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Current Problems in Cancer

Stephanie Wills, Lana K Hochmuth, Kenneth S Bauer, Rahul Deshmukh
Until a recent introduction to checkpoint inhibitors, there were limited second-line chemotherapy options for urothelial carcinoma (UC) patients with disease progression after first-line, platinum-based treatment. Outcomes for patients with advanced disease over the past 30 years have highlighted a need for new and better therapy. In response to evolving interest, durvalumab (MEDI4736) was introduced as a potential treatment for advanced stages of UC. Durvalumab is a selective, high-affinity, human IgG1 kappa monoclonal antibody engineered with a triple mutation to reduce toxicity...
September 18, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Yuyang Zhang, Dan Zhang, Lin Zhao, Lili Sun, Qiguan Dong, Li Cheng, Rixia Cheng
Although several published studies have investigated the association between p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), their results have been ambiguous. To examine the overall relationship between published case-control studies of Asian subjects, we conducted a meta-analysis based on 13 studies. Databases PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure were screened for studies carried out up to November 1, 2017. To evaluating the association, crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated...
September 8, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Na Wang, Kai Wang, Ya-Ting Liu, Fei-Xue Song
The purpose of this review was to compare the efficacy and safety of everolimus plus endocrine therapy with endocrine therapy for hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor 2 negative advanced breast cancer patients. We comprehensively searched the PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, Chinese biomedicine literature database, WanFang Data, CNKI, and VIP database for relevant articles. The retrieval time limit is from building the database to July 2018. The computer search was supplemented with a manual search of reference lists for all available review articles...
September 7, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Yu-Sheng Li, Qing Liu, Hong-Bo He, Wei Luo
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a common malignant tumor of bone, of which clear understanding of molecular pathologic process is not yet possible. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a hormone that plays vital role in development and function of many tissues. Unfortunately, IGF-1 and its receptor (IGF-1R)'s over-expression have been implicated in carcinogenesis, and indicated to constitute a risk factor for the development of multiple human cancers, including OS. Increased levels of IGF-1 and IGF-1R have been reported in OS, leading to cancer progression through transformation, proliferation, pro-metastasis, and decreased susceptibility to apoptosis...
September 7, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Minako Saito, Hidenori Kage, Takahiro Ando, Ryoko Sawada, Yosuke Amano, Yasushi Goto, Yusuke Shinoda, Takahide Nagase
According to lung cancer guidelines, positron emission tomography scan is recommended for initial evaluation of bone metastasis. However, guidelines differ in their recommendations for when it should be used. We investigated the appropriate use of bone imaging in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. One hundred seventy-seven consecutive NSCLC patients who had distant metastases at presentation and were admitted between January 2012 and April 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Among patients with bone metastases, we explored bone pain, number of bone metastases, location of bone metastases, and clinical tumor (T) and lymph node (N) classification...
September 4, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Muneer J Al-Husseini, Hadeer H Mohamed, Anas M Saad, Mohamed M Gad, Mona Atia, Umniyah Qaddoora, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Mohamed E Elshinawi
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the risk and survival of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) after breast cancer (BC) diagnosis. METHODS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 'SEER' database. Females, diagnosed with BC between 1992 and 2014, were selected and followed for the development of CML after a 6-month latency period from BC diagnosis. We used the Multiple Primary Standardized Incidence Ratios session of the SEER*Stat software (version 8...
September 3, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Beatriz Wills, Egal Gorse, Valerie Lee
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide, with a global incidence of over 1 million cases. In the era of personalized medicine, tumor sampling is essential for characterizing the molecular profile of individual tumors. This provides pivotal information regarding optimal sequencing of therapy and emergence of drug resistance, allowing for timely therapy adjustment. However, tumor tissue sampling offers static information in a single time point and area of disease at the time of biopsy, which may not entirely represent the heterogeneity of molecular alterations...
August 29, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Muhammad Abbas, Abrar Ahmed, Ghulam Jilany Khan, Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf Baig, Muhammad Naveed, Reyaj Mikrani, Tengli Cao, Shagufta Naeem, Meiqi Shi, Chen Dingding
BACKGROUND: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen (CA)-125, CA19-9, and CA72-4 are often found modulated parameters in gastric cancer. OBJECTIVE: Our present study is focused to evaluate the synchronization of these biomarkers in response to palliative chemotherapy. METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted on 216 gastric cancer patients undergoing first-line cisplatin chemotherapy along with antiangiogenic regimen. Blood samples were taken and analyzed biochemically and statistically...
August 25, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Ozlem Ercelep, Melike Ozcelik, Mahmut Gumus
PURPOSE: Lymph node metastasis has a significant contribution to the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer but the role of lymph node dissection in treatment is not clear. In this study, we aimed to retrospectively determine the effect of the number and localization of lymph nodes removed and the number of metastatic lymph nodes on survival. METHODS: In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the data of 378 patients (210 patients with lymph node dissection and 168 patients with no dissection) who underwent primary surgery between 2004 and 2014 in various centers with epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosis and followed up in our medical oncology clinic...
August 17, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Saima Shakil Malik, Nosheen Masood, Muhammad Asif, Parvez Ahmed, Zafar Ullah Shah, Jahangir Sarwar Khan
BACKGROUND: Mismatch repair proteins are ubiquitous keys in diverse cellular functions and protects the genome by correcting mismatch as post replication error correction machinery. Mismatch repair deficiency was associated with tumor development and progression therefore, current study was aimed to investigate MLH1 and MSH2 expression in breast cancer and correlate patients' clinicopathological factors with status of mismatch repair genes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Breast cancer tissues with adjacent normal tissue along with clinical details were collected during surgery from 80 cases...
August 17, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Anthony E Rizzo, Sarah Feldman
In the coming decade, primary testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) will likely become the standard of care for cervical cancer screening in both low- and high-resource settings. This change comes as evidence has accumulated to support HPV testing as more sensitive to detect high-grade precancerous disease. Furthermore, negative HPV testing has demonstrated a lower cumulative incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or worse pathology (CIN3+) when compared to negative "Pap smears" over several rounds of screening...
August 14, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Elena Guadalupe Corella Aznar, Ariadna Ayerza Casas, Maria Ángeles Carlota Calvo Escribano, Lorenzo Jiménez Montañés, José Ignacio Labarta Aizpún, Pilar Samper Villagrasa
BACKGROUND: Cardiac events are the most common nonmalignant cause of death in childhood cancer survivors. This population has an increased risk of morbimortality, probably secondary to the treatment side effects. The objective was to determine the prevalence and determinants of left ventricular dysfunction in a cohort of long term childhood acute leukemia survivors treated with potentially cardiotoxic therapies. METHODS: Retrospective study with at least 10 years of follow-up, diagnosed between 1999 and 2003...
August 7, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Jian Hong, Budong Chen, Xin Yao, Yushan Yang
PURPOSE: To compare surgical outcomes and adverse events between patients received microsurgical resection of high-grade gliomas with or without fluorescein sodium-guidance. PATIENTS: A retrospective study was conducted in our hospital between June 2016 and January 2017. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Fluorescein Group (42 patients) and Nonfluorescein Group (40 patients). MEASUREMENTS: Intraoperative (hemorrhage value and operation time) and postoperative (consistency between fluorescence-stained tissue and histopathological results, rate of resection) measurements were documented...
August 7, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Ritesh Kumar, Sumit Kumar, Ajay Gogia, Aanchal Kakkar, Sandeep R Mathur
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in females. The common site for metastases is bone, lungs, liver, and regional lymph nodes. Larynx as a metastatic site from breast cancer is extremely rare. The authors report a 63-year-old female treated for carcinoma of right breast 5 years back who presented with hoarseness of voice. Clinicoradiological examination revealed a soft tissue lesion in larynx. Pathological evaluation of the laryngeal lesion revealed metastases secondary to breast cancer. The patient received systemic chemotherapy and local radiotherapy...
August 4, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Hongwei Li, Wei Chen, Jinbo Ma, Rukun Zang, Dong You, Sujing Liu, Cunqi Li, Yipeng Song
OBJECTIVES: Considering that adjuvant radiation therapy is one of the most common treatment methods and the influence of the clinical target volume to treatment-related toxicity, this study aimed to observe the differences in treatment failures about involved-field irradiation (IFI) without lymph node areas versus elective nodal irradiation (ENI) with lymph node areas in elderly patients with bladder cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-two elderly bladder cancer patients were analyzed from January 2010 to December 2014 in one institution...
August 4, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Bulent Cetin, İrem Bilgetekin, Ahmet Ozet
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Treatment for lung cancer has become increasingly more complex over the last several years. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have dramatically changed the treatment landscape of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There are currently 3 approved checkpoint inhibitors for patients with NSCLC who progressed after platinum-doublet chemotherapy (Pembrolizumab and /or Nivolumab and /or Atezolizumab). Avelumab and durvalumab are currently under investigation in phase 3 trials...
August 4, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Murat Araz, Ismail Beypinar, Sinan Kazan, Fatih Inci, Mesut Celiker, Mukremin Uysal
PURPOSE: Breast cancer classifies to 4 major subgroups according to immunohistochemistry staining features as Luminal A, Luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression, and Triple Negative. Cancer Antigen15-3 (CA15-3) is used as a tumor marker in breast cancer while its value in early stage and in breast cancer subgroups is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate that whether it is or not differences of the serum preoperative CA15-3 levels in early breast cancer subgroups...
August 4, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Simona Picchia, Angela Riddell, Monica Terlizzo, Maria A Bali
Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare tumour. The reported incidence of isolated metastases to the liver is rare but possible and it seems to be more likely in case of perineural invasion.
July 22, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Wei Feng, Xianling Guo, Haidong Huang, Chang Xu, Yutao Li, Shicheng Guo, Zhenghong Zhao, Qiang Li, Daru Lu, Li Jin, Jiucun Wang, Gengxi Jiang, Junjie Wu
PURPOSE: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and the predominant risk factor for its development is smoking. Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is a key enzyme in DNA synthesis that catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate to dTMP. Rs931794, a single nucleotide polymorphism located in the TYMS gene, was suggested to be associated with cancer risk. METHODS: To analyze the interaction between rs3819102 and environmental factors on the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population, single nucleotide polymorphismscan was used to genotype this polymorphism in 974 lung cancer cases and 1005 control subjects...
July 21, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Ozlem Ercelep, Mahmut Gumus
PURPOSE: Approximately a quarter of endometrial cancers are of high grade. We aimed to perform clinicopathologic and survival evaluation of high grade endometrial cancer in our study. METHOD: We evaluated the data of 78 high grade patients; 30 G3EC (Grade 3 Endometrioid Carcinoma), 48 nonendometrioid carcinomas; 32 USC (uterine serous carcinoma), 16 CCC (clear cell carcinoma), from 312 patients who were followed with endometrial cancer between years 2006 and 2016...
July 21, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
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