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Motivation and Emotion

Amy Canevello, Jennifer Crocker
Optimal social interactions can leave people feeling socially connected and at ease, which has clear implications for health and psychological well-being. Yet, not all social interactions leave people feelings at ease and connected. What explains this variability? We draw from the egosystem-ecosystem theory of social motivation (Crocker & Canevello, 2008) to suggest that compassionate goals to support others explain some of this variability. We explored the nature of this association across 4 studies and varying social contexts...
April 2017: Motivation and Emotion
Tammy English, Ihno A Lee, Oliver P John, James J Gross
Recent studies have begun to document the diversity of ways people regulate their emotions. However, one unanswered question is why people regulate their emotions as they do in everyday life. In the present research, we examined how social context and goals influence strategy selection in daily high points and low points. As expected, suppression was particularly tied to social features of context: it was used more when others were present, especially non-close partners, and when people had instrumental goals, especially more interpersonal ones (e...
April 2017: Motivation and Emotion
Olga Stavrova, Andrea Meckel
This research examines the role of trait empathy in emotional contagion through non-social targets-art objects. Studies 1a and 1b showed that high- (compared to low-) empathy individuals are more likely to infer an artist's emotions based on the emotional valence of the artwork and, as a result, are more likely to experience the respective emotions themselves. Studies 2a and 2b experimentally manipulated artists' emotions via revealing details about their personal life. Study 3 experimentally induced positive vs...
2017: Motivation and Emotion
Seon Min Lee, Nathan A Heflick, Joon Woo Park, Heeyoung Kim, Jieun Koo, Seungwoo Chun
Although men typically hold favorable views of advertisements featuring female sexuality, from a Terror Management Theory perspective, this should be less the case when thoughts of human mortality are salient. Two experiments conducted in South Korea supported this hypothesis across a variety of products (e.g., perfume and vodka). Men became more negative towards advertisements featuring female sexuality, and had reduced purchase intentions for those products, after thinking about their own mortality. Study 2 found that these effects were mediated by heightened disgust...
2017: Motivation and Emotion
Sindhuja Sankaran, Ewa Szumowska, Małgorzata Kossowska
Previous studies have demonstrated that the need for closure (NFC), which refers to an individual's aversion toward uncertainty and the desire to quickly reduce it, leads to reluctance to invest effort in judgments and decision making. However, we argue that NFC may lead to either an increase or a decrease in effort depending on the availability of easy vs. difficult means to achieve closure and perceived importance of the task goal. We found that when closure could be achieved via both less and more demanding means, NFC was associated with decreased effort unless the task was perceived as important (Study 1)...
2017: Motivation and Emotion
S B Renard, P J de Jong, G H M Pijnenborg
This study examined whether approach-avoidance related behaviour elicited by facial affect is moderated by the presence of an observer-irrelevant trigger that may influence the observer's attributions of the actor's emotion. Participants were shown happy, disgusted, and neutral facial expressions. Half of these were presented with a plausible trigger of the expression (a drink). Approach-avoidance related behaviour was indexed explicitly through a questionnaire (measuring intentions) and implicitly through a manikin version of the affective Simon task (measuring automatic behavioural tendencies)...
2017: Motivation and Emotion
Małgorzata Kossowska, Marcin Bukowski, Ana Guinote, Piotr Dragon, Arie W Kruglanski
Some prior research indicated that self-image threat may lead people to stereotyping and prejudiced evaluations of others. Other studies found that self-image threat may promote less stereotypical thinking and unprejudiced behavior. In a series of three studies, we demonstrate that self-image threat may lead to either more or less stereotypical perception of the outgroup depending on the level of the individuals` motivation toward closure (NFC). The results reveal that when individuals high (vs. low) in NFC perceived a member of an outgroup, they are less likely to use stereotypical traits if their self-image had been threatened by negative feedback (Study 1) or if they had imagined an example of their own immoral activity (Studies 2 and 3)...
2016: Motivation and Emotion
Małgorzata Kossowska, Ana Guinote, Paweł Strojny
A significant amount of research has proposed that power leads to heuristic and category based information processing, however, the evidence is often contradictory. We propose the novel idea that power magnifies chronically accessible information processing styles which can contribute to either systematic or heuristic processing. We examine heuristic (vs. systematic) processing in association with the need for closure. The results of three studies and a meta-analysis supported these claims. Power increased heuristic information processing, manifested in the recognition of schema consistent information, in the use of stereotypical information to form impressions and decreased the complexity of categorical representations, but only for those participants who, by default, processed information according to simplified heuristics, i...
2016: Motivation and Emotion
Ad J J M Vingerhoets, Niels van de Ven, Yvonne van der Velden
The question what specific functions the production of emotional tears fulfills has received only limited attention of behavioral scientists. We report the results of two studies on the social impact of emotional tears. In Study 1 (96 Dutch females), perceived helplessness and felt connectedness predicted the willingness to help a person depicted as crying tearfully, while perceived friendliness did not. In Study 2 (US sample, 128 males, 68 females) all three of these variables mediated the effect the display of tears had on the willingness to help...
2016: Motivation and Emotion
Netta Weinstein, Nicole Legate, Madoka Kumashiro, Richard M Ryan
Perceiving autonomy support-or encouragement to be oneself-from a romantic partner or other close relationship partners has been shown to yield a variety of psychological health benefits, but it is less clear how perceiving autonomy support from partners is linked to physical health. In two studies we examine the associations between receiving autonomy support in romantic relationships and diastolic blood pressure, an important indicator of cardiovascular health. Results of a longitudinal study found support for a model in which autonomy supportive romantic relationships are linked with lower diastolic blood pressure...
2016: Motivation and Emotion
Daniela Becker, Joop van der Pligt
Previous research suggests that desired end-states (i.e., goals) initiate a set of motivational processes supporting goal-attainment. For example, motivational intensity (e.g., effort investment) increases as distance to the goal decreases. The present studies investigate whether this goal-gradient can also be observed in chance determined situations, situations in which there is a desired end-state (i.e., winning) but in which increased effort investment does not support goal-attainment. Three studies provide consistent evidence for the goal-gradient in chance determined situations...
2016: Motivation and Emotion
Arthur R Andrews, Travis Crone, Cecilia B Cholka, Theodore V Cooper, Ana J Bridges
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Motivation and Emotion
Adam K Fetterman, Nicole N Kruger, Michael D Robinson
Trivers (1972) proposed that evolutionary factors should favor divergent mating strategies for males versus females. Such differences may be less pronounced among human beings than other animals and social norms and sex roles are also pertinent influences. The present experiment (N = 133 college undergraduates, 74 female) sought to bypass some of these other influences. Participants were randomly assigned to a condition designed to increase attention to the genital region (a downward pointing arrow) or not (an upward pointing arrow)...
February 2015: Motivation and Emotion
Asmir Gračanin, Ad J J M Vingerhoets, Igor Kardum, Marina Zupčić, Maja Šantek, Mia Šimić
Whereas retrospective studies suggest that crying can be beneficial in terms of mood enhancement, results of quasi-experimental laboratory studies consistently demonstrate its negative effects on mood. The present study was specifically designed to evaluate a parsimonious explanation for this paradox by assessing mood after crying in a laboratory, both immediately and at follow up. Mood ratings of 28 objectively established criers and 32 non-criers were compared before and immediately after the exposure to an emotional movie, as well as 20 and 90 min later...
2015: Motivation and Emotion
Xi Zou, Paul Ingram, E Tory Higgins
We propose that an individual's regulatory focus moderates the significant role social network density-the degree of interconnectedness among a person's social contacts-plays in shaping life satisfaction. Evidence from Study 1 indicates that participants with high prevention effectiveness reported higher life satisfaction when they were embedded in a high-density network, whereas participants with low promotion effectiveness reported lower life satisfaction when they were embedded in a low-density network. Study 2 further specifies the underlying mechanism, namely that participants with high prevention effectiveness are more likely to obtain support for meeting obligations and responsibilities when they are embedded in a high-density network, whereas participants with low promotion effectiveness suffer from the support for creative inspiration and personal development in a low-density network (by highlighting their promotion failure)...
2015: Motivation and Emotion
Jacek Buczny, Rebekah L Layton, Mark Muraven
Exertion of self-control requires reliance on ego resources. Impaired performance typically results once those resources have been depleted by previous use. Yet the mechanism behind the depletion processes is little understood. Beliefs, motivation, and physiological changes have been implicated, yet the source behind these remains unknown. We propose that implicit may form the fundamental building blocks that these processes rely upon to operate. Implicit affective responses to energy may trigger management of ego resources after depletion...
2015: Motivation and Emotion
Djoerd Hiemstra, Nico W Van Yperen
In two randomized experiments, one conducted online (n = 174) and one in the classroom (n = 267), we tested the effects of two types of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies on students' intentions to put effort into professional development activities: strength-based SRL strategies (i.e., identifying perceived relative strengths and, subsequently, selecting professional development activities to further improve those strengths) versus deficit-based SRL strategies (i.e., identifying perceived relative shortcomings and, subsequently, selecting professional development activities to improve those shortcomings)...
2015: Motivation and Emotion
Katarzyna Jaśko, Aneta Czernatowicz-Kukuczka, Małgorzata Kossowska, Anna Z Czarna
In two studies, we examined the influence of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and need for closure (NFC) on information processing in decision making. We expected that BIS would regulate behavior in a decisional context and that this relationship would be mediated by epistemic motivation expressed by NFC. In addition, drawing on contradictory findings in the literature on anxiety, NFC, and information processing, we investigated the moderating role of decision rules. The results supported our predictions...
2015: Motivation and Emotion
Tomasz Niemiec, Kinga Lachowicz-Tabaczek
Research concerning the impact of positive mood on cognitive performance is inconsistent. We suggest that specific self-efficacy moderates this relationship. The current study proposed that participants in a positive mood with a high level of specific self-efficacy would anticipate mood-maintaining success on a task. Hence, they would be more strongly motivated, and perform better on the task, than individuals in other moods. Conversely, participants in a positive mood with low specific self-efficacy should expect mood-threatening failure...
2015: Motivation and Emotion
Fang Yang, Jonathan E Ramsay, Oliver C Schultheiss, Joyce S Pang
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a key role in the physiological response to stress, preparing the organism for appropriate action. While some research has examined universally relevant threats, other research has suggested that individual differences may moderate the relationship between stress and cortisol release, such that some individuals exhibit modified reactivity to personally relevant stressors or challenges. In the present study we investigated whether one individual difference-the implicit need for achievement-moderates the effect of motive-relevant challenge on salivary cortisol...
2015: Motivation and Emotion
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