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Current Problems in Cancer

Merna A Armanious, Homan Mohammadi, Sara Khodor, Daniel E Oliver, Peter A Johnstone, Michael G Fradley
Radiation therapy (RT) plays a prominent role in the treatment of many cancers. With increasing use of RT and high overall survival rates, the risks associated with RT must be carefully considered. Of these risks, the cardiovascular and autonomic toxicities have been of significant concern. In fact, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of nonmalignancy-related death in cancer survivors. The manifestations of radiation induced cardiac injury include the acute toxicities of myopericarditis and late toxicities including constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, heart failure, and conduction abnormalities...
June 12, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Bernardo Cacho-Díaz, Nydia A Lorenzana-Mendoza, J Danaé Chávez-Hernandez, Alberto González-Aguilar, Gervith Reyes-Soto, Ángel Herrera-Gómez
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases (BM) are a frequent complication of cancer and are regularly seen in clinical practice. New treatment modalities are improving survival after diagnosis of BM. However, symptoms are rarely reported and their significance is not well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate neurologic indicators as prognostic markers in patients with brain metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospectively acquired database from 2 referral centers was analyzed...
June 12, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
John Tyler Rathbun, Gregg E Franklin
PURPOSE: Radium-223 (Xofigo) is the first therapy with bone tropism for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) that has been shown to improve overall survival (OS). Although radium-223 has a positive effect on OS in men with mCRPC, there has been a paucity of reports from community practitioners, especially with regard to concurrent abiraterone and enzalutamide therapy. Significant differences in patient characteristics encountered may exist. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of men with mCRPC who received at least 1 cycle of radium-223 (n = 35)...
May 31, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Luca Miceli, Rym Bednarova, Tiziana Bove
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Leila Hamzehzadeh, Fatemeh Khadangi, Ehsan Ghayoor Karimiani, Alireza Pasdar, Mohammad Amin Kerachian
OBJECTIVES: Mutation analysis of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor downstream has been a main part of colorectal carcinoma evaluation. Large prospective clinical trials have shown only colorectal cancer (CRC) with wild-type KRAS and NRAS responds to anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor treatment. Hence, mutation analysis is necessary prior to treatment. It is essential to conduct studies to learn about the mutation signature of such tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of hotspot mutations in KRAS and NRAS genes in Iranian CRC patients and to explore their correlations with clinicopathologic parameters...
May 25, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Raman Preet Kaur, Rubal, Raja Paramjeet Singh Banipal, Rajesh Vashistha, Monisha Dhiman, Anjana Munshi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inflammation and caner are linked in a bidirectional manner. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important inflammatory marker. The aim of the study was to test whether the inflammatory marker, CRP at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer is associated with metastasis, recurrence, and death in breast cancer patients from Malwa region of Punjab where breast cancer is widely feared. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred and forty-two breast cancer patients and 242 age and sex matched controls were included in the study...
May 25, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Nanya Wang, Yabing Dong, Lingling Zhao, Hengjun Zhao, Wei Li, Jiuwei Cui
PURPOSE: To analyze clinical factors that were associated with inadequate pain control in cancer patients with metastatic malignancy and moderate to severe baseline pain. PATIENTS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 260 advanced cancer patients who admitted to the First Hospital of Jilin University (Jilin, China) from January 2012-May 2013. MEASUREMENTS: Statistical analysis was performed to assess the correlation between pain control and baseline characteristics including, gender, patient age, type of malignancy, presence of bone metastases, pain intensity, pain location, etiology of pain, type of pain, and presence of breakthrough pain...
May 24, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Bharti Devnani, Ritesh Kumar, Sushmita Pathy, Ravi Hari Phulware, Sandeep Mathur, Lalit Kumar
Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) is an uncommon and aggressive type of small cell cervical cancer. NECs mostly arise from gastro-entero-pancreatic tract and the lung, but rarely from other organs like cervix. NEC of the cervix is a rare malignancy and constitutes 0.9%-1.5% of cervical tumors. NECs of cervix are common in perimenopausal females and present with abnormal vaginal bleeding and mimic squamous cell cancers, usually with no distinguishing features. On Immunohistochemistry, presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin, and CD-56 is necessary to make a diagnosis of small cell carcinoma...
May 23, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Ozkan Alan, Tugba Akin Telli, Ozlem Ercelep, Rahib Hasanov, Eda Tanrikulu Simsek, Aydan Mutis, Tunc Ones, Handan Kaya, Perran Fulden Yumuk
BACKGROUND: Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast is a metaplastic carcinoma subtype which includes fibromatosis-like and sarcomatoid features. This is a very aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. Other sites of primary SCC should be ruled out first to classify these tumors as primary SCC of the breast. Here we present a case of locally advanced primary SCC of the breast. CASE REPORT: A 72 years old woman presented with a right axillary lump. Trucut biopsy was performed, it showed squamous cell carcinoma...
May 9, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Christos Demosthenous, Chrysavgi Lalayanni, Michalis Iskas, Vassiliki Douka, Nikoleta Pastelli, Achilles Anagnostopoulos
Blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager antibody construct targeting CD19, has been shown to improve the outcome in patients with relapsed and/or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Treatment with blinatumomab demonstrated significant survival benefit over chemotherapy, supporting its use as a bridge therapy to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Unfortunately, following initial response, approximately 50% of responding patients eventually relapse. At the time of failure, the majority of patients have CD19-positive blasts, yet a concerning number of CD19-negative relapses has been reported...
May 7, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Ufuk Yılmaz, Özer Özdemir, Ülkü Yılmaz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Xiaojie Wu, Leyan Zhang, Jiadi Zhou, Luying Liu, Qiang Fu, Aili Fu, Xiaoying Feng, Rui Xin, Hongrui Liu, Yong Gao, Jiangnan Xue
AIM: Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is an immune inhibitory receptor which is expressed within most types of hematopoietic cells and negatively regulates immune responses. Recently, we found LAIR-1 expression to be present within tumors of nonhematopoietic lineages. However, the roles of LAIR-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of LAIR-1 in HCC tissue and assess its clinical significance at this site...
April 30, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Li Yanwei, Fang Minghui, Quan Manman, Yan Zhuchun, Liu Dongying, Pan Zhanyu
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the effects of wellness education (WE) intervention on the behavioral change, psychological status, performance status on patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing icotinib hydrochloride treatment and their relationships with family caregivers. METHODS: We conducted an intervention study involving 126 individuals with confirmed activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive stage IV NSCLC who received icotinib hydrochloride as first-line therapy between January 2014 and January 2016; their caregivers were also included in the study...
April 11, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Sufang Wang, Shan Li, Liangfang Shen
The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of adding chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of stage-II nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We searched Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase, China National Knowledge Internet, China Biology Medicine, VIP, and Wanfang database for studies of the RT with or without chemotherapy in patients with stage-II NPC that were published in any language. Analyses were carried out using RevMan 5.3 software. The relative risk was used to evaluate the data, the I2 test was used to compare heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the stability and reliability of the results...
April 3, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Xiaomei Li, Yanmei Xu, Hong Ye, Shuming Qin, Feng Hou, Wenlou Liu
BACKGROUND: Encapsulated papillary carcinoma (EPC) has been considered as a variant of ductal carcinoma in situ. Recent studies suggest that EPC could be invasive, as it often lacks myoepithelial cells (MECs) at their periphery. The current study was performed to investigate the biological features of EPC. METHODS: Forty-nine EPC patients admitted to the Tai׳an Central Hospital and Qilu Hospital of Shandong University from January 2004-December 2014 were included in this study...
March 30, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Picchia Simona, Bali Maria Antonietta
The aim of this article is to show the typical appearance of a bifocal hepatocellular carcinoma on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging before and after locoregional treatment consisting of transarterial embolization (TAE).
March 28, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Marina Baretti, Nilofer Saba Azad
Although developments in the diagnosis and therapy of colorectal cancer (CRC) have been made in the last decade, much work remains to be done as it remains the second leading cause of cancer death. It is now well established that epigenetic events, together with genetic alterations, are key events in initiation and progression of CRC. Epigenetics refers to heritable alterations in gene expression that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence. These alterations include DNA methylation, histone alterations, chromatin remodelers, and noncoding RNAs...
March 12, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Shilpa Raghuvanshi Chauhan, Mausumi Bharadwaj
The World Health Organization estimates more than 270,000 deaths annually by cervical cancer. Present vaccines are prophylactic in nature which cannot treat huge bulk of cervical cancer patients worldwide. Available therapies like radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery are not effective in high-grade lesion, and hence, there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy. T cells play a significant role in cervical cancer pathogenesis as human papilloma virus uses multiple mechanisms that dodge host T-cell immune-surveillance aiding in persistence of infection and establishment of cancer...
March 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Shilpi Gupta, Prabhat Kumar, Bhudev C Das
Infection of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is a prerequisite for the development of cervical carcinoma. HPV infections are also implicated in the development of other types of carcinomas. Chronic or persistent infection of HPV is essential but HPV alone is inadequate, additional endogenous or exogenous cues are needed along with HPV to induce cervical carcinogenesis. The strategies that high-risk HPVs have developed in differentiating epithelial cells to reach a DNA-synthesis competent state leading to tumorigenic transformation are basically due to overexpression of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins and the activation of diverse cellular regulatory or signaling pathways that are targeted by them...
March 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Yadi Li, Qing Zhang, Xuhong Yang, Lijun Zheng, Jun Yang, Huan Zhao, Dongdong Yang
This study aimed to analyze the medication use and related falls risk of central nervous system(CNS) drugs in oncology inpatients, explore the association between CNS drugs and falls. In this study, we enrolled inpatients, hospitalized in the oncology department of the Teaching Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, from March 2013 to October 2015. All inpatients were divided into two groups: taking-CNS drugs group (treatment group) and non CNS drugs group (control group). The falls risk between two groups were being compared and analyzed...
March 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
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