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Current Problems in Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629637/direct-medical-cost-associated-with-colorectal-cancer-in-north-of-jordan
#1
Qais Alefan, Rana Malhees, Nizar Mhaidat
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is mainly characterized as the malignant and impaired growth of rectal cells in the intestinal region. Direct medical cost is related to resources, which are directly used in treating the patient, that mainly includes the cost of drugs, diagnostic, treatment, follow-up, rehabilitation, and hospital admission. The objective of this study is to estimate and analyze direct medical costs attributable to CRC in Jordan. A retrospective analysis of a cohort patients treated for CRC data has been performed to determine direct medical costs attributable to CRC in Jordan...
May 15, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641873/targeting-dna-repair-for-precision-radiotherapy-balancing-the-therapeutic-ratio
#2
REVIEW
Osman Mahamud, Jonathan So, Melvin L K Chua, Robert G Bristow
Genomic instability is underpinned by defects in the DNA damage response and DNA repair pathways. Subsequent clonal selection and adaption can lead to a mutator phenotype and tumor aggression. Importantly, tumor cell sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy can depend highly on the cellular capacity to repair DNA damage within and between tumor types. Annotation of functional defects in DNA damage response and DNA repair function may allow for the development of novel prognostic biomarkers. This information could also be used to predict therapeutic response, including predicting responses following inhibition of DNA repair...
April 25, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583747/targeting-dna-damage-response-systems-to-impact-cancer-care
#3
EDITORIAL
Joaquin Mateo, Johann S de Bono
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625333/liver-metastases-from-gastric-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Beata Polkowska-Pruszyńska, Karol Rawicz-Pruszyński, Bogumiła Ciseł, Robert Sitarz, Grażyna Polkowska, Witold Krupski, Wojciech P Polkowski
Gastric carcinoma (GC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide but the third leading cause of cancer death, and surgery remains the only curative treatment option. Prognosis of patients with liver metastases from gastric carcinoma (LMGC) is poor, and the optimal treatment of metastatic gastric cancer remains a matter of debate. In 2002, a 53-year-old male patient with GC and synchronous oligometastatic lesion in liver VIII segment underwent a total gastrectomy combined with metastasectomy. The pathologic diagnosis was stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma (pT3N2M1), which was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin, epirubicin, leucovorin, and 5-fluorouracil)...
May 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625332/considerations-of-developing-an-ngs-assay-for-clinical-applications-in-precision-oncology-the-nci-match-ngs-assay-experience
#5
Chih-Jian Lih, Naoko Takebe
Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been widely adapted in clinical oncology by utilizing the profiled genetic mutation information to select patients and to guide the choice of target therapy. To fulfill the regulatory compliance, development of an NGS assay that will be used in clinical trials requires an analytical validation to meet its intend clinical use. NCI-MATCH trial is the largest precision oncology basket trial which uses a single NGS assay (NCI-MATHC NGS assay) to screen the actionable mutations in 6000 patients, who have relapsed/refractory solid tumors and lymphomas after standard systemic treatment, and assigns matched treatment...
May 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528021/multicystic-peritoneal-mesothelioma-a-short-review
#6
Chi-Hao Zhang, Ji-Wei Yu, Meng Luo
Multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (MCPM) is a rare neoplasm, predominantly affecting female patients during their reproductive years. The lesion is usually distributed diffusely in the abdomen and pelvis, but the peritoneum of the pelvic organs is the most common site. MCPM is composed of fluid-filled translucent cysts, connected by varying amounts of fibrous tissue, and lined by a layer of mesothelial cells. Because of the rarity of this disease, the pathogenesis and natural history of MCPM remain poorly understood and continuously debated...
March 31, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454847/inherited-mutations-in-dna-repair-genes-and-cancer-risk
#7
REVIEW
Nuria Romero-Laorden, Elena Castro
Although most cancer cases are due to somatic mutations, up to 10% of cases are attributable to germline mutations. This inherited cancer predisposition is mostly due to the loss of function of suppressor genes rather than the activation of oncogenes. Defects in DNA repair genes are the genetic events most commonly involved in hereditary cancers. The implementation of high-throughput sequencing in diagnostic testing has uncovered new predisposition genes. Furthermore, for some tumor types these sequencing techniques have also unveiled a prevalence of germline mutations significantly higher than previous estimations...
March 22, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457657/stem-cell-transplantation-for-immunoglobulin-light-chain-amyloidosis
#8
REVIEW
Taimur Sher, Morie A Gertz
Systemic chemotherapy aimed at eradicating transformed plasma cells is the mainstay of treatment for immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL). Autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) is a highly effective treatment for AL and can lead to long term survival in excess of 10 years in patients who achieve complete remission. Since AL is a unique disease characterized by multiple organ dysfunction, SCT poses unique challenges in this disease. Morbidity and mortality of SCT has remarkably improved over time primarily due to careful selection of patients and evolution of predictive and prognostic models based on serum immunoglobulin light chains and cardiac biomarkers...
March 16, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583748/development-of-parp-inhibitors-in-gynecological-malignancies
#9
REVIEW
Yvonne L E Ang, David S P Tan
PARP inhibitors demonstrate synthetic lethality in tumors with BRCA1/2 mutations and other homologous recombination repair deficiencies by interfering with DNA repair and causing direct toxicity to DNA through PARP trapping. PARP inhibitors have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of BRCA1/2-mutated ovarian cancers, which has led to a shift in the treatment paradigm of this disease. Further studies to establish the role of PARP inhibitors during earlier stages of treatment are ongoing. The use of PARP inhibitors in other cancers with homologous recombination repair deficiencies, such as breast cancer and prostate cancer, is gradually evolving as well, including their use in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings...
March 14, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434582/effectiveness-between-early-and-late-temporary-ileostomy-closure-in-patients-with-rectal-cancer-a-prospective-study
#10
Li Zhen, Yanan Wang, Ze Zhang, Tongwei Wu, Ruoyan Liu, Tingting Li, Liying Zhao, Haijun Deng, Xiaolong Qi, Guoxin Li
A temporary stoma is often used in rectal cancer surgery to protect a distal anastomosis, which remains a major concern after rectal cancer surgery, particularly after low anterior resection. The temporary stoma is scheduled for closure. However, the optimal time of closure of the protecting stoma remains unclear because of sparse studies and data. We aimed to detect the efficacy between early and late temporary ileostomy closure in patients with rectal cancer during or after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. We conducted a prospective, 2-group design between early and late ileostomy closure group in patients after rectal cancer surgery with temporary stoma...
March 2, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416242/human-papillomavirus-and-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-review-of-hpv-positive-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-possible-strategies-for-future
#11
REVIEW
Shan Jiang, Yong Dong
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common cancer worldwide. Besides tobacco use and alcohol consumption, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has also been identified as a risk factor for OSCC recently. The OSCC incidence has increased in recent years, especially among younger women. The purpose of this article is to review clinical and epidemiological studies on the association between HPV infection and OSCCs, and the efficacy of HPV vaccine, so as to provide possible policy implications for preventing HPV-positive OSCC...
March 1, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416241/circulating-tumor-dna-from-bench-to-bedside
#12
Joline S J Lim, Filip Janku, Timothy A Yap
In the era of personalized medicine, tumor sampling is paramount to enable the assessment of actionable molecular aberrations to help rationalize and guide treatment decisions. Longitudinal tracking of such aberrations may also be helpful to detect emerging drug resistance and to allow for timely modifications to ongoing therapies to improve patient outcomes. Nevertheless, tumor tissue sampling involves an invasive procedure with potential risks to patients and involves logistical challenges. As such, other less invasive and safer methods such as blood sampling for molecular profiling has been gaining traction...
March 1, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190531/cutaneous-adverse-effects-of-the-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#13
REVIEW
Lindsey K Collins, M Shane Chapman, Joi B Carter, Faramarz H Samie
The immune checkpoint targeted agents, anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and anti-programed cell death 1 (PD-1) or anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors are frequently associated with cutaneous side effects that are often dose limiting and can lead to discontinuation of therapy. Ipilimumab, a CTLA-4 inhibitor, is most commonly associated with a morbilliform eruption on the trunk and extremities and pruritus. More severe cutaneous toxicities reported include toxic epidermal necrolysis and severe drug rash with eosinophila and systemic symptoms...
March 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189263/renal-complications-of-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#14
REVIEW
Naoka Murakami, Shveta Motwani, Leonardo V Riella
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been approved for a variety of cancer species. Renal complications in use of these agents are not very common compared with other immune-related adverse events (irAE). However, it is crucial for physicians to recognize and manage renal manifestations of irAE. In this review, we will summarize the up-to-date knowledge of the clinical presentation, pathologic features, and management of renal irAE. In addition, we will discuss the safety of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with chronic kidney disease as well as in kidney transplant recipients...
March 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117074/light-chain-cardiac-amyloidosis
#15
REVIEW
Anit K Mankad, Isata Sesay, Keyur B Shah
Cardiac amyloidosis is an underrecognized condition, in which delays to diagnosis have great implications on management options, prognosis, and morbidity. Once cardiac tissue is infiltrated by amyloid fibrils, there is a cascade of pathologic changes that can display an array of clinical manifestations, from impaired relaxation of the ventricular myocardium to severe restrictive disease or even progressive systolic heart failure. Management is guided not only by recognizing the subtype of amyloidosis (primary, hereditary, and wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis), but also the clinical stage of the disease...
March 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391973/the-current-status-and-problems-confronted-in-delivering-precision-medicine-in-japan-and-europe
#16
REVIEW
Hideaki Bando
Precision medicine has been defined as "a predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory health care service delivery model." Today, developments in next-generation sequencing and information technology have made precision medicine possible, with massive amounts of genetic, "omics," clinical, environmental, and lifestyle data now available. Unfortunately, differences in governmental support and health care regulations have resulted in heterogeneous progress among countries. In Japan, for example, precision cancer screening and treatments are increasingly being promoted, with collaboration among research, governmental, and pharmaceutical agencies taking place in the nationwide SCRUM-Japan cancer genome screening project...
February 22, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372823/defining-precision-the-precision-medicine-initiative-trials-nci-mpact-and-nci-match
#17
Geraldine O'Sullivan Coyne, Naoko Takebe, Alice P Chen
"Precision" trials, using rationally incorporated biomarker targets and molecularly selective anticancer agents, have become of great interest to both patients and their physicians. In the endeavor to test the cornerstone premise of precision oncotherapy, that is, determining if modulating a specific molecular aberration in a patient's tumor with a correspondingly specific therapeutic agent improves clinical outcomes, the design of clinical trials with embedded genomic characterization platforms which guide therapy are an increasing challenge...
February 11, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410846/initiative-for-molecular-profiling-and-advanced-cancer-therapy-and-challenges-in-the-implementation-of-precision-medicine
#18
Apostolia-Maria Tsimberidou
In the last decade, breakthroughs in technology have improved our understanding of genomic, transcriptional, proteomic, epigenetic aberrations and immune mechanisms in carcinogenesis. Genomics and model systems have enabled the validation of novel therapeutic strategies. Based on these developments, in 2007, we initiated the IMPACT (Initiative for Molecular Profiling and Advanced Cancer Therapy) study, the first personalized medicine program for patients with advanced cancer at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center...
February 10, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343740/pediatric-oncology-enters-an-era-of-precision-medicine
#19
Nita L Seibel, Katherine Janeway, Carl E Allen, Susan N Chi, Yoon-Jae Cho, Julia L Glade Bender, AeRang Kim, Theodore W Laetsch, Meredith S Irwin, Naoko Takebe, James V Tricoli, Donald Williams Parsons
With the use of high-throughput molecular profiling technologies, precision medicine trials are ongoing for adults with cancer. Similarly, there is an interest in how these techniques can be applied to tumors in children and adolescents to expand our understanding of the biology of pediatric cancers and evaluate the clinical implications of genomic testing for these patients. This article reviews the early studies in pediatric oncology showing the feasibility of this approach, describe the future plans to evaluate the clinical implications in a multicenter clinical trial and identify the challenges of applying genomics in this patient population...
February 1, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372822/precision-medicine-in-oncology
#20
EDITORIAL
Naoko Takebe, Timothy A Yap
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
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