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Food Chemistry

Eva M Mateo, José Vicente Gómez, Noemí Montoya, Rufino Mateo-Castro, José Vicente Gimeno-Adelantado, Misericordia Jiménez, Antonio Doménech-Carbó
An electrochemical methodology for the characterization of mycotoxin-producing fungal species from the genera Aspergillus and Fusarium using solid-state voltammetry is described. Upon attachment of fungal colony microsamples to glassy carbon electrodes in contact with aqueous acetate buffer, characteristic voltammetric signals mainly associated to the oxidation of polyphenolic metabolites are recorded. The possibility of fungi-localized electrochemical processes was assessed by means of electron microscopy and field emission scanning electrochemical microscopy coupled to the application of oxidative potential inputs...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mafalda Alexandra Silva, Tânia Gonçalves Albuquerque, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Helena S Costa
The validation of a rapid, precise (RSD < 4.6%), reliable and sensitive (LOD = 0.026 µg/mL) liquid chromatography method for vitamin C quantification in foods (infant formulae, n = 4; follow-on formulae, n = 3; processed cereal based-foods, n = 7; and baby foods, n = 10) for infants and young children is described. Vitamin C content ranged from 1.50 to 144 mg/100 g. A comparison between the declared values and the measured concentrations, as well as the accordance of these values with the tolerances, was performed...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Tânia Gonçalves Albuquerque, Joana Santos, Mafalda Alexandra Silva, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Helena S Costa
To update the current situation on salt, fat and fatty acid composition of processed foods, a study including a wide range of different food categories was conducted in Portugal. Different validated analytical techniques were used, and a PCA and correlation analysis were conducted to establish a trend between the different components in each food category. The highest salt content was found in snacks, fast-food, sauces and ready-to-eat meals, while the saturated fatty acids were higher (p < .05) in bakery products, cookies, biscuits and wafers, and snacks...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Riham Gharib, Hélène Greige-Gerges, Sophie Fourmentin, Catherine Charcosset
The effect of hydrogenation of phospholipids on the characteristics of freeze-dried liposomes was investigated using hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HP-ß-CD) as membrane protectant. The ethanol-injection method was applied to prepare liposomes using hydrogenated (Phospholopion-90H and 80H) and non-hydrogenated phospholipids (Lipoid-S100) in combination with cholesterol. Various liposomal formulations were tested: conventional liposomes (CL) and HP-ß-CD-loaded liposomes (CDL). Liposome suspensions were concentrated by ultracentrifugation; the pellets were reconstituted in water or CD solution and the dispersions were characterized for their size, polydispersity index and zeta potential...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mehmet Fatih Cengiz, Mehmet Başlar, Onur Basançelebi, Mahmut Kılıçlı
In this study, effects of low intensity electrical current (EC) and ultrasound (US) treatments on the reduction of some important pesticides (captan, thiamethoxam and metalaxyl) residues in tomato samples were investigated. Three different currents (200, 800 and 1400mA) of EC were applied at various time intervals (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10min). Two kinds of US treatments including ultrasonic bath (UB) at 40kHz and ultrasonic probe (UP) at 24kHz were tested for the determination of US effectiveness. In addition, synergistic effects of US on EC treatments were evaluated...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Federico Casanova, Anne-Laure Chapeau, Pascaline Hamon, Antonio F de Carvalho, Thomas Croguennec, Saïd Bouhallab
Understanding the mechanism of interaction between food proteins and bioactives constitutes the preliminary step to design food grade nanocarriers. We investigated the interaction between cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), and 20nm-sized sodium caseinate nanoparticles (NaCas) at pH 7 and pH 2 by fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. The characterization of the C3G-NaCas interaction indicated that the fluorescence quenching mechanism was predominantly static. C3G interacted with two sets of binding sites with association constants Ka of 106 and 105 M-1 ...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jessica de Almeida Roger, Massimiliano Magro, Silvia Spagnolo, Emanuela Bonaiuto, Davide Baratella, Luca Fasolato, Fabio Vianello
An innovative core-shell nanocarrier, combining the magnetism of surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs, the core) and tannic acid (TA, the shell) was self-assembled by simple incubation in water. Due to the drastic reorganization of SAMN surface, the prepared magnetic nanocarrier (SAMN@TA) resulted as one of the most robust nanomaterial bearing TA to date. Nevertheless, the ferric tannates network, constituting the SAMN@TA shell, and the free tannic acid display comparable chemical behavior. The antimicrobial properties of SAMN@TA were tested on Listeria monocytogenes in comparison with free TA, showing similar bacteriostatic effects at relatively low concentrations...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Nicoleta Stănciuc, Iuliana Banu, Carmen Bolea, Livia Patraşcu, Iuliana Aprodu
The present study is focused on heat-induced changes in the structure and antigenic properties of gluten proteins. The thermal dependent behavior of glutenins and gliadins was analyzed through intrinsic fluorescence parameters, phase diagram method, and quenching experiments using acrylamide and iodide. Unfolding events were registered in the phase diagram of glutenins up to 80°C, followed by partial refolding and aggregation at even higher temperatures. The gliadins structure appeared to be progressively disorganized with the temperature increase up to 100°C...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Vaida Kitrytė, Dovyda Bagdonaitė, Petras Rimantas Venskutonis
C. sativa threshing residues were biorefined by consecutive supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2 ) pressurised liquid (PLE) and enzyme-assisted extractions (EAE). SFE-CO2 at optimised parameters yielded 8.3g/100g of lipophilic fraction containing 0.2 and 2.2g of cannabidiol and cannabidiolic acid per 100g of threshing residues, respectively. The recovery of cannabinoids from plant material was >93%. PLE gave 4.3 and 18.9g/100g of flavonoid-containing polar extracts, while EAE added 20.2% (w/w) of water-soluble constituents and increased the release of mono- and disaccharides by up to 94%...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Stella A Ordoudi, Chrysoula Staikidou, Anastasia Kyriakoudi, Maria Z Tsimidou
The stepwise approach takes advantage of simple, versatile, low-cost screening tools that can be applied to several posts of the saffron trade chain to specifically detect adulteration with carminic acid (CA). This natural dye is of insect origin and should not be present in Kosher and Halal foods such as saffron. For gross adulteration levels (>25.0%, w/w) reaction with diphenylamine-sulfuric acid was found adequate to indicate the presence of extraneous matter but not its identity. FT-IR analysis of the dry material combined with chemometrics served to rapidly sort out samples containing >10...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
C P Silva, G R Sampaio, R A M S Freitas, E A F S Torres
Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) is a typical product from Amazon biota that exerts antioxidant capacity due to the presence of phenolic compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin and proanthocyanidins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential inhibitory activity of guaraná extracts, after digestion in vitro, on carbohydrates-metabolism enzymes and to assess the bioacessibility of guaraná polyphenols. The guaraná samples before and after enzymatic digestion, were compared for total phenolic content and phenolic profile...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Fidel Toldrá, Milagro Reig, M-Concepción Aristoy, Leticia Mora
Large amounts of peptides are naturally generated in foods through the proteolysis phenomena taking place during processing. Such proteolysis is carried out either by endogenous enzymes in ripened foods or by the combined action of endogenous and microbial enzymes when fermented. Food proteins can also be isolated and hydrolysed by peptidases to produce hydrolysates. endo-peptidases act first followed by the successive action of exo-peptidases (mainly, tri- and di-peptidylpeptidases, aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases)...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Lívia Hajas, Katharina A Scherf, Kitti Török, Zsuzsanna Bugyi, Eszter Schall, Roland E Poms, Peter Koehler, Sándor Tömösközi
Gluten proteins of certain cereals (wheat, rye and barley) can trigger hypersensitivity reactions. In special dietary products for people intolerant to gluten, their amount must not exceed the regulatory threshold levels. The source of gluten can influence gluten quantitation due to variability in protein profile of grain cultivars and species. A proper reference material is crucial for accurate measurement of gluten and evaluating assay performance. It should be as representative of the commodity as possible...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
David Schröter, Susanne Baldermann, Monika Schreiner, Katja Witzel, Ronald Maul, Sascha Rohn, Susanne Neugart
Amaranth species are globally grown food crops. However, knowledge about the composition of their secondary metabolites is insufficient. Here, selected hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid glycosides, carotenoids and chlorophylls in the leaves of 14 genotypes from six different amaranth species were identified and quantified. For the first time, caffeic acid esters of isocitric and several aldaric acids were isolated and quantified in a leafy food matrix. High concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and chlorophylls, and moderate amounts of flavonoids and carotenoids were detected...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Ana Jerše, Nina Kacjan Maršić, Ana Kroflič, Mateja Germ, Helena Šircelj, Vekoslava Stibilj
Pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants were sown in a field and foliar sprayed at blooming stage with solutions of different forms of iodine (I) - I- and IO3 - and selenium (Se) - SeO3 2- and SeO4 2- . The possibility of enrichment of pea seeds to nutritionally important levels of both elements and their distribution through the plant parts were studied. To evaluate stress caused by application of I and Se, some morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics were determined. The results showed elevated concentrations of both elements in all parts of pea plants...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Paulo J S Gonçalves, Letícia M Estevinho, Ana Paula Pereira, João M C Sousa, Ofélia Anjos
The aim of this work was to develop computational intelligence models based on neural networks (NN), fuzzy models (FM), and support vector machines (SVM) to predict physicochemical composition of bee pollen mixture given their botanical origin. To obtain the predominant plant genus of pollen (was the output variable), based on physicochemical composition (were the input variables of the predictive model), prediction models were learned from data. For the inverse case study, input/output variables were swapped...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jessie Bong, Kerry M Loomes, Bin Lin, Jonathan M Stephens
New Zealand manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) and kanuka (Kunzea ericoides) honeys contain a unique array of chemical markers useful for chemical fingerprinting. We investigated the presence of 13 potential marker compounds in nectars of the major honey crop species. We confirmed that leptosperin, lepteridine, 2'-methoxyacetophenone, and 2-methoxybenzoic acid are exclusive to manuka nectar whereas lumichrome is unique to kanuka nectar. 3-Phenyllactic acid and 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid are present in manuka and kanuka nectars...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Emma Sherman, James F Harbertson, David R Greenwood, Silas G Villas-Bôas, Oliver Fiehn, Hildegarde Heymann
The relationship between wine flavour and wine volatile composition is well recognised, however with thousands of compounds in wine the exact nature of individual contributions may be hard to determine due to synergistic and masking effects. Untargeted chemical analyses coupled with descriptive sensory and partial least squares regression modelling can help unravel interactions to identify groups of compounds that contribute to sensory properties. Variable selection is often applied prior to modelling to eliminate irrelevant variables...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yaozhou Zhu, Harry J Klee, Paul J Sarnoski
A tomato essence was developed for potential flavor enhancement of juices and other tomato products. The changes in the flavor profile that occur during tomato processing in plum tomatoes were characterized and compared using purge and trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-GC-MS). The pilot tomato juices mostly suffered losses in green and fruity note-related compounds. Of the four essence fractions produced, Fractions 1 and 2 were most complementary to the undesirable flavor changes encountered during thermal processing...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
R Srivastava, J Bousquières, M Cepeda-Vázquez, S Roux, C Bonazzi, B Rega
This study describes the kinetics of furan and furfural generation in a cake model, for the first time. These process-induced compounds impact safety and sensory aspects of baked products. Understanding their generation with regards to process dynamics will serve food quality design. However, the complexity of real products makes this task challenging. This work provides a novel approach to understand and model chemical reactivity by implementing an inert cake model (starch, water and cellulose), specifically designed for mimicking a sponge cake structure...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
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