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Current Problems in Cancer

Yalan Xu, Lei Li
Cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from ovarian endometriosis have been rarely reported. Most of the patients show a poor prognosis and present with a diminished survival time. We present a SCC case arising from endometriosis, and analyzed the clinical, therapeutic, and pathologic features through a comprehensive literature review. A 43-year premenopausal woman (gravida 2, para 1) presented to our hospital due to sudden pain in lower abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy indicated rupture of left ovarian cyst and intra-abdominal hemorrhage were observed...
February 9, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Saima Shakil Malik, Rakshanda Batool, Nosheen Masood, Azra Yasmin
Prostate cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among Pakistani men. It is a multifactorial disease involving genetics together with environmental factors. Countries where men have greater dietary fat intake showed increased prostate cancer mortality rates. A population based case-control study was conducted to evaluate various prostate cancer risk factors. Study subjects were 896 prostate cancer cases (2010-2015) and 900 age matched controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were used to estimate the association between different risk factors and prostate cancer...
February 9, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Lalit Kumar, P Harish, Prabhat S Malik, S Khurana
Management of cervical cancer has undergone refinement in the past two decades; concurrent chemo-radiation (CCRT) (with cisplatin alone or in combination) is currently the standard treatment approach for patients with locally advanced disease (FIGO stage IIB-IVA). About 30%-40% of such patients fail to achieve complete response; alternative approaches are needed to improve outcome for them. Treatment with bevacizumab (an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor) along with chemotherapy is associated with improved survival in patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer...
February 3, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Lynda R Corrigan, Dara M Bracken-Clarke, Anne M Horgan
Pancreatic and biliary tract cancers are aggressive malignancies. They commonly present with metastatic or unresectable disease. Those that do present with resectable cancer have high rates of recurrence. Despite recent advances in surgical technique, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy regimens, they are associated with poor survival outcomes. These cancers represent an exception to the trend of improved overall survival evident in most malignancies in recent decades. Depending on the goal of treatment, active management of pancreatic and biliary cancers involves surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, either alone or in combination...
January 31, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Shyam Kishore Shrivastava, Shirley Lewis, Supriya Chopra Sastri, G Lavanya, Umesh Mahantshetty, Reena Engineer
Carcinoma cervix is a common cancer among Indian women. Evidence based management is essential for best practice in treatment of carcinoma cervix for its effective control. The current imaging system like CT, MRI and PET CT scans have contributed in identifying the patients for optimal treatment and delivering treatment accurately. For stages IB2 to IV, concurrent chemoradiation is advocated with improvement in overall survival proven with randomized trials. Brachytherapy is an integral part in the radiation treatment...
January 12, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Partha Basu, Katayoun Taghavi, Shang-Ying Hu, Sushma Mogri, Smita Joshi
Treatment of cervical premalignant lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; CIN) of different grades is very effective, simple, and safe. The entire transformation zone of the cervix needs to be treated either by an ablative technique (cryotherapy or thermal ablation) or an excisional technique (large loop excision of transformation zone or cold knife conization); the choice of treatment depends on the size and location of the lesion and the type of the transformation zone. The cure rate after ablative treatment of high-grade CIN may be little lower than that after excisional treatment...
January 11, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Hossam Taha Mohamed, Noura El-Husseiny, Eslam A El-Ghonaimy, Sherif Abdelaziz Ibrahim, Zainab A Bazzi, Dora Cavallo-Medved, Michael B Boffa, Mohamed El-Shinawi, Mona Mostafa Mohamed
Pro-carboxypeptidase B2 (pro-CPB2) or thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a glycoprotein encoded by the CPB2 gene and deregulated in several cancer types, including breast cancer. Thrombin binding to thrombomodulin (TM), encoded by THBD, is important for TAFI activation. CPB2 gene expression is influenced by genetic polymorphism and cytokines such as interleukin 10 (IL-10). Our previous results showed that tumor infiltrating monocytes/macrophages (CD14+ /CD16+ ) isolated from inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) patients' secrete high levels of IL-10...
January 10, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Aleksandra Butrym, Ilona Kryczek, Dorota Dlubek, Emilia Jaskula, Andrzej Lange, Artur Jurczyszyn, Grzegorz Mazur
Chemokines are small proteins, that regulate cell migration in many physiological and pathologic processes in human body. They are also responsible for cancer progression. CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is responsible for cell recruitment in inflammation and may be involved in antitumor immune response controlling. Aberrant CCR5 can be found in different kind of cancers, not only hematological, but also solid tumors. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas consist of many lymphoma subtypes. They predominantly derive from B cells and can have very heterogenous clinical course...
January 10, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Mahdi Khajavi Md, Shahrokh Khoshsirat Md, Lida Ahangarnazari Md, Niloofar Majdinasab Md
Plexiform neurofibroma (PNF) is a rare variant of neurofibromatosis type1 (NF-1), which histopathologically, is a subtype of benign nerve sheath tumors, neurofibromas (NF). It develops as a result of proliferation in all parts of peripheral nervous system and can cause the functional damage, deformities, pain, considerable mortality, and morbidity and even the increasing risk of malignant transformation in some critical cases. Currently, the surgical intervention is the treatment of choice for PNF patients, which due to the tumor invasion, massive growth, and the chance of postoperative regrowth is not possible...
January 10, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Soumya Surath Panda, Manas Baisakh, Adyakinkar Panda, Hemlata Das
Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is an extremely rare disease and is often misdiagnosed. The optimal therapy is still unclear and the outcomes are uncertain. Among PHLs, a primary hepatic low-grade marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue is still rarer. The present study reports the case of an elderly female diagnosed with PHL (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) and treated with single agent rituximab. After 18 months, she had a progressive disease and developed Waldenstorms macroglobulinemia concomitantly...
January 8, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Babita Sharma, Raman Preet Kaur, Sonali Raut, Anjana Munshi
BRCA1 gene mutations account for about 25-28% of hereditary Breast Cancer as BRCA1 is included in the category of high penetrance genes. Except for few commonmutations, there is a heterogenous spectrum of BRCA1 mutations in various ethnic groups. 185AGdel and 5382ins Care the most common BRCA1 alterations (founder mutations) which have been identified in most of the population. This review has been compiled with an aim to consolidate the information on genetic variants reported in BRCA1 found in various ethnic groups, their functional implications if known; involvement of BRCA1 in various cellular pathways/processes and potential BRCA1 targeted therapies...
January 8, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Jiajia Li, Xianghui Han
A substantial number of studies have revealed that a growing list of cancers might be influenced by obesity. In this regard, one of the most prominent and well-characterized cancers is breast cancer, the leading cause of cancer death among women. Obesity is associated with an increased risk for the occurrence and development of breast cancer particular in postmenopausal women. Moreover, the relationship between adiposity and breast cancer risk is complex, with associations that differ depending on when body size is assessed (eg, premenopausal vs postmenopausal obesity) and when breast cancer is diagnosed (ie, premenopausal vs postmenopausal disease)...
January 8, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Jennifer Harrington, Louise Carter, Bristi Basu, Natalie Cook
Pancreatico-biliary (P-B) tumors arise from the pancreas, bile duct, and ampulla of Vater. Despite their close anatomical location, they have different etiology and biology. However, they uniformly share a poor prognosis, with no major improvements observed in overall survival over decades, even in the face of progress in diagnostic imaging and surgical techniques, and advances in systemic and loco-regional radiation therapies. To date, cytotoxic treatment has been associated with modest benefits in the advanced disease setting, and survival for patients with stage IV disease has not exceeded a year...
January 8, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Priya Ramanathan, Hemavathi Dhandapani, Hascitha Jayakumar, Abirami Seetharaman, Rajkumar Thangarajan
Cervical cancer, although preventable, is still the second most common cancer among women worldwide. In developing countries like India, where screening for cervical cancer is virtually absent, most women seek treatment only at advanced stages of the disease. Although standard treatment is curative in more than 90% of women during the early stages, for stage IIIb and above this rate drops to 50% or less. Hence, novel therapeutic adjuvants are required to improve survival at advanced stages. Lung cancer has shown the way forward with the use of Immunotherapeutic interventions as standard line of treatment in advanced stages...
January 6, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Rym Bouriga, Nihed Abdessaied, Makram Hochlef, Najoua Mallat, Mohamed Mahjoub, Badereddine Sriha, Slim Ben Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is an uncommon tumor that usually arises in lymph nodes, especially in the cervical, mediastinal, or axillary areas, but rarely in extranodal sites. Few cases have been reported in English literature so far. The scarcity may be partially due to under-recognition of this entity. Through this case report we analyzed the difficulties of clinical and pathological diagnosis of this rare tumor with its unusual location mistaken it with gynecological cancer's iliac lymph nodes metastases...
January 6, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Claudia Marchetti, Francesca De Felice, Giorgia Perniola, Francesca Lecce, Laura Vertechy, Marco Monti, Daniela Musio, Ludovico Muzii, Vincenzo Tombolini, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
OBJECTIVE: Treatment of ovarian cancer (OC) is a challenge and its poor prognosis still remains a problem of major importance. Due to the lack of early and specific symptoms, the vast majority of women are diagnosed with an advanced stage disease. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the impact of OC screening program in asymptomatic women on clinical outcomes. METHODS AND MATERIAL: A systematic literature electronic search was conducted in Pubmed, Medline, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials...
January 5, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Mairéad G McNamara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Kenneth Obi, Mitchell Ramsey, Alice Hinton, Peter Stanich, Darrell M Gray, Somashekar Krishna, Samer El-Dika, Hisham Hussan
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) increases the risk of index colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Limited data exist on IR values, lifestyle, and anthropometric alterations of patients after CRC diagnosis, a population at high risk for CRC recurrence. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2010. We identified patients with and without prior CRC above age 50. Our outcomes were lifestyle, anthropometric measures, and IR measured using the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein ratio and the homeostasis model assessment IR...
January 5, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Hussien Ahmed, Ali Mohamed Hammad, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Mohamed Zidan, Mohamed Salem, Ahmed Negida, Mohamed M Abdel-Daim
Although chemotherapeutic agents represent a cornerstone of cancer treatment, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) affect the patients' quality of life and basic daily activities. Rolapitant is a novel selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK-1 RA), which was clinically approved for prevention of CINV. The aim of the present study is to synthesize evidence about the safety and efficacy of rolapitant in combination with other antiemetic agents for prophylaxis against CINV. We performed a web-based literature search of six authentic databases to identify eligible studies...
December 6, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
Yi Tan, Hao Wu
BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cell (CTC) is a promising candidate biomarker for detection, monitoring, and survival prediction of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the prognostic significance of CTCs in CRC is currently under debate. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the prognostic value of CTC for patients diagnosed with CRC. METHODS: A comprehensive literature research had been performed in the Pubmed, Embase Databases, Cochrane Library, Elsevier Science Direct, and China National Knowledge Internet for studies reporting prognostic data of CTCs in CRC patients since December 2016...
November 29, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
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