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Motivation and Emotion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983474/empathic-understanding-benefits-of-perspective-taking-and-facial-mimicry-instructions-are-mediated-by-self-other-overlap
#1
Alison N Cooke, Doris G Bazzini, Lisa A Curtin, Lisa J Emery
The current study sought to better understand the utility of two strategies - perspective-taking and facial mimicry - proposed to increase empathic responding. Thirty-seven female participants were presented an interpersonal situation (a betrayal) that would elicit the use of empathic responding to achieve conflict resolution between friends. Each participant was given instructions to partake in either perspective-taking, facial mimicry, or to remain neutral (control condition). The results demonstrated that individuals who engaged in perspective-taking reported significantly higher state empathy than the control condition, but there was no significant difference in state empathy between the mimicry and control condition...
June 2018: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899583/individual-differences-in-emotion-regulation-moderate-the-associations-between-empathy-and-affective-distress
#2
Philip A Powell
Individual differences in empathy can have positive and negative psychological outcomes. Yet, individual differences in the processing and regulation of empathy-induced emotion have not been fully explored within this dynamic. This study was designed to explore whether individual differences in emotion regulation strategies moderated the effects of empathy on common forms of affective distress. Eight hundred and forty four participants completed survey measures of trait empathy, emotion regulation strategies, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress...
2018: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720776/motivation-to-comply-with-task-rules-and-multitasking-performance-the-role-of-need-for-cognitive-closure-and-goal-importance
#3
Ewa Szumowska, Małgorzata Kossowska, Arne Roets
In three studies, we examined the role task rules play in multitasking performance. We postulated that rules should be especially important for individuals highly motivated to have structure and clear answers, i.e., those high on need for cognitive closure (NFC). High NFC should thus be related to greater compliance with task rules. Specifically, given high goal importance, NFC should be more strongly related to a multitasking strategy when multitasking is imposed by the rules, and to a mono-tasking strategy when monotasking is imposed by the rules...
2018: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720775/the-implicit-power-motive-predicts-decisions-in-line-with-perceived-instrumentality
#4
Peter Frank Stoeckart, Madelijn Strick, Erik Bijleveld, Henk Aarts
Past research suggests that the implicit power motive (i.e., an unconsciously held motivational disposition to derive pleasure from having impact on others) predicts a preference to interact with individuals having submissive-looking faces. The present research extends this finding by testing whether the relation between the implicit power motive and approaching submissiveness depends on instrumentality. In two experiments, participants were assigned to a group that would ostensibly compete with another group...
2018: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563653/comparison-of-choose-a-movie-and-approach-avoidance-paradigms-to-measure-social-motivation
#5
Indu Dubey, Danielle Ropar, Antonia Hamilton
Social motivation is a subjective state which is rather difficult to quantify. It has sometimes been conceptualised as "behavioural effort" to seek social contact. Two paradigms: approach-avoidance (AA) and choose a movie (CAM), based on the same conceptualisation, have been used to measure social motivation in people with and without autism. However, in absence of a direct comparison, it is hard to know which of these paradigms has higher sensitivity in estimating preference for social over non-social stimuli...
2018: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391656/fret-not-thyself-the-persuasive-effect-of-anger-expression-and-the-role-of-perceived-appropriateness
#6
Jonathan Van't Riet, Gabi Schaap, Mariska Kleemans
Anger expression is increasingly prevalent in Western mass media, particularly in messages that aim to persuade the audience of a certain point of view. There is a dearth of research, however, investigating whether expressing anger in mediated messages is indeed effective as a persuasive strategy. In the present research, the results of four experiments showed that expressing anger in a persuasive message was perceived as less socially appropriate than expressing non-emotional disagreement. There was also evidence that perceived appropriateness mediated a negative persuasive effect of anger expression (Study 2-4) and that anger expression resulted in perceptions of the persuasive source as unfriendly and incompetent (Studies 1 and 2)...
2018: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391655/linking-psychological-need-experiences-to-daily-and-recurring-dreams
#7
Netta Weinstein, Rachel Campbell, Maarten Vansteenkiste
The satisfaction of individuals' psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as conceived from a self-determination theory perspective, is said to be conducive to personal growth and well-being. What has been unexamined is whether psychological need-based experiences, either their satisfaction or frustration, manifests in people's self-reported dream themes as well as their emotional interpretation of their dreams. A cross-sectional study ( N  = 200; M age = 21.09) focusing on individuals' recurrent dreams and a three-day diary study ( N  = 110; M age = 25...
2018: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890583/compassionate-goals-and-affect-in-social-situations
#8
Amy Canevello, Jennifer Crocker
Optimal social interactions can leave people feeling socially connected and at ease, which has clear implications for health and psychological well-being. Yet, not all social interactions leave people feelings at ease and connected. What explains this variability? We draw from the egosystem-ecosystem theory of social motivation (Crocker & Canevello, 2008) to suggest that compassionate goals to support others explain some of this variability. We explored the nature of this association across 4 studies and varying social contexts...
April 2017: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652647/emotion-regulation-strategy-selection-in-daily-life-the-role-of-social-context-and-goals
#9
Tammy English, Ihno A Lee, Oliver P John, James J Gross
Recent studies have begun to document the diversity of ways people regulate their emotions. However, one unanswered question is why people regulate their emotions as they do in everyday life. In the present research, we examined how social context and goals influence strategy selection in daily high points and low points. As expected, suppression was particularly tied to social features of context: it was used more when others were present, especially non-close partners, and when people had instrumental goals, especially more interpersonal ones (e...
April 2017: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757668/perceiving-emotion-in-non-social-targets-the-effect-of-trait-empathy-on-emotional-contagion-through-art
#10
Olga Stavrova, Andrea Meckel
This research examines the role of trait empathy in emotional contagion through non-social targets-art objects. Studies 1a and 1b showed that high- (compared to low-) empathy individuals are more likely to infer an artist's emotions based on the emotional valence of the artwork and, as a result, are more likely to experience the respective emotions themselves. Studies 2a and 2b experimentally manipulated artists' emotions via revealing details about their personal life. Study 3 experimentally induced positive vs...
2017: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757667/when-sex-doesn-t-sell-to-men-mortality-salience-disgust-and-the-appeal-of-products-and-advertisements-featuring-sexualized-women
#11
Seon Min Lee, Nathan A Heflick, Joon Woo Park, Heeyoung Kim, Jieun Koo, Seungwoo Chun
Although men typically hold favorable views of advertisements featuring female sexuality, from a Terror Management Theory perspective, this should be less the case when thoughts of human mortality are salient. Two experiments conducted in South Korea supported this hypothesis across a variety of products (e.g., perfume and vodka). Men became more negative towards advertisements featuring female sexuality, and had reduced purchase intentions for those products, after thinking about their own mortality. Study 2 found that these effects were mediated by heightened disgust...
2017: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603322/-when-the-going-gets-tough-the-tough-get-going-motivation-towards-closure-and-effort-investment-in-the-performance-of-cognitive-tasks
#12
Sindhuja Sankaran, Ewa Szumowska, Małgorzata Kossowska
Previous studies have demonstrated that the need for closure (NFC), which refers to an individual's aversion toward uncertainty and the desire to quickly reduce it, leads to reluctance to invest effort in judgments and decision making. However, we argue that NFC may lead to either an increase or a decrease in effort depending on the availability of easy vs. difficult means to achieve closure and perceived importance of the task goal. We found that when closure could be achieved via both less and more demanding means, NFC was associated with decreased effort unless the task was perceived as important (Study 1)...
2017: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344369/approach-avoidance-of-facial-affect-is-moderated-by-the-presence-of-an-observer-irrelevant-trigger
#13
S B Renard, P J de Jong, G H M Pijnenborg
This study examined whether approach-avoidance related behaviour elicited by facial affect is moderated by the presence of an observer-irrelevant trigger that may influence the observer's attributions of the actor's emotion. Participants were shown happy, disgusted, and neutral facial expressions. Half of these were presented with a plausible trigger of the expression (a drink). Approach-avoidance related behaviour was indexed explicitly through a questionnaire (measuring intentions) and implicitly through a manikin version of the affective Simon task (measuring automatic behavioural tendencies)...
2017: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853324/self-image-threat-decreases-stereotyping-the-role-of-motivation-toward-closure
#14
Małgorzata Kossowska, Marcin Bukowski, Ana Guinote, Piotr Dragon, Arie W Kruglanski
Some prior research indicated that self-image threat may lead people to stereotyping and prejudiced evaluations of others. Other studies found that self-image threat may promote less stereotypical thinking and unprejudiced behavior. In a series of three studies, we demonstrate that self-image threat may lead to either more or less stereotypical perception of the outgroup depending on the level of the individuals` motivation toward closure (NFC). The results reveal that when individuals high (vs. low) in NFC perceived a member of an outgroup, they are less likely to use stereotypical traits if their self-image had been threatened by negative feedback (Study 1) or if they had imagined an example of their own immoral activity (Studies 2 and 3)...
2016: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429497/power-boosts-reliance-on-preferred-processing-styles
#15
Małgorzata Kossowska, Ana Guinote, Paweł Strojny
A significant amount of research has proposed that power leads to heuristic and category based information processing, however, the evidence is often contradictory. We propose the novel idea that power magnifies chronically accessible information processing styles which can contribute to either systematic or heuristic processing. We examine heuristic (vs. systematic) processing in association with the need for closure. The results of three studies and a meta-analysis supported these claims. Power increased heuristic information processing, manifested in the recognition of schema consistent information, in the use of stereotypical information to form impressions and decreased the complexity of categorical representations, but only for those participants who, by default, processed information according to simplified heuristics, i...
2016: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340307/the-social-impact-of-emotional-tears
#16
Ad J J M Vingerhoets, Niels van de Ven, Yvonne van der Velden
The question what specific functions the production of emotional tears fulfills has received only limited attention of behavioral scientists. We report the results of two studies on the social impact of emotional tears. In Study 1 (96 Dutch females), perceived helplessness and felt connectedness predicted the willingness to help a person depicted as crying tearfully, while perceived friendliness did not. In Study 2 (US sample, 128 males, 68 females) all three of these variables mediated the effect the display of tears had on the willingness to help...
2016: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949277/autonomy-support-and-diastolic-blood-pressure-long-term-effects-and-conflict-navigation-in-romantic-relationships
#17
Netta Weinstein, Nicole Legate, Madoka Kumashiro, Richard M Ryan
Perceiving autonomy support-or encouragement to be oneself-from a romantic partner or other close relationship partners has been shown to yield a variety of psychological health benefits, but it is less clear how perceiving autonomy support from partners is linked to physical health. In two studies we examine the associations between receiving autonomy support in romantic relationships and diastolic blood pressure, an important indicator of cardiovascular health. Results of a longitudinal study found support for a model in which autonomy supportive romantic relationships are linked with lower diastolic blood pressure...
2016: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949276/forcing-your-luck-goal-striving-behavior-in-chance-situations
#18
Daniela Becker, Joop van der Pligt
Previous research suggests that desired end-states (i.e., goals) initiate a set of motivational processes supporting goal-attainment. For example, motivational intensity (e.g., effort investment) increases as distance to the goal decreases. The present studies investigate whether this goal-gradient can also be observed in chance determined situations, situations in which there is a desired end-state (i.e., winning) but in which increased effort investment does not support goal-attainment. Three studies provide consistent evidence for the goal-gradient in chance determined situations...
2016: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26709322/correlational-and-experimental-analyses-of-the-relation-between-disgust-and-sexual-arousal
#19
Arthur R Andrews, Travis Crone, Cecilia B Cholka, Theodore V Cooper, Ana J Bridges
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25663723/sex-linked-mating-strategies-diverge-with-a-manipulation-of-genital-salience
#20
Adam K Fetterman, Nicole N Kruger, Michael D Robinson
Trivers (1972) proposed that evolutionary factors should favor divergent mating strategies for males versus females. Such differences may be less pronounced among human beings than other animals and social norms and sex roles are also pertinent influences. The present experiment (N = 133 college undergraduates, 74 female) sought to bypass some of these other influences. Participants were randomly assigned to a condition designed to increase attention to the genital region (a downward pointing arrow) or not (an upward pointing arrow)...
February 2015: Motivation and Emotion
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