indian women. Evidence based management is essential for best practice in treatment of carcinoma cervix for its effective control. The current imaging system like CT, MRI and PET CT scans have contributed in identifying the patients for optimal treatment and delivering treatment accurately. For stages IB2 to IV, concurrent chemoradiation is advocated with improvement in overall survival proven with randomized trials. Brachytherapy is an integral part in the radiation treatment...
January 12, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428790/management-of-cervical-premalignant-lesions
#16
REVIEW
Partha Basu, Katayoun Taghavi, Shang-Ying Hu, Sushma Mogri, Smita Joshi
Treatment of cervical premalignant lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; CIN) of different grades is very effective, simple, and safe. The entire transformation zone of the cervix needs to be treated either by an ablative technique (cryotherapy or thermal ablation) or an excisional technique (large loop excision of transformation zone or cold knife conization); the choice of treatment depends on the size and location of the lesion and the type of the transformation zone. The cure rate after ablative treatment of high-grade CIN may be little lower than that after excisional treatment...
January 11, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459177/il-10-correlates-with-the-expression-of-carboxypeptidase-b2-and-lymphovascular-invasion-in-inflammatory-breast-cancer-the-potential-role-of-tumor-infiltrated-macrophages
#17
Hossam Taha Mohamed, Noura El-Husseiny, Eslam A El-Ghonaimy, Sherif Abdelaziz Ibrahim, Zainab A Bazzi, Dora Cavallo-Medved, Michael B Boffa, Mohamed El-Shinawi, Mona Mostafa Mohamed
Pro-carboxypeptidase B2 (pro-CPB2) or thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a glycoprotein encoded by the CPB2 gene and deregulated in several cancer types, including breast cancer. Thrombin binding to thrombomodulin (TM), encoded by THBD, is important for TAFI activation. CPB2 gene expression is influenced by genetic polymorphism and cytokines such as interleukin 10 (IL-10). Our previous results showed that tumor infiltrating monocytes/macrophages (CD14+ /CD16+ ) isolated from inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) patients' secrete high levels of IL-10...
January 10, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456131/high-expression-of-cc-chemokine-receptor-5-ccr5-promotes-disease-progression-in-patients-with-b-cell-non-hodgkin-lymphomas
#18
Aleksandra Butrym, Ilona Kryczek, Dorota Dlubek, Emilia Jaskula, Andrzej Lange, Artur Jurczyszyn, Grzegorz Mazur
Chemokines are small proteins, that regulate cell migration in many physiological and pathologic processes in human body. They are also responsible for cancer progression. CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is responsible for cell recruitment in inflammation and may be involved in antitumor immune response controlling. Aberrant CCR5 can be found in different kind of cancers, not only hematological, but also solid tumors. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas consist of many lymphoma subtypes. They predominantly derive from B cells and can have very heterogenous clinical course...
January 10, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449010/a-brief-report-of-plexiform-neurofibroma
#19
Mahdi Khajavi Md, Shahrokh Khoshsirat Md, Lida Ahangarnazari Md, Niloofar Majdinasab Md
Plexiform neurofibroma (PNF) is a rare variant of neurofibromatosis type1 (NF-1), which histopathologically, is a subtype of benign nerve sheath tumors, neurofibromas (NF). It develops as a result of proliferation in all parts of peripheral nervous system and can cause the functional damage, deformities, pain, considerable mortality, and morbidity and even the increasing risk of malignant transformation in some critical cases. Currently, the surgical intervention is the treatment of choice for PNF patients, which due to the tumor invasion, massive growth, and the chance of postoperative regrowth is not possible...
January 10, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519669/primary-hepatic-marginal-zone-lymphoma-a-rare-coincidence
#20
Soumya Surath Panda, Manas Baisakh, Adyakinkar Panda, Hemlata Das
Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is an extremely rare disease and is often misdiagnosed. The optimal therapy is still unclear and the outcomes are uncertain. Among PHLs, a primary hepatic low-grade marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue is still rarer. The present study reports the case of an elderly female diagnosed with PHL (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) and treated with single agent rituximab. After 18 months, she had a progressive disease and developed Waldenstorms macroglobulinemia concomitantly...
January 8, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
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