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Current Problems in Cancer

Rajiv Kumar, Dearbhaile Collins, Saoirse Dolly, Fiona McDonald, Mary E R O'Brien, Timothy A Yap
The last decade has witnessed rapid advances in the discovery and development of immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer medicine, particularly drugs targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The proven antitumor efficacy coupled with low rates of drug-related toxicities observed, albeit idiosyncratic, with these novel immunotherapeutics have led to the registration of multiple PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors, such as nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab, in second-line advanced NSCLC, whereas durvalumab and avelumab are in late-phase clinical testing...
December 23, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Minsoo Jung
The purpose of this study was to examine overdiagnosis and overtreatment related to cancer screening and to review relevant reports and studies. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was conducted for relevant studies published between January 2000 and December 2015 reporting breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis. This study revealed no dichotomy on where screening would lower risk or cause overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Many screening tests did both, that is, at population level, there were both benefit (decreased disease-specific mortality) and harm (overdiagnosis and overtreatment)...
December 20, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Naoka Murakami, Shveta Motwani, Leonardo V Riella
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been approved for a variety of cancer species. Renal complications in use of these agents are not very common compared with other immune-related adverse events (irAE). However, it is crucial for physicians to recognize and manage renal manifestations of irAE. In this review, we will summarize the up-to-date knowledge of the clinical presentation, pathologic features, and management of renal irAE. In addition, we will discuss the safety of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with chronic kidney disease as well as in kidney transplant recipients...
December 19, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Lindsey K Collins, M Shane Chapman, Joi B Carter, Faramarz H Samie
The immune checkpoint targeted agents, anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and anti-programed cell death 1 (PD-1) or anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors are frequently associated with cutaneous side effects that are often dose limiting and can lead to discontinuation of therapy. Ipilimumab, a CTLA-4 inhibitor, is most commonly associated with a morbilliform eruption on the trunk and extremities and pruritus. More severe cutaneous toxicities reported include toxic epidermal necrolysis and severe drug rash with eosinophila and systemic symptoms...
December 14, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Wei Han, Cong Zhang, Fei-Yun Cao, Fang Cao, Lai Jiang, Hou-Zhong Ding
It is hypothesized that, NM23, as a metastasis suppressor gene, may be a good indicator of patients with breast cancer in most reports. The aim of our meta-analysis was to determine the prognostic value of NM23 in patients with breast cancer synthetically, by searching 3 databases, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science, for relevant articles. The inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria, and the standard-of-quality assessment were used according to a previous protocol. The pooled odd ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% CI were calculated to assess the primary end point, survival data, and the secondary end point, associations between NM23 expression and clinicopathological factors...
December 5, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Chrysavgi Lalayanni, Eirini Baldoumi, Sotiris Papayiannopoulos, Konstantia Tziola, Riad Saloum, Achilles Anagnostopoulos
Nelarabine is a purine analogue used for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma mainly as a bridge to stem cell transplantation. The water-soluble prodrug of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl guanine (Ara-G) is phosphorylated within leukemic cells to form ara-G triphosphate (ara-GTP), which terminates DNA chain elongation, resulting in cell death. The drug received accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on October 2005 based on the induction of complete remissions in 2 phase II trials...
November 17, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Anit K Mankad, Isata Sesay, Keyur B Shah
Cardiac amyloidosis is an underrecognized condition, in which delays to diagnosis have great implications on management options, prognosis, and morbidity. Once cardiac tissue is infiltrated by amyloid fibrils, there is a cascade of pathologic changes that can display an array of clinical manifestations, from impaired relaxation of the ventricular myocardium to severe restrictive disease or even progressive systolic heart failure. Management is guided not only by recognizing the subtype of amyloidosis (primary, hereditary, and wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis), but also the clinical stage of the disease...
November 17, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Venkatesh Krishnan, Jonathan S Berek, Oliver Dorigo
Immunotherapy aims to develop combination approaches that simultaneously augment immunity while preventing local immune suppression. Despite advances in combinatorial chemotherapy regimens and the advent of intraperitoneal chemotherapy administration, current therapeutic options for patients with ovarian cancer are inadequate. Advances in immunotherapy offer a promising frontier for treating ovarian tumors. Multiple immunotherapeutic modalities are currently developed and tested in clinical trials. Antibody-based therapies, immune checkpoint blockade, cancer vaccines, and chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells have demonstrated preclinical success and entered clinical testing...
November 15, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Erika Roddy, Jocelyn Chapman
Recent technological advances in DNA sequencing have enabled a remarkably detailed understanding of the molecular changes that define gynecologic and other cancers. Several groups have carried out large-scale genomic analyses of ovarian, uterine, and most recently, cervical cancer. These analyses have led to new insights into the molecular changes characterizing these cancers, which provide insight into clinical outcomes. These molecular characterizations have similarly led to new genomic-based classification schemas, which may better stratify clinical outcomes, help prognosticate and guide treatments...
November 11, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Boris Winterhoff, Gottfried E Konecny
Novel treatments that improve outcomes for patients with recurrent or metastatic endometrial cancer (EC) remain an unmet need. Aberrant signaling by fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and FGF receptors (FGFRs) has been implicated in several human cancers. Activating mutations in FGFR2 have been found in up to 16% of ECs, suggesting an opportunity for targeted therapy. This review summarizes the role of the FGF pathway in angiogenesis and EC, and provides an overview of FGFR-targeted therapies under clinical development for the treatment of EC...
November 11, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Gabriela Chojnacka-Szawłowska, Mikołaj Majkowicz, Krzysztof Basiński, Agata Zdun-Ryżewska, Iwona Wasilewko, Piotr Pankiewicz
PURPOSE: This research was aimed at identifying factors that predict patient delay in treatment initiation in patients with suspected cancer disease. We sought to determine the differences between delaying and nondelaying patients with reference to their knowledge of cancer symptoms, sociodemographic variables, and the levels of state anxiety and trait anxiety. METHODS: The study involved 301 randomly selected patients with suspected cancer disease before their first oncology appointment at a regional oncology center in Poland...
October 31, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Beata Holkova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Kathleen Thornton Pearson, Scott Vota
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Mirosława Püsküllüoğlu, Aneta L Zygulska, Iwona M Tomaszewska, Sebastian Ochenduszko, Kamil Konopka, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
PURPOSE: Regardless of cancer type, the skeleton is one of the most common sites for cancer spread. Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) can be considered a primary endpoint in clinical trials concerning cancer patients with palliative disease. The proper measurement of this endpoint requires valid and reliable instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate HRQoL and its main influencing factors using validated EORTC tools - the QLQ-C30 and the QLQ-BM22 in Polish population of patients with skeletal metastases...
September 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Jessica Tsukanov, Egidio Del Fabbro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Jason Kidd, Daniel E Carl
September 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Alessandro Villa, Stephen Sonis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
İlhan Elmaci, Meric A Altinoz, Aydin Sav, Zeliha Yazici, Aysel Ozpinar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Katherine Sanchez, David Page, Heather L McArthur
Immune therapy has recently emerged as a standard-of-care strategy for the treatment of melanoma, lung cancer, bladder cancer, among other malignancies. However, the role of immune therapy in the treatment of breast cancer is still being determined. Two current strategies for harnessing the immune system to treat cancer include drugs that modulate key T cell inhibitory checkpoints and vaccines. Specifically, modern immune therapy strategies can facilitate T-cell mediated tumor regression by priming the immune system against specific tumor associated antigens, by modulating immunoregulatory signals, or both...
March 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
Michael Robert Mancuso, Suleiman Alfred Massarweh
Despite the remarkable success of endocrine therapy in the treatment of patients with estrogen receptor (ER)- positive breast cancer, not all patients derive benefit from such therapy, or may benefit only temporarily before disease progression or relapse occurs. The value of endocrine therapy, which blocks ER signaling by a variety of strategies, lies in its simplicity, lower toxicity, and better alignment with preserved quality of life, particularly when compared to chemotherapy, which is more toxic and has only modest benefits for many patients with ER-positive breast cancer...
March 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
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