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Food Chemistry

Sihua Cheng, Xiumin Fu, Yinyin Liao, Xinlan Xu, Lanting Zeng, Jinchi Tang, Jianlong Li, Jianhong Lai, Ziyin Yang
l-Theanine is a specialized metabolite in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves that contributes to tea function and quality. Yellow tea leaves (albino) generally have higher l-theanine contents than green tea leaves (normal), but the reason is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate why l-theanine is accumulated in yellow tea leaves. We compared original normal leaves (green) and light-sensitive albino leaves (yellow) of cv. Yinghong No. 9. The l-theanine content was significantly higher in yellow leaves than in green leaves (p ≤ 0...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Yujin Park, Im Kyung Oh, Sung Won Park, Kyungheon Ryu, Suyong Lee
The effects of turanose on the physicochemical properties of rice flour systems (aqueous suspension, dough, and noodles) were investigated in terms of rheology, microstructure, and water mobility. Inclusion of turanose increased the pasting viscosities of rice flour by maintaining a closely-packed structure at high temperatures that was confirmed by the real-time microscopic measurements during heating. The elevated probability of intergranular interactions by turanose apparently raised both storage (G') and loss (G″) moduli of the rice flour pastes as well as their respective viscosities...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Antonios Chrysargyris, Spyridon A Petropoulos, Ângela Fernandes, Lillian Barros, Nikolaos Tzortzakis, Isabel C F R Ferreira
The present study evaluated the impact of phosphorus application rate on plant growth and physiological parameters, antioxidant activity, chemical composition, and essential oil yield and composition of hydroponically grown spearmint plants. Increased P levels resulted in high dry matter content of the aerial part. Antioxidant activity of spearmint leaves was significantly higher at the highest P levels. Although essential oil yield was not affected, essential oil composition varied among the studied P levels, especially carvone content...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Melanie Millet, Pascal Poupard, Sophie Guilois-Dubois, Drazen Zanchi, Sylvain Guyot
The ability of tannins to self-associate or form complexes with other macromolecules has important nutritional implications but can also result in defects in beverages. In addition, oxidation may be involved in the aggregation properties of tannins. In order to assess the impact of tannin oxidation on their self-association, oligomeric procyanidins were oxidized in a model solution and their aggregation kinetics were studied using light scattering. Under the conditions tested, only oxidized procyanidins were involved in haze formation...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Yuanyue Wu, Qiuhui Hu, Zhixiao Li, Fei Pei, Alfred Mugambi Mariga, Wenjian Yang
Rapid deterioration of postharvest Agaricus bisporus is a serious problem. Measures to improve the shelf-life are of great importance. Therefore, we used a nanocomposite-based packaging material (Nano-PM) containing nano-TiO2 , nano-SiO2 , nano-Ag and attapulgite to study its effect on microstructure and energy metabolism of A. bisporus. Nano-PM reduced the oxidation of lipids and proteins by activating antioxidant enzyme activities and inhibiting the accumulation of ROS, thereby maintained high level of energy status...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Luana Bontempo, Mauro Paolini, Pietro Franceschi, Luca Ziller, Diego L García-González, Federica Camin
European law requires a designation of origin for virgin and extra virgin olive oils (at least in terms of EU/non-EU provenance). Stable isotope ratios have been successfully applied to determine the geographical origin of olive oils, but never to distinguish EU and non-EU oils. In this study 2 H/1 H, 13 C/12 C and 18 O/16 O ratios were analysed in bulk olive oils using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) as well as 13 C/12 C and 2 H/1 H in the four main fatty acids (linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids) using IRMS coupled with GC...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Yike Yue, Sheng Geng, Yue Shi, Guizhao Liang, Jinshui Wang, Benguo Liu
Zein has the potential application of establishing the delivery systems for flavonoids. But there are few reports about the effect of the molecular structures of flavonoids on their interaction with zein. In this study, the binding behaviour of 21 flavonoids and zein was investigated by spectrofluorimetry. The corresponding 3D-QSAR model was also established by Topomer CoMFA method, whose steric and electrostatic field analysis could explain the binding performance of the tested flavonoids with zein. The fluorescence analysis suggested that the flavonoids could interact with zein by forming the complex at the molar ratio of 1...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Elif Yaver, Nermin Bilgiçli
The influence of different dephytinisation methods such as malt flour addition, phytase enzyme application and citric acid addition on some properties of commercial bread and traditional flat bread containing 25% of cereal-legume (rye, barley, oat, chickpea, soy and lupin) flours was investigated. Ash, protein, crude fat, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and mineral matters of both breads increased with the usage of cereal-legume flour blend. Cereal-legume flour blend also resulted in increments on phytic acid content of commercial bread (330 mg/100 g) and traditional flat bread (422 mg/100 g) compared to its controls (98 and 152 mg/100 g, respectively)...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Kyari Yates, Franziska Pohl, Maike Busch, Annika Mozer, Louis Watters, Andrey Shiryaev, Paul Kong Thoo Lin
Sinapine is the main secondary metabolite present in rapeseed pomace (RSP) with its concentration being dependent on rapeseed processing, growing conditions, extraction parameters and the country of origin. Here we report, the concentration of sinapine from an extract of defatted RSP harvested in the North East of Scotland. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, the most abundant phenolic compound in the RSP extract was, as expected, sinapine (109.1 mg/g RSP extract). Additionally, sinapic, caffeic, ferulic and syringic acids were identified (0...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Rie Satoh, Ikuya Tsuge, Reiko Tokuda, Reiko Teshima
To understand the allergenicity of rice bran, the distribution of rice allergens in brown rice grains was analysed and the allergenicity of cosmetics and health foods containing rice bran determined. RAG2 and a 19-kDa globulin were localized in polished rice, while a 52-kDa globulin was localized in rice bran. The 52-kDa globulin was also identified as the most likely causative allergen of rice bran allergy. Several products containing intact rice bran were found to contain the 52-kDa globulin. Our study provides the first data regarding cosmetics and health foods containing potential rice bran allergens...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Xiaoting Ye, Yu Zhang, Chen Qiu, Harold Corke, Zhongquan Sui
Starch granule-associated proteins (SGAPs) including granule-surface proteins and granule-channel proteins in waxy, low- and high-amylose rice starch were extracted and identified. The in vitro digestibility of starch was investigated before and after the extraction of granule-channel proteins or total SGAPs. The results showed that 10 types of major differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) including 14-3-3-like protein and ribosomal protein were found among starches. In addition, the lack of only granule-channel proteins or total SGAPs led to significant and different changes in the levels of rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch and resistant starch...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Thomas Sommer, Gelena Dlugash, Harald Hübner, Peter Gmeiner, Monika Pischetsrieder
The phenethylamine alkaloid hordenine, present in germinated barley, was identified recently as a functionally selective dopamine D2 receptor agonist contributing potentially to the rewarding effects of drinking beer. Here, it was shown that the hordenine precursor N-methyltyramine binds with a similar affinity to the dopamine D2 receptor as hordenine (Ki 31.3 µM) showing also selectivity towards the G protein-mediated pathway over the β-arrestin pathway. Using a newly developed UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method to monitor beer production, we demonstrated that hordenine and N-methyltyramine were released continuously from barley malt during mashing and were stable during fermentation and conditioning...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Mark Polikovsky, Francois Fernand, Martin Sack, Wolfgang Frey, Georg Müller, Alexander Golberg
Extraction of protein from macroalgae, currently defined as "novel food", is challenging and limited information about the health impacts of these proteins is available. Here, we report on a non-thermal, chemical-free green macroalgae Ulva sp. protein extraction by osmotic shock combined with pulsed electric fields (PEF) followed by hydraulic pressure. The extracted proteins were identified and annotated to allergens using sequence similarity. The allergenicity potential of PEF extracted proteins was compared to osmotic shock extracts and complete Ulva sp...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Lucie Drabova, Gerardo Alvarez-Rivera, Marie Suchanova, Dana Schusterova, Jana Pulkrabova, Monika Tomaniova, Vladimir Kocourek, Olivier Chevallier, Christopher Elliott, Jana Hajslova
Oregano, a widely used and popular herb, is particularly vulnerable to fraud. Less valued plants, adulterants that are often used for dilution, may introduce into this commodity additional contaminants such as pesticide residues. In this study, more than 400 pesticides were screened in a representative set of 42 genuine and 34 adulterated dried oregano samples collected from various locations across Europe. The results obtained by advanced mass spectrometry-based methods, showed, that some pesticide residues could be detected in virtually all tested samples, nevertheless, on average, higher contamination was found in the adulterated oregano samples...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Ângela Vilas-Boas, Patrícia Valderrama, Natacha Fontes, Dulce Geraldo, Fátima Bento
Taking advantage of the low oxidation potential of polyphenolic compounds, voltammetric techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) are used rather indiscriminately. In this work, we report Total Polyphenols results (TPP) obtained by these two techniques from a set of nine samples of red and Tawny Port wine. The CV and DPV voltammograms display significant correlations with the physical-chemical parameters used to characterize red and Tawny Port wines, particularly with polyphenols...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
F Francis, V Doyen, F Debaugnies, G Mazzucchelli, R Caparros, T Alabi, C Blecker, E Haubruge, F Corazza
Insects are seen as a solution to the increasing demand for protein sources for food. However, entomophagy has unfortunately been linked to allergic reactions in Europe with people with professional contacts. As mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domesticus) have recently become commercially available (both whole or in food formulation) in several European countries, this research assessed the cross allergenicity of arginine kinase (AK). Based on the collection of sera from a entomology laboratory staff, oven cooked insects but also purified AK fractions were tested...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Joana Véstia, João Mota Barroso, Helena Ferreira, Luís Gaspar, Ana Elisa Rato
Calcium content in sparkling wines may not exceed 80 mg/L due to the risk of aggregation with alginate capsules. The high calcium content usually found in wine and must emphasizes the need to develop alternative and appropriate techniques faster and cleaner than atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). To obtain a robust model to predict calcium content, FT-NIR spectroscopy was used in 98 base white wine samples and 60 must samples from an Alentejo winery. The reference method for calcium determination was AAS technique, with a dry ashing sample procedure, as a prior treatment...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Zhongxing Wang, Jian Zhang, Liqiang Liu, Xiaoling Wu, Hua Kuang, Chuanlai Xu, Liguang Xu
In this study, a sensitive monoclonal antibody (mAb) against toltrazuril (Tol) was developed based on a novel hapten. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 ) of toltrazuril and its metabolites ranged from 2.19 ng/mL to 4.21 ng/mL. Based on this mAb, a colorimetric paper-based sensor was developed for the rapid screening of Tol and its metabolites in samples. The proposed assay has cutoff values of <20 μg/kg for Tol and 50 μg/kg for Tol sulfone when evaluated with the naked eye, and the results could be obtained in 15 min...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Sahar Mostafavi, Hossein Ali Asadi-Gharneh, Mohammad Miransari
Basil (Ocimum basilicum) from the Lamiaceae family is among the most important medicinal plants, and its seed fatty acid (FA) composition and quantity affects its nutritional and health values. It was hypothesized basil species and geographical properties significantly affect seed FA composition and quantity, which has not been previously investigated, to our knowledge. The collected seeds of the 18 basil populations were planted in a farmer's field, and the seed saturated (palmitic and stearic) and unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic) FA were determined...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Annalisa Ricci, Martina Cirlini, Luca Calani, Valentina Bernini, Erasmo Neviani, Daniele Del Rio, Gianni Galaverna, Camilla Lazzi
In this study, ten strains of Lactobacillus were used to assess the in vitro metabolism of elderberry juice polyphenols. Total polyphenolic compounds increased after starter addition, especially with three L. rhamnosus and one L. plantarum strains, of dairy origin: quercetin-3-O-rutinoside was the most abundant compound (from 39.02 ± 5.28 to 127.56 ± 11.34 µg/mL) and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and anthocyanins reached the highest amounts. When L. plantarum were used phenyllactic acids presented a value of 7...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
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